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BIBLIOTECA IPAM | Dezembro, 2010

E N T R E V I S TA David Lewis


David Lewis é o fundador e Director de Pesquisa da empresa de consultoria MindLab Interna onal. É autor de vários best-sellers e par*cipa em diversas conferências internacionais. É apelidado de "pai do neuromarke*ng" pelos seus estudos pioneiros na análise da ac*vidade do cérebro para pesquisa e fins comerciais. Actualmente é especializado em técnicas não-invasivas para medir as reacções humanas em condições de vida real.

BIBLIOTECA IPAM | Dezembro de 2010

BIPAM: How will neuromarke*ng take ac*on in this scenario of crisis? David Lewis: I think there will be increasing concern is that every penny spent on market research is well spent. There is currently, a great deal of cricism about tradional market research methods. Indeed, a book on this subject has just been published which describes in great detail how ineffecve many tradional methodologies are. The argument is, basically, that one cannot understand the movaons and decision making processes of consumers by merely asking them as for example, in surveys or focus groups. Because newer markeng enables us to see the underlying, and typically unconscious, responses of the brain under real-life condions we can obtain valuable informaon about such cognive factors as for example, emoonal responses, level of a"enon, and the likelihood that a key markeng message will be remembered.

BIPAM: Can neuroscience iden*fy new trends and pa;erns of consump*on? D.L.: This is more difficult to say, this sense of what new markeng does is measure brain responses to specific situaons. As in any scienfic study the framing of the quesons to be answered and the protocol designed to obtain those answers are of crical importance. In our laboratory we have conducted studies looking at the responses to new products and innovaons, such as for example the Apple I-pad.


BIBLIOTECA IPAM | Dezembro de 2010

BIPAM: Is there any legal limita*on to the use of this science? D.L.: Not at present. This is, however, an area of considerable concern to many neurosciensts and steps are being taken within the industry to establish code of conduct. At present virtually anyone can set up in business as a neuromarketer without possessing any deep understanding of neuroscience. Such companies are li"le be"er than a snake oil salesmen working on what has been called the "greater ignoranceâ€? principle. By this I mean they are able to peddle their products to companies that have a "greater ignorance" of neuroscience and your markeng then they do themselves. Currently a worldwide study is being undertaken to assess the ability and reliability of claims made by new markeng companies. All the key players in this ďŹ eld were invited to take part in this study, and Mindlab Internaonal is among those that are parcipang. However two of the major US players have refused to take part in this exercise, a decision that one must interpret in any way one sees ďŹ t.

David wiring up a volunteer in the





BIBLIOTECA IPAM | Dezembro de 2010

BIPAM: Considering that neuromarke*ng is in constant evolu*on, we can say that it's moving towards a future where marketers will find techniques capable of influencing the purchasing

behavior ruthlessly?

D.L.: Currently I believe that in Europe, as compared United States, there is no real market for neuro markeng, with companies preferring to remain loyal to the tradional methods of market research with which they are comfortable and familiar. In United States by

contrast and there seems to be a very acve neuro

markeng scene. We believe that a similar market will develop in Europe over the next 10 years or so, as more and more companies realise the tremendous benefits and advantages to be gained from this form of research. This should enable companies such as our own, which already set aside a major poron of its income to research and development to increase investment in this area. In the 20 years since I first pioneered the use of EEG equipment for market research purposes (some result of my work were presented on BBC television way back in 1990) there had been an exponenal increase in both the technology and so8ware. At MLI

We are developing ever more

powerful algorithms and methods of analysis that will enable us to decode the signal from the brain with an ever greater level of sophiscaon. Will these new techniques provide methods for influencing purchasing behaviour more ruthlessly, and some might say less ethically,

than at present. While this is a concern to many

consumer protecon groups, especially in the United States, and while the situaon certainly needs to be watched carefully I do not


BIBLIOTECA IPAM | Dezembro de 2010

believe that, at least in the foreseeable future, techniques will be developed that essenally remove individual choice from the consumers. The purpose of all adversing and market research is of course to influence the consumer and to persuade them to buy product A rather than product B. The fact that NM enables us to be achieved more efficiently is surely no great cause for concern. An area where there may be more social unease is in the field of polical markeng, especially at mes elecons. We are currently involved in a number of projects in countries which are not at liberty to specify where we have been using NM very successfully to analyse polical messages, especially vídeo campaigns. In all cases these have enabled our clients to achieve electoral success.

Dr Lewis with a toy train that can be controlled by brain power alone, an early stage in the development of equipment for use by people with spinal injuries. (Photo Steven Ma!hews)


BIBLIOTECA IPAM | Dezembro de 2010

BIPAM: The appeal to the senses through sensory marke*ng is a new marke*ng trend for the future? D.L.: Yes, I firmly believe that sensory markeng will become an increasingly important part of brand differenaon and play an ever more important role in sales and markeng. I think that more and more companies are starng to understand that consumers are basically make the majority of their purchasing decisions using the emoonal parts of their brain and only subsequently jusfy these purchasing decisions by using raonal arguments, to persuade both themselves and others of the soundness of their decisions. By coupling more and more sensory modalies to decision-making process, it seems to me that the emoonal a"racon of many products and services will come to play a greater role in the success. That said, it is important to understand that most of what we take to be reality is an illusion or invenon with only about 2% of the white ma"er arising from our senses (e.g. our eyes, ears and skin) and over 95% of the fibres being self referenal, that is part of the cortex talking to a different part of the cortex and in corco-thalamic inputs in a connuous process of predicng the future and match mismatch of inputs giving rise to a moment-to-moment recreaon of "reality". Which is why police reports of an incident find that people view the same events differently.


BIBLIOTECA IPAM | Dezembro de 2010

BIPAM: In the near future what's the greatest challenge for neuromarke*ng? D.L.: I would say that the greatest challenge within Europe is to establish neuromarkeng as a valid and reliable source of informaon about the consumer. Informaon that cannot be obtained in any other way and which can give companies that employ these techniques a powerful compeve edge over their competors.

BIPAM: How do you see neural science in the future? D.L.: There will be increasing sophiscaon in terms of both hardware and so8ware.

many of the problems currently associated with

obtaining good quality, artefact free, data will have been overcome. EEG equipment and a sense of required to obtain informaon from the scalp will becomes smaller, lighter, even less intrusive than they are today and far easier to use. So8ware for analysing the data will become ever more powerful and sophiscated, enabling real-me informaon to be presented to clients in the most user-friendly way possible.


BIBLIOTECA IPAM | Dezembro de 2010

Dr Lewis at work with a subject during his early studies of EEG

The term ‘Neuromarke)ng’ was only coined - by Professor Ale Smidts in 2002 and it was not un)l 2004 that the first ever Neuromarke)ng conference was held at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston. Today many leading market research professionals are describing Neuromarke)ng as represen)ng the greatest advance in their industry for more than quarter of a century. by David Lewis in EVERYTHING YOU WANTED TO KNOW ABOUT NEUROMARKETING BUT DIDN’T KNOW WHO TO ASK!


Entrevista exclusiva com David Lewis