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Universidad de Salamanca Facultad de BiologĂ­a Biblioteca

Bionoticias

Marzo (4ÂŞ) de 2014


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BioNoticias. Resumen de prensa semanal Elaborado por la Biblioteca de Biología. Universidad de Salamanca Para leer el texto completo de los artículos pulse en el título Para agrandar el texto pulse cualquier otra parte de la página Puede enviarnos sus noticias a bibbiol@usal.es Suscribirse a Bionotias + BioEmpleo: dirección de correo electrónico y su nombre a bibbiol@usal.es Boletines anteriores en http://issuu.com/bibliotecabiologia


ín B B B

iología

4

iomedicina

14

iotecnología

16

N C

dice

25

eurociencia

élulas madre

y

E

pigenética

35


.Biología


Las cabras tienen gran memoria a largo plazo Investigadores de la Universidad Queen Mary de Londres descubren que las cabras domésticas tienen más memoria de lo que se pensaba. Según el estudio, estos mamíferos resuelven tareas complicadas rápidamente, las recuerdan durante un periodo largo de tiempo y prefieren aprender por sí mismas. Hacia la identificación de muestras de ADN en menos de 10 minutos Identificar una muestra de ADN en menos de diez minutos permitiría ganar un tiempo muy valioso, tanto para hacer diagnósticos médicos en hospitales como para ayudar a limitar la propagación de epidemias, entre otras muchas aplicaciones prácticas.Evelyn Linardy, una joven y brillante científica de... Un invernadero “máquina del tiempo” ilustra sobre la domesticación del maíz Al simular el ambiente donde el maíz fue explotado por primera vez y luego domesticado, científicos del Smithsonian en Panamá descubrieron que el ancestro del maíz, una hierba silvestre llamada teosinte, puede haberse parecido más al maíz en ese entonces que en la actualidad. El hecho que se... Organismos recodificados Entrega del podcast Quilo de Ciencia, realizado por Jorge Laborda (catedrático de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular de la Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, España), en Ciencia para Escuchar, que recomendamos por su interés.Cambiar el código genético de un organismo y dejarlo vivo no es tarea... Demostrada la utilidad de los fósiles para analizar fenómenos cíclicos que tuvieron lugar hace millones de años Una investigación de la Universidad de Granada ha demostrado que los fenómenos cíclicos que afectan al medio ambiente, como los cambios en el clima, en la dinámica atmósfera-océano e incluso las perturbaciones orbitales de los planetas, existen desde hace cientos de millones de años, y pueden ser estudiados mediante el análisis de fósiles.


El calentamiento global pone en riesgo a las plantas de flores grandes Investigadores del Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales afirman que el número de plantas de flores grandes podría verse reducido en las áreas mediterráneas. Durante la floración las jaras necesitan hasta dos litros de agua diarios para mantener las corolas de sus flores. El calentamiento global de hace 56 millones de años no se produjo por el descenso del nivel del mar El Máximo Térmico del Paleoceno-Eoceno fue un breve intervalo de temperaturas extremadamente altas, que duró unos 200.000 años, causado por una masiva emisión de gases de efecto invernadero a la atmósfera. Un estudio de la UPV/EHU descarta la hipótesis del descenso del nivel de mar como la causa que lo desencadenó. Bacterias genéticamente idénticas pero con comportamientos radicalmente distintos ¿Tienen "personalidad" individual las células? Parece ser que si, a juzgar por los resultados de una nueva investigación, que revelan que aunque las bacterias de una población sean genéticamente idénticas, las bacterias individuales dentro de esa población pueden actuar de formas radicalmente... Cromosomas preservados en un fósil de 180 millones de años de antigüedad Será inevitable que a bastantes personas les venga a la mente la hazaña científica de la "resurrección" de dinosaurios que es la base argumental de las películas y novelas de la saga de ciencia-ficción "Parque Jurásico", ante el asombroso hallazgo de vestigios biológicos de un helecho que vivió... El cambio climático redibuja el mapa del olivar mediterráneo a partir de 2030 Un estudio publicado hoy en la revista PNAS predice que el cambio climático podría modificar la productividad de los campos de olivos en la cuenca del Mediterráneo. Según los autores, hay regiones que aumentarían su rendimiento y otras, sin embargo, podrían quedar desiertas. En España, el modelo prevé un aumento en el beneficio neto, a pesar de que en la zona central del país este beneficio dismin


El genoma del pino taeda es el más grande jamás secuenciado El pino taeda es la especie arbórea más importante comercialmente en EE UU y la fuente de la mayoría de los productos de papel de este país. Investigadores de la Universidad de California han publicado la secuenciación de su genoma, que es el mayor hasta la fecha y el más completo del grupo de las coníferas. Los humanos podemos distinguir más de un billón de olores distintos Seguramente eclipsado por el espectacular olfato de animales como el perro, el sentido humano del olfato no ha despertado tradicionalmente el respeto que ahora parece que se merece. Así lo sugieren los resultados de un nuevo estudio, gracias a los cuales se ha llegado a la conclusión de que el... Obtención fácil de células madre a partir de una gota de sangre Unos científicos han desarrollado un método para generar células madre pluripotentes inducidas humanas (hiPSCs, por sus siglas en inglés) a partir de una única gota de sangre extraída de un dedo. El método también permite a los donantes tomar sus propias muestras de sangre, que podrán enviar a un...


¿Puede la "hormona del amor" proteger contra las adicciones? A la oxitocina se la llama a menudo la “hormona del amor” debido a su importante papel promoviendo el altruismo, la generosidad, las interacciones sociales, el apego de las madres hacia sus bebés y la cooperación entre individuos.Los bebés recién nacidos ya tienen niveles detectables de oxitocina... Las ratonas rehúyen la endogamia guiándose por las vocalizaciones de los machos Las hembras de ratón prefieren las vocalizaciones o "cantos" de ratones que suenen diferentes de las de sus padres cuando seleccionan pareja. Así se ha determinado en un nuevo estudio en el que también se ha constatado que estas preferencias se establecen por las experiencias sociales tempranas... Introducen en una región a un insecto exótico para que luche contra otro invasor ¿Qué hacer cuando una especie invasiva se aposenta en una zona agrícola donde antes no se la conocía, destruye cultivos a un ritmo alarmante, y la opción de combatirla con insecticidas es poco viable? Una alternativa expeditiva aunque no exenta de riesgos es traer a un depredador natural de la... Biologists use sound to identify breeding grounds of endangered whales Biologists have confirmed what many conservationists fear -- that Roseway Basin, a heavily traveled shipping lane, off the coast of Nova Scotia, is a vital habitat area for the endangered North Atlantic right whale. Kids' books featuring animals with human traits lead to less learning of natural world A new study has found that kids' books featuring animals with human characteristics not only lead to less factual learning but also influence children's reasoning about animals. Researchers also found that young readers are more likely to attribute human behaviors and emotions to animals when exposed to books with anthropomorphized animals than books depicting animals realistically.


Inbreeding in woolly mammoths: Neck rib provide clues about decline and eventual extinction Researchers recently noticed that the remains of woolly mammoths from the North Sea often possess a 'cervical' (neck) rib -- in fact, 10 times more frequently than in modern elephants (33.3 percent versus 3.3 percent). In modern animals, these cervical ribs are often associated with inbreeding and adverse environmental conditions during pregnancy. If the same factors were behind the anomalies in m

Missing hormone in birds: Leptin found in mallard duck, peregrine falcon and zebra finch How does the Arctic tern (a sea bird) fly more than 80,000 miles in its roundtrip North Pole-to-South Pole migration? How does the Emperor penguin incubate eggs for months during the Antarctic winter without eating? These physiological gymnastics would usually be influenced by leptin, the hormone that regulates body fat storage, metabolism and appetite. However, leptin has gone missing in birds -Diet of elusive red widow spider revealed by biologist Beetles: it's what's for breakfast -- at least for the red widow spider of Florida's 'scrub' habitat, according to a study that provides a first glimpse at the diet of this mysterious spider, revealing that it primarily preys upon species of scarab beetles common to the scrub habitat. The findings shed light on red widow spiders' restriction to the Florida scrub habitat and the need for habitat co


Mice give ticks a free lunch Mice are effective at transferring disease-causing pathogens to feeding ticks. And, according to a new paper, these 'super hosts' appear indifferent to larval tick infestations. Drawing on 16 years of field research performed at the Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies in Millbrook, New York, the paper found that white-footed mice with hundreds of larval ticks survived just as long as those with on Biased sex ratios predict more promiscuity, polygamy and 'divorce' in birds More birds break pair bonds or 'divorce' in populations where there are more females, according to new research. Researchers also found that short-term infidelity increases in male-dominated environments. The research has some striking parallels in human societies. Excessive deer populations hurt native plant biodiversity There is a link between disruption of the native animal community and invasion by non-native plant species, according to new research, and a co-author of a new study suggests that "similar links maybe found in other ecosystems between disrupted fauna and declining diversity of flora." Deer density in the U.S. is about four to 10 times what it was prior to European settlement of North Ame


La división de tareas en una exótica comunidad de arañas La mayoría de las arañas siguen una vida solitaria. Pero algunas especies forman comunidades. Una investigación revela el notable grado de complejidad de las comunidades de ciertas arañas en el sur de África y hasta qué punto se reparten las tareas según las aptitudes de cada individuo.A primera... What singing fruit flies can tell us about quick decisions The pitch and tempo of the male fruit fly's mating song is based on environmental cues rather than a stereotyped pattern, researchers have discovered. These findings could be substantial for understanding rapid decision-making in more advanced beings such as humans. Plankton make scents for seabirds and a cooler planet The top predators of the Southern Ocean, far-ranging seabirds, are tied both to the health of the ocean ecosystem and to global climate regulation through a mutual relationship with phytoplankton, according to newly published work from the University of California, Davis.


Passive acoustic monitoring reveals clues to minke whale calling behavior and movements Scientists using passive acoustic monitoring to track minke whales in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean have found clues in the individual calling behaviors and movements of this species. These findings provide insight into one of the least studied baleen whales. Size, personality matter in how Kalahari social spiders perform tasks At first glance, colonies of thousands of social spiders all look the same and are busy with the same tasks. Not so, says researchers after carefully studying various gatherings of social spiders of the Kalahari Desert in South Africa. The size and condition of a particular spider's body indicates which task it generally performs within a colony. In addition, neighboring colonies can have differen Oldest fossil evidence of modern African venomous snakes found in Tanzania Scientists have found the oldest definitive fossil evidence of modern, venomous snakes in Africa. The newly discovered fossils demonstrate that elapid snakes -- such as cobras, kraits and sea snakes -- were present in Africa as early as 25 million years ago. Elapids belong to a larger group of snakes known as colubroids, active foragers that use a variety of methods, including venom, to capture an First evidence of plants evolving weaponry to compete in the struggle for selection Rutting stags and clawing bears are but two examples of male animals fighting over a mate, but new research has uncovered the first evidence of similar male struggles leading to the evolution of weaponry in plants. Amphibians and dinosaurs were the new large predators after the mass extinction Some 252 million years ago, the largest extinction event occurred at the end of the Permian age. It wiped out almost 90 percent of all life in water. So far researchers had assumed that the ecosystems gradually recovered from this catastrophe over a long stretch of eight to nine million years and that large predators at the uppermost end of the food chain were the last to reappear. Palaeontologist


Ants plant tomorrow's rainforest Tropical montane rain forests are highly threatened and their remnants are often surrounded by deforested landscapes. For the regeneration of these degraded areas, seed dispersal of forest trees plays a crucial role but is still poorly understood. Most tree species are dispersed by birds and mammals, but also by ants. This new research demonstrates the importance of this hitherto neglected ecosyst La inteligente e inesperada capacidad "humana" de aprendizaje de los abejorros Tienen cerebros diminutos, pero los abejorros son capaces de algunos logros de aprendizaje muy notables, haciendo gala de una forma de aprendizaje que hasta ahora se creĂ­a exclusiva de humanos y primates. AdemĂĄs, son capaces de comunicar informaciĂłn entre ellos sobre cosas nuevas, como por... Nearly complete 'chicken from hell,' from mysterious dinosaur group Scientists have discovered a bizarre, bird-like dinosaur, named Anzu wyliei, that provides paleontologists with their first good look at a dinosaur group that has been shrouded in mystery for almost a century. Anzu was described from three specimens that collectively preserve almost the entire skeleton, giving scientists a remarkable opportunity to study the anatomy and evolutionary relationships Bighorn sheep went extinct on desert island in Gulf of California Using ancient DNA analysis and other techniques, a research team led by conservation biologists has determined that bighorn sheep, so named for their massive spiral horns, became extinct on Tiburon Island, a large and mostly uninhabited island just off Sonora, Mexico, in the Gulf of California, sometime in the last millennium -- specifically between the 6th and 19th centuries. Dry future climate could reduce orchid bee habitat During Pleistocene era climate changes, neotropical orchid bees that relied on year-round warmth and wet weather found their habitats reduced by 30 to 50 percent, according to a study that used computer models and genetic data to understand bee distributions during past climate changes.


.Biomedicina


Los adolescentes del sur de Europa son más obesos que los del centronorte Un estudio compara el nivel de forma física de adolescentes que viven en países mediterráneos, como España, Italia y Grecia, con adolescentes del centro y norte de Europa. Sus resultados han sido publicados en el último número de la revista Pediatrics. Los adolescentes del sur de Europa tienen una peor condición física y son más obesos. ¿Conoces la edad real de tu corazón? Un estudio publicado en la revista Heart pone de manifiesto una nueva evaluación de los riesgos cardiovasculares que tiene como objetivo comenzar su prevención lo antes posible. Se trata de una calculadora para computar dicho riesgo. Nuevos avances en el estudio de la leucoencefalopatía megalencefálica La leucoencefalopatía megalencefálica, causada por mutaciones en los genes MLC1 y GlialCAM, es una enfermedad rara que causa macroencefalia y deterioro progresivo de la función motora y para la cual de momento no existe ningún tratamiento. Investigadores españoles presentan ahora nuevos avances al respecto en la revista Nature Communications. Las aves marinas pueden convertirse en reservorios de patógenos potencialmente infecciosos Los flavivirus son un género de virus responsables de enfermedades infecciosas como el dengue, la fiebre amarilla o la encefalitis, afecciones que se transmiten al hombre a través de la picadura de un insecto que actúa como vector. Un nuevo estudio revela que las aves marinas, como las gaviotas de patas amarillas, pueden ser reservorios de estos virus. Proteínas mal plegadas pueden ser claves en el diagnóstico temprano del alzhéimer Investigadores de EE UU e Italia han desarrollado un método que podría abrir una nueva vía para el diagnóstico temprano del alzhéimer. Los científicos han detectado moléculas pequeñas y mal formadas en el líquido cerebroespinal de estos pacientes que parecen ser indicadores precoces de esta enfermedad neurodegenerativa.


.BiotecnologĂ­a


Replacing insulin through stem cell-derived pancreatic cells under the skin A newly created method of placing stem cell-derived pancreatic cells in capsules under the skin to replace insulin is tested in diabetic disease models. The method is successful without producing likely complications. The study confirms the viability of combining stem cells and 'encapsulation' technology to treat insulin-dependent diabetes. 'Glue' holding together skin cells, other epithelial tissue more active than realized Researchers report the first evidence in living organisms that adherens junctions, the 'glue' between cells, actively respond to mechanical cues by remodeling their position and intensity, which in turn restructures the cells. These junctions are responsible for maintaining the shape and integrity of the sheets of epithelial cells that line such body cavities as the digestive tract, as well as the Identifying gene-enhancers: New technique A new technique for identifying gene enhancers -- sequences of DNA that act to amplify the expression of a specific gene -- in the genomes of humans and other mammals has been developed. Called SIF-seq, this new technique complements existing genomic tools, such as ChIP-seq, and offers additional benefits. MRI reveals genetic activity: Deciphering genes' roles in learning and memory Doctors commonly use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to diagnose tumors, damage from stroke, and many other medical conditions. Neuroscientists also rely on it as a research tool for identifying parts of the brain that carry out different cognitive functions. Now, biological engineers are trying to adapt MRI to a much smaller scale, allowing researchers to visualize gene activity inside the brain Small peptides as potential antibiotics Small peptides attack bacteria in many different ways and may well become a new generation of antibiotics. Biologists have been researching how such peptides kill bacterial cells.


Molecular clue to complex mystery of auxin signaling in plants Plants fine-tune the response of their cells to the potent plant hormone auxin by means of large families of proteins that either step on the gas or put on the brake in auxin’s presence. Scientists have learned that one of these proteins, a transcription factor, has an interaction region that, like a button magnet, has a positive and negative face. Because of this domain, the protein can bind two Studying symmetry of cells to help prevent birth defects "Left-right asymmetry" is a fundamental characteristic of living organisms. Examples include the twining of climbing plants, the helices of snail shells, and the bilateral asymmetry of human body. A researcher who has been awarded a new study grant is researching new ways using high-throughput screening technology to observe and collect images of life-right asymmetry in specific types of Slowing down Alzheimer's: Researchers discover potential way A way to potentially halt the progression of dementia caused by accumulation of a protein known as tau has been discovered by researchers. Normally, tau protein is involved in microtubule formation, which acts as a brain cell's transportation system for carrying nutrients in and waste out. In the absence of tau protein, brain cells become dysfunctional and eventually die. How cells destroy RNA, a key piece in understanding disease RNA encodes the proteins that play a key role in cellular reproduction, but the manner in which cells regulate its removal once these proteins are synthesized remains a mystery. One piece of this mystery has been solved as researchers have identified the steps by which a cell removes RNA from the cytoplasm. Descubren un mecanismo que regula el tamaño de los cilios En la superficie de muchos tipos de células los mamíferos podemos encontrar cilios, los cuales participan en multitud de procesos fisiológicos que van desde el crecimiento celular y el desarrollo hasta la percepción del ambiente en el que se encuentran. Su importancia se pone de manifiesto si tenemos en cuenta algunas enfermedades causadas por defectos en estos orgánulos: el hidrocéfalo, la anosm


No longer junk: Role of long noncoding RNAs in autism risk RNA acts as the intermediary between genes and proteins, but the function of pieces of RNA that do not code for protein has, historically, been less clear. Researchers have ignored these noncoding RNAs until recently for not complying with the central dogma of biology -- that a straight line runs from gene to RNA (transcription) to protein (translation). However, noncoding RNAs are emerging as imp Scientists, parents join forces to identify new genetic disease in children Scientists and parents have worked together to identify a new genetic disease that causes neurologic, muscle, eye and liver problems in children. The discovery was unusually fast thanks to a combination of modern gene-sequencing techniques, social media and old-fashioned detective work. One important clue was that affected children cry From mouse ears to human's? Gene therapy to address progressive hearing loss Using DNA as a drug -- commonly called gene therapy -- in laboratory mice may protect the inner ear nerve cells of humans suffering from certain types of progressive hearing loss, researchers have discovered. While the research is in its early stages, it has the potential to lead to a cure for some varieties of deafness. Gene implicated in progression, relapse of deadly breast cancer finding points to potential Achilles' heel in triple negative breast cancer A gene previously unassociated with breast cancer plays a pivotal role in the growth and progression of the triple negative form of the disease, a particularly deadly strain that often has few treatment options, scientists have found. Their research suggests that targeting the gene may be a new approach to treating the disease. Population of neutrophils in body found by researchers A novel population of neutrophils, which are the body's infection control workhorses, has been discovered by scientists. These cells have an enhanced microbial killing ability and are thereby better able to control infection. However, they may behave as a double-edged sword as they also have the potential to cause inflammation that results in tissue damage, and further studies are underway to regu


Tumor suppressor p53 cuts off invading cancer cells The tumor suppressor p53 does all it can to prevent oncogenes from transforming normal cells into tumor cells. Sometimes oncogenes manage to initiate tumor development in the presence of p53, which focuses its efforts instead on limiting the tumor’s ability to invade and metastasize. Researchers uncover one way that p53 acts to prevent cancer cell invasion. Unfolded proteins collapse when exposed to heat, crowded environments Not only folded proteins fulfill important functions in the human body; unfolded or intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) likewise assume major tasks. Researchers have observed how molecular forces influence protein structure. The unfolded proteins become smaller when exposed to elevated temperatures and density stress. Drugs fail to reawaken dormant HIV infection Scientists report that compounds they hoped would "wake up" dormant reservoirs of HIV inside immune system T cells -- a strategy designed to reverse latency and make the cells vulnerable to destruction -- have failed to do so in laboratory tests of such white blood cells taken directly from patients infected with HIV. Cells do not repair damage to DNA during mitosis because telomeres could fuse together Throughout a cell's life, corrective mechanisms act to repair DNA strand breaks. The exception is during the critical moment of cell division, when chromosomes are most vulnerable. Researchers found out why DNA repair shuts down during mitosis. This study has solved a long-standing mystery in cell division and cellular biology.


Inhibition of oral biofilm, cell-cell communication using naturalproducts derivatives Many plant metabolites and structurally similar derivatives have been identified as inhibitors of bacterial biofilm formation and quorum sensing (QS). Previously, the researchers of this study demonstrated biofilm and QS inhibition using modified cysteines, similar to those produced by the tropical plant Petiveria alliacea. In this study the researchers expanded their compound library to examine s New tool pinpoints genetic sources of disease Many diseases have their origins in either the genome or in reversible chemical changes to DNA known as the epigenome. Now, results of a new study show a connection between these two “maps.� The findings could help disease trackers find patterns in those overlays that could offer clues to the causes of and possible treatments for complex genetic conditions, including many cancers and metabolic dis Protein 'rescues' stuck cellular factories Using a powerful data-crunching technique, researchers have sorted out how a protein keeps defective genetic material from gumming up the cellular works. The protein, Dom34, appears to "rescue" protein-making factories called ribosomes when they get stuck obeying defective genetic instructions, the researchers report. 101 liver cancer drug candidates pave way to personalized medicine The heart disease drug perhexiline is one of 101 compounds predicted to prevent cancer growth in most patients suffering from our most common liver cancer, HCC. This is an outcome from a novel simulation-based approach using personal sets of proteins of six HCC patients. "This is the first time personalized models have been used to Preventing Head Blight in Barley, Wheat: Biochemical Pathways Hold Key to Resistance Despite major research funding, scientists have had only limited success in controlling fusarium head blight, a fungal disease that not only dramatically shrinks yields in wheat and barely, but produces toxins that make the grain dangerous for human or animal consumption. Using advanced genetic and molecular technologies, biologists have begun tracing the biochemical pathways that make wheat susce


Shifting evolution into reverse promises cheaper, greener way to make new drugs By shifting evolution into reverse, it may be possible to use “green chemistry� to make a number of costly synthetic drugs as easily and cheaply as brewing beer. Normally, both evolution and synthetic chemistry proceed from the simple to the complex. Small molecules are combined and modified to make larger and more complex molecules that perform specific functions. Bioretrosynthesis works in the o Effect of receptor activity-modifying protein-1 on vascular smooth muscle cells Although transplanting mesenchymal stem cells can improve cardiac function and contribute to endothelial recovery in a damaged artery, mesenchymal stem cells may induce neointimal hyperplasia by directly or indirectly acting on vascular smooth muscle cells. Receptor activitymodifying protein 1 is the specificity receptors of calcitonin geneEngineers design 'living materials': Hybrid materials combine bacterial cells with nonliving elements that emit light Inspired by natural materials such as bone -- a matrix of minerals and other substances, including living cells -- engineers have coaxed bacterial cells to produce biofilms that can incorporate nonliving materials, such as gold nanoparticles and quantum dots. These "living materials" combine the advantages of live cells, which respond to their Early brain development implicated in Restless Legs Syndrome A common genetic variant associated with Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) alters the expression of a critical gene during fetal development of the brain, researchers have discovered. This leads to alterations of the developing forebrain indicating an anatomical region involved in RLS. Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS), a neurological disorder characterized Vast gene-expression map yields neurological, environmental stress insights The largest survey yet of how information encoded in an animal genome is processed in different organs, stages of development, and environmental conditions has been conducted, leading to findings that paint a new picture of how genes function in the nervous system and in response to environmental stress.


New way to make muscle cells from human stem cells As stem cells continue their gradual transition from the lab to the clinic, a research group has discovered a new way to make large concentrations of skeletal muscle cells and muscle progenitors from human stem cells. The new method could be used to generate large numbers of muscle cells and muscle progenitors directly from human pluripotent stem cells. These stem cells, such as embryonic (ES) or Capturing leukemic stem cells: Major breakthrough in developing new cancer drugs Researchers recently achieved a significant breakthrough thanks to the laboratory growth of leukemic stem cells, which will speed up the development of new cancer drugs. The scientists involved describe how they succeeded in identifying two new chemical compounds that allow to maintain leukemic stem cells in culture when these are grown outside the body. Stem cell findings may offer answers for some bladder defects, disease For the first time, scientists have succeeded in coaxing laboratory cultures of human stem cells to develop into the specialized, unique cells needed to repair a patient's defective or diseased bladder. The breakthrough is significant because it provides a pathway to regenerate replacement bladder tissue for patients whose bladders are too small or do not function properly, such as children with s Genetic clue to irritable bowel syndrome found Is irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) caused by genetics, diet, past trauma, anxiety? All are thought to play a role, but now, for the first time, researchers have reported a defined genetic defect that causes a subset of IBS. Researchers estimate that approximately 15 to 20 percent of the Western world has IBS. It is a common disorder that affects the large intestine. Most patients with the disorder From DNA to diagnosis: Integrating genome data into patient care Sequencing the human genome has plummeted in cost by 1 million-fold and can be completed in a fraction of the time compared to ten years ago. Yet there are still barriers preventing DNA sequence information from routinely being incorporated into patient care.


Gene family linked to brain evolution implicated in severity of autism symptoms The same gene family that may have helped the human brain become larger and more complex than in any other animal also is linked to the severity of autism. The gene family is made up of over 270 copies of a segment of DNA called DUF1220. DUF1220 codes for a protein domain -- a specific functionally important segment within a protein. The more copies of a specific DUF1220 subtype a person with auti New regulatory mechanisms of cell migration found in drosphilia fly study New insight into the genetic regulation of cell migration has been discovered by researchers. Cell migration is highly coordinated and occurs in processes such as embryonic development, wound healing, the formation of new blood vessels, and tumour cell invasion. For the successful control of cell movement, this process has to be determined and maintained with great precision. In this study, the sc Cholesterol transporter structure decoded For the first time, scientists have solved the high-resolution structure of the molecular transporter TSPO, which introduces cholesterol into mitochondria. This protein also serves as a docking site for diagnostic markers and different drugs, such as Valium. The detailed knowledge of its 3-D shape and function opens up new diagnostic and therapeutic perspectives. Gene silencing instructions acquired through 'molecular memory' tags on chromatin One of the mysteries of modern genetics has been solved: how acquired traits can be passed between generations in a process called epigenetic inheritance. The new work finds that cells don’t know to silence some genes based on information hardwired into their DNA sequences, but recognize heritable chemical marks that are added to the genes. These chemical tags serve as a form of molecular memory,


.Neurociencia


Coal plant closure in China led to improvements in children's health Decreased exposure to air pollution in utero is linked with improved childhood developmental and higher levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, a key protein for brain development, according to a study of looking at the closure of coal-burning power plant in China. New clue to autism found inside brain cells The problems people with autism have with memory formation, higherlevel thinking and social interactions may be partially attributable to the activity of receptors inside brain cells, researchers have learned. The receptor under study, known as the mGlu5 receptor, becomes activated when it binds to the neurotransmitter glutamate, which is associated with learning and memory. This leads to chain r Last drinks: Brain's mechanism knows when to stop Our brains are hardwired to stop us drinking more water than is healthy, according to a new brain imaging study. The study found a 'stop mechanism' that determined brain signals telling the individual to stop drinking water when no longer thirsty, and the brain effects of drinking more water than required. Using PET scanning to evaluate therapies of Menkes disease PET imaging to visualize the distribution in the body of copper, which is deregulated in Menkes disease, a genetic disorder, has been used by scientists in a mouse model. This study lays the groundwork for PET imaging studies on human Menkes disease patients to identify new therapy options. Strong evidence for a new class of antidepressant drugs revealed by research A chemical in the brain called galanin is involved in the risk of developing depression, scientists have shown for the first time. Galanin is a neuropeptide (a small protein) that was discovered and investigated over 30 years ago. This new research demonstrates that galanin is an important stress mechanism in the human brain that influences how sensitive or resilient people are to psychosocial str


Precision drugs sought for anxiety disorders Researchers are striving to find out how cell communication regulating kainate receptors contribute to the susceptibility towards anxiety disorders. The intention is to also develop drugs that would be effective against prolonged anxiety. Brain differences in college-aged occasional drug users Impaired neuronal activity has been found in the parts of the brain associated with anticipatory functioning among occasional 18- to 24year-old users of stimulant drugs, such as cocaine, amphetamines and prescription drugs such as Adderall. The brain differences, detected using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), are believed to represent an internal hard wiring that may make some peopl Recreational drug users who switch from ecstasy to mephedrone don't understand dangers Contrary to popular belief among recreational drug users, mephedrone has several important differences when compared with MDMA, commonly known as ecstasy. These differences mean that mephedrone could leave a user with acute withdrawal symptoms and indicate that it may have a higher potential for developing dependence than MDMA according to a study. Diabetes drug shows promise in reducing Alzheimer's disease in an experimental model The diabetic drug, pramlintide, reduces amyloid-beta peptides, a major component of Alzheimer's disease in the brain and improves learning and memory in two experimental Alzheimer's disease models, researchers have discovered. These results also found Alzheimer's disease patients have a lower level of amylin in blood compared to those without this disease, and may provide a new avenue for both tre Picture perfect diagnosis: Telemedicine for stroke expertise Neurologic stroke expertise is coming to community-based medical centers via a portable robot communication system or telemedicine. Neuro-hospitalists use IPads or laptop computers to connect with other medical centers whenever a call comes from their emergency departments.


Bedside optical monitoring of cerebral blood flow shows promise for individualized care in stroke patients Using a device to noninvasively and continuously monitor cerebral blood flow (CBF) in acute stroke patients, researchers are now learning how head of bed (HOB) positioning affects blood flow reaching the brain following stroke. Most patients admitted to the hospital with an acute stroke are kept flat for at least 24 hours in an effort to increase Sensing gravity with acid: Scientists discover role for protons in neurotransmission While probing how organisms sense gravity and acceleration, scientists uncovered evidence that acid (proton concentration) plays a key role in communication between neurons. Scientists discovered that sensory cells in the inner ear continuously transmit information on orientation of the head relative to gravity and low-frequency motion to the brain using Blood-brain barrier repair after stroke may prevent chronic brain deficits Following ischemic stroke, the integrity of the blood-brain barrier, which prevents harmful substances such as inflammatory molecules from entering the brain, can be impaired in cerebral areas distant from initial ischemic insult. This disruptive condition, known as diaschisis, can lead to chronic post-stroke deficits, researchers report. MRI reveals genetic activity: Deciphering genes' roles in learning and memory Doctors commonly use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to diagnose tumors, damage from stroke, and many other medical conditions. Neuroscientists also rely on it as a research tool for identifying parts of the brain that carry out different cognitive functions. Now, biological engineers are trying to adapt MRI to a much smaller scale, allowing First stem cell study of bipolar disorder yields promising results What makes a person bipolar, prone to manic highs and deep, depressed lows? Why does bipolar disorder run so strongly in families, even though no single gene is to blame? And why is it so hard to find new treatments for a condition that affects 200 million people worldwide? New stem cell research may help scientists find answers to these questions.


Exploring Brain for Keys to Solving Parkinson's Disease One of the final frontiers of science is the human brain. The brain is the source of our intelligence, feelings and ability to make our bodies move – as well as the locus of terrible diseases such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s – and is as complicated as any object that scientists explore. Parkinson’s disease, which experts say affects more than six million people around the world, can progressive New depths of complexity in nerve cells discovered The protein CaM Kinase II plays a significant role in controlling when and where neuropeptides are released from neurons, researchers have found using mutant C. elegans. Using a method called "forward genetics," the researchers randomly screened thousands of mutant worms for defects in neuropeptide storage and unexpectedly identified mutant worms lacking CaM Kinase II. Further analysis r New technique sheds light on human neural networks A new technique provides a method to noninvasively measure human neural networks in order to characterize how they form. Using spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM) techniques, the researchers were able to show for the first time how human embryonic stem cell derived neurons within a network grow, organize spatially, and dynamically transport materials to one another.


For neurons in the brain, identity can be used to predict location There are many types of neurons, defined largely by the patterns of genes they use, and they 'live' in distinct brain regions. But researchers do not yet have a comprehensive understanding of these neuronal types and how they are distributed in the brain. A team of scientists describes a new mathematical model that combines large data sets to predict where different types of cells are located with Slowing down Alzheimer's: Researchers discover potential way A way to potentially halt the progression of dementia caused by accumulation of a protein known as tau has been discovered by researchers. Normally, tau protein is involved in microtubule formation, which acts as a brain cell's transportation system for carrying nutrients in and waste out. In the absence of tau protein, brain cells become No longer junk: Role of long noncoding RNAs in autism risk RNA acts as the intermediary between genes and proteins, but the function of pieces of RNA that do not code for protein has, historically, been less clear. Researchers have ignored these noncoding RNAs until recently for not complying with the central dogma of biology — that a straight line runs from gene to RNA (transcription) to protein (translation). However, noncoding RNAs are emerging as impo Fast and reliable: New mechanism for speedy transmission in basket cells discovered A new subcellular mechanism for reliable, fast transmission in the socalled basket cells of the brain has been discovered by researchers. Basket cells play a key role in information processing in neuronal networks in the hippocampus. To fulfill their function, signal transmission has to be both fast and reliable: basket cells convert an incoming excitatory signal into an outgoing inhibitory signa From mouse ears to human's? Gene therapy to address progressive hearing loss Using DNA as a drug -- commonly called gene therapy -- in laboratory mice may protect the inner ear nerve cells of humans suffering from certain types of progressive hearing loss, researchers have discovered. While the research is in its early stages, it has the potential to lead to a cure for some varieties of deafness.


Leaders wired to be task-focused or team-builders, but can be both Academics have written about distinctions between a task-oriented leader and a social-emotional leader for 50 years. But new research strongly suggests the distinction has a foundation in our brains -- which allows us to be either analytical or empathetic, but not both at the same time -- researchers report. Managers don't have to be one or the other, they say. The presence of both capabilities in

New bodily illusion: Would you believe your hand could turn into marble? Our bodies are made of flesh and bones. We all know this, and throughout our daily lives, all our senses constantly provide converging information about this simple, factual truth. But is this always the case? A new study reports a surprising bodily illusion demonstrating how we can rapidly update our assumptions about the material qualities of our bodies based on recent multisensory perceptual ex Nasal spray delivers new type of depression treatment A nasal spray that delivers a peptide to treat depression holds promise as a potential alternative therapeutic approach, research shows. This peptide treatment interferes with the binding of two dopamine receptors -- the D1 and D2 receptor complex. The research team had found that this binding was higher in the brains of people with major depression. Disrupting the binding led to the anti-depressa


Early detection of Alzheimer's disease made possible by analyzing spinal fluid Researchers can detect tiny, misfolded protein fragments in cerebrospinal fluid taken from patients, according to a new study. Such fragments have been suggested to be the main culprit in Alzheimer's disease. The findings lend hope that doctors might soon have a way to diagnose the disease while treatments might have a better chance of working -- that is, before extensive brain damage and dementia Personality for Leadership: Women better suited for leadership than men, research demonstrates Research has identified five key traits that, overall, provide a good picture of our personality. This is called the five factor model. The five traits in the five factor model are: emotional stability, extraversion (outgoing), openness to new experiences, agreeableness and conscientiousness. The personality traits are measured in degrees, from high to low. New research suggests that based on this Electric 'thinking cap' controls learning speed Caffeine-fueled cram sessions are routine occurrences on any college campus. But what if there was a better, safer way to learn new or difficult material more quickly? What if "thinking caps" were real? Scientists have now shown that it is possible to selectively manipulate our ability to learn through the application of a mild electrical current to the brain, and that this effect can be Non-academic young people take brain stimulants more frequently than students Three per cent of young men in Switzerland take cognitive enhancement drugs at least once each year. Students hope this consumption will improve their exam performance, while their non-academic contemporaries seek primarily to remain awake for longer. “Brain stimulants”, “Neuroenhancers” and “Smart Pills” – the terms used for chemical-induced cognitive enhancement are numerous. While these substan


Early brain development implicated in Restless Legs Syndrome A common genetic variant associated with Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) alters the expression of a critical gene during fetal development of the brain, researchers have discovered. This leads to alterations of the developing forebrain indicating an anatomical region involved in RLS. Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS), a neurological disorder characterized Sharper view into brain: Exact border between two important brain regions detected Deep in the human brain, two small but very important regions lie close together: the amygdala, which plays an important role in the generation and perception of emotions, and the hippocampus, which is a central switchboard for memories. These two small neighboring regions have until now been hard to tell apart in neuroimaging investigations of the living human because of their small dimensions, t Variations in eye structure, function may reveal features of early-stage Alzheimer's disease Eye abnormalities may help reveal features of early-stage Alzheimer’s disease, researchers have discovered. Using a novel laboratory rat model of Alzheimer’s disease and high-resolution imaging techniques, researchers correlated variations of the eye structure, to identify initial indicators of the disease. How lost sleep leads to lost neurons Extended wakefulness is linked to injury to, and loss of, neurons that are essential for alertness and optimal cognition, the locus coeruleus neurons, a mouse model of chronic sleep loss has revealed. According to common wisdom, catch up sleep repays one's "sleep debt," with no lasting effects. But the new study shows disturbing evidence that Protein family that helps the brain form synapses surveyed by researchers How does nature make the different types of synapses that connect neurons? And how are synaptic defects linked to cognitive disorders? A Nobel Prize winning researcher used new instruments to identify more than 450 isoforms of the neurexins, a family of proteins thought to help define synaptic form and function. The findings illuminate basic brain functions and will lead to better understanding of


Homeless with TBI more likely to visit ER Homeless and vulnerably housed people who have suffered a traumatic brain injury at some point in their life are more likely to visit an emergency department, be arrested or incarcerated, or be victims of physical assault, new research has found. "Given the high costs of Emergency Department visits and the burden of crime on society, these findings have important public health and criminal ju Diffuse brain damage can occur with no signs of 'concussion' in rats, reports study A standard experimental model of concussion in rats causes substantial brain damage -— but no behavioral changes comparable to those seen in patients with concussion, reports a study. The results highlight the "disconnect" between preclinical and clinical studies of concussion. The study also adds to concerns over the possible long-term effects of Gene family linked to brain evolution implicated in severity of autism symptoms The same gene family that may have helped the human brain become larger and more complex than in any other animal also is linked to the severity of autism. The gene family is made up of over 270 copies of a segment of DNA called DUF1220. DUF1220 codes for a protein domain -- a specific functionally important segment within a protein. The more copies of a specific DUF1220 subtype a person with auti Preterm children at increased risk of having math problems Preterm children are at an increased risk of having general cognitive and mathematic problems, research has concluded. "Teachers should be aware of these children's problems and need to work on ways of math instruction that help preterm children deal with the high cognitive workload and integration of information required for mathematic tasks Genetic factor contributes to forgetfulness Misplaced your keys? Can't remember someone's name? Didn't notice the stop sign? Those who frequently experience such cognitive lapses now have an explanation. Psychologists have found a connection between such everyday lapses and the DRD2 gene. Those who have a certain variant of this gene are more easily distracted and experience a significantly higher incidence of lapses due to a lack of attent


.CĂŠlulas madre y EpigenĂŠtica


First stem cell study of bipolar disorder yields promising results What makes a person bipolar, prone to manic highs and deep, depressed lows? Why does bipolar disorder run so strongly in families, even though no single gene is to blame? And why is it so hard to find new treatments for a condition that affects 200 million people worldwide? New stem cell research may help scientists find answers to these Replacing insulin through stem cell-derived pancreatic cells under the skin A newly created method of placing stem cell-derived pancreatic cells in capsules under the skin to replace insulin is tested in diabetic disease models. The method is successful without producing likely complications. The study confirms the viability of combining stem cells and 'encapsulation' technology to treat insulin-dependent diabetes. Identifying gene-enhancers: New technique A new technique for identifying gene enhancers -- sequences of DNA that act to amplify the expression of a specific gene -- in the genomes of humans and other mammals has been developed. Called SIF-seq, this new technique complements existing genomic tools, such as ChIP-seq, and offers additional benefits. New way to make muscle cells from human stem cells As stem cells continue their gradual transition from the lab to the clinic, a research group has discovered a new way to make large concentrations of skeletal muscle cells and muscle progenitors from human stem cells. The new method could be used to generate large numbers of muscle cells and muscle progenitors directly from human pluripotent stem cells. These stem cells, such as embryonic (ES) or Capturing leukemic stem cells: Major breakthrough in developing new cancer drugs Researchers recently achieved a significant breakthrough thanks to the laboratory growth of leukemic stem cells, which will speed up the development of new cancer drugs. The scientists involved describe how they succeeded in identifying two new chemical compounds that allow to maintain leukemic stem cells in culture when these are grown outside the body.


Stem cell findings may offer answers for some bladder defects, disease For the first time, scientists have succeeded in coaxing laboratory cultures of human stem cells to develop into the specialized, unique cells needed to repair a patient's defective or diseased bladder. The breakthrough is significant because it provides a pathway to regenerate replacement bladder tissue for patients whose bladders are too small or do not function properly, such as children with s Stem cell study finds source of earliest blood cells during development Hematopoietic stem cells are now routinely used to treat patients with cancers and other disorders of the blood and immune systems, but researchers knew little about the progenitor cells that give rise to them during embryonic development. Scientists have now created novel cell assays that identified the earliest arising HSC precursors based on their ability to generate all major blood cell types New tool pinpoints genetic sources of disease Many diseases have their origins in either the genome or in reversible chemical changes to DNA known as the epigenome. Now, results of a new study show a connection between these two “maps.� The findings could help disease trackers find patterns in those overlays that could offer clues to the causes of and possible treatments for complex genetic conditions, including many cancers and metabolic dis Gene silencing instructions acquired through 'molecular memory' tags on chromatin One of the mysteries of modern genetics has been solved: how acquired traits can be passed between generations in a process called epigenetic inheritance. The new work finds that cells don’t know to silence some genes based on information hardwired into their DNA sequences, but recognize heritable chemical marks that are added to the genes. These chemical tags serve as a form of molecular memory,


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