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Universidad de Salamanca Facultad de Biología

Biblioteca

Bionoticias

Enero (5ª) de 2014


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BioNoticias. Resumen de prensa semanal Elaborado por la Biblioteca de Biología. Universidad de Salamanca Para leer el texto completo de los artículos pulse en el título Para agrandar el texto pulse cualquier otra parte de la página Puede enviarnos sus noticias a bibbiol@usal.es Suscribirse a Bionotias + BioEmpleo: dirección de correo electrónico y su nombre a bibbiol@usal.es Boletines anteriores en http://issuu.com/bibliotecabiologia


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iomedicina

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élulas madre y eurociencia

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.Biología


Identifican con supercomputadoras un interruptor molecular que controla la conducta celular Poder controlar a voluntad funciones celulares como el movimiento y el desarrollo, permitiría paralizar dentro del cuerpo células y patógenos causantes de enfermedades. Este objetivo está ahora mucho más cerca gracias a que, mediante supercomputadoras, se ha logrado identificar un interruptor...

Hallan en Neuquén huevos de 70 millones de años de antigüedad Es poco lo que se sabe de la reproducción de las aves extintas de períodos tan remotos como el Cretácico, hace más de 70 millones de años.Ahora, científicos argentinos encontraron en las bardas cercanas a la Universidad Nacional del Comahue, en la ciudad de Neuquén, una colonia de anidamiento de... Insólita y enorme población de anémonas marinas viviendo bajo el hielo antártico Se ha confirmado que las extrañas anémonas de mar descubiertas de manera inesperada viviendo afianzadas en la cara interior de la Plataforma o Barrera de Hielo de Ross, en la Antártida, son de una nueva especie, y ya se le ha dado un nombre a ésta. El espectacular hallazgo se hizo gracias a un...


Reconstruyen el genoma de la bacteria que causó la primera pandemia de peste de la historia Los dientes de dos víctimas de la plaga de Justiniano, considerada la primera pandemia de peste bubónica de la historia, han servido a un equipo de investigadores para reconstruir el genoma de la bacteria causante de la enfermedad (Yersinia pestis). La cepa ha resultado ser totalmente... Una dieta variada mejora la condición física e inmunitaria de la descendencia de los cernícalos Investigadores del Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales han descubierto que una dieta que incluye mayor diversidad de presas mejora la condición física y la capacidad del sistema inmunitario en los pollos de cernícalo vulgar, Falco tinnunculus. Los resultados del trabajo muestran que, en la dieta de estas aves, influye más la diversidad que la cantidad de alimentos. ¿El extraño primate Ardipithecus ramidus perteneció al linaje humano? Uno de los asuntos más debatidos hoy en día en las investigaciones sobre el origen humano se centra en cómo de relacionada con el linaje humano está la especie africana Ardipithecus ramidus, de hace 4,4 millones de años.El Ardipithecus ramidus, o "Ardi" como se le llama coloquialmente, fue un...


El misterio de la temperatura de los animales de tierra más grandes que han existido Los saurópodos, los animales terrestres más grandes de la historia de la Tierra, todavía encierran muchos misterios que desconciertan a la comunidad científica. Estos dinosaurios herbívoros, de cuellos largos y cabezas pequeñas, podían alcanzar alturas de 10 metros o más, y sobrepasaban a todos... Bacterias farmacorresistentes en plantas depuradoras de aguas residuales El problema en el ámbito médico de las bacterias que se vuelven resistentes a los antibióticos parece que tiene otro escenario preocupante en las plantas de tratamiento de aguas residuales.Las pruebas realizadas en dos plantas de tratamiento de aguas residuales en el norte de China han revelado... La tortuga mesozoica que tomaba el sol en Castellón Medía unos 20 centímetros de largo, nadaba en los cursos fluviales que atravesaban la zona castellonense de Morella (España) y le gustaba tomar el sol apoyada en cualquier objeto que emergía del río. Así era Eodortoka morellana, una nueva especie de tortuga que habitaba en la región hace unos 125... Los europeos de hace 7.000 años tenían piel oscura y ojos azules Los cazadores recolectores que habitaban Europa hace 7.000 años, en el Mesolítico, tenían la piel oscura y los ojos azules. Así lo aseguran científicos españoles, en colaboración con investigadores daneses, que han secuenciado por primera vez el genoma completo de un homínido europeo encontrado... Los humanos paleolíticos del norte de España cambiaron un hogar con vistas por uno con mejor logística Científicos del Instituto Internacional de Investigaciones Prehistóricas de Cantabria han seguido los pasos de los humanos que habitaron la región durante el Paleolítico. A través de programas informáticos de análisis geográfico saben que estos nómadas abandonaron progresivamente las cuevas y abrigos rocosos de altitud para vivir en lugares más llanos.


Nuevos antibióticos a partir de bacterias En los últimos años, se descubrió que las bacterias poseen un metabolismo capaz de cumplir con diversas funciones, y esta característica les permite, entre otras tareas, producir antibióticos. Por ello, un equipo científico del Laboratorio Nacional de Genómica para la Biodiversidad (Langebio), en... Verduras especiales ofrecen mucha nutrición "Microvegetales" es un término de mercadotecnia que se usa para describir las verduras que germinan de las semillas de verduras y hierbas y son cosechadas cuando todavía son plántulas. Las plantas en esta etapa tienen dos cotiledones (hojas de semilla) completamente extendidas. Se consideran... Secuencian el genoma de un cáncer venéreo que se transmite entre perros desde hace 11.000 años Un equipo científico internacional ha logrado secuenciar el genoma de cáncer más antiguo descifrado hasta ahora, que ha sobrevivido 11.000 años. Se trata de un cáncer venéreo transmisible en cánidos que causa tumores genitales y que continúa propagándose entre perros domésticos hasta hoy. Nadie ve los colores como la gamba mantis La mayoría de los animales tienen en sus ojos entre dos y cuatro fotorreceptores para distinguir los colores. Los estomatópodos (Stomatopoda) o gambas mantis son los únicos seres vivos que tienen doce. Un equipo de investigadores ha resuelto parte del misterio de su peculiar sistema de visión: no les permite distinguir mejor los colores que al resto; sin embargo, su forma de codificarlos les da ve Opportunity encuentra evidencias de agua con distinta acidez en Marte Las muestras encontradas por el rover Opportunity en Marte indican que la acidez del agua que hubo en el planeta rojo en el cráter marciano Endeavour varió tras el impacto del meteorito que lo formó. Este robot, que ya lleva diez años en la superficie de Marte, y los hallazgos del Curiosity ayudarán a evaluar la habitabilidad del planeta vecino.


Descubren una señal bacteriana que incita a animales a adherirse al casco de barcos El biofouling o bioincrustación es un problema común en todos los océanos. Consiste en la acumulación, en la parte sumergida del casco de un barco, de organismos que se adhieren a él, tales como algas, mejillones, y percebes. Esta masa de "polizones" aumenta en el barco la resistencia al avance... Vestigios químicos que permiten averiguar el color de animales de hace hasta casi 200 millones de años El espectacular hallazgo de pigmento original en la piel fosilizada de tres reptiles marinos de millones de años atrás está atrayendo una considerable atención por parte de la comunidad científica. El pigmento revela que, en vida, estos animales eran, al menos parcialmente, de color oscuro. Esta... Las moscas macho cooperan con sus hermanos para aparearse Los machos de las moscas de la fruta que están emparentados prefieren cooperar entre ellos para aparearse y disminuyen la agresividad del cortejo. Este mecanismo de selección sexual beneficia también a las hembras que sufren menos daños.


Nueva interpretación geoarqueológica del yacimiento tanzano de Thiongo Korongo El investigador Manuel Santonja del Centro Nacional de Investigación sobre la Evolución Humana lidera un trabajo en el que se propone una nueva interpretación estratigráfica, arqueológica y paleoambiental del yacimiento tanzano de Thiongo Korongo situado en la Garganta de Olduvai (Tanzania). Diseñan un motor de ADN capaz de andar a lo largo de un nanotubo Inspirándose en los motores biológicos naturales que la evolución ha forjado para efectuar tareas específicas y fundamentales para el funcionamiento celular, un equipo de ingenieros ha creado un nuevo tipo de motor molecular, hecho de ADN, y ha demostrado su extraordinario potencial al usarlo... Diferentes motores moleculares en cilios de paramecios Los cilios (fibras diminutas, cortas, similares a pelillos) están presentes en la naturaleza ampliamente. Los cilios son una de las grandes herramientas para usos múltiples de la naturaleza. Estas fibras sobresalen de las membranas celulares y realizan todo tipo de tareas en cualquier criatura,... Los pastores ibéricos se hicieron tolerantes a la lactosa para adaptarse a las hambrunas de la Edad de Bronce Un acto tan habitual en Europa como tomar un vaso de leche no es nada común en otros lugares del mundo, como Asia. Un estudio publicado en 2009 reveló que la tolerancia a la lactosa desarrollada por los europeos se produjo hace más de 7.500 años.Los científicos tenían una sola hipótesis para... Descubren las fuentes de ácidos grasos esenciales de la dieta humana en el Paleolítico Los Omega-3 son ácidos grasos esenciales poliinsaturados (el organismo humano no los puede sintetizar) imprescindibles para la vida, que se encuentran en alta proporción en los tejidos de ciertos pescados (por regla general pescado azul) y en algunas fuentes vegetales como las semillas de lino,...


Mejoran la precisión para localizar los terremotos que precedieron a la erupción de El Hierro Investigadores del Instituto Geográfico Nacional han aplicado una técnica para aumentar diez veces la precisión de la localización de los terremotos precursores de la erupción del Hierro en 2011. Esta mejora ha permitido observar detalles no vistos antes y que pueden ser de gran importancia en el entendimiento del proceso magmático que a día de hoy no ha finalizado. Un estudio genómico con cánidos revela que la domesticación de los perros fue más compleja de lo que se creía Un equipo interancional de científicos ha intentado reconstruir, a través de la genómica, la historia de las poblaciones de cánidos, sus relaciones y los flujos de genes que se produjeron. Ahora se tiene una imagen mucho más detallada y algo sorprendente. Banderas de identidad celular Entrega del podcast Quilo de Ciencia, realizado por Jorge Laborda (catedrático de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular de la Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, España), en Ciencia para Escuchar, que recomendamos por su interés.A lo largo de la evolución, los vertebrados han desarrollado varios... Los glóbulos rojos pueden adoptar una insólita forma poliédrica Los glóbulos rojos son, quizás, los tipos de células más maleables de todo el cuerpo humano, por su capacidad de adoptar muchas formas, como por ejemplo la de discos comprimidos capaces de pasar por capilares con diámetros inferiores al del propio glóbulo rojo.Aunque los glóbulos rojos fueron... Investigan un antiveneno para tratar picaduras de alacrán En los últimos años, cada vez se reportan más casos de picaduras de alacranes. Las provincias argentinas con tasas más elevadas de notificación de accidentes son Catamarca, Tucumán, Jujuy, Santiago del Estero y Córdoba.En Córdoba, el problema no es exclusivo de la Capital, sino que se ha...


.Biomedicina


Investigan la resistencia a antibióticos de la bacteria ‘Dermabacter hominis’ Un estudio analiza el tratamiento con antibióticos de uno de los principales grupos de bacterias, las Gram positivas. Una nueva familia de antibióticos, cuyo primer representante es la daptomicina, empieza a utilizarse para combatirlas. El problema es que la comunidad científica ha encontrado resistencia a este antibiótico por parte de una de ellas, la Dermabacter hominis. Las 2.401 rebanadas del cerebro amnésico más famoso dibujan un atlas en 3D de la memoria Una operación para curar la epilepsia causó a Henry Molaison amnesia pura. Tras su muerte en 2008, cedió su cerebro para que se estudiase esta rara consecuencia. El análisis de los 2.401 cortes en los que fue divido el órgano ha permitido crear un mapa en 3D sobre la memoria y el hipocampo. Adrian Bird, premio Fronteras del Conocimiento de Biomedicina El catedrático de Genética en la Universidad de Edimburgo Adrian Bird ha sido galardonado con el premio Fundación BBVA Fronteras del Conocimiento por aportar el mapa de activación de los genes y abrir una vía para buscar cura a enfermedades neurológicas.


Japón publica dos estudios españoles sobre el riesgo de infarto en personas aparentemente sanas Dos nuevos trabajos muestran que las personas que presentan un alto nivel en sangre de la proteína resistina poseen mayor riesgo de padecer infartos de miocardio y angina de pecho. Curiosamente esta molécula se encuentra elevada en personas relativamente jóvenes no identificadas como grupos de riesgo: hipertensión, diabetes, obesidad. La tasa de mortalidad por cáncer en España desciende un 13% en dos décadas Los datos de la Organización para la Cooperación Económica y el Desarrollo revelan que la mortalidad por cáncer en España ha disminuido un 13% desde 1990. En nuestro país existe un registro poblacional sobre el cáncer de alta calidad pero que solo cubre el 17% de los casos. Los cálculos de incidencia en la sociedad se realizan mediante estimaciones. Una nueva familia de antibióticos contra la tuberculosis La revista científica Nature Medicine publica el logro de investigadores aragoneses que han colaborado en el desarrollo de fármacos basados en la espectinomicina que matan a la bacteria de la tuberculosis, una de las enfermedades infecciosas que afecta a más personas en el mundo. ¿Cómo funcionan los canales de potasio? Los canales iónicos son fundamentales para el equilibrio homeostático de nuestro organismo. Un grupo de investigadores ha realizado cálculos de gran precisión del llamado ‘potencial de fuerza media’ en canales de potasio, un ingrediente esencial en modelos de transporte utilizados para reproducir propiedades de conducción iónica en condiciones fisiológicamente relevantes. Demuestran que los antibióticos no son necesarios en la bronquitis aguda Un ensayo clínico ha descrito la ineficacia de los antibióticos en los pacientes con bronquitis aguda. El estudio, publicado en el British Medical Journal, también ha comprobado que la administración de antiinflamatorios no aumenta la probabilidad de resolver la tos más rápidamente.


El aceite de oliva virgen reduce el riesgo de problemas circulatorios en extremidades Investigadores de la Universidad de Navarra publican hoy en la revista JAMA un ensayo de dieta beneficiosa frente a la arteriosclerosis, una afección que causa endurecimiento de las arterias. La dieta incluía una cantidad abundante de aceite de oliva virgen extra. El ácido úrico bajo puede ser un factor de riesgo para el párkinson Expertos de la Universidad de Sevilla, del Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío y del Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla han demostrado que presentar niveles de ácido úrico bajo, así como los factores genéticos asociados a estos niveles, está directamente relacionado con el riesgo de desarrollar enfermedades como el párkinson. Mecanismos que afectan al ácido oleico intervienen en el síndrome de Down Científicos españoles han descubierto que la sobreexpresión de determinados genes impide que el ácido oleico cumpla su función como factor neurotrófico, es decir, como agente que promueve el crecimiento y la diferenciación de las neuronas. Esto ocurre cuando existe la trisomía característica del síndrome de Down y podría explicar los problemas de discapacidad cognitiva asociados. Los pulsos magnéticos aplicados al cerebro alteran la percepción táctil Investigadores de la UPF han utilizado la técnica de estimulación magnética transcraneal (TMS) que permite establecer una relación causa-efecto entre un determinado tipo de actividad neural localizada y una función cognitiva concreta. Patentan una técnica para desarrollar nuevos fármacos contra la osteoporosis Científicos de la Universidad de Granada (UGR) han abierto la puerta para el desarrollo de nuevos fármacos contra la osteoporosis, una de las enfermedades crónicas con mayor prevalencia en todo el mundo, especialmente en mujeres mayores de 65 años.


.BiotecnologĂ­a


New technique developed to control cervical cancer A gene related to the proliferation of cancerous cells has been blocked through molecular technology. Converting adult human cells to hair follicle-generating stem cells Researchers have come up with a method to convert adult cells into epithelial stem cells, the first time anyone has achieved this in either humans or mice. The epithelial stem cells, when implanted into immunocompromised mice, regenerated the different cell types of human skin and hair follicles, and even produced structurally recognizable hair shaft, raising the possibility that they may eventual New method rescues DNA from contaminated Neandertal bones Retrieval of ancient DNA molecules is usually performed with special precautions to prevent DNA from researchers or the environment to get mixed in with the DNA from the fossil. However, many ancient fossils have been lying in museum collection for decades, and are contaminated with present-day human DNA before they enter the DNAlaboratory. A new method provides a solution to this problem. Scientists find genetic mechanism linking aging to specific diets In new research published, scientists identify a collection of genes that allow an organism to adapt to different diets and show that without them, even minor tweaks to diet can cause premature aging and death. Researchers tune in to protein pairs Scientists have created a way to interpret interactions among pairs of task-oriented proteins that relay signals. The goal is to learn how the proteins avoid crosstalk and whether they can be tuned for better performance. Crowdsourced RNA designs outperform computer algorithms An enthusiastic group of non-experts, working through an online interface and receiving feedback from lab experiments, has produced designs for RNA molecules that are consistently more successful than those generated by the best computerized design algorithms, researchers report.


Successful regeneration of human skeletal muscle in mice Researchers recently announced study findings showing the successful development of a humanized preclinical model for facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy, providing scientists with a much needed tool to accelerate novel therapeutic research and development.

How did we get four limbs? Because we have a belly All of us backboned animals have four fins or limbs, one pair in front and one pair behind. How did our earliest ancestors settle into such a consistent arrangement of two pairs of appendages? Researchers in the Theoretical Biology Department at the University of Vienna and the Konrad Lorenz Institute for Evolution and Cognition Research have presented a new model for approaching this question in Immune system drives pregnancy complications after fetal surgery in mice Researchers have shown that, in mice at least, pregnancy complications after fetal surgery are triggered by activation of the mother's T cells. Cannabis during pregnancy endangers fetal brain development A current study by an international consortium of researchers shows that the consumption of Cannabis during pregnancy can impair the development of the fetus' brain with long-lasting effects after birth. Cannabis is particularly powerful to derail how nerve cells form connections, potentially limiting the amount of information the affected brain can process.


Protein measurements in the cell A network of chemists has developed an innovative method to study protein structures by means of magnetic labels. The ingenious thing about it is that the magnetic labels are directly incorporated inside the cell when the protein is naturally biosynthesized. The research results might have an impact on many areas of structural biology. New method increases supply of embryonic stem cells A new method allows for large-scale generation of human embryonic stem cells of high clinical quality. It also allows for production of such cells without destroying any human embryos. The discovery is a big step forward for stem cell research and for the high hopes for replacing damaged cells and thereby curing serious illnesses such as diabetes and Parkinson's disease. Shortening guide RNA markedly improves specificity of CRISPR-Cas nucleases A simple adjustment to a powerful gene-editing tool may be able to improve its specificity. Investigators have found that adjusting the length of the the guide RNA component of the synthetic enzymes called CRISPR-Cas RNA-guided nucleases can substantially reduce the occurrence of off-target DNA mutations. Long-lived breast stem cells could retain cancer legacy Researchers have discovered that breast stem cells and their "daughters" have a much longer lifespan than previously thought, and are active in puberty and throughout life. 3rd Madrid Meeting on Dendritic Cells and Macrophages Los dĂ­as 28 y 29 de abril de 2014 se celebra en el Centro Nacional de BiotecnologĂ­a del CSIC el 3rd Madrid Meeting on Dendritic cells and Macrophages. Drug to reverse breast cancer spread in development Researchers are developing a novel compound known to reverse the spread of malignant breast cancer cells. The vast majority of deaths from cancer result from its progressive spread to vital organs, known as metastasis. In breast cancer up to 12,000 patients a year develop this form of the disease, often several years after initial diagnosis of a breast lump. In a recent series of studies, research


From one cell to many: How did multicellularity evolve? In the beginning there were single cells. Today, many millions of years later, most plants, animals, fungi, and algae are composed of multiple cells that work collaboratively as a single being. Despite the various ways these organisms achieved multicellularity, their conglomeration of cells operate cooperatively to consume energy, survive, and reproduce. But how did multicellularity evolve? Variation in circadian clock protein in fruit flies discovered Scientists have studied genetic variation in circadian clock genes in wild populations of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster -- and has discovered that their genes have developed different genetic variations that are functionally important. The circadian clock is a molecular network that generates daily rhythms, and is present in both plants and animals. Birch helps wounds heals faster Pharmaceutical researchers elucidate the effect of a natural extract -from birch trees. Putting a Brake on Tumor Spread A team of scientists has found that a protein involved in promoting tumor growth and survival is also activated in surrounding blood vessels, enabling cancer cells to spread into the bloodstream. New clues may link hereditary cancer genes to increased risk of cancer from alcohol In laboratory experiments conducted on human cell lines, scientists have shown that people carrying certain mutations in two hereditary cancer genes, BRCA2 and PALB2, may have a higher than usual susceptibility to DNA damage caused by a byproduct of alcohol, called acetaldehyde. Sickle cell trait in African-American dialysis patients affects dosing of anemia medications African-American dialysis patients with sickle cell trait received about 13% more of the medications used to treat anemia than other AfricanAmerican patients to reach the same level of hemoglobin. The sickle cell trait was slightly more common in African-American patients on dialysis (10%) than in the general African-American population (6.5% to 8.7%).


Experiments show hypothesis of microtubule steering accurate Tiny protein motors in cells can steer microtubules in the right direction through branching nerve cell structures, according to researchers who used laboratory experiments to test a model of how these cellular information highways stay organized in living cells.

To stay a step ahead of breast cancer, make a map of the future Cancer isn't a singular disease, even when talking about one tumor. A tumor consists of a varied mix of cells whose complicated arrangement changes all the time, especially and most vexingly as doctors and patients do their best to fight it. Researchers have now developed a tool to help them predict which direction a tumor is most likely to go and how it might respond to chemotherapy. Study identifies gene tied to motor neuron loss in ALS Researchers have identified a gene, called matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), that appears to play a major role in motor neuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease. The findings, made in mice, explain why most but not all motor neurons are affected by the disease and identify a potential therapeutic target for this still-incurable neurodegenerat


'Molecular switch' discovered in Parkinson's protein In one variant of Parkinson’s disease, the enzyme LRRK2, plays a central role. Scientists have now discovered a mechanism that controls the activity of LRRK2. This opens up new approaches for the development of drugs to counter the disease, which until now is incurable. World's first simultaneous genetic sequencing of host coral, symbiont algae Coral health and survival largely depend on the interaction between the host coral, a photosynthetic symbiont algae, and an associated community of micro-organisms. Hence, constructing a genetic dataset of the entire coral community, or so-called the coral holobiont, is essential for understanding their molecular interactions. Researchers have successfully sequenced the genetic information of the Simple amoeba holds the key to better treatment for Alzheimer's disease Scientists have discovered the use of a simple single-celled amoeba to understand the function of human proteins in causing Alzheimer’s disease. The shape of infectious prions Prions are unique infective agents -- unlike viruses, bacteria, fungi and other parasites, prions do not contain either DNA or RNA. Despite their seemingly simple structure, they can propagate their pathological effects like wildfire, by "infecting" normal proteins. PrPSc (the pathological form of the prion protein) can induce normal prion proteins (PrPC) to acquire the wrong conformatio What makes cell division accurate? Losing or gaining chromosomes during cell division can lead to cancer and other diseases, so understanding mitosis is important for developing therapeutic strategies. New research focused on one important part of this process. The results improve our understanding of how cell division gives rise to two daughter cells with an equal complement of chromosomes.


One in five women with ovarian cancer has inherited predisposition A new study conservatively estimates that one in five women with ovarian cancer has inherited genetic mutations that increase the risk of the disease. Better protein capture a boon for drug manufacturers Scientists have created a way to fine tune a process critical to the pharmaceutical industry that could save time and money. Gene therapy leads to robust improvements in animal model of fatal muscle disease Preclinical studies show that gene therapy can strengthen muscles and lengthen lives in animal models of a fatal congenital disease in children, X-linked myotubular myopathy. The findings demonstrate the clinical feasibility of future trials for this devastating disease. Children born with the condition have floppy muscles and breathing difficulty, and may need life support. Most die in childhood. Genomic tumor testing conducted Clinical laboratory experts and physicians achieved 100 percent accuracy using new gene sequencing equipment and panels to test for abnormal DNA in cancerous tumor cells, paving the way for routine genetic testing in personalizing cancer care Drug discovery potential of natural microbial genomes Scientists have developed a new genetic platform that allows efficient production of naturally occurring molecules, and have used it to produce a novel antibiotic compound. The scent of cancer: Detecting cancer with fruit fly's antenna Researchers have, for the first time, detected cancer cells using the olfactory senses of fruit flies. Plant scientists unravel a molecular switch to stimulate leaf growth Cell division is essential for growth and development of all multicellular organisms. In plants, leaf growth consists of two different phases. A first phase is characterized by intense cell division, which leads to the formation of many new cells. During the second phase, cell division activity declines, the cells elongate and acquire a certain expertise. Biologists have now identified a molecular


A thousand years ago, Central Europeans digested milk as well as us today Back in the Middle Ages, Central Europeans were already capable of digesting milk, yogurt and cheese just as well as most people of European descent are today. Researchers have discovered that the population of the medieval town of Dalheim had a similar genetic predisposition for milk digestion to present-day Germans and Austrians. Moreover, the study reveals that lactose tolerance was more widesp Lab-grown, virus-free stem cells repair retinal tissue in mice Investigators have developed human induced-pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) capable of repairing damaged retinal vascular tissue in mice. The stem cells, derived from human umbilical cord-blood and coaxed into an embryonic-like state, were grown without the conventional use of viruses, which can mutate genes and initiate cancers, according to the scientists. Their safer method of growing the cells p New genes spring, spread from non-coding DNA "Where do new genes come from?" is a long-standing question in genetics and evolutionary biology. A new study shows that new genes can spring from non-coding DNA more rapidly than expected. Genome of longest-living cancer: 11,000-year-old living dog cancer reveals its origin, evolution A cancer normally lives and dies with a person, however this is not the case with a sexually transmitted cancer in dogs. In a new study, researchers have described the genome and evolution of this cancer that has continued living within the dog population for the past 11,000 years.


Key pathway for plant cell growth identified For plants, the only way to grow is for cells to expand. Unlike animals, cell division in plants happens only within a tiny region of the root and stem apex, making cell expansion the critical path to increased stature. Now, a team of scientists reports the discovery of a hormone and receptor that control cell expansion in plants. Researchers discover origin of unusual glands in the body The thymus gland is a critical component of the human immune system that is responsible for the development of T-lymphocytes, or T-cells, which help organize and lead the body's fighting forces against harmful organisms like bacteria and viruses. Scientists map gene changes driving tumors in common pediatric softtissue cancer Scientists have mapped the genetic changes that drive tumors in rhabdomyosarcoma, a pediatric soft-tissue cancer, and found that the disease is characterized by two distinct genotypes. The genetic alterations identified in this malignancy could be useful in developing targeted diagnostic tools and treatments for children with the disease.


Two proteins compete for one port on a growth factor; one promotes metastasis, the other blocks it Consider two drivers, each with a key that fits the same car. Driver 1 wants simply to turn on the ignition and leave the vehicle idling, ready and waiting to roll. Driver 2 wants to take it on a destructive joy ride. New cancer researchers have discovered that the same happens in our bodies between two proteins. Researchers decipher structure of part of ribosome found in mitochondria Researchers have deciphered the structure of part of the ribosome found in mitochondria, the power plants of the cell. The scientists were able to benefit from advancements in the field of electron microscopy and capture images of the mitochondrial ribosome at a level of resolution never achieved before. Insulin-producing beta cells from stem cells The Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway and microRNA 335 are instrumental in helping form differentiated progenitor cells from stem cells. These are organized in germ layers and are thus the origin of different tissue types, including the pancreas and its insulin-producing beta cells. With these findings, scientists have discovered key molecular functions of stem cell differentiation which could be Toward fixing damaged hearts through tissue engineering In the US, someone suffers a heart attack every 34 seconds -- their heart is starved of oxygen and suffers irreparable damage. Engineering new heart tissue in the laboratory that could eventually be implanted into patients could help, and scientists are reporting a promising approach tested with rat cells. New gene for severe childhood epilepsy identified Using a novel combination of technologies, the EuroEPINOMICS RES consortium found mutations in CHD2 responsible for a subset of epilepsy patients with symptoms similar to Dravet syndrome -- a severe form of childhood epilepsy that is in many patients resistant to currently available anti-epileptic drugs. The discovery of CHD2's role in epilepsy offers new diagnostic tools for families and clinicia


Many rare mutations contribute to schizophrenia risk, new study concludes Researchers have taken a closer look at the human genome to learn more about the genetic underpinnings of schizophrenia. Scientists analyzed the exomes, or protein-coding regions, of people with schizophrenia and their healthy counterparts, pinpointing the sites of mutations and identifying patterns that reveal clues about the biology underlying the disorder. Epidemiologist uncovers new genes linked to abdominal fat A research team has identified five new genes associated with increased waist-to-hip ratio, potentially moving science a step closer to developing a medication to treat obesity or obesity-related diseases. Tracing unique cells with mathematics Stem cells can turn into heart cells, skin cells can mutate to cancer cells; even cells of the same tissue type exhibit small heterogeneities. Scientists use single-cell analyses to investigate these heterogeneities. But the method is still laborious and considerable inaccuracies conceal smaller effects. Scientists have now found a way to simplify and improve the analysis by mathematical methods. 3-D imaging provides window into living cells, no dye required Living cells are ready for their close-ups, thanks to a new imaging technique that needs no dyes or other chemicals, yet renders highresolution, three-dimensional, quantitative imagery of cells and their internal structures -- all with conventional microscopes and white light. Called white-light diffraction tomography, the imaging technique opens a window into the life of a cell without disturbin Number of cancer stem cells might not predict outcome in HPV-related oral cancers New research suggests that it may be the quality of cancer stem cells rather than their quantity that leads to better survival in certain patients with oral cancer.


Scientists find estrogen promotes blood-forming stem cell function Scientists have known for years that stem cells in male and female sexual organs are regulated differently by their respective hormones. In a surprising discovery, researchers have found that stem cells in the blood-forming system — which is similar in both sexes — also are regulated differently by hormones, with estrogen proving to be an especially prolific promoter of stem cell self-renewal. New test targets salmonella An array of tiny diving boards can perform the Olympian feat of identifying many strains of salmonella at once. Engineer converts yeast cells into 'sweet crude' biofuel A chemical engineer has developed a new source of renewable energy -a yeast cell-based platform for producing biodiesel, which he has dubbed "sweet crude." The key to this platform is regular table sugar. It has the potential for industry scalability without the environmental costs of other biofuels. New sequencing tools give up close look at yeast evolution Using next-generation sequencing, researchers provide a detailed characterization of the genetic variation present within the baker's yeast species. Brain development: Researchers identify key protein A group of proteins has been on the watch list of scientists because of their important function in epigenetics: histone deacetylases coordinate the transcription of genetic information and play an important role in the development of diseases such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Researchers recently demonstrated that deactivating HDAC1 accelerates skin tumor development – a vital findi Common blood cancer may be initiated by single mutation in bone cells AML is a blood cancer, but for many patients the cancer may originate from an unusual source: a mutation in their bone cells. In a study published, researchers explain that a mutation in the bone cells called osteoblasts, which build new bone, causes AML in mice. The mutation was found in nearly 40 percent of patients with AML or myelodysplastic syndrome, a precursor condition, who were examined a


Famine, not calcium absorption, may have driven evolution of milk tolerance in Europeans Ancient DNA from early Iberian farmers shows that the wideheld evolutionary hypothesis of calcium absorption was not the only reason Europeans evolved milk tolerance. In the West, people take milk drinking for granted because most people of European descent are able to produce the enzyme lactase in adulthood and so digest the milk sugar lactose. However, this is not the norm in much of the world, How the genetic blueprints for limbs came from fish Our first four-legged land ancestor came out of the sea some 350 million years ago. Watching a lungfish, our closest living fish relative, crawl on its four pointed fins gives us an idea of what the first evolutionary steps on land probably looked like. However, the transitional path between fin structural elements in fish and limbs in tetrapods remains elusive. Both fish and land animals possess Researchers discover an epigenetic lesion in hippocampus of Alzheimer's New research demonstrates, for the first time, the existence of an epigenetic lesion in the hippocampus of the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Possible new druggable target in Ewing's Sarcoma A new study shows that downstream from the oncogenic fusion of genes EWS with FLI1 is a signaling chain that includes microRNA-22 and the gene KDM3A. By targeting these links, researchers hope to break this cancer-causing chain. Turkeys inspire smartphone-capable early warning system for toxins Bioengineers looked to turkeys for inspiration when developing a new type of biosensor that changes color when exposed to chemical vapors. They mimicked the way turkey skin changes color to create easy-to-read sensors that can detect toxins or airborne pathogens. Toddlers' aggression strongly associated with genetic factors A new study provides greater understanding of how to address childhood aggression, and suggests that it is strongly associated with genetic factors in the child.


.CĂŠlulas madre y epigenĂŠtica


Converting adult human cells to hair follicle-generating stem cells Researchers have come up with a method to convert adult cells into epithelial stem cells, the first time anyone has achieved this in either humans or mice. The epithelial stem cells, when implanted into immunocompromised mice, regenerated the different cell types of human skin and hair follicles, and even produced structurally recognizable hair shaft, raising the possibility that they may eventual Permanent changes in brain genes may not be so permanent after all In normal development, all cells turn off genes they don’t need, often by attaching a chemical methyl group to the DNA, a process called methylation. Historically, scientists believed methyl groups could only stick to a particular DNA sequence: a cytosine followed by a guanine, called CpG. But in recent years, they have been found on other sequences, and so-called non-CpG methylation has been foun New method increases supply of embryonic stem cells A new method allows for large-scale generation of human embryonic stem cells of high clinical quality. It also allows for production of such cells without destroying any human embryos. The discovery is a big step forward for stem cell research and for the high hopes for replacing damaged cells and thereby curing serious illnesses such as diabetes and Parkinson's disease. Long-lived breast stem cells could retain cancer legacy Researchers have discovered that breast stem cells and their "daughters" have a much longer lifespan than previously thought, and are active in puberty and throughout life. Clinical trial studies vaccine targeting cancer stem cells in brain cancers An early-phase clinical trial of an experimental vaccine that targets cancer stem cells in patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme, the most common and aggressive malignant brain tumor, has been launched.


New prostate cancer drugs may not target root cause of disease, scientists warn New drugs being developed for the treatment of prostate cancer may not be targeting the root cause of the disease, according to research published. Lab-grown, virus-free stem cells repair retinal tissue in mice Investigators have developed human induced-pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) capable of repairing damaged retinal vascular tissue in mice. The stem cells, derived from human umbilical cord-blood and coaxed into an embryonic-like state, were grown without the conventional use of viruses, which can mutate genes and initiate cancers, according to the scientists. Their safer method of growing the cells p Insulin-producing beta cells from stem cells The Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway and microRNA 335 are instrumental in helping form differentiated progenitor cells from stem cells. These are organized in germ layers and are thus the origin of different tissue types, including the pancreas and its insulin-producing beta cells. With these findings, scientists have discovered key molecular functions of stem cell differentiation which could be Number of cancer stem cells might not predict outcome in HPV-related oral cancers New research suggests that it may be the quality of cancer stem cells rather than their quantity that leads to better survival in certain patients with oral cancer. Scientists find estrogen promotes blood-forming stem cell function Scientists have known for years that stem cells in male and female sexual organs are regulated differently by their respective hormones. In a surprising discovery, researchers have found that stem cells in the blood-forming system — which is Promising new drug targets for cocaine addiction Finding suitable drug targets for treating cocaine addiction has proved daunting, but for the first time, researchers have shown that abundant enzyme PARP-1 and the sidekick-1 gene are found to enhance the brain's reward system.


.Neurociencia


Brain structure, function predict future memory performance in children, adolescents Assessing structural and functional changes in the brain may predict future memory performance in healthy children and adolescents, according to a new study. The findings shed new light on cognitive development and suggest MRI and other tools may one day help identify children at risk for developmental challenges earlier than current testing methods allow. Brain regions thought to be uniquely human share many similarities with monkeys New research suggests a surprising degree of similarity in the organization of regions of the brain that control language and complex thought processes in humans and monkeys. The study also revealed some key differences. The findings may provide valuable insights into the evolutionary processes that established our ties to other primates but also made us distinctly human.


H.M.'s brain yields new evidence: 3-D model of famous amnesiac's brain helps illuminate human memory During his lifetime, Henry G. Molaison (H.M.) was the best known and possibly the most studied patient of modern neuroscience. Now, thanks to the postmortem study of his brain, based on histological sectioning and digital three-dimensional construction, scientists around the globe will finally have insight into the neurological basis of the case that defined modern studies of human memory. Exercise may be best medicine to treat post-concussion syndrome A treatment program for patients who suffer from post-concussion syndrome is being pioneered, showing that gradual exercise, rather than rest alone, actually helps to restore the balance of the brain’s autoregulation mechanism, which controls the blood pressure and supply to the brain. New hope for Gaucher patients with brain pathology Gaucher disease, a genetic disorder prevalent among Ashkenazi Jews, is devastating for sufferers and their families. Now, scientists have discovered a new cellular pathway implicated in the disease. Their findings may offer a new therapeutic target for treatment of Gaucher and related disorders. DDT pesticide exposure linked to Alzheimer's disease, study shows Scientists have known for more than 40 years that the synthetic pesticide DDT is harmful to bird habitats and a threat to the environment. Now researchers say exposure to DDT -- banned in the United States since 1972 but still used as a pesticide in other countries -may also increase the risk and severity of Alzheimer's disease in some people, particularly those over the age of 60. Natural plant compound prevents Alzheimer's disease in mice A chemical that's found in fruits and vegetables from strawberries to cucumbers appears to stop memory loss that accompanies Alzheimer's disease in mice, scientists have discovered. In experiments on mice that normally develop Alzheimer's symptoms less than a year after birth, a daily dose of the compound -- a flavonol called fisetin -- prevented the progressive memory and learning impairments. Th


Belief in immortality hard-wired? Study examines development of children's 'prelife' reasoning By examining children's ideas about "prelife," the time before conception, researchers found results which suggest that our bias toward immortality is a part of human intuition that naturally emerges early in life. And the part of us that is eternal, we believe, is not our skills or ability to reason, but rather our hopes, desires and emotions. Traumatic spinal cord injuries on the rise in U.S. The number of serious traumatic spinal cord injuries is on the rise in the United States, and the leading cause no longer appears to be motor vehicle crashes, but falls, new research suggests. Study casts doubt on theory that retired NFL players suffer CTE The media have widely reported that a debilitating neurological condition called chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a wellestablished disease in retired athletes who played football and other contact sports. But a study has found little evidence that CTE actually exists. New brain-scanning technique shows when and where the brain processes visual information New brain-scanning technique from Massachusetts Institute of Technology researchers allows scientists to see when and where the brain processes visual information. Quality of white matter in the brain is crucial for adding and multiplying (but not subracting and dividing) A new study has found that healthy 12-year-olds who score well in addition and multiplication have higher-quality white matter tracts. This correlation does not appear to apply to subtraction and division. Permanent changes in brain genes may not be so permanent after all In normal development, all cells turn off genes they don’t need, often by attaching a chemical methyl group to the DNA, a process called methylation. Historically, scientists believed methyl groups could only stick to a particular DNA sequence: a cytosine followed by a guanine, called CpG. But in recent years, they have been found on other sequences, and so-called non-CpG methylation has been foun


Severity of spatial neglect after stroke predicts long-term mobility recovery in community Stroke rehabilitation researchers report an association between acute, severe spatial neglect post stroke and long-term recovery of mobility. This new study indicates that severity of spatial neglect during the acute inpatient rehabilitation for right brain stroke may predict functional mobility in the community after discharge. Standardized protocol, surgery improve mortality outcomes for stroke victims For patients who have experienced a large stroke that cuts off blood supply to a large part of the brain, the use of standardized medical management protocol and surgery to decompress swelling can improve life expectancy, researchers found in a recent study. Good outcomes with staged surgery for epilepsy in children A staged approach to epilepsy surgery -— with invasive brain monitoring followed by surgery in a single hospital stay —- is a safe and beneficial approach to treatment for complex cases of epilepsy in children, new research reports.

Visual system can retain considerable plasticity after extended blindness Deprivation of vision during critical periods of childhood development has long been thought to result in irreversible vision loss. Now, researchers have challenged that theory by studying a unique population of pediatric patients who were blind during these critical periods before removal of bilateral cataracts.


Early tumor response from stereotactic radiosurgery predicts outcome The response of a patient with metastatic brain tumors to treatment with stereotactic radiosurgery in the first six-to-twelve weeks can indicate whether follow-up treatments and monitoring are necessary, according to research. Cannabis during pregnancy endangers fetal brain development A current study by an international consortium of researchers shows that the consumption of Cannabis during pregnancy can impair the development of the fetus' brain with long-lasting effects after birth. Cannabis is particularly powerful to derail how nerve cells form connections, potentially limiting the amount of information the affected brain can process. Brain biomarker shows promise in heart A biomarker widely used to diagnose brain injury has shown early promise for assessing the severity of heart inflammation, or myocarditis, find researchers. Animate, inanimate, and social: How the brain categorizes information For our brain, animate and inanimate objects belong to different categories and any information about them is stored and processed by different networks. A study shows that there is also another category that is functionally distinct from the others, namely, the category of “social� groups. Highly reliable brain-imaging protocol identifies delays in premature infants Infants born prematurely are at elevated risk for cognitive, motor, and behavioral deficits -- the severity of which was, until recently, almost impossible to accurately predict in the neonatal period with conventional brain-imaging technology. But physicians may now be able to identify the premature infants most at risk for deficits as well as the type of deficit, enabling them to quickly initiat High-intensity strength training shows benefit for Parkinson's patients Researchers say that high-intensity strength training produced significant improvements in quality of life, mood and motor function in older patients with Parkinson’s disease.


Infections damage ability to form spatial memories Increased inflammation following an infection impairs the brain's ability to form spatial memories, according to new research. The impairment results from a decrease in glucose metabolism in the brain's memory center, disrupting the neural circuits involved in learning and memory. This is the first study to image the effects of inflammation on the brain. The findings help explain why inflammation Researchers find epileptic activity spreads in new way Biomedical engineers have found that epileptic activity can spread through a part of the brain in a new way, suggesting a possible novel target for seizure-blocking medicines. Evidence from a series of experiments and computer modeling strongly suggests individual cells in a part of the brain, known as the hippocampus, use a small electrical field to stimulate and synchronize neighboring cells, sp Clinical trial studies vaccine targeting cancer stem cells in brain cancers An early-phase clinical trial of an experimental vaccine that targets cancer stem cells in patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme, the most common and aggressive malignant brain tumor, has been launched. Researchers use sensory integration model to understand unconscious priming Priming, an unconscious phenomenon that causes the context of information to change the way we think or behave, has frustrated scientists as they have unsuccessfully attempted to understand how it works. But, recent failures to replicate demonstrations of unconscious priming have resulted in a heated debate within the field of psychology. In a breakthrough paper, Carnegie Mellon University researc Dietary treatment shows potential in mouse model of Alzheimer's disease According to current understanding, Alzheimer’s disease develops slowly and it may take up to 20 years before the first obvious symptoms occur. With the development of early diagnostics of the disease, the question of which treatments to offer to completely healthy people with an increased risk of developing Alzheimer’s becomes of key importance in the field of medicine. Various dietary treatments


Brain uses serotonin to perpetuate chronic pain signals in local nerves Setting the stage for possible advances in pain treatment, researchers have pinpointed two molecules involved in perpetuating chronic pain in mice. The molecules, they say, also appear to have a role in the phenomenon that causes uninjured areas of the body to be more sensitive to pain when an area nearby has been hurt. Study identifies gene tied to motor neuron loss in ALS Researchers have identified a gene, called matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), that appears to play a major role in motor neuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease. The findings, made in mice, explain why most but not all motor neurons are affected by the disease and identify a potential therapeutic target for this still-incurable neurodegenerat Liars find it more rewarding to tell truth than fib when deceiving others A report based on two neural imaging studies that monitored brain activity has found individuals are more satisfied to get a reward from telling the truth rather than getting the same reward through deceit. A time for memories: How the brain determines the timing at which neurons in specific areas fire to create memories Neuroscientists have discovered how the brain determines the timing at which neurons in specific areas fire to create new memories. This research exploits the unique opportunity of recording multiple singleneurons in patients suffering from epilepsy refractory to medication that are implanted with intracranial electrodes for clinical reasons. Scientists find regulator of amyloid plaque buildup in alzheimer's disease Scientists have identified a critical regulator of a molecule deeply involved in the progression of Alzheimer’s disease. Disappointing Alzheimer's trial yields new ideas A new study documents the high-profile failure of a promising drug, bapineuzumab, to slow cognitive decline in dementia patients. Researchers have learned key lessons that they are eager to apply in new attempts to find effective treatments for Alzheimer's disease.


Can fish oil help preserve brain cells? People with higher levels of the omega-3 fatty acids found in fish oil may also have larger brain volumes in old age equivalent to preserving one to two years of brain health, according to a study published. Shrinking brain volume is a sign of Alzheimer’s disease as well as normal aging. Proper sleep a key contributor to health, well-being Getting a good night’s sleep means more than you probably think. Researchers suggest that the importance of sleep is underestimated by the general public. Scientists identify key to body's use of free calcium Scientists report they have figured out a key step in how "free" calcium -- the kind not contained in bones -- is managed in the body, a finding that could aid in the development of new treatments for a variety of neurological disorders that include Parkinson's disease. Timing is everything: How the brain links memories of sequential events Suppose you heard the sound of skidding tires, followed by a car crash. The next time you heard such a skid, you might cringe in fear, expecting a crash to follow -- suggesting that somehow, your brain had linked those two memories so that a fairly innocuous sound provokes dread. Scientists have now discovered how two neural circuits in the brain work together to control the formation of such time Watching molecules morph into memories: Breakthrough allows scientists to probe how memories form in nerve cells Scientists have used advanced imaging techniques to provide a window into how the brain makes memories. These insights into the molecular basis of memory were made possible by a technological tour de force never before achieved in animals: a mouse model in which molecules crucial to making memories were given fluorescent “tags” so they could be observed traveling in real time in living brain cells


Long-term spinal cord stimulation stalls symptoms of parkinson's-like disease Researchers have shown that continuing spinal cord stimulation appears to produce improvements in symptoms of Parkinson’s disease, and may protect critical neurons from injury or deterioration. Unprecedented structural insights: NMDA receptors can be blocked to limit neurotoxicity Structural biologists have obtained important scientific results likely to advance efforts to develop new drugs targeting NMDA receptors in the brain. Brain works like a radio receiver Initial evidence is found that the brain has a ‘tuning knob’ that is actually influencing behavior. Brain circuits can tune into the frequency of other brain parts relevant at the time. Humans can use smell to detect levels of dietary fat New research reveals humans can use the sense of smell to detect dietary fat in food. As food smell almost always is detected before taste, the findings identify one of the first sensory qualities that signals whether a food contains fat. Innovative methods using odor to make low-fat foods more palatable could someday aid public health efforts to reduce dietary fat intake. Scientists offer new insight into neuron changes brought about by aging A new study offers insights into how aging affects the brain's neural circuitry, in some cases significantly altering gene expression in single neurons. These discoveries could point the way toward a better understanding of how aging affects our cognitive ability and new therapeutic targets for the treatment of neurodegenerative disease, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. New avenue to treat diabetes-related vision problems Dopamine-restoring drugs already used to treat Parkinson's disease may also be beneficial for the treatment of diabetic retinopathy, a leading cause of blindness in adults.


The unexpected power of baby math: Adults still think about numbers like kids A new study has found new evidence that educated adults retain traces of their innate sense of numbers from childhood -- and that it's more powerful than many scientists think. The findings could contribute to the development of methods to more effectively educate or treat children with learning disabilities and people with brain injuries.

Just how do our brains control our arms? How do the neurons in the brain control planned versus unplanned arm movements? Bioengineers wanted to answer that question as part of ongoing efforts to develop and improve brain-controlled prosthetic devices. Researchers identify innate channel that protects against pain Scientists have identified a channel present in many pain detecting sensory neurons that acts as a "brake," limiting spontaneous pain. It is hoped that the new research will ultimately contribute to new pain relief treatments. Fast eye movements: A possible indicator of more impulsive decisionmaking Using a simple study of eye movements, scientists report evidence that people who are less patient tend to move their eyes with greater speed. The findings, the researchers say, suggest that the weight people give to the passage of time may be a trait consistently used throughout their brains, affecting the speed with which they make movements, as well as the way they make certain decisions.


Parental exposure to marijuana linked to drug addiction, compulsive behavior in unexposed progeny, rodent sudy finds Teen marijuana use may have repercussions in unexposed progeny. This rodent study found that parental use of marijuana/THC was linked to molecular and neurobiological disturbances and increased motivation to get drugs. Unlocking the brain's secrets using sound Scientists might be on the verge of finally understanding how ultrasound affects nerve cells. The breakthrough could lead the way to important new medical advances, including the noninvasive treatment of epileptic seizures and restoration of sight. New index detects early signs of deviation from normal brain development Researchers generated a brain development index from MRI scans that captures the complex patterns of maturation during normal brain development. This index will allow clinicians and researchers for the first time to detect subtle, yet potentially critical early signs of deviation from normal development during late childhood to early adult. Promising new drug targets for cocaine addiction Finding suitable drug targets for treating cocaine addiction has proved daunting, but for the first time, researchers have shown that abundant enzyme PARP-1 and the sidekick-1 gene are found to enhance the brain's reward system. Researchers discover an epigenetic lesion in hippocampus of Alzheimer's New research demonstrates, for the first time, the existence of an epigenetic lesion in the hippocampus of the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Training the brain using neurofeedback A new brain-imaging technique enables people to "watch" their own brain activity in real time and to control or adjust function in predetermined brain regions. The study is the first to demonstrate that magnetoencephalography can be used as a potential therapeutic tool to control and train specific targeted brain regions. This advanced brainimaging technology has important clinical appl


The brain's RAM: Rats, like humans, have a 'working memory' Thousands of times a day, the brain stores sensory information for very short periods of time in a working memory, to be able to use it later. A research study has shown, for the first time, that this function also exists in the brain of rodents, a finding that sheds light on the evolutionary origins of this cognitive mechanism. Cocaine users enjoy social interactions less Regular cocaine users have difficulties in feeling empathy for others and they exhibit less prosocial behavior. A study now suggests that cocaine users have social deficits because social contacts are less rewarding for them. Social skills


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