Issuu on Google+

Universidad de Salamanca Facultad de BiologĂ­a Biblioteca

Bionoticias

Marzo (3ÂŞ) de 2014


MÁS INFORMACIÓN Y OFERTAS EN LA WEB DE LA BIOBLIOTECA : http://campus.usal.es/~bibliotecabiologia/

BioNoticias. Resumen de prensa semanal Elaborado por la Biblioteca de Biología. Universidad de Salamanca Para leer el texto completo de los artículos pulse en el título Para agrandar el texto pulse cualquier otra parte de la página Puede enviarnos sus noticias a bibbiol@usal.es Suscribirse a Bionotias + BioEmpleo: dirección de correo electrónico y su nombre a bibbiol@usal.es Boletines anteriores en http://issuu.com/bibliotecabiologia


ín

dice

A

visos de la

B B B

acultad

4

iología

9

iomedicina

17

iotecnología

21

N C

F

36

eurociencia

élulas madre

y

E

pigenética

46


.Avisos

de la Facultad


Pr贸ximo Seminario IBFG: Viernes 21 de marzo


Cajal Winter Conference Este año, el INCYL participa en la organización de la Cajal Winter Conference 2014, que se celebrará los días 19-21 de Mayo en el hotel Abadía de los Templarios en la Alberca. El objetivo de esta serie de conferencias que organiza la Sociedad Española de Neurociencias (SENC) es atraer a especialistas en un tema específico de las neurociencias para discutir datos recientes con jóvenes neurocientíficos en un ambiente informal y relajado. El tema de este año es: “Thinking the Future of Neuroscience”. Contamos con la participación de conocidos científicos nacionales e internacionales, y tanto los invitados como los temas de las charlas plenarias son: Dr. Ole Petter Ottersen: Astrocytic functions: new insights Dr. Rafael Fernández Chacón: Synaptic dysfunction and nerve terminal degeneration Dr. Christian C.G. Naus: Gap junctions in glial networks: implications in neurodevelopment and disease Dr. Eloísa Herrera: Wiring and rewiring bilateral circuits Dr. Kristjan Jessen: Schwann cells: development, injury and regeneration Dr. Rafael Maldonado: Involvement of the endocannabinoid system in chronic pain. Está abierto el plazo de inscripción y envío de abstracts para su presentación en comunicación oral o en póster. Hay precio de inscripción reducido para todos aquellos que se inscriban antes del día 30 de este mes de Marzo. Inscripciones antes del 30 de Marzo:


Miembros SENC/FENS (tarifa estudiantes): 100 Euros Miembros SENC/FENS (tarifa regular): 120 Euros Tarifa estudiantes no miembros SENC/FENS: 120 Euros Tarifa no miembros SENC/FENS: 150 Euros ALOJAMIENTO EN LA ABADÍA DE LOS TEMPLARIOS PARA EL CONGRESO HAB. SENCILLA, PENSIÓN COMPLETA 3 NOCHES: 346 Euros/PERSONA HAB. DOBLE, PENSIÓN COMPLETA 3 NOCHES: 231 Euros/PERSONA Más información, el programa completo y el boletín de inscripción están disponibles en la página web de la Sociedad Española de Neurociencias: http://www.senc.es/actividades.php?sc=2

Colectivo Bellotero El Colectivo Bellotero organiza unas jornadas de reforestación el día 23 domingo en Palaciosrubios (Salamanca). La hora de salida será a las 10:00 de la rotonda de Medicina y la vuelta sobre las 20:00 en el mismo sitio. La jornada se dedicará a plantar árboles con la gente del pueblo, comer en el campo y pasar un día agradable. Se recomienda llevar botas, comida y ropa de abrigo y de lluvia. El precio son10 euros que se pagarán en la Facultad de Biología de 19:00 a 21:00 este jueves 20 y el viernes 21. Si tenéis alguna duda podéis escribir a colectivobelloterosalamanca@gmail.com o en la web de Facebook Colectivo Bellotero o llamando al 625472381 (Eva)


XVII Concurso Nacional para la adjudicación de Ayudas a la Investigación en Ciencias de la Vida y de la Materia En las áreas de: • • • • • • •

Enfermedades raras Metabolismo y cáncer Exosomas: la comunicación intercelular como arma terapéutica Interactoma: implicaciones patológicas Seguridad alimentaria y biotecnología Energía renovable: materiales y procesos Materiales superconductores de alta temperatura

Plazo de presentación de solicitudes: del 1 al 31 de mayo de 2014 Bases de la convocatoria: http://www.fundacionareces.es/fundacionareces/cargarAplicacionAgendaEventos.do?idTipoEvento=2&identificador =1629&nivelAgenda=2


.Biología


Presentan al ‘pollo del infierno’, un misterioso dinosaurio hallado en EE UU Científicos de los museos Carnegie y Smithsonian, y de la Universidad de Utah presentan hoy el descubrimiento y descripción de una nueva especie de dinosaurio de más de 200 kg de peso –parecido a un ave con garras afiladas– que vagaba por las Dakotas (EE UU) junto al Tyrannosaurus rex hace 66 millones de años. Lo han denominado ‘pollo del infierno’. Sanidad aprueba la primera terapia biológica para el cáncer de ovario avanzado Las autoridades españolas avalan el uso de un tratamiento complementario a la quimioterapia para pacientes con cáncer de ovario en etapas avanzadas. El fármaco Bevacizumab, usado en la terapia de otros tipos de tumores, bloquea la creación de nuevos vasos sanguíneos necesarios para el desarrollo tumoral. La lactancia materna es más eficiente durante los tres primeros meses del bebé La lactancia materna se vuelve más eficiente entre el primer y el tercer mes de vida del bebé. Durante esos meses disminuye progresivamente la cantidad de tomas mientras que aumenta la cantidad de leche ingerida en cada una de ellas.Además, entre el tercer y el sexto mes de vida la frecuencia en...


Los neandertales del norte de España competían con los osos por las cuevas Investigadores del País Vasco han indagado sobre la interacción de los primeros neandertales y los úrsidos en la cornisa cantábrica. Su trabajo constata un fenómeno particular: los osos de las cavernas alternaron la ocupación de tres cuevas del valle del Deba (Gipuzkoa) con los humanos hace 120.000 años. Esta competencia entre carnívoros también se prueba en otras dos cuevas de la misma región, en Los neandertales del norte de España competían con los osos de las cavernas por las cuevas Investigadores de País Vasco han indagado sobre la interacción de los primeros neandertales y los úrsidos en la cornisa cantábrica. Su trabajo constata un fenómeno particular: los osos de las cavernas (Ursus spelaeus) alternaron la ocupación de tres cuevas del valle del Deba (Gipuzkoa) con los humanos hace 120.000 años. Esta competencia entre carnívoros también se prueba en otras dos cuevas de la Nuevas especies de mantis rápidas, con reflejos y que saben hacerse las muertas Un investigador del Museo de Historia Natural de Cleveland (EE UU) ha identificado 19 nuevas especies de mantis religiosas arborícolas en el centro y sur de América. En general son muy activas y rompen con la imagen tradicional del insecto quieto y al acecho. También presentan comportamientos curiosos como huir detrás de las ramas y hacerse pasar por cadáveres. Desarrollada la base de un nuevo bioinsecticida para controlar una plaga que afecta a platanares La polilla Chrysodeixis chalcites está considerada como una de las plagas más importantes en cultivos hortícolas, ornamentales y frutales. Sus orugas se alimentan de muchas especies de plantas, entre ellas las plantas de platanera, y en las islas Canarias llegan a causar pérdidas de hasta el 30% en el peso total de la cosecha. La investigadora Alexandra Bernal Rodríguez, de la Universidad Pública


Tres millones de años nos separan del polémico homínido fósil hallado en Sudáfrica en 1997 Después de 13 años de meticulosa excavación para extraer un esqueleto casi completo del fósil de Australopithecus apodado Little Foot (Pie Pequeño), científicos sudafricanos y franceses han demostrado ahora de forma convincente que probablemente tiene una antigüedad de unos 3 millones de años.Los...

Nace la nanobiónica vegetal La nanotecnología podría convertir a arbustos sin utilidad alimentaria en productores de energía o sensores para detectar sustancias contaminantes o explosivas.Los vegetales tienen muchas funciones valiosas: Proporcionan comida y combustible, emiten oxígeno que respiramos, y añaden belleza a... Una especie de musgo se regenera tras 1.500 años congelado Científicos de dos instituciones inglesas, el British Antarctic Survey y la Universidad de Reading, han demostrado que la especie de musgo Chorisodontium aciphyllum –vital en los ecosistemas de las dos regiones polares– tiene la capacidad de sobrevivir en las capas de hielo milenario.“Dado que...


Los aceites de dos especies de plantas de Andalucía tienen altos niveles de omega-3 y omega-6 Investigadores de la Universidad de Almería han analizado las propiedades de los aceites de diversas plantas de distribución restringida de toda Europa, estableciendo su potencial nutricional y terapéutico. En concreto, el equipo de expertos ha encontrado en Andalucía dos especies, Anchusa puechii y Glandora nítida, con altos niveles de omega-3 y omega-6, ácidos grasos beneficiosos para la salud. Identifican en Túnez el cráneo de toro moderno más antiguo del mundo La revista Quaternary Science Reviews acaba de publicar el hallazgo de un cráneo de toro moderno, Bos primigenius, que se convierte en el fósil de esta especie más antiguo del mundo, con una cronología de unos 700.000 años. Los restos fueron encontrados en 2008 en el yacimiento de Oued Sarrat, en la provincia de El Kef (Túnez). En busca de la geología que puso en marcha al engranaje de la vida El origen del metabolismo celular, crucial de un modo u otro para todos los seres vivos, se remonta al pasado geológico remoto de la Tierra. En algún momento, hace cerca de 4.000 millones de años, se produjo un salto desconocido desde la geoquímica a la bioquímica en la Tierra. El gran enigma de... Recuperan el cráneo de un bisonte de la Edad del Hielo en una cueva de Ribadesella Investigadores de la Universidad de Oviedo (España) han recuperado un cráneo de bisonte que vivió en la Edad del Hielo en Asturias en la cueva de La Rexidora, en el municipio de Ribadesella.La pieza, cuya antigüedad se sitúa entre los 30.000 y 40.000 años, es uno de los cráneos de esta especie... Desvelan la acción de un nuevo gen de la obesidad Los estudios que indagan en las bases genéticas de la obesidad han señalado a un gen, llamado FTO, como uno de los grandes responsables genéticos de esta enfermedad. Ya se han identificado hasta 75 lugares del genoma implicados en el aumento de la masa corporal, pero un simple cambio de solo uno...


Hallado un proceso clave para la formación de gas metano Un grupo internacional de científicos, con la participación del Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiología de Salamanca, ha descubierto un proceso regulador clave en un tipo de microorganismos que producen metano, el componente principal del gas natural. Este proceso es similar al que activa la fotosíntesis en las plantas y hallarlo en microorganismos anaerobios supone un importante cambio par Nueva especie de tiranosaurio en Alaska Unos restos fósiles de 70 millones de años de antigüedad encontrados en sedimentos del periodo Cretáceo Tardío de Alaska han sido identificados como pertenecientes a una especie de tiranosaurio hasta ahora desconocida.Los tiranosaurios, de entre los cuales el más famoso es el Tiranosaurio rex,... Tras los pasos del gigante ¿Cómo pudieron estos animales desplazar sus cuerpos pese a su gran tamaño? Ésta es la pregunta que intentó responder un grupo de científicos de diferentes países, entre los que se encontraba Rodolfo Coria, investigador independiente del CONICET en el Instituto de Investigaciones en Paleobiología... Asombroso control artificial eléctrico de células para organizar su trabajo en equipo Unos investigadores han comprobado que se puede usar una corriente eléctrica para movilizar colectivamente células hacia el lugar deseado y del modo que se prefiera, un logro que podría establecer las bases para formas más controladas de ingeniería de tejidos y para aplicaciones potenciales como... Nueva vía de reparación neuronal Unos biólogos moleculares han descubierto una vía hasta ahora desconocida para reparar células nerviosas que podría permitir curaciones mejores y más rápidas.Lo descubierto demuestra que las dendritas, los componentes de las células nerviosas que reciben información del cerebro, tienen la...


Síndrome metabólico, una huella genética en los mestizos Los latinoamericanos son una mezcla reciente. Con apenas alrededor de 500 años en el Nuevo Mundo, las marcas genéticas de sus ancestros todavía son fácilmente rastreables. Cuando llegaron los blancos españoles y los negros africanos a América, llegaron también sus huellas genéticas, sus... Recuperan el cráneo de un bisonte de la Edad del Hielo en una cueva de Ribadesella Investigadores de la Universidad de Oviedo han hallado y restaurado un cráneo de bisonte de entre 30.000 y 40.000 años de antigüedad. La pieza constituye uno de los restos más completos de esta especie en la península ibérica. La zona del mundo con mayor biodiversidad de reptiles y anfibios está en el Perú Según los resultados de una nueva inspección realizada por biólogos de la Universidad de California en Berkeley, la Universidad del sur de Illinois en Carbondale, y la Universidad Wesleyana en Illinois, todas estas instituciones en Estados Unidos, la zona con la mayor biodiversidad de reptiles y...


Descubren nuevas especies de arañas con sólo cuatro ojos Las arañas conocidas popularmente con nombres como "arañas blindadas", y que pertenecen a la familia de las Tetrablemmidae, son de especies con tamaños corporales entre mediano y pequeño. Ese nombre popular deriva del complejo patrón de las placas que cubren sus abdómenes, que se parecen... Confirman la existencia de una misteriosa especie de cetáceo Unos investigadores han identificado a una nueva especie de cetáceo de la familia Ziphiidae, basándose en un estudio sobre siete animales que en distintos momentos de los últimos 50 años quedaron varados en islas tropicales remotas del Océano Índico y el Pacífico.Los zífidos, una familia...


.Biomedicina


Las personas con síndrome de Lynch tienen un 82% de probabilidades de desarrollar cáncer de colon El síndrome de Lynch es una enfermedad poco conocida que aumenta el riesgo de padecer distintos tipos de cáncer. Aun así, hay métodos de diagnóstico que reducen radicalmente la mortalidad asociada a los tumores causados por el síndrome. Los tratamientos contra la diabetes no aumentan el riesgo de cáncer Investigadores del VHIR también desmienten estudios internacionales que relacionaban un tipo de insulina con el riesgo de desarrollar tumores. La lactancia materna es más eficiente durante los tres primeros meses del bebé En las primeras 13 semanas de vida, la frecuencia de tomas de leche materna disminuye, el intervalo entre una toma y otra aumenta, así como la cantidad de leche ingerida y el tiempo que el bebé destina a cada toma. A partir del tercer mes y hasta el sexto, estos baremos pasan a ser constantes. Modificaciones en el espesor de la corteza cerebral se relacionan con cambios en la inteligencia La corteza cerebral es una capa delgada de células nerviosas, de unos pocos milímetros de espesor, que interviene en funciones cognitivas tan importantes como la percepción, el lenguaje, la memoria o la conciencia. El grueso de la corteza es un factor que se ha asociado al coeficiente de inteligencia. Identifican la región cerebral afectada en el síndrome de las piernas inquietas Científicos del CSIC determinan un factor responsable de la conexión del gen Meis1 con los ganglios basales, que interviene en el síndrome de piernas inquietas. Una de cada diez personas mayores de 65 años padece esta enfermedad.


Aprender a leer cambia la forma de ver el mundo Un estudio del Basque Center on Cognition, Brain and Language prueba que la adquisición de la lectura modifica las capacidades perceptivas de los seres humanos. Para ello, los investigadores realizaron pruebas con adultos analfabetos y alfabetizados en México. Un gen que protege del cáncer de mama y ovario es clave en el desarrollo del cerebro Investigadores estadounidenses han descubierto que el gen BRCA1, un conocido supresor tumoral en cáncer de mama y ovario, tiene un papel importante en el control del tamaño cerebral en mamíferos. El estudio muestra que la ausencia del gen en las células madre del cerebro de ratones compromete la anatomía de este órgano.

Crean el primer bazo del mundo integrado en un chip humano Investigadores españoles han liderado un estudio sobre los órganos en un chip. Los expertos han creado, por primera vez, un modelo funcional de bazo en 3D capaz de actuar como este órgano y filtrar los glóbulos rojos de la sangre.


Estudiados los beneficios de la rapamicina en ratones con síndrome de Down Investigadores de la Universidad de Sevilla han analizado si el tratamiento con rapamicina en ratones modelos del síndrome de Down mejora su capacidad de aprendizaje y su memoria. Descrito un mecanismo reversible que incrementa la elasticidad muscular Investigadores de la Universidad de Columbia (EE UU) han descubierto una nueva forma de memoria mecánica que ajusta la elasticidad de los músculos a su historia de estiramiento. El estudio abre posibilidades para el desarrollo de métodos bioquímicos que permitan modificar la elasticidad en casos como las enfermedades cardiacas en las que el músculo del corazón ha quedado dañado.

Revelan un nuevo modelo para establecer conexiones neuronales Investigadores del Instituto de Neurociencias han descubierto que la molécula Flrt3 es clave para modular el comportamiento de las células nerviosas durante su desarrollo. El hallazgo, que aparece publicado en la revista Current Biology, es un avance significativo para comprender cómo se forman las conexiones neuronales.


.BiotecnologĂ­a


Bighorn sheep went extinct on desert island in Gulf of California Using ancient DNA analysis and other techniques, a research team led by conservation biologists has determined that bighorn sheep, so named for their massive spiral horns, became extinct on Tiburon Island, a large and mostly uninhabited island just off Sonora, Mexico, in the Gulf of California, sometime in the last millennium -- specifically between the 6th and 19th centuries. Hox Genes Responsible for Firefly Lantern Development Perhaps no single evolutionary novelty in the animal kingdom has fascinated scientists more than the lantern of the firefly. Yet to this day, nothing has been known about the genetic foundation for the formation and evolution of this luminescent structure. But now, new work offers for the first time a characterization of the developmental genetic basis of this spectacular morphological novelty -Dog DNA has role in developing new therapies for human cancers Using genomic analysis to study cancer in dogs can help develop new therapies for humans with cancer, according to a proof-of-concept study underway. Pure-breed dogs, whose genetics have been standardized by hundreds of years of human intervention, provide highly predictable genetic models from which specific drugs are matched to the molecular profiles of human patients. While there are, relativel Ancient DNA shows moa were fine until humans arrived A study strengthens the case for human involvement in the disappearance of New Zealand's iconic megaherbivore, the moa -- a distant relative of the Australian Emu. All nine species of New Zealand moa, the largest weighing up to 250 kilograms, became extinct shortly after Polynesians arrived in the country in the late 13th century. Fast synthesis could boost drug development Small protein fragments, also called peptides, are promising as drugs because they can be designed for very specific functions inside living cells. Insulin and the HIV drug Fuzeon are some of the earliest successful examples, and peptide drugs are expected to become a $25 billion market by 2018. However, a major bottleneck has prevented peptide drugs from reaching their full potential: Manufacturi


Cultural hitchhiking: How social behavior can affect genetic makeup in dolphins Researchers studying bottlenose dolphins that use sponges as tools to protect their sensitive beaks has shown that social behavior can shape the genetic makeup of an animal population in the wild. The research on dolphins in Shark Bay in Western Australia is one of the first studies to show this effect -- which is called cultural hitchhiking -- in animals other than people.

Owl monkeys don't cheat: Intensive fathering plays a role A new study shows that Azara's owl monkeys (Aotus azarae) are unusually faithful. The investigation of 35 offspring born to 17 owl monkey pairs turned up no evidence of cheating; the male and female monkeys that cared for the young were the infants' true biological parents. Fried foods may interact with genes to influence body weight, say experts Individuals who are genetically predisposed to obesity may be more susceptible to the adverse effects of eating fried foods, concludes a study. The results of a new study show that eating fried food more than four times a week had twice as big an effect on body mass index (BMI) for those with the highest genetic risk scores compared with lower scores. In other words, genetic makeup can inflate the


An end to animal testing for drug discovery? As some countries and companies roll out new rules to limit animal testing in pharmaceutical products designed for people, scientists are stepping in with a new way to test therapeutic drug candidates and determine drug safety and drug interactions -- without using animals. The development of "chemosynthetic livers" could dramatically alter how drugs are made. New mechanism allowing tumor cells to escape immune surveillance discovered The immune system plays a pivotal role in targeting cancer cells for destruction. However, tumor cells are smart and have developed ways to avoid immune detection. A collaborative team of researchers recently discovered a novel mechanism that lung cancer cells use to block detection by a type of immune cell called a natural killer cell (NK cell). Sea anemone is genetically half animal, half plant Evolutionary and developmental biologists have discovered that sea anemones display a genomic landscape with a complexity of regulatory elements similar to that of fruit flies or other animal model systems. This suggests that this principle of gene regulation is already 600 million years old and dates back to the common ancestor of human, fly Follow the ant trail for drug design: Ant behavior inspires software design New drugs often fail because they cause undesirable side effects. Researchers have now developed simulation software that predicts the properties of active agents and virtually builds new ones. The software's search process is modeled after the behavior of ants. In order to allow the software to search for new composite agents, the research team uses an ant algorithm. Like an ant colony on the sea Novel mechanism for fast regulation of gene expression Some mRNAs have a side job unrelated to making the protein they encode, researchers have discovered. They act as regulatory molecules as well, preventing other genes from making protein by marking their mRNA molecules for destruction. "Our findings show that mRNAS, which are typically thought to act solely as the template for protein translation, can also serve as regulatory RNAs, independent


Nuevos datos sobre cómo las bacterias infectan a las plantas Las bacterias que atacan a las plantas, además de secretar toxinas, inyectan en las células vegetales proteínas efectoras que favorecen la infección. Algunas cepas de Pseudomonas producen una toxina llamada coronatina que desorganiza la fisiología de la célula e impide el funcionamiento de sus defensas. La coronatina imita el funcionamiento de una de las hormonas encargadas de activar las defensa

Bacterial reporters that get the scoop: Engineered gut bacteria 'remembers' what it saw A new engineered strain of E. coli bacteria non-destructively detected and recorded an environmental signal in the mouse gut, and remembered what it 'saw.' The advance could lead to a radically new screening tool for human gut health. "Our increasing appreciation of the role of the microbiome in health and disease is transforming the entire medical field," stated one scientist. Protein common in cancers jumps anti-tumor mechanisms A cellular protein, STAT3, which is overactive in a majority of cancers, interferes with an antitumor mechanism in cells and therefore promotes the growth of cancer, an international research team has discovered. The researchers made their discovery by using the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) as a tool to probe fundamental cancer development-related questions. EBV, which causes infectious mononucleosis,


Chicken bones tell true story of pacific migration Did the Polynesians beat Columbus to South America? Not according to the tale of migration uncovered by analysis of ancient DNA from chicken bones recovered in archaeological digs across the Pacific. The ancient DNA has been used to study the origins and dispersal of ancestral Polynesian chickens, reconstructing the early migrations of people and the animals they carried with them. Development of Alzheimer's trademark cell-killing plaques slowed by researchers Researchers have learned how to fix a cellular structure called the Golgi that mysteriously becomes fragmented in all Alzheimer's patients and appears to be a major cause of the disease. They say that understanding this mechanism helps decode amyloid plaque formation in the brains of Alzheimer's patients -- plaques that kills cells and contributes to memory loss and other Alzheimer's symptoms. Fast-moving cells in human immune system walk in stepwise manner Advanced mathematical tools were applied to answer a basic question in cell biology about how cells move and discovered that the mechanism looks very similar to walking, a team of biologists and engineers reports. Their discovery is an important advance toward developing new pharmacological strategies to treat chronic inflammatory diseases. New view of tumors' evolution Cancer cells undergo extensive genetic alterations as they grow and spread through the body. Some of these mutations, known as "drivers," help spur cells to grow out of control, while others ("passengers") are merely along for the ride. Sequencing of cancer cell genomes reveals potential new drug targets for an aggressive type of lung cancer, new Deficient protein GM-CSF production found to impair gut's immune tolerance The protein GM-CSF plays a critical role in maintaining immune tolerance in the gut, with defects in the protein increasing the susceptibility to inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), according to a new mouse study. IBD is a severe intestinal disease characterized by chronic intestinal inflammation that results from a dysregulated immune response to microbes and food antigens.


Major 'third-hand smoke' compound causes DNA damage and potentially cancer Leftover cigarette smoke that clings to walls and furniture is a smelly nuisance, but now research suggests that it could pose a far more serious threat, especially to young children who put toys and other smokeaffected items into their mouths. Scientists reported that one of the tobacco-specific nitrosamines newly formed in "third-hand smoke" damages DNA and could potentially cause can

Small-RNA pathway defends genome against enemy within For a plant to create reproductive cells, it must first erase a series of tags attached to DNA across the genome that distinguish active and inactive genes. But the marks also keep a host of damaging 'jumping genes' inactive. As the cell wipes away the marks, it activates transposons, which can cause genetic damage. Researchers have discovered a failsafe mechanism that helps to keep transposons i New gene linked to key heart attack risk factor found by novel genefinding approach A previously unrecognized gene variation that makes humans have healthier blood lipid levels and reduced risk of heart attacks has been found by researchers. But even more significant is how they found the gene, which had been hiding in plain sight. This region of DNA where it was found had been implicated as being important in controlling blood lipid levels in a report from several members of the


Advance toward developing an oral pain reliever derived from debilitating snail venom At least five new experimental substances — based on a tiny protein found in cone snail venom — could someday lead to the development of safe and effective oral medications for the treatment of chronic nerve pain, researchers have reported. They say the substances could potentially be stronger than morphine, with fewer side effects and lower risk of abuse. Heart cells respond to stiff environments Proteins associated with the regulation of organ size and shape have been found to respond to the mechanics of the microenvironment in ways that specifically affect the decision of adult cardiac stem cells to generate muscular or vascular cells. Gene that helps fruit flies go to sleep identified Researchers say they have identified a mutant gene — dubbed “Wide Awake” — that sabotages how the biological clock sets the timing for sleep . This work was done through a series of experiments sparked by fruit flies that couldn’t sleep. The finding also led them to the protein made by a normal copy of the gene that promotes sleep early in the night and properly regulates sleep cycles. Scientists discover how Marburg virus grows in cells With approximately a 90% death rate and no treatment yet available, Marburg virus research and development are a top priority. Once restricted to Africa, cases of the virus have been identified in travelers from Europe and the United States. New cell culture research reveals the molecular details of how Marburg virus and host protein interact, providing a potential disease target. Mathematical, biochemical 'design features' for cell decoding of pulses revealed Every cell in the body has to sense and respond to chemicals such as hormones and neurotransmitters. They do so by relaying information from receptors to intracellular biochemical pathways that control cell behavior, but relatively little is known about how cells decode the information in dynamic stimuli. Researchers have found that differences in response kinetics working down the intracellular s


In the lab, scientists coax E. coli to resist radiation damage Capitalizing on the ability of an organism to evolve in response to punishment from a hostile environment, scientists have coaxed the model bacterium Escherichia coli to dramatically resist ionizing radiation and, in the process, reveal the genetic mechanisms that make the feat possible. The study provides evidence that just a handful of Unraveling mystery in 'histone code' shows how gene activity is inherited Every cell in our body has exactly the same DNA, yet every cell is different. The genetic code carried in our DNA provides instructions for cells to manufacture specific proteins. A second code, carried by histone proteins bound to DNA, determines which genes are activated in particular cells. Researchers have found that the slightest variation in a histone protein can have dramatic effects on how Drug kills cancer cells building blocks Imagine cutting down the growth of cancer cells at their earliest stages. Research is now showing promise in this approach with a new class of compounds that disrupt cancer cell mitochondrial metabolism. Targeting cancer cell metabolism is recognized as a promising area for the development of cancer chemotherapeutics. Missing link in plant immunity identified An enzyme critical to plant immunity has been found to be activated in a previously unknown way, according to new research. The enzyme, the NAPDH oxidase RBOHD, triggers a rapid generation of signalling molecules derived from oxygen that are believed to be detrimental to microbial growth. The newly-discovered way this enzyme is activated, by a protein (called BIK1) fills a gap in how plants percei Stem cells inside sutures could improve healing in Achilles tendon injuries Sutures embedded with stem cells led to quicker and stronger healing of Achilles tendon tears than traditional sutures, according to a new study. Achilles tendon injuries are common for professional, collegiate and recreational athletes. These injuries are often treated surgically to reattach or repair the tendon if it has been torn. Patients have to keep their legs immobilized for a while after s


Big data tackles tiny molecular machines Open, feed, cut. Such is the humdrum life of a motor molecule that eats and excretes damaged proteins and turns them into harmless peptides for disposal. The why is obvious: Without these trash bins, the Escherichia coli bacteria they serve would die. And thanks to new research, the how is becoming clearer. Researchers have combined genetic and structural data to begin to solve one of the most com

New cell line should accelerate embryonic stem cell research A new line of human embryonic stem cells that have the ability to develop into a far broader range of tissues than most existing cell lines has been created by researchers. The cells, called na誰ve embryonic stem cells, normally appear at the earliest stages of embryonic development. They retain the ability to turn into any of all the different types of cells of the human body -- a capacity called Critical role of one gene to our brain development A gene linked to intellectual disability is critical to the earliest stages of the development of human brains, new research has confirmed. An international research team explains in a new paper how mutations in USP9X are associated with intellectual disability. These mutations, which can be inherited from one generation to the next, have been shown to cause disruptions to normal brain cell functi


Bladder cancer patient with rare genetic mutations shows exceptional response to everolimus A patient with advanced bladder cancer experienced a complete response for 14 months to the drug combination everolimus and pazopanib in a phase I trial, and genomic profiling of his tumor revealed two alterations that may have caused this exceptional response, according to a study. Exceptional responders are cancer patients who had a complete response or partial response for at least six months t Finding hiding place of virus could lead to new treatments Discovering where a common virus hides in the body has been a longterm quest for scientists. Up to 80 percent of adults harbor the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), which can cause severe illness and death in people with weakened immune systems. Now, researchers report that stem cells that encircle blood vessels can be a hiding place, suggesting a New technique uses ATP as trigger for targeted anti-cancer drug delivery A new technique that uses adenosine-5'-triphosphate, the so-called 'energy molecule,' to trigger the release of anti-cancer drugs directly into cancer cells has been developed by biomedical engineering researchers. Early laboratory tests show it increases the effectiveness of drugs targeting breast cancer. Languages written to design synthetic living systems useful for new products, health care A computer-aided design tool has been developed to create genetic languages to guide the design of biological systems. Known as GenoCAD, the open-source software was developed by researchers to help synthetic biologists capture biological rules to engineer organisms that produce useful products or health-care solutions from inexpensive, Roomy cages built from DNA could one day deliver drugs, devices A set of self-assembling DNA cages one-tenth as wide as a bacterium have been created by scientists. These DNA nanostructures are some of the largest and most complex structures ever constructed solely from DNA, and they could one day deliver drugs, or house tiny bioreactors or photonic devices that diagnose disease.


Stumbling fruit flies lead scientists to discover gene essential for sensing joint position Scientists have discovered a mechanism underlying sensory feedback that guides balance and limb movements. If the findings can be fully replicated in humans, they could lead to a better understanding of and treatments for disorders arising from faulty proprioception, the detection of body position. Better way to make unnatural amino acids devised Chemists have devised a greatly improved technique for making amino acids not found in nature. These “unnatural� amino acids traditionally have been very difficult to synthesize, but are sought after by the pharmaceutical industry for their potential medical uses. Equation to describe competition between genes Biologists typically conduct experiments first, and then develop models afterward to show how data fit with theory. New research flips that practice on its head. A biophysicist tackles questions in cellular biology as a physicist would -- by first formulating a model that can make predictions and then testing those predictions. Using this strategy, this research group has recently developed a math We must forget to avoid serious mental disorders, and forgetting is actively regulated In order to function properly, the human brain requires the ability not only to store but also to forget: Through memory loss, unnecessary information is deleted and the nervous system retains its plasticity. A disruption of this process can lead to serious mental disorders. Scientists have now discovered a molecular mechanism that actively regulates the process of forgetting. Fruit flies help uncover tumor-preventing protein complex A protein complex that disrupts the process known as dedifferentiation, known to promote tumor development, has been uncovered by researchers. These findings have provided a critical and novel insight into a process that was previously poorly understood, and have implications for the overall understanding of NSCs and for the development of future cancer therapies.


Success of new bug-fighting approach may vary from field to field A new technique to fight crop insect pests may affect different insect populations differently, researchers report. They analyzed RNA interference (RNAi), a method that uses genetic material to 'silence' specific genes -- in this case genes known to give insect pests an advantage. The researchers found that western corn rootworm beetles that are already resistant to crop rotation are in some cases 'Fluorescent' mouse can teach us about many diseases, drugs A mouse has been created by scientists that expresses a fluorescing 'biosensor' in every cell of its body, allowing diseased cells and drugs to be tracked and evaluated in real time and in three dimensions. Commonly used pain relievers have added benefit of fighting bacterial infection Some commonly used drugs that combat aches and pains, fever, and inflammation are also thought to have the ability to kill bacteria. New research reveals that these drugs, better known as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, act on bacteria in a way that is fundamentally different from current antibiotics. The discovery could open up new strategies for fighting drug-resistant infections and 'supe 'Velcro protein' found to play surprising role in cell migration Studying epithelial cells, the cell type that most commonly turns cancerous, researchers have identified a protein that causes cells to release from their neighbors and migrate away from healthy mammary, or breast, tissue in mice. "Our goal is to improve outcomes for patients with metastatic breast cancer, and this work takes us one step closer to doing so," says the lead author. Gene variants protect against relapse after treatment for hepatitis C Researchers have identified a gene that helps to explain why certain patients with chronic hepatitis C do not experience relapse after treatment. The discovery may contribute to more effective treatment. More than 100 million humans around the world are infected with hepatitis C virus. The infection gives rise to chronic liver inflammation, which may result in reduced liver function, liver cirrhos


Targeting bacterial cell division to fight antibiotic resistance New research has found some compounds effective in blocking the proliferation of certain bacteria, raising hopes of a new class of drugs to combat antibiotic resistant infections.

Protein key to cell motility has implications for stopping cancer metastasis A key cell-movement protein called IRSp53, as described by researchers, is regulated in a resting and active state, and in a new study, they address what this means for cancer-cell metastasis. "We characterized how IRSp53 connects to the cell-motility machinery," says an author. "It does this by starting the formation of cell filopodia -extensions that form when a cell needs to mo Methodology for authenticating canned tuna species within 24 hours Scientists have developed a new method to authenticate canned tuna, which allows you to check if a product is albacore tuna, yellowfin or bigeye tuna, and others tuna species within 24 hours. So far, the genetic methods for establishing proper DNA identification used to take several days to produce some conclusive results. This innovative methodology is of great interest for the canning industry a


Signal to spread: Potent driver of cancer metastasis identified An international team of researchers has discovered and defined LIMD2, a protein that can drive metastasis, the process where tumors spread throughout the body. They have also developed and patented a monoclonal antibody that may one day be used as a prognostic test to see if tumors have LIMD2, and plans are underway to create inhibitors - potential drugs that may target cells that produce LIMD2. Selena Giménez-Ibáñez, becada internacional por el Programa L'OréalUNESCO for Women in Science La científica del Centro Nacional de Biotecnología del CSIC (CNB) Selena Giménez-Ibáñez ha sido becada en la 16º edición internacional del Programa L'Oréal-UNESCO For Women in Science. GiménezIbáñez se convierte de este modo en la tercera española becada en los 16 años de este programa. Desde hace tres años trabaja en el CNB con el profesor Roberto Solano, intentando descubrir nuevos componente Dinosaur skull may reveal T. rex's smaller cousin from the north A 70-million-year-old fossil found in the Late Cretaceous sediments of Alaska reveals a new small tyrannosaur. Tyrannosaurs, the lineage of carnivorous theropod ("beast feet") dinosaurs that include T. rex, have captivated our attention, but the majority of our knowledge about this group comes from fossils from low- to mid-latitudes of North America and Asia. In this study, scientists an Severe genetic disease prevalent in Moroccan Jews Researchers in Israel have unraveled the genetic basis of a hereditary disease that causes severe brain atrophy, mental retardation and epilepsy in Jews of Moroccan ancestry. The disease, which the researchers have called PCCA2


.Neurociencia


Fake laughter doesn't fool the brain, research reveals As the world celebrates International Day of Happiness today (Thursday, 20 March), can we tell whether people are truly happy just from their laugh? "During our study, when participants heard a laugh that was posed, they activated regions of the brain associated with mentalizing in an attempt to understand the other person's emotional and mental state," the authors state. Impaired new learning found in persons with Parkinson's disease Memory and learning in patients with Parkinson's disease was the focus of a new international study. The researchers found that the Parkinson's group's ability to learn new information was significantly poorer when compared with controls. "We concluded that the memory deficit in patients with PD without dementia was caused by a deficit in learning new information. Improving new learning is an Alzheimer's prevention trial to monitor reactions to higher disease risk status A new clinical trial will soon begin testing whether early medical intervention in people at risk for Alzheimer's can slow down progression of disease pathology before symptoms emerge. As part of the overall prevention trial, neurodegenerative ethics experts will monitor how learning about their risk of


Stem cells from muscle can repair nerve damage after injury Stem cells derived from human muscle tissue were able to repair nerve damage and restore function in an animal model of sciatic nerve injury. The findings suggest that cell therapy of certain nerve diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, might one day be feasible. Study describes first maps of neural activity in behaving zebrafish In a new study, neuroscientists describe the first activity maps at the resolution of single cells and throughout the entire brain of behaving zebrafish. A majority prefers letting computers decide When individuals engage in risky business transactions with each other, they may end up being disappointed. This is why they'd rather leave the decision on how to divvy up jointly-owned monies to a computer than to their business partner. This subconscious strategy seems to help them avoid the negative emotions associated with any breaches of trust, COPD associated with increased risk for mild cognitive impairment A diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in older adults was associated with increased risk for mild cognitive impairment (MCI), especially MCI of skills other than memory, and the greatest risk was among patients who had COPD for more than five years. COPD is an irreversible limitation of airflow into the lungs, usually caused by smoking. More than 13.5 million adults 25 years Low doses of antianxiety drugs rebalance autistic brain, study shows New research in mice suggests that autism is characterized by reduced activity of inhibitory neurons and increased activity of excitatory neurons in the brain, but balance can be restored with low doses of a well-known class of drugs currently used in much higher doses to treat anxiety and epileptic seizures. The findings point to a new therapeutic Understanding binge eating, obesity connection A new method for evaluating the treatment of obesity-related food behavior has been uncovered by researchers. "We present alternative ways of exploring attitudes to food by using indirect, objective measures -- such as measuring the amount of energy exerted to obtain or view different foods, as well as determining brain responses during the anticipation and consumption of desirable foods,&quo


Neuroscience 'used and abused' in child rearing policy Influential policy-informing 'evidence' that children's brains are irreversibly 'sculpted' by parental care is based on questionable evidence. The study highlights that mothers, in particular, are told that if they are stressed while pregnant or suffer postnatal depression, they will harm their baby's brain. 'Telling parents that acts of love are important because they are 'brain-building' inevita Statin may slow untreatable, progressive stage of multiple sclerosis Simvastatin, a cheap cholesterol lowering drug, might be a potential treatment option for the secondary progressive, or chronic, stage of multiple sclerosis, which is currently untreatable, results of a phase 2 study suggest. Findings from the trial showed that a high, daily dose of simvastatin was safe, well tolerated, and slowed brain atrophy (shrinkage) by 43% over two years compared with place Form of epilepsy in sea lions similar to that in humans, researchers find California sea lions exposed to a toxin in algae develop a form of epilepsy that is similar to one in humans, according to a new study. Every year, hundreds of sea lions wash up along the California coast, suffering seizures caused by exposure to domoic acid, a neurotoxin that can produce memory loss, tremors, convulsions and death. Domoic acid is produced by algae blooms that have been proliferat Strongest evidence yet of two distinct human cognitive systems Cognitive scientists may have produced the strongest evidence yet that humans have separate and distinct cognitive systems with which they can categorize, classify, and conceptualize their worlds. The systems also may have different courses of decline in cognitive aging, which would have ramifications for remediation and compensation in Suppressing unwanted memories reduces their unconscious influence on behavior Researchers have shown that, contrary to what was previously assumed, suppressing unwanted memories reduces their unconscious influences on subsequent behavior, and have shed light on how this process happens in the brain.


Rats' brains may 'remember' odor experienced while under general anesthesia, study suggests Rats' brains may remember odors they were exposed to while deeply anesthetized, suggests research. In the study, rats were exposed to a specific odor while under general anesthesia. Examination of the brain tissue after they had recovered from anesthesia revealed evidence of cellular imprinting, even though the rats behaved as if they had never U.S. headache sufferers get $1 billion worth of brain scans each year One in eight visits to a a doctor for a headache or migraine end up with the patient going for a brain scan, at a total cost of about $1 billion a year, a new study finds. And many of those MRI and CT scans -- and costs -- are probably unnecessary, given the very low odds that serious issues lurk in the patients’ brains. Chronic sleep disturbance could trigger onset of Alzheimer's People who experience chronic sleep disturbance could face an earlier onset of dementia and Alzheimer’s, results from a new pre-clinical study indicate. "We can conclude from this study that chronic sleep disturbance is an environmental risk factor for Alzheimer's disease," a co-author said. "But the good news is that sleep disturbances can be Development of Alzheimer's trademark cell-killing plaques slowed by researchers Researchers have learned how to fix a cellular structure called the Golgi that mysteriously becomes fragmented in all Alzheimer's patients and appears to be a major cause of the disease. They say that understanding this mechanism helps decode amyloid plaque formation in the brains of Alzheimer's patients -- plaques that kills cells and contributes to memory loss and other Alzheimer's symptoms. Stress undermines empathic abilities in men but increases them in women Stressed males tend to become more self-centered and less able to distinguish their own emotions and intentions from those of other people. For women the exact opposite is true. Stress, this problem that haunts us every day, could be undermining not only our health but also our relationships with other people, especially for men. Stressed women, however, become more “prosocial” according to new re


Positive memories of exercise spur future workouts Getting motivated to exercise can be a challenge, but new research shows that simply remembering a positive memory about exercise may be just what it takes to get on the treadmill. This is the first study to explore how positive memories can influence future workouts, and underscores the power of memory's directive influence in a new domain with practical applications: exercise behaviors.

These boosts are made for walkin': Visual system amplifier directly activated by locomotion The body may get help in fast-changing situations from a specialized brain circuit that causes visual system neurons to fire more strongly during locomotion, neuroscientists have discovered. It has long been known that nerve cells in the visual system fire more strongly when we pay close attention to objects than when we view scenes more passively. But the new research breaks new ground, mapping o Older age at onset of Type 1 diabetes associated with lower brain connectivity Children and adolescents older than age 8 at the onset of type 1 diabetes had weaker brain connectivity when tested later in life relative to those who had earlier ages of diagnosis, researchers have discovered. The findings were made by analyzing the brain scans of 44 middle-age adults diagnosed with type 1 diabetes as children.


Halting immune response could save brain cells after stroke A new study in animals shows that using a compound to block the body’s immune response greatly reduces disability after a stroke. The study also showed that particular immune cells -- CD4+ T-cells produce a mediator, called interleukin (IL) -21 that can cause further damage in stroke tissue. Moreover, normal mice, ordinarily killed or disabled by an ischemic stroke, were given a shot of a compound Estradiol preserves key brain regions in postmenopausal women at risk for dementia When initiated soon after menopause, hormone therapy with estradiol prevented degeneration in key brain regions of women who were at heightened dementia risk, according to a new study. The investigators also found that another type of hormone therapy, marketed under the brand name Premarin, was far less protective. Premarin is a mixture of 30-plus substances derived from the urine of pregnant mare Critical role of one gene to our brain development A gene linked to intellectual disability is critical to the earliest stages of the development of human brains, new research has confirmed. An international research team explains in a new paper how mutations in USP9X are associated with intellectual disability. These mutations, which can be inherited from one generation to the next, have been shown to cause disruptions to normal brain cell functi New stroke research combines brain stimulation, gait training A researcher will test whether brain stimulation combined with gait training can improve patients' ability to walk after a stroke. People 50 or older who have had a stroke will be enrolled in the study and receive gait-training on a treadmill. The treatment group will receive transcranial direct current stimulation prior to gait training. Electrical Blood test identifies brain damage from concussion in ice hockey Half way into last year's season, 35 of 288 players in the Swedish Hockey League had already had a concussion. Researchers who surveyed all of the players in the league's 12 clubs, have now developed a method that can show just an hour after the injury how severe the concussion is, if there is a risk of long-term symptoms and about when the player can return to the game.


Patients with schizophrenia have impaired ability to imitate, brain mapping confirms A brain-mapping study of patients with schizophrenia has found that areas associated with the ability to imitate are impaired, providing new support for the theory that deficits in this basic cognitive skill may underlie the profound difficulty with social interactions that characterize the disorder. According to psychologists, imitation is something that we all do whenever we learn a new skill, w Mindfulness-based meditation helps teenagers with cancer Mindfulness-based meditation could lessen some symptoms associated with cancer in teens, according to the results of a clinical trial intervention. Mindfulness-based meditation focuses on the present moment and the connection between the mind and body. Adolescents living with cancer face not only the physical symptoms of their condition, but also the anxiety and uncertainty related to the progress Stroke survivors may lose month of healthy life for 15-minute delay in treatment Every 15-minute delay in delivering a clot-busting drug after stroke robs survivors of an average month of healthy life. Streamlining the time from symptom onset to clot-busting treatment by just one minute means one less day of disability for a survivor. While all stroke patients benefit from faster treatment, younger patients seem to gain more benefit than older patients. Education, culture affect children's understanding of human body Experiences of life and death can help children's understanding of the human body and its function, according to research by psychologists. The study found that children as young as four and five can understand that the human body works to keep us alive. The researchers call this a 'life theory' and say it is important because it enables children to understand other related biological facts, such Mexican-Americans suffer worse outcomes after stroke Mexican-Americans had worse neurologic, functional and cognitive outcomes 90 days after their stroke compared to non-Hispanic whites. Mexican-American stroke survivors had moderate functional disability and nearly one-third had post-stroke dementia.


Scientists catch brain damage in the act Scientists have uncovered how inflammation and lack of oxygen conspire to cause brain damage in conditions such as stroke and Alzheimer's disease, bringing researchers a step closer to finding potential targets to treat neurodegenerative disorders. Chronic inflammation and hypoxia, or oxygen deficiency, are hallmarks of several brain diseases, but little has been known about how they contribute to Human brains 'hard-wired' to link what we see with what we do Your brain's ability to instantly link what you see with what you do is down to a dedicated information 'highway,' suggests new research. For the first time, researchers have found evidence of a specialized mechanism for spatial self-awareness that combines visual cues with body motion. The newly-discovered system could explain why some schizophrenia patients feel like their actions are controlled Neuroscientists forge path toward understanding human brain Metastable dynamics -- a subtle blend of integration and segregation in the brain that occurs on multiple levels (cells, brain regions, networks) - underlies the real-time coordination necessary for the brain’s dynamic cognitive, behavioral and social functions, neuroscientists have found. We must forget to avoid serious mental disorders, and forgetting is actively regulated In order to function properly, the human brain requires the ability not only to store but also to forget: Through memory loss, unnecessary information is deleted and the nervous system retains its plasticity. A disruption of this process can lead to serious mental disorders. Scientists have now discovered a molecular mechanism that actively regulates the process of forgetting. What happened when? How the brain stores memories by time New research shows that a part of the brain called the hippocampus stores memories by their "temporal context" -- what happened before, and what came after -- and not by content. From brain scans of the hippocampus as the volunteers were answering questions in this study, researchers could identify patterns of activity specific to each image. But when they showed the volunteers the same


A brain signal for psychosis risk Only one third of individuals identified as being at clinical high risk for psychosis actually convert to a psychotic disorder within a three-year follow-up period. This risk assessment is based on the presence of subthreshold psychotic-like symptoms. Thus, clinical symptom criteria alone do not predict future psychosis risk with sufficient accuracy to justify aggressive early intervention, espec Liver transplant may arrest neurological damage in rare, progressive form of autism A patient with a rare metabolic disease, lathosterolosis, that causes liver failure and autistic behavior experienced significant improvements in both her physical and mental health after receiving a liver transplant, according to a new case report. Lathosterolosis, a rare disease caused by a defect in cholesterol synthesis, is characterized by multiple congenital anomalies, mental retardation, an Genes bring music to your ears Multiple regions in the human genome are reported to be linked to musical aptitude, according to a new study. The function of the candidate genes implicated in the study ranges from inner-ear development to auditory neurocognitive processes, suggesting that musical aptitude is affected by a combination of genes involved in the auditory pathway. The perception of music starts with specialized hair Play it again, Sam: How the brain recognizes familiar music Research reveals that the brain’s motor network helps people remember and recognize music that they have performed in the past better than music they have only heard. A recent study sheds new light on how humans perceive and produce sounds, and may pave the way for investigations into whether motor learning could improve or protect memory or cognitive impairment in aging populations. New cell type is implicated in epilepsy caused by traumatic brain injury Traumatic brain injury is a risk factor for epilepsy. A new study identifies increased levels of a specific neurotransmitter as a contributing factor. The findings suggest that damage to a specific type of brain cell plays a role in the development of epilepsy after a traumatic brain injury.


.CĂŠlulas madre y EpigenĂŠtica


Unraveling mystery in 'histone code' shows how gene activity is inherited Every cell in our body has exactly the same DNA, yet every cell is different. The genetic code carried in our DNA provides instructions for cells to manufacture specific proteins. A second code, carried by histone proteins Heart cells respond to stiff environments Proteins associated with the regulation of organ size and shape have been found to respond to the mechanics of the microenvironment in ways that specifically affect the decision of adult cardiac stem cells to generate muscular or vascular cells. Stem cells inside sutures could improve healing in Achilles tendon injuries Sutures embedded with stem cells led to quicker and stronger healing of Achilles tendon tears than traditional sutures, according to a new study. Achilles tendon injuries are common for professional, collegiate and recreational athletes. These injuries are often treated surgically to reattach or repair the tendon if it has been torn. Patients have to keep their legs immobilized for a while after s New cell line should accelerate embryonic stem cell research A new line of human embryonic stem cells that have the ability to develop into a far broader range of tissues than most existing cell lines has been created by researchers. The cells, called naïve embryonic stem cells, normally appear at the earliest stages of embryonic development. They retain the ability to turn into any of all the different types of cells of the human body -- a capacity called Body's fatty folds may help fight kidney failure In a new study, it was observed that in rats with kidney disease, functioning of the kidney improved when the organ was fused with the omentum, a fatty fold of tissue that lies close to the kidney and is a rich source of stem cells. The findings suggest that stem cells from a chronic kidney disease patient’s own omentum may help heal diseased kidneys without the need for an outside source of cells


Finding hiding place of virus could lead to new treatments Discovering where a common virus hides in the body has been a longterm quest for scientists. Up to 80 percent of adults harbor the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), which can cause severe illness and death in people with weakened immune systems. Now, researchers report that stem cells that encircle blood vessels can be a hiding place, suggesting a potential treatment target. Gene family that suppresses prostate cancer discovered Direct genetic evidence has been reported that a family of genes, called microRNA-34, are bona fide tumor suppressors. The researchers showed in mice how interplay between genes p53 and miR-34 jointly inhibits another cancer-causing gene called MET. In absence of p53 and miR-34, MET overexpresses a receptor protein and promotes unregulated cell growth and metastasis. Fruit flies help uncover tumor-preventing protein complex A protein complex that disrupts the process known as dedifferentiation, known to promote tumor development, has been uncovered by researchers. These findings have provided a critical and novel insight into a process that was previously poorly understood, and have implications for the overall understanding of NSCs and for the development of future cancer therapies. Cancer stem cells destroyed with cryoablation and nanoparticleencapsulated anticancer drug Combining nanodrug-based chemotherapy and cryoablation provides an effective strategy to eliminate cancer stem-like cells -- the root of cancer resistance and metastasis, which will help to improve the safety and efficacy of treating malignancies that are refractory to conventional therapies. Cryoablation (also called cryosurgery or cryotherapy) is an energy-based, minimally invasive surgical tech Smoking harms your chances of recovering from fractures, research shows Bone healing cells in non-smokers are of a better quality, more active and quicker at dividing than those of smokers, according to new research that involved gathering 50 fracture patients who volunteered to allow blood from the area of the fracture to be analyzed.


Biblioteca. Facultad de BiologĂ­a Universidad de Salamanca. Campus Miguel de Unamuno c/Donantes de Sangre s/n 37007 Salamanca angelpoveda@usal.es

http://campus.usal.es/~bibliotecabiologia/


Bionoticias3semanamarzo1