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Universidad de Salamanca Facultad de Biología

Biblioteca

Bionoticias

Octubre (4ª) de 2013


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BioNoticias. Resumen de prensa semanal Elaborado por la Biblioteca de Biología. Universidad de Salamanca Para leer el texto completo de los artículos pulse en el título Para agrandar el texto pulse cualquier otra parte de la página Puede enviarnos sus noticias a bibbiol@usal.es Suscribirse a Bionotias + BioEmpleo: dirección de correo electrónico y su nombre a bibbiol@usal.es Boletines anteriores en http://issuu.com/bibliotecabiologia


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iología

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iomedicina

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iotecnología

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eurociencia

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.Biología


El mayor dinosaurio conocido vuelve a caminar Una simulación digital del Argentinosaurus huinculensis, que medía 40 metros de largo y pesaba 80 toneladas, imita sus movimientos basándose en la imagen virtual del esqueleto del gigante a tamaño real. La estructura ósea está expuesta en el Museo Municipal Carmen Funes de Argentina. Al menos 12 de las 18 rías gallegas están contaminadas por el cobre de los astilleros Los datos obtenidos a partir del análisis de 400 muestras de sedimento sitúan a las rías de Ferrol y Vigo como las más alteradas y a las del Norte como las menos. El impacto de la construcción y fondeo de buques en las 12 rías estudiadas se hace evidente por la huella del cobre en el sedimento. Aclaran el enigmático origen de los judíos asquenazíes La joven ciencia de la arqueogenética se ha utilizado para resolver una antigua controversia sobre el origen de los judíos asquenazíes en Europa. ¿Descienden principalmente de antepasados que emigraron desde Palestina en el primer siglo de nuestra era? ¿O sus ancestros fueron europeos convertidos... Un instrumento determina el grado de inflamabilidad de diferentes plantas Un grupo del Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biología Vegetal (IMBIV, CONICET-UNC) (Argentina), dirigido por la investigadora superior de CONICET Sandra Díaz, estudia la ecología del fuego de plantas del Bosque Chaqueño Occidental de Córdoba. Como parte del estudio fue necesario desarrollar un... Plantas marinas como cemento ecológico para luchar contra el cambio climático Estos hábitats son capaces de captar el dióxido de carbono y pueden amortiguar los riesgos de inundaciones o erosión costera como consecuencia del cambio climático en las áreas vulnerables, según un estudio del CSIC publicado en Nature Climate Change.


Encontrados tres nuevos restos de neandertales en la Cova Negra de Xàtiva El yacimiento del Paleolítico medio de la Costera se ha erigido como una de las colecciones más ricas de piezas humanas neandertales de la península ibérica, con un gran número de restos infantiles. Ahora tres nuevas piezas amplían la colección. Las poblaciones meridionales de aves europeas son más vulnerables al cambio climático El cambio climático está afectando al tamaño poblacional de las aves europeas según un estudio del Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales. Las poblaciones meridionales sufren mayores fluctuaciones debido a su distribución marginal, que no se ven compensadas por los beneficios que el incremento de temperatura tieneen las poblaciones septentrionales. Desarrollan un método de producción de biofertilizantes a partir de microalgas cultivadas en aguas residuales Investigadores del Departamento de Ingeniería Química de la Universidad de Almería han desarrollado un nuevo método de producción sostenible de biofertilizantes de uso agrícola a través del cultivo de microalgas en aguas residuales. De hecho, el tratamiento de este tipo de vertidos supone un problema tanto para las industrias como para los municipios debido a su alto coste económico y energético Vegetales capaces de detectar a caracoles y babosas por su baba y reaccionar contra ellos En un mundo lleno de depredadores hambrientos, los animales de presa deben estar constantemente en estado de alerta para evitar ser comidos. Pero las plantas se enfrentan a un desafío particular cuando se trata de defenderse: No pueden moverse. Sin poder huir, y cuando el camuflaje ya no da más... Las marsopas de las costas europeas mantienen sus poblaciones pero se desplazan hacia el sur Siete buques oceanográficos y tres avionetas del proyecto SCANSII han registrado la abundancia y distribución de pequeños cetáceos en aguas de la plataforma atlántica europea. Sus resultados indican que la


marsopa común (Phocoena phocoena) es la más abundante en estas costas y la única especie que se ha trasladado a vivir más al sur. Descubiertas similitudes entre la matriz extracelular animal y la pared celular de los hongos Un estudio internacional liderado por el Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas ha descubierto que un polisacárido de la pared celular de los hongos, un glucano, regula la posición, la estabilidad y la función del anillo contráctil que participa en la división celular. La fiebre del oro deforesta la Amazonía peruana Imágenes de satélite revelan que la extensión geográfica de la actividad minera en la región de Madre de Dios (Perú) se ha multiplicado por cinco entre 1999 y 2012. Los niveles de deforestación que provoca se han triplicado, debido, sobre todo, a la proliferación de yacimientos clandestinos. Una boya satelital controlará las anomalías del agua sobre el volcán de El Hierro El buque oceanográfico Ángeles Alvariño, del Instituto Español de Oceanografía (IEO), regresa a la isla del meridiano para realizar la segunda de las campañas del proyecto VULCANO del año 2013. El mero, el sargo y la lubina se han recuperado en la reserva de las islas Medes Tras más de veinticinco años de protección, la reserva marina de las islas Medes ha logrado que las poblaciones de mero, sargo imperial y lubina estén prácticamente recuperadas y las de corvina estén en fase de estabilización. Sin embargo, la dorada continúa en declive, quizás por el efecto de la pesca en los límites de la reserva, según señala un artículo publicado en la revista PLOS ONE. Joe, el bebé dinosaurio, crecía dos metros en menos de un año Un grupo de investigadores estadounidenses ha analizado el fósil más completo de una cría del dinosaurio Parasaurolophus. Un adolescente había encontrado por casualidad el pequeño esqueleto en 2009 durante su visita a un parque natural de Utah (EE UU).


.Biomedicina


Los europeos no toman suficientes vitaminas y minerales

Un estudio analiza la ingesta de 17 micronutrientes básicos de la dieta en ocho países de Europa. Los resultados confirman que, aunque la vitamina D es el caso más grave, la ciudadanía europea –en todos los grupos de edad y sexo– no consume suficiente hierro, calcio, zinc, vitamina B1 (tiamina), vitamina B2 (riboflavina), vitamina B6 y ácido fólico. Descubren la molécula que causa dermatitis atópica en ratones Una nueva investigación señala cómo una molécula liberada por el patógeno Staphylococcus aureus puede inducir dermatitis atópica en ratones. El hallazgo, publicado en Nature, podría mejorar el tratamiento de esta enfermedad alérgica de la piel. Prueban con éxito en monos una nueva terapia para la infección del VIH Un nuevo estudio revela que un grupo de anticuerpos recientemente descubiertos reduce la carga viral en monos rhesus infectados con el virus de la inmunodeficiencia simio-humana o SHIV. El hallazgo, publicado en Nature, impulsa los futuros ensayos clínicos en humanos. Las células tumorales en sangre predicen la respuesta frente a la quimioterapia Científicos granadinos han demostrado que la detección de células tumorales circulantes en sangre es una técnica que permite pronosticar la respuesta que los pacientes con un cáncer avanzado tendrán a la quimioterapia, e incluso los efectos secundarios asociados que padecerán.


Disminuir el índice de masa corporal y aumentar la actividad física reducen el riesgo de asma Investigadores españoles han analizado la incidencia del asma y su relación con el índice de masa corporal y la actividad física. Los resultados revelan que las intervenciones en ambos parámetros pueden tener un impacto modesto en el riesgo de padecer asma de adulto. Un modelo matemático predice el impacto del consumo de tabaco en el asma infantil Un nuevo método estadístico pronostica el riesgo de episodios de asma infantil. Los resultados revelan que es necesario reducir todavía un 15% el consumo de tabaco en España, sobre todo en el entorno doméstico, para disminuir esta patología. Revelan cómo se produce la muerte neuronal en un modelo animal de ictus

Un grupo internacional de investigadores ha analizado el papel neuroprotector de GABA, un aminoácido presente en el tejido cerebral, en un modelo animal de ictus. Los investigadores han estudiado la respuesta de dos regiones diferentes del encéfalo: la parte de la corteza cerebral relacionada con el tacto y el sistema motor y una región que desempeña un importante papel en la formación de la memor


Construyen por primera vez piel artificial a partir de células madre del cordón umbilical Científicos de la Universidad de Granada han logrado construir por primera vez piel artificial a partir de células madre procedentes del cordón umbilical. Su trabajo permite el uso inmediato de la piel artificial en pacientes con grandes quemaduras. Predicen el impacto del consumo de tabaco en el asma infantil Un nuevo modelo estadístico pronostica el riesgo de episodios de asma infantil. Los resultados revelan que es necesario reducir todavía un 15% el consumo de tabaco en España, sobre todo en el entorno doméstico, para disminuir esta patología. Descubierta una nueva enzima capaz de replicar cadenas de ADN dañadas La ADN polimerasa PrimPol pudo influir en la evolución de los genomas y en la diversificación de la vida en la Tierra. El estudio, liderado por el CSIC, ha sido publicado en el último número de la revista Molecular Cell. Cuanto más chocolate, menos grasa corporal Investigadores de la Universidad de Granada han desmontado científicamente la vieja creencia de que comer chocolate engorda. Es más, un alto consumo de chocolate está asociado a niveles más bajos de grasa en todo el cuerpo, independientemente de si se practica o no actividad física o de la dieta que se siga. La crisis puede provocar un aumento de enfermedades cardiovasculares El descenso de la renta, la precariedad laboral y la diminución del gasto sanitario son grandes aliados de las afecciones cardiovasculares, como ya se ha comprobado en Grecia, Argentina e Islandia. Hoy, la Sociedad Española de Cardiología ha advertido de sus efectos. La obesidad en el embarazo provoca un mayor peso de los bebés al nacer Durante el embarazo, la obesidad provoca mayores niveles de leptina en sangre y, por tanto, un mayor peso de los bebés al nacer. Asimismo, el sobrepeso anterior al embarazo también es un factor de riesgo de altos


niveles de leptina. La obesidad infantil es uno de los problemas más graves de salud pública del siglo XXI. Descubierto el gen de la manía Un equipo internacional de investigadores ha descrito el papel fundamental del gen SHANK3 en la función cerebral. Su sobreexpresión puede estar detrás del comportamiento maníaco en el trastorno bipolar y del trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad. Identifican nuevos genes relacionados con el autismo

Investigadores de la Universidad de Barcelona han descrito nuevos genes implicados en el autismo, un grupo de patologías multifactoriales que afectan a uno de cada 80 o 100 niños en edad escolar. Desde hace años existe una investigación internacional muy activa orientada a identificar genes candidatos que expliquen el origen y el desarrollo de la enfermedad. Nuevos errores genéticos podrían ser la causa de una de las leucemias más graves La secuenciación del exoma de la leucemia aguda de células dendríticas revela que más de la mitad de los pacientes presentan alteraciones en genes ‘epigenómicos’, lo que podría cambiar las pautas de tratamiento hospitalarias.


.BiotecnologĂ­a


Genetic rarity rules in wild guppy population A new study demonstrates a female preference for rare males using an experiment in a wild population, rather than a laboratory setting. Events coordination during embryogenesis A new study reveals a mechanism through which the expression of genes is controlled -- a finding that highlights genetic mutations that can impair the timing of gene expression. Such mutations can affect the coordination of key events that are required for stepwise development of an organism, and can also give rise to cancer by turning on genes at the wrong time. New substance effectively combats multi-resistant bacteria In Europe alone, more than 25,000 people die each year from infections caused by multi-resistant bacteria. Researchers have now developed and characterized a substance that quickly and effectively kills the virulent bacteria. The substance employs a multifunctional mechanism that reduces the risk of antibiotic resistance. Researchers identify way to increase gene therapy success Scientists have found a way to overcome one of the biggest obstacles to using viruses to deliver therapeutic genes: how to keep the immune system from neutralizing the virus before it can deliver its genetic payload. Human immune system shapes skin microbiome Our skin plays host to millions of beneficial and potentially diseasecausing microorganisms; however, whether our immune system influences these microbial communities to prevent disease is unknown. In a study published, researchers have explored the microbes living on the skin of patients with primary immunodeficiencies with eczema-like skin conditions. Vet researcher's thyroid project sheds light on molecular processes related to cystic fibrosis Veterinary medicine research is leading to a better understanding of the molecular interactions in the thyroid gland related to cystic fibrosis.


Listeria’s resistance to disinfectants Listeria poses a significant risk to human health. The bacterium is frequently transmitted via dairy products, so it is important to disinfect dairies regularly. Unfortunately, listeria is developing resistance to the most frequently used compounds, including benzalkonium chloride. Scientists gain new insights into dolphin's evolutionary history and conversation Researchers report their original genomic research on Baiji, also known as Yangtze River dolphin (Lipotes vexillifer). The study gives new insight into the genetic and evolutionary adaptations of the dolphin, and provides valuable resources for the conservation of mammals and cetaceans in particular. Less toxic metabolites, more chemical product By preventing the build-up of toxic metabolites in engineered microbes, a dynamic regulatory system can help boost production of an advanced biofuel, a therapeutic drug, or other valuable chemical products. The system has already been used to double the production in E. coli of amorphadiene, a precursor to the premier antimalarial drug artemisinin. Insight into breast cancer cell migration A new study shows that a specific protein may assist breast cancer cells in metastasizing. Model virus structure shows why there's no cure for common cold In a pair of landmark studies that exploit the genetic sequencing of the "missing link" cold virus, rhinovirus C, scientists have constructed a three-dimensional model of the pathogen that shows why there is no cure yet for the common cold. Key proteins identified that influence major immune strategies New research has identified key proteins that influence immune response strategies, a finding that could influence new vaccination approaches. The study looked closely at the KLF2 and S1P1 genes, and how their expression impacted the immune strategy of a cell. Problems with Alzheimer’s protein can jam up traffic in the brain Scientists have known for some time that a protein called presenilin plays a role in Alzheimer’s disease, and a new study reveals one


intriguing way this happens. It has to do with how important materials travel up and down brain cells. New protein fold with a transport tunnel discovered The protein LIMP-2 is vital for both humans and animals. If it is absent – due, for example, to a hereditary disease – substances of an unknown nature, probably lipids, accumulate in the organism. Up to now, scientists were unsure what the protein looks like and how exactly it functions. Study finds new genetic error in some lung cancers Scientists report on a gene fusion that spurs the cells to divide rapidly. Treating the cells with a compound that blocks the protein caused the cells to die which may offer a targeted therapy in patients. Cell nucleus protein in brown fat cells governs daily control of body temperature Body temperature follows a 24-hour rhythm, peaking during the day, low at night. The benefit might be the conservation of energy while sleeping. It is also critical to be able to adapt to changes in ambient temperature regardless of the time of day. A new mouse study shows how body temperature rhythms are synchronized while maintaining the ability to adapt to changes in environmental temperature d Researchers identify molecule that could aid lung cancer detection, treatment Researchers have discovered a molecule that could help lead to the noninvasive detection of lung cancer as well as its treatment. Surprises discovered in decoded kiwifruit genome A new study that decoded the DNA sequence of the kiwifruit has concluded that the fruit has many genetic similarities between its 39,040 genes and other plant species, including potatoes and tomatoes. The study also has unveiled two major evolutionary events that occurred millions of years ago in the kiwifruit genome.


.Neurociencia


MS study correlates negative effect of warmer weather on cognitive status Scientists correlated fMRI findings with the negative impact of outdoor temperature on cognitive functioning in multiple sclerosis. This study in Brain Imaging & Behavior corroborates the group's previous study that established that people with MS performed worse on cognitive tasks during warmer outdoor temperatures. This new study extends previous research by demonstrating a link between brai A first step in learning by imitation, baby brains respond to another's actions Imitation may be the sincerest form of flattery for adults, but for babies it's their foremost tool for learning. Now researchers have found the first evidence revealing a key aspect of the brain processing that occurs in babies to allow this learning by observation. Babies can learn their first lullabies in the womb An infant can recognize a lullaby heard in the womb for several months after birth, potentially supporting later speech development. Is left-handedness higher among those suffering from psychosis? Researchers have long studied the connections between hand dominance and different aspects of the human brain. A new study finds that among those with mental illnesses, left-handers are more likely to suffer from psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia than mood disorders. RNA build-up linked to dementia, motor neuron disease A new toxic entity associated with genetically inherited forms of dementia and motor neuron disease has been identified by scientists. The toxin is the result of a genetic mutation that leads to the production of RNA molecules which could be responsible for the diseases. Pain in infancy alters response to stress, anxiety later in life Early life pain alters neural circuits in the brain that regulate stress, suggesting pain experienced by infants who often do not receive analgesics while undergoing tests and treatment in neonatal intensive care may permanently alter future responses to anxiety, stress and pain in adulthood, medical researchers have discovered.


Brain regions can be specifically trained with video games Video gaming causes increases in the brain regions responsible for spatial orientation, memory formation and strategic planning as well as fine motor skills. This has been shown in a new study. The positive effects of video gaming may also prove relevant in therapeutic interventions targeting psychiatric disorders. Understanding the difference between 'human smart' and 'computer smart' Considering 798 to be an odd number is endemic to human cognition, reveals a new study. A common assumption in the cognitive sciences is that thinking consists of following sets of rules (as it does in a computer). A recent research argues that unlike digital computers, which are designed to follow rules, the computations performed by the neural networks that make up our brain are inherently conte What happens when the lightbulb turns on? Measuring a person's creativity from single spoken words Neuroscientists have created a quick but reliable test that can measure a person's creativity from single spoken words. The "noun-verb" test is so simple it can be done by virtually anyone anywhere -- even in an MRI machine, setting the stage for scientists to pinpoint how the brain comes up with unusually creative ideas. While some believe ingenuity is spontaneous, the researchers suspe How poverty molds the brain: Poor neural processing of sound linked to lower maternal education background Groundbreaking research nearly two decades ago linking a mother's educational background to her children's literacy and cognitive abilities stands out among decades of social science studies demonstrating the adverse effects of poverty. Now new research has taken that finding in a neuroscientific direction: linking poor processing of auditory information in the adolescent brain to a lower maternal Surviving -- then thriving Modern medicine usually considers trauma -- both the physical and the psychological kinds -- as unequivocally damaging. Now researchers are lending support to a more philosophical view of suffering, finding that trauma, however terrible, may have distinct psychological benefits.


A potential new class of fast-acting antidepressant More than 1 in 10 Americans take antidepressants, but these medications can take weeks — and for some patients, months — before they begin to alleviate symptoms. Now, scientists have discovered that selectively blocking a serotonin receptor subtype induces fast-acting antidepressant effects in mice, indicating a potential new class of therapeutics for depression. High blood sugar makes Alzheimer’s plaque more toxic to the brain High blood-sugar levels, such as those linked with Type 2 diabetes, make beta amyloid protein associated with Alzheimer’s disease dramatically more toxic to cells lining blood vessels in the brain, according to a new study. VIP treatment for jet lag A small molecule called VIP, known to synchronize time-keeping neurons in the brain's biological clock, has the startling effect of desynchronizing them at higher dosages, says a research team. Neurons knocked for a loop by a burst of VIP are better able to re-synchronize to abrupt shifts in the light-dark cycle like those that make jet lag or shift work so miserable. Poverty in early childhood appears associated with brain development Poverty in early childhood appears to be associated with smaller brain volumes measured through imaging at school age and early adolescence. Untangling Alzheimer's disease A team of researchers has identified a specific set of microRNA molecules that detrimentally regulate protein levels in the brains of mice with Alzheimer's disease. By targeting these molecules, they hope to move closer toward earlier detection and better treatment of the debilitating condition. Fewer patients with brain injury being declared 'brain dead' Fewer patients with brain injury are being declared "brain dead," perhaps reflecting better injury prevention and improved care, according to a new study. However, the main source of organ donations for transplants is patients with neurologic death, so this finding may explain the declining rates of organ donation in some regions.


It's shocking: Ultra-focused electric current helps brain curb pain Imagine significantly reducing a persistent migraine or fibromyalgia by a visit to a doctor who delivers low doses of electricity to the brain How a metamaterial might improve a depression treatment A brain stimulation technique that is used to treat tough cases of depression could be considerably improved with a new headpiece, experts say. Switched brain: Unravelling the true identity of the brain of Carl Friedrich Gauss Researchers reveal the true identity of the brains of mathematicians Carl Friedrich Gauss and Conrad Heinrich Fuchs. New imaging research shows increased iron in the brain in early stages of MS While it's been known for over a century that iron deposits in the brain play a role in the pathology of Multiple Sclerosis, imaging research now helps to answer the question of whether these accumulations are a cause or consequence of the disease. Iron deposits in deep gray matter suggest that the accumulation occurs very early in the disease course. Nurturing may protect kids from brain changes linked to poverty Researchers have identified changes in the brains of children growing up in poverty. Those changes can lead to lifelong problems like depression, learning difficulties and limitations in the ability to cope with stress. But the study showed that the extent of those changes was influenced strongly by whether parents were attentive and nurturing. Poor motor performance linked to poor academic skills Children with poor motor performance at school entry were found to have poorer reading and arithmetic skills than their better performing peers during the first three years of school. However, no relationship was found between cardiovascular fitness and academic skills, according to a new study. Snakes on the brain: Are primates hard-wired to recognize snakes? Was the evolution of high-quality vision in our ancestors driven by the threat of snakes? New work supports this theory. In a new paper,


researchers show that there are specific nerve cells in the brains of rhesus macaque monkeys that respond to images of snakes. Problems with Alzheimer’s protein can jam up traffic in the brain Scientists have known for some time that a protein called presenilin plays a role in Alzheimer’s disease, and a new study reveals one intriguing way this happens. It has to do with how important materials travel up and down brain cells. Regular cocaine, cannabis use may trigger addictive behaviors New cocaine and cannabis research reveals that regular cannabis users have increased levels of impulsive behavior. It had previously been argued that this increased impulsivity after cannabis administration was only experienced by occasional users, but that regular users were no longer affected in this way. The results provide evidence for how drug use may trigger addictive behaviors. Rare childhood disease may hold clues to treating Alzheimer's, Parkinson's Scientists studying the cause of a rare childhood disease that leaves children unable to walk by adolescence say new findings may provide clues to understanding more common neurodegenerative diseases, and developing better tools to treat them. Researchers found that children with A-T disease have too much of a regulatory protein EZH2. Reducing the amount in mice created a better protein balance wi Study with totally blind people shows how light helps activate the brain Light enhances brain activity during a cognitive task even in some people who are totally blind, according to a new study. The findings contribute to scientists’ understanding of everyone’s brains, as they also revealed how quickly light impacts on cognition. “We were stunned to discover that the brain still respond significantly to light in these rare three completely blind patients despite hav Brief exposure to performance-enhancing drugs may be permanently 'remembered' by muscles Brief exposure to anabolic steroids may have long lasting, possibly permanent, performance-enhancing effects, shows a new study. Stroke prevention surgery less effective than meds, lifestyle change


The final results of a stroke prevention study in patients with narrowed brain arteries confirm earlier findings: Medication plus lifestyle changes are safer and more effective at preventing stroke than a surgical technique called stenting. Salvianolate for treatment of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injuries Salvianolic acid B, also called salvia magnesium acetate, exerts strong resistance to oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction, and improves energy metabolism against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injuries. Researchers have found that administration of salvianolate during reperfusion after ischemia appears to attenuate brain tissue damage and inhibit neuronal apoptosis by increasing heat shock p Neuroscientists discover new 'mini-neural computer' in the brain Dendrites, parts of neurons, were once thought to be passive wiring in the brain. But now researchers have shown that dendrites actively process information, multiplying the brain’s computing power. Smart neurons: Single neuronal dendrites can perform computations When you look at the hands of a clock or the streets on a map, your brain is effortlessly performing computations that tell you about the orientation of these objects. New research has shown that these computations can be carried out by the microscopic branches of neurons known as dendrites, which are the receiving elements of neurons. Experimental drug reduces brain damage, eliminates brain hemorrhaging in rodents afflicted by stroke The experimental drug 3K3A-APC shows promise as a stand-alone therapy for stroke or in combination with the FDA-approved clotbusting drug therapy tPA (tissue plasminogen activator). Epigenetics: A key to controlling acute and chronic pain Epigenetics, the study of changes in gene expression through mechanisms outside of the DNA structure, has been found to control a key pain receptor related to surgical incision pain, according to a new study. This study reveals new information about pain regulation in the spinal cord.


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Bionoticias 30 octubre  

Resumen de prensa semanal Elaborado por la Biblioteca de Biología de la Universidad de Salamanca Biollogía, biotecnología, biosanitarias, n...

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