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Universidad de Salamanca Facultad de BiologĂ­a

Biblioteca

Bionoticias

Noviembre (2ÂŞ) de 2013


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BioNoticias. Resumen de prensa semanal Elaborado por la Biblioteca de Biología. Universidad de Salamanca Para leer el texto completo de los artículos pulse en el título Para agrandar el texto pulse cualquier otra parte de la página Puede enviarnos sus noticias a bibbiol@usal.es Suscribirse a Bionotias + BioEmpleo: dirección de correo electrónico y su nombre a bibbiol@usal.es Boletines anteriores en http://issuu.com/bibliotecabiologia


ín B

iología

4

iomedicina

9

iotecnología

13

élulas madre

28

B B C

dice

N

eurociencia

31


.Biología


Ponen a colaborar bacterias de dos tipos distintos y complementarios para generar electricidad Una serie reciente de experimentos demuestra que las bacterias verdes del azufre, del género Chlorobium, sensibles a la luz, pueden actuar en tándem con las bacterias del género Geobacter, que son capaces de ejercer una forma de "respiración" que permite la función de ánodo necesaria para la... Descubren un reloj biológico con el que medir las edades de distintos tejidos humanos Tendemos a asumir que nuestro cuerpo envejece de manera homogénea, pero no es así. No todas las partes del cuerpo envejecen a la misma velocidad. Algunas envejecen más deprisa y otras más despacio, un hecho que se acaba de verificar de manera detallada gracias a una nueva técnica para determinar... Obtienen trigo orgánico con más del 13'5% de proteínas La emprendedora Susana Espinosa Mayorga fundó hace tres años la empresa “Ost Gourmet”, con el propósito de producir una comida saludable, nutritiva y de rápida preparación; quería hacer y vender pasta de trigo orgánico pero este no se producía en México.Tampoco existía un proyecto para cosecharlo... Nuevos datos sobre la ‘llave’ del intercambio de genes entre bacterias Un trabajo liderado por el Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), en colaboración con la Universidad de Newcastle y el Parque Científico de Madrid, aporta nuevos datos sobre un mecanismo de regulación que contribuye de forma significativa a la transferencia génica horizontal, un... Virus, esos bichos que nos espantan nos han sido de gran utilidad Entrega del podcast Quilo de Ciencia, realizado por Jorge Laborda (catedrático de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular de la Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, España), en Ciencia para Escuchar, que recomendamos por su interés.La palabra virus, que en latín significa toxina, veneno, siempre resuena en...


Un mecanismo neuronal controla la duración del coito en las moscas La persistencia de los machos durante la cópula responde a impulsos cerebrales que determinan el momento idóneo en el que deben terminar. Un estudio en Drosophila ha localizado este circuito neuronal. Su autora asegura que debe existir un temporizador similar en humanos. Un bonito marcado en Guipúzcoa logra el récord mundial de distancia recorrida Desde Guipúzcoa a Venezuela, un total de 6.370 kilómetros a través del océano Atlántico, es la enorme distancia que ha recorrido un bonito marcado y lanzado al mar a 20 km al norte de San Sebastián, en octubre de 2006. El ejemplar ha sido capturado recientemente por unos pescadores venezolanos cerca de la costa de su país. Se trata del récord de distancia recorrida por un bonito de las registradas ¿Qué surgió primero en la evolución: una mano diestra o un pie ágil? Una nueva investigación ha resuelto un misterio añejo acerca de la evolución humana, revelando, en contra de lo que se creía hasta ahora, que los primeros homínidos desarrollaron la destreza en sus dedos y la capacidad de utilizar herramientas antes de desarrollar la locomoción bípeda.Combinando... Nuevos datos sobre la ‘llave’ del intercambio de genes entre bacterias Un trabajo liderado por el CSIC describe el mecanismo de regulación en un plásmido conjugativo de la bacteria Gram-positiva Bacillus subtilis. El descubrimiento constituye la base para el desarrollo de herramientas genéticas que modifiquen estos organismos con implicaciones en procesos clínicos e industriales. El ‘rey del gore’ de los tiranosaurios aparece en Norteamérica Investigadores del Museo de Historia Natural de Utah (EE UU) han anunciado el descubrimiento de una nueva especie de dinosaurio que pertenece a la misma rama evolutiva del Tyrannosaurus rex. Esta criatura carnívora, denominada Lythronax argestes o ‘rey del gore’ por su estilo de vida sangriento, habitaba el antiguo continente perdido de Laramidia, entre ríos y bosques frondosos.


La concentración de gases de efecto invernadero en la atmósfera alcanza un nuevo récord La cantidad de dióxido de carbono se incrementó en 2,2 partes por millón entre 2011 y 2012, continuando con una tendencia ascendente y acelerada provocada por el cambio climático, según informa Organización Meteorológica Mundial. Investigadores españoles hallan cinco nuevas especies de algas microscópicas en Doñana Expertos de la Universidad de Sevilla, León y Córdoba han identificado cinco especies de diatomeas –algas microscópicas– nuevas para la ciencia, en el espacio natural de las Lagunas de Doñana. Las han denominado Eunotia vozmedianoi, Planothidium lacustre, Halamphora tharsis, Gomphonema undulans y Pinnularia acidophila var. Baetica. Los pájaros prefieren aparearse entre conocidos Un estudio del Museo de Ciencias Naturales de Barcelona muestra como la familiaridad, es decir el conocimiento entre individuos, puede ser tan o más seductora que el atractivo sexual al elegir pareja. Este es el resultado de un trabajo realizado con jilgueros lúganos (Carduelis spinus). La expansión de los encinares ahoga a los pinares de la península ibérica Un estudio realizado por investigadores del Centro de Investigación Ecológica y Aplicaciones Forestales y de la Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona demuestra que muchas poblaciones de pinos de la península Ibérica se encuentran en regresión. La expansión de los encinares está dificultando la germinación y establecimiento de nuevos individuos de cinco especies diferentes de pinos. Los anfibios podrían hacer frente al cambio climático por la amplitud térmica de su canto Según un estudio realizado por el Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, el calentamiento global no inhibiría directamente el comportamiento de canto en los anfibios, pero otros aspectos dependientes de la temperatura podrían verse afectados y comprometer de este modo la eficacia de la comunicación acústica.


La enigmática especie que adquiere biodiversidad a partir de una extraña forma de reproducción unisexual Se ha descubierto que la procreación entre los individuos genéticamente idénticos del hongo Cryptococcus neoformans puede dar como resultado cambios genéticos y diversidad en su descendencia. El valor de este nuevo e intrigante conocimiento va más allá de lo meramente académico, ya que estos... Consiguen leche rica en omega-3 de forma natural Una nueva técnica, desarrollada por el Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) y la Universidad de Córdoba, ambos en España, ha conseguido que los ácidos grasos omega-3 con los que se suplementa la dieta del ganado lleguen intactos al intestino delgado, evitando su paso por la... Logran una levadura que consume ácido acético y aumenta la producción de bioetanol El ácido acético es un subproducto previamente indeseado del proceso empleado para obtener biocombustibles a partir de materias vegetales tales como hojas, tallos y otros tejidos.Gracias a la obtención, por ingeniería genética, de una cepa de levadura capaz de consumir ácido acético, la... Un ornitorrinco gigante habitaba Australia hace entre 15 y 5 millones de años Hasta el momento, el registro fósil indicaba que el linaje del ornitorrinco era único, con una sola especie en cualquier época de su existencia. Esta imagen ha cambiado con la publicación de un estudio esta semana en el Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology que describe una nueva especie de ornitorrinco gigante extinto, una rama desconocida del árbol genealógico de estos animales, que tendría dos vec Descifrado el papel clave de dos proteínas en la adquisición del lenguaje Dos proteínas desempeñan un papel fundamental en el desarrollo de las conexiones neuronales vinculadas con el lenguaje. Así lo indica una nueva investigación que describe cómo ambas moléculas, SRPX2 y FOXP2, son esenciales en la formación de las dendritas (las ramificaciones de las neuronas) y la...


.Biomedicina


Cambios en los ciclos de luz alteran las defensas intestinales de los ratones Un estudio realizado en roedores ha demostrado que estos animales producen más linfocitos TH17, responsables de la inflamación crónica del intestino, cuando se modifica la cantidad de horas de luz que reciben. Las personas bilingües tardan más en desarrollar demencia Un equipo de investigadores indios y británicos ha llevado a cabo un estudio con 648 pacientes de India que demuestra que las personas que hablan dos idiomas tardan unos cuatro años y medio más en desarrollar demencia que los monolingües. Además, el trabajo es el primero en mostrar estos beneficios en personas analfabetas. La depresión severa crónica es más probable en víctimas de abusos sexuales infantiles Un nuevo estudio revela las variables de mayor riesgo de depresión crónica en la población, como haber sufrido antes otros episodios de depresión, el retraso en su tratamiento, que esté relacionado con otros problemas de salud física o mental, y haber sufrido abusos sexuales en la infancia. Mejoran en un 83% la eficacia del fármaco más utilizado contra la leishmaniasis Un equipo internacional de científicos, con participación de la Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona, ha desarrollado un complejo para tratar la leishmaniasis en humanos que utiliza el fármaco más prescrito actualmente, pero con un 83% más de efectividad. El complejo, la combinación del fármaco con nanopartículas que lo transportan hasta el interior de las células infectadas, ha sido probado con éxit Diseñan modelos matemáticos para descifrar problemas biológicos Investigadores del Centro de Regulación Genómica en Barcelona, con la colaboración del Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, han diseñado modelos matemáticos que permiten la comprensión de conceptos básicos en sistemas genéticos y metabólicos. Asimismo, también permitirán optimizar la producción de fármacos y otros productos biotecnológicos. El trabajo, publicado en la revista científic


Descifrado el papel clave de dos proteínas en la adquisición del lenguaje Un estudio en ratones ha identificado dos moléculas esenciales en el desarrollo de los circuitos neuronales relacionados con el lenguaje. El hallazgo ayudará a comprender mejor los trastornos del habla, como los asociados con el autismo. Los europeos no toman suficientes vitaminas y minerales

Un estudio analiza la ingesta de 17 micronutrientes básicos de la dieta en ocho países de Europa. Los resultados confirman que, aunque la vitamina D es el caso más grave, la ciudadanía europea –en todos los grupos de edad y sexo– no consume suficiente hierro, calcio, zinc, vitamina B1 (tiamina), vitamina B2 (riboflavina), vitamina B6 y ácido fólico. Descubren la molécula que causa dermatitis atópica en ratones Una nueva investigación señala cómo una molécula liberada por el patógeno Staphylococcus aureus puede inducir dermatitis atópica en ratones. El hallazgo, publicado en Nature, podría mejorar el tratamiento de esta enfermedad alérgica de la piel. Prueban con éxito en monos una nueva terapia para la infección del VIH Un nuevo estudio revela que un grupo de anticuerpos recientemente descubiertos reduce la carga viral en monos rhesus infectados con el virus de la inmunodeficiencia simio-humana o SHIV. El hallazgo, publicado en Nature, impulsa los futuros ensayos clínicos en humanos. Las células tumorales en sangre predicen la respuesta frente a la quimioterapia Científicos granadinos han demostrado que la detección de células tumorales circulantes en sangre es una técnica que permite pronosticar


la respuesta que los pacientes con un cáncer avanzado tendrán a la quimioterapia, e incluso los efectos secundarios asociados que padecerán. Disminuir el índice de masa corporal y aumentar la actividad física reducen el riesgo de asma Investigadores españoles han analizado la incidencia del asma y su relación con el índice de masa corporal y la actividad física. Los resultados revelan que las intervenciones en ambos parámetros pueden tener un impacto modesto en el riesgo de padecer asma de adulto. Un modelo matemático predice el impacto del consumo de tabaco en el asma infantil Un nuevo método estadístico pronostica el riesgo de episodios de asma infantil. Los resultados revelan que es necesario reducir todavía un 15% el consumo de tabaco en España, sobre todo en el entorno doméstico, para disminuir esta patología. Revelan cómo se produce la muerte neuronal en un modelo animal de ictus Un grupo internacional de investigadores ha analizado el papel neuroprotector de GABA, un aminoácido presente en el tejido cerebral, en un modelo animal de ictus. Los investigadores han estudiado la respuesta de dos regiones diferentes del encéfalo: la parte de la corteza cerebral relacionada con el tacto y el sistema motor y una región que desempeña un importante papel en la formación de la memor Construyen por primera vez piel artificial a partir de células madre del cordón umbilical Científicos de la Universidad de Granada han logrado construir por primera vez piel artificial a partir de células madre procedentes del cordón umbilical. Su trabajo permite el uso inmediato de la piel artificial en pacientes con grandes quemaduras. Predicen el impacto del consumo de tabaco en el asma infantil Un nuevo modelo estadístico pronostica el riesgo de episodios de asma infantil. Los resultados revelan que es necesario reducir todavía un 15% el consumo de tabaco en España, sobre todo en el entorno doméstico, para disminuir esta patología.


.BiotecnologĂ­a


Tiny self-assembling transport networks, powered by nano-scale motors and controlled by DNA created Tiny self-assembling transport networks, powered by nano-scale motors and controlled by DNA, have been developed by scientists. Microbes swim to hydrogen gas Researchers have discovered details on a speedy microorganism that needs hydrogen to produce methane. Un-junking junk DNA A new study shines new light on molecular tools our cells use to govern regulated gene expression. Improved decoding of DNA for custom medical treatments Scientists have moved a step closer to creating custom medical treatment plans based on a patient's DNA, pinpointing the root of a patient's illness and making sure treatment will not cause a fatal allergic reaction. Cost-effective method accurately orders DNA sequencing along entire chromosomes A new computational method has been shown to quickly assign, order and orient DNA sequencing information along entire chromosomes. The method may help overcome a major obstacle that has delayed progress in designing rapid, low-cost -- but still accurate -- ways to assemble genomes from scratch. Data gleaned through this new method can also validate certain types of chromosomal abnormalities in can HPV can damage genes, chromosomes directly by inserting own DNA into human DNA A study has identified a new mechanism by which the human papillomavirus (HPV) may contribute to cancer development. Using whole-genome sequencing, researchers show that strains of HPV that cause cervical, head and neck and other cancers can directly damage genes and chromosomes where they insert their DNA into human DNA.


Study identifies mechanism that makes ordinary stem cells create tumors A new study illustrates how changes in cell signaling can cause ordinary stem cells in the jaw to start forming benign but potentially harmful tumors. Role of Cul4 molecule in genome instability, cancer Researchers have shown that a molecule called Cul4 helps to deposit DNA-packaging histone proteins onto DNA, an integral step in cramming yards of genetic code into compact coils that can fit into each cell. When DNA isn’t packaged correctly, it can lead to the genomic instability characteristic of many forms of cancer.

Tricking algae's biological clock boosts production of drugs, biofuels Tricking algae’s biological clock to remain in its daytime setting can dramatically boost the amount of commercially valuable compounds that these simple marine plants can produce when they are grown in constant light. Gut reaction: Effect of diet, estrogen on gut microbiota Scientists have studied the effect of diet complexity and estrogen hormone receptors on intestinal microbiota. New trigger for breast cancer metastasis identified For years, scientists have observed that tumor cells from certain breast cancer patients with aggressive forms of the disease contained low levels of mitochondrial DNA. But, until recently, no one was able to explain how this characteristic influenced disease progression. Now researchers have revealed how a reduction in mitochondrial DNA content leads human breast cancer cells to take on aggressiv


Drug may guard against periodontitis, related chronic diseases A drug currently used to treat intestinal worms could protect people from periodontitis, an advanced gum disease, which untreated can erode the structures -- including bone -- that hold the teeth in the jaw. Potential drug target to nip cancer in the bud Scientists have discovered an enzyme, Wip1 phosphatase, as a potential target to weed out the progression of cancer. Although studies in the past have revealed that this enzyme plays a critical role in regulating the budding of tumors, scientists have for the first time unearthed a mechanism for its mode of action. Unique change in protein structure guides production of RNA from DNA One of biology's most fundamental processes is transcription. It is just one step of many required to build proteins -- and without it life would not exist. However, many aspects of transcription remain shrouded in mystery. But now, scientists are shedding light on key aspects of transcription, and in so doing are coming even closer to understanding the importance of this process in the growth and Century-old question about 3-D structure of mitotic chromosomes answered Scientists have shown new evidence for a general principal of condensed, mitotic chromosome organization and structure that is highly adaptable and common to all cells. This new insight into how chromosomes are disassembled and reassembled during cell division will allow researchers to begin answering basic questions about epigenetic inheritance, as well as human disease such as chromosome disorde Edited RNA plus invasive DNA add individuality An enzyme that edits RNA may loosen the genome's control over invasive snippets of DNA that affect how genes are expressed, according to new research. In fruit flies, that newly understood mechanism appears to contribute to differences among individuals such as eye color and life span.


Origins of cattle farming in China uncovered Scientists have produced the first multi-disciplinary evidence for management of cattle populations in northern China, around the same time cattle domestication took place in the Near East, over 10,000 years ago. Peptide derived from cow's milk kills human stomach cancer cells in culture New research indicates that a peptide fragment derived from cow's milk, known as lactoferricin B25 (LFcinB25), exhibited potent anticancer capability against human stomach cancer cell cultures. The findings provide support for future use of LFcinB25 as a potential therapeutic agent for gastric cancer. How body clock affects inflammation: Discovery could accelerate body's response to infection, autoimmune disorders Researchers report that disrupting the light-dark cycle of mice increased their susceptibility to inflammatory disease, indicating that the production of a key immune cell is controlled by the body’s circadian clock. Bacterial toxin sets the course for infection Every year gastro-intestinal diseases have lethal consequences for more than five million individuals. Scientists have now discovered what makes a specific strain of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis so dangerous: the bacteria produce a molecule called CNFy that facilitates the infection process for them. It changes the host cells in a manner that enables the injection apparatus of Yersinia, which injec Plant cell architecture: Growth toward a light source Inside every plant cell, a cytoskeleton provides an interior scaffolding to direct construction of the cell's walls, and thus the growth of the organism as a whole. Environmental and hormonal signals that modulate cell growth cause reorganization of this scaffolding. New research provides surprising evidence as to how this reorganization process works, with important evidence as to how the directi


Did inefficient cellular machinery evolve to fight viruses and jumping genes? It might seem obvious that humans are elegant and sophisticated beings in comparison to lowly bacteria, but when it comes to genes, a scientist wants to turn conventional wisdom about human and bacterial evolution on its head. Hope builds for drug that might shut down variety of cancers The most frequently mutated gene across all types of cancers is a gene called p53. Unfortunately it has been difficult to directly target this gene with drugs. Now a multi-institutional research team has identified a family of enzymes they say is crucial for the growth of cancers that have genetic aberrations in p53. Blocking the active site of thiolase Scientists have shown the way to new directions in drug development against African sleeping sickness and other tropical parasitic infections. One worm, two mouths Depending on the environment in which the worm grows, the larva of the roundworm Pristionchus pacificus develops into either a widemouthed predator or a narrow-mouthed bacteria eater. A team of researchers has now discovered a developmental biological switch that determines the worm's mouth form. Why stem cells need to stick with their friends Scientists have identified a core set of functionally relevant factors that regulates embryonic stem cells' ability for self-renewal.


Researchers regrow hair, cartilage, bone, soft tissues: Enhancing cell metabolism key to tissue repair Young animals are known to repair their tissues effortlessly, but can this capacity be recaptured in adults? A new study suggests that it can. By reactivating a dormant gene called Lin28a, which is active in embryonic stem cells, researchers were able to regrow hair and repair cartilage, bone, skin and other soft tissues in a mouse model. Muscle built in diseased mice: Human muscle cells created in a dish Skeletal muscle has proved to be very difficult to grow in patients with muscular dystrophy and other disorders that degrade and weaken muscle. Researchers now report boosting muscle mass and reversing disease in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, using a "cocktail" of three compounds identified through a new rapid culture system. Adding the same compounds to stem cells derive Fountain-of-youth gene repairs tissue damage in adults Young animals recover from tissue damage better than adults, and from Charles Darwin's time until now, scientists have puzzled over why this is the case. A study has revealed that an evolutionarily conserved gene called Lin28a, which is very active in embryos but not in adults, enhances tissue repair after injury when reactivated in adult mice. The findings open up new avenues for the treatment of Bio patch that can regrow bone Researchers have created an implantable bio patch that regrows bone in a living body, using existing cells. The team created a scaffold seeded with plasmids containing the genetic information for producing bone. The plasmids are absorbed by bone cells already in the body, spurring new growth. Potential applications extend to dentistry. Natural products discovery group asks for public's help with citizen science program A research group has taken an unconventional approach to finding new compounds with therapeutic relevance by launching a crowdsourcing initiative with citizen scientists from around the country. Researchers team with the public to sample soils from all across the United States for the purpose of identifying new microorganisms that produce druglike compounds.


Presence of human settlements has negative impact on tiger connectivity Human settlements and roads place greater barriers on tiger dispersal than distance.

'Diabetic flies' can speed up disease-fighting research In a finding that has the potential to significantly speed up diabetes research, scientists have discovered that fruit flies respond to insulin at the cellular level much like humans do, making these common, easily bred insects good subjects for laboratory experiments in new treatments for diabetes. Infected butterflies lead geneticists up the garden path For animal species that cannot be distinguished using their external characteristics, genetic techniques such as DNA barcoding can help to identify cryptic species. An international team of researchers has now demonstrated how a bacterial infection can mimic cryptic speciation in butterflies. To avoid false results in the future, scientists recommend more in-depth genetic studies. Discovery of HIV 'invisibility cloak' reveals new treatment opportunities Scientists have discovered a molecular invisibility cloak that enables HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, to hide inside cells of the body without triggering the body's natural defense systems. RNA controls splicing during gene expression, further evidence of 'RNA world' origin in modern life RNA is the key functional component of spliceosomes, molecular machines that control how genes are expressed, report scientists. The discovery establishes that RNA, not protein, is responsible for catalyzing this fundamental biological process and enriches the hypothesis that life on Earth began in a world based solely on RNA.


New explanation for infection susceptibility in newborns: It is all about helping beneficial bacteria colonize the gut Cells that allow helpful bacteria to safely colonize the intestines of newborn infants also suppress their immune systems to make them more vulnerable to infections, according to new research. The study could prompt a major shift in how medicine views the threat of neonatal infections -- and how researchers go about looking for new strategies to stop it, said scientists who conducted the study. New antifungal composition effectively inhibits wide variety of fungi In order to overcome resistance to antifungal variety of pathogenic fungi and yeast, researchers have developed a novel and efficient antifungal composition with pharmacological applications in agriculture and food industry, among others. Stem cells hold hope for Hurler’s syndrome Research using special adult stem cells is promising new hope for better treatments for the devastating genetic disease Hurler’s syndrome. Gene is linked to deadly runaway fungal infection For most people, a fungal infection like athlete’s foot means a simple trip to the drugstore and a reminder to bring shower shoes to the gym. But in very rare cases, fungal infections can spread below the skin’s surface and onto the lymph nodes, bones, digestive tract or even the brain. Researchers have now discovered a genetic deficiency that allows the fungus to spread in this way, which explain New treatment for African sleeping sickness comes closer Researchers have identified drugs targeting infections of the parasite Trypanosoma brucei and are thereby well on the way to find a cure against African sleeping sickness. Intestinal bacteria linked to rheumatoid arthritis Researchers have linked a species of intestinal bacteria known as Prevotella copri to the onset of rheumatoid arthritis, the first demonstration in humans that the chronic inflammatory joint disease may be mediated in part by specific intestinal bacteria. The new findings add to the growing evidence that the trillions of microbes in our body play an important role in regulating our health.


Holograms offer hope in fight against malaria Scientists have developed a 3D filming technique that could help inform research to stem the spread of malaria.

Clay may have been birthplace of life on Earth, new study suggests Clay -- a seemingly infertile blend of minerals -- might have been the birthplace of life on Earth. Or at least of the complex biochemicals that make life possible, biological engineers report. Chemists develop new way to kill cancer cells resistant to chemotherapy drug Chemists develop new way to kill cancer cells resistant to the chemotherapy drug cisplatin. New cancer targeting technique to improve cancer drugs Cancer drugs work because they’re toxic, but that’s also why they afflict healthy cells, producing side effects that can compromise their efficacy. Researchers may have found a way to get the drugs to selectively target only the cancer cells. Drug combination therapy causes cancer cells to 'eat themselves' Results from a recent preclinical study have shown that a new drug combination therapy effectively killed colon, liver, lung, kidney, breast and brain cancer cells while having little effect on noncancerous cells. The results lay the foundation for researchers to plan a future phase 1 clinical trial to test the safety of the therapy in a small group of patients.


Genetic study demonstrates Israel's wild boars originated in Europe Scientists had no reason to suspect Israeli wild boars were any different than their brothers and sisters roaming the Middle East. Now, a researcher demonstrates that, unlike the Near Eastern wild boars in surrounding countries, Israel's wild boars originated in Europe, brought to Israel starting almost 3,000 years ago by the Philistines and other seafaring raiders. Researcher doubles down on deadly, infectious cat diseases An animal health expert has developed a research approach that tackles two deadly infectious feline diseases at the Learning and memory: How neurons activate PP1 A study describes how neurons activate the protein PP1, providing key insights into the biology of learning and memory. Gene responsible for hereditary cancer found to disrupt growthregulating cellular pathway Scientists report that the gene mutated in the rare hereditary disorder known as Birt-Hogg-Dubé cancer syndrome prevents activation of mTORC1, a critical nutrient-sensing and growth-regulating cellular pathway. Designer piercings: New membrane pores with DNA nanotechnology A new way to build membrane-crossing pores, using Lego-like DNA building blocks, has been developed by scientists. Subtypes of malignant melanoma - invisible yet fatal Scientists have discovered a diagnostic algorithm to distinguish two subtypes of malignant melanoma. Desmoplastic and spindle cell melanoma may look alike – they often resemble little scars or retractions of the skin – but differ in prognosis and therapeutic options. Sometimes even routine histology is not decisive because of partly overlapping features. The new algorithm, a combination of the bio Why tumor cells go on dangerous tours Tumors become highly malignant when they acquire the ability to colonize other tissues and form metastases. Researchers have identified a factor that promotes metastasis of colon tumors – and presents a possible target for therapy.


Riboswitches in action Riboswitches are RNA segments that switch genes on and off, either during DNA transcription or during protein translation, but little is known about the precise workings of this process. A new study uncovers some of the basic steps in this complex mechanism and paves the way for future research. Computational models to decipher biological problems and boost biotech productivity Researchers have designed mathematical models that will allow us to understand basic concepts of metabolic and genetic regulatory systems as well as to optimize the production of drugs and other biotechnological products. Molecular link between gut microbes, intestinal health Humans maintain a symbiotic relationship with the trillions of beneficial microbes that colonize their bodies. Inflammatory bowel disease is one of the best-studied diseases associated with alterations in the composition of beneficial bacterial populations. Researchers have identified that the enzyme HDAC3 – important in epigenetics - is a key mediator in maintaining proper intestinal integrity an Life, but not as we know it: Rudimentary form of life sidesteps normal replication process A rudimentary form of life that is found in some of the harshest environments on Earth is able to sidestep normal replication processes and reproduce by the back door, researchers have found. The study centers on Haloferax volcanii -- part of a family of single-celled organisms called archaea that until recently were thought to be a type of bacteria.


Non-genetic inheritance and changing environments In the last two decades climate change emerged as a momentous threat to ecosystems and species, calling for - politics aside - a greater interest in the adaptation abilities of the world’s creatures. Understanding and predicting how populations will respond to climate fluctuations has been attracting a wealth of research into evolutionary biology and the molecular components of evolution; with som 'Flipping the switch' reveals new compounds with antibiotic potential Researchers have discovered that one gene in a common fungus acts as a master regulator, and deleting it has opened access to a wealth of new compounds that have never before been studied -- with the potential to identify new antibiotics. New model for organ repair Researchers have a new model for how the kidney repairs itself, a model that adds to a growing body of evidence that mature cells are far more plastic than had previously been imagined. Scientists discover why newborns get sick so often If you think cold and flu season is tough, trying being an infant. A new research finding sheds light on why newborns appear to be so prone to getting sick with viruses -- they are born without one of the key proteins needed to protect them. Researchers model familial amyloidosis in vitro using iPSC technology Researchers have generated the first known disease-specific induced pluripotent stem cell lines from a patient with familial transthyretin amyloidosis. The findings may lead to new treatments for genetic diseases, such as familial amyloidosis. Cellular tail length tells human disease tale A molecular biologist's adventures in pond scum have led her and four student researchers to discover a mutation that can make cilia, the microscopic antennae on our cells, grow too long. When the antennae aren't the right size, the signals captured by them get misinterpreted. The result can be fatal. They have discovered that the regulatory gene CNK2 is present in cilia and controls the length of


Study offers new theory of cancer development Researchers have devised a way to understand patterns of aneuploidy -an abnormal number of chromosomes -- in tumors and predict which genes in the affected chromosomes are likely to be cancer suppressors or promoters. They propose that aneuploidy is a driver of cancer rather than a result of it. How protein suicide assure healthy cell structures Centrioles are tiny structures in the cell that play an important role in cell division and in the assembly of cilia and flagella. Changes in the number of centrioles are involved in diseases, such as cancer or infertility. The manipulation of these structures is being discussed for diagnosis and therapeutics. GenSeq: Updated nomenclature for genetic sequences to solve taxonomic determination issues An improved and expanded nomenclature for genetic sequences is introduced that corresponds with a ranking of the reliability of the taxonomic identification of the source specimens. Verifying the taxonomic identity of the voucher specimens that are the source of genetic materials has become increasingly difficult but remains vitally important; this new nomenclatural system for DNA sequences helps Treating gum disease by bringing needed immune cells to inflamed tissue The red, swollen and painful gums and bone destruction of periodontal disease could be treated by beckoning the right kind of immune system cells to the inflamed tissues, according to a new animal study. Their findings offer a new therapeutic paradigm for a condition that afflicts 78 million people in the US alone. Newly identified proteins make promising targets for blocking graft-vshost disease Researchers have identified new proteins that control the function of critical immune cell subsets called T-cells, which are responsible for a serious and often deadly side effect of lifesaving bone marrow transplants.


Brain researchers discover how retinal neurons claim best connections Scientists have discovered how retinal neurons claim prime real estate in the brain by controlling the abundance of a protein called aggrecan. The discovery could shed light on how to repair the injured brain. New knowledge about serious muscle disease Recent research sheds light on previously unknown facts about muscular dystrophy at molecular level. The breakthrough is hoped to improve future diagnosis and treatment of the disease. Researchers have developed a method that will make it easier to map the proteins that have an important kind of sugar monomer, mannose, attached. This is an important finding, as mannose deficiency can lead to disea New stem cells go back further A new method of producing na誰ve induced pluripotent stem cells holds promise for the future of regenerative biomedical research.

Biotransformation of enniatins from Fusarium fungi in a food safety perspective Mould species of the genera Fusarium and Altenaria are considered the most important threats to Norwegian grain cereals because they produce toxins that can be a potential risk to food safety. F. avenaceum, the fungi most frequently isolated from Norwegian grain, produces enniatins found in large quantities in Norwegian grain. A new PhD project concludes that incomplete intestinal absorption and e New methods improve quagga and zebra mussel identification The earliest possible detection of quagga and zebra mussels has long been a goal of biologists seeking to discover their presence in water bodies. A new sampling method improves the accuracy of quagga and zebra mussel detection while still at the microscopic larval stage.


.CĂŠlulas madre


Study identifies mechanism that makes ordinary stem cells create tumors A new study illustrates how changes in cell signaling can cause ordinary stem cells in the jaw to start forming benign but potentially harmful tumors. New trigger for breast cancer metastasis identified For years, scientists have observed that tumor cells from certain breast cancer patients with aggressive forms of the disease contained low levels of mitochondrial DNA. But, until recently, no one was able to explain how this characteristic influenced disease progression. Now researchers have revealed how a reduction in mitochondrial DNA content leads human breast cancer cells to take on aggressiv Researchers regrow hair, cartilage, bone, soft tissues: Enhancing cell metabolism was an unexpected key to tissue repair Young animals are known to repair their tissues effortlessly, but can this capacity be recaptured in adults? A new study suggests that it can. By reactivating a dormant gene called Lin28a, which is active in embryonic stem cells, researchers were able to regrow hair and repair cartilage, bone, skin and other soft tissues in a mouse model. Muscle built in diseased mice: Human muscle cells created in a dish Skeletal muscle has proved to be very difficult to grow in patients with muscular dystrophy and other disorders that degrade and weaken muscle. Researchers now report boosting muscle mass and reversing disease in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, using a "cocktail" of three compounds identified through a new rapid culture system. Adding the same compounds to stem cells derive Stem cells hold hope for Hurler’s syndrome Research using special adult stem cells is promising new hope for better treatments for the devastating genetic disease Hurler’s syndrome.


New report calls for sustained public endorsement, funding for human stem cell research A strategic report from the European Science Foundation examines the key scientific questions for human stem cell research in the context of the rapidly emerging field of regenerative medicine. In parallel to the potential new treatments for incurable diseases resulting from stem cell research, heated ethical and legal debates have arisen across the world. Stem cells linked to cognitive gain after brain injury A stem cell therapy previously shown to reduce inflammation in the critical time window after traumatic brain injury also promotes lasting cognitive improvement, according to preclinical research. How nanotechnology can advance regenerative medicine Nanotechnology may provide new strategies for regenerative medicine, including better tools to improve or restore damaged tissues. A new model for organ repair Researchers have a new model for how the kidney repairs itself, a model that adds to a growing body of evidence that mature cells are far more plastic than had previously been imagined. Researchers model familial amyloidosis in vitro using iPSC technology Researchers have generated the first known disease-specific induced pluripotent stem cell lines from a patient with familial transthyretin amyloidosis. The findings may lead to new treatments for genetic diseases, such as familial amyloidosis. New stem cells go back further A new method of producing na誰ve induced pluripotent stem cells holds promise for the future of regenerative biomedical research. Stem cell scarring aids recovery from spinal cord injury The scar tissue formed by stem cells after a spinal cord injury does not impair recovery; in fact, stem cell scarring confines the damage,according to new research. The findings indicate that scar tissue prevents the lesion from expanding and helps injured nerve cells survive. Spinal cord injuries sever nerve fibers that conduct signals between the brain and the rest of the body, causing various d


.Neurociencia


Study reveals TWEAK-Fn14 as key drug target A cellular pathway interaction known as TWEAK-Fn14, often associated with repair of acute injuries, also is a viable target for drug therapy that could prevent the spread of cancer, especially brain cancer, according to a study.

Simple dot test may help gauge progression of dopamine loss in Parkinson's disease Could figuring out how much dopamine a patient with Parkinson's disease has lost be as simple as completing a dot test? Researchers hope the easy task might lead to ways of improving clinical treatment of Parkinson's patients. New therapeutic target identified for ALS A team of scientists has identified a novel therapeutic approach for the most frequent genetic cause of ALS, a disorder of the regions of the brain and spinal cord that control voluntary muscle movement, and frontal temporal degeneration, the second most frequent dementia. Researchers develop at-home 3D video game for stroke patients Researchers have developed a therapeutic at-home gaming program for stroke patients who experience motor weakness affecting 80 percent of survivors. In animal study, 'cold turkey' withdrawal from drugs triggers mental decline Can quitting drugs without treatment trigger a decline in mental health? That appears to be the case in an animal model of morphine addiction. Researchers say their observations suggest that managing morphine withdrawal could promote a healthier mental state in people.


New study decodes brain's process for decision making Psychology and neurobiology researchers develop new brain imaging model to examine how memories are used in decision making. Oxytocin gene partly responsible for how adolescents feel Loneliness: could there be a genetic explanation for it? Yes, to some extent. At least in the case of young female adolescents who, it appears, are more likely to feel lonely in everyday life if they have a specific variant of the gene that regulates how oxytocin – also known as the ‘bonding hormone’ – is received in the brain. Boys who carry this variant are not lonelier but, like girls, respond New insight into how antidepressants work in the brain New research is giving scientists a never-before-seen view of how nerve cells communicate with each other. That new view can give scientists a better understanding of how antidepressants work in the human brain -and could lead to the development of better antidepressants with few or no side effects. New method predicts time from Alzheimer’s onset to nursing home, death A research team has clinically validated a new method for predicting time to nursing home residence or death for patients with Alzheimer’s. The method uses data from a single patient visit, and is based on a complex model of Alzheimer’s progression developed by consecutively following two sets of Alzheimer’s patients for 10 years each. Social symptoms in autistic children may be caused by hyper-connected neurons The brains of children with autism show more connections than the brains of typically developing children do. What's more, the brains of individuals with the most severe social symptoms are also the most hyper-connected. The findings reported in two independent studies are challenge the prevailing notion in the field that autistic brains are lacking in neural connections. Scientists identify clue to regrowing nerve cells Researchers have identified a chain reaction that triggers the regrowth of some damaged nerve cell branches, a discovery that one day may


help improve treatments for nerve injuries that can cause loss of sensation or paralysis. Brain may play key role in blood sugar metabolism, development of diabetes New research suggests that the development of diabetes Type 2 requires a failure of both the islet-cell system in the pancreas and a braincentered system for regulating blood sugar levels. Boosting insulin levels alone will lower glucose levels, but only addresses half the problem. Restoring normal glucose regulation requires addressing failures of the brain-centered system as well. Approaches th Hearing through sight: Brain plasticity and why cochlear implants work better for some people than others Cochlear implants allow adults who have become profoundly deaf to recover the ability to understand speech. However, recovery differs between individuals. Activating the visual regions of the brain has proved essential to the satisfactory recovery of hearing, according to a new study. Ants, like humans, can change their priorities For the first time, researchers have discovered that at least in ants, animals can change their decision-making strategies based on experience. They can also use that experience to weigh different options. Postoperative pain may increase risk of temporary problems with learning, memory The pain caused by a surgical incision may contribute to the risk of postoperative cognitive dysfunction, a sometimes transient impairment in learning and memory that affects a small but significant number of patients in the days following a surgical procedure. Stress makes snails forgetful New research on pond snails has revealed that high levels of stress can block memory processes. Researchers trained snails and found that when they were exposed to multiple stressful events they were unable remember what they had learned.


Early childhood educators hold key to children's communication skills Researchers have completed a new examination of peer-reviewed science that reveals how early childhood educators can ignite the growth of language and communication skills in infants and toddlers. Their conclusion: it takes more than baby talk. Breastfeeding possible deterrent to autism The emergence of autism in young children appears to result from dysmyelination of brain neurons, related to inadequate supply of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) in the newborn. The deficiency of IGF in affected infants may be due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors yet to be determined. If this hypothesis is correct, breastfeeding in particular could increase IGF levels, thereb Speaking a second language may delay different dementias In the largest study on the topic to date, research shows that speaking a second language may delay the onset of three types of dementias. Just a few years of early musical training benefits the brain later in life Older adults who took music lessons as children but haven’t actively played an instrument in decades have a faster brain response to a speech sound than individuals who never played an instrument. The finding suggests early musical training has a lasting, positive effect on how the brain processes sound.

Multitasking neurons filter and decide: How neural circuits identify information needed for decisions Using brain recordings and a computer model, an interdisciplinary team confounds the conventional wisdom about how the brain sorts out relevant versus irrelevant sensory inputs in making choices.


Monkeys use minds to move two virtual arms Monkeys have learned to control the movement of both arms on an avatar using just their brain activity. Prognostic value of baseline survival determined for 11 types of cancer Results of a study point out the prognostic value of baseline recorded health-related quality of life for survival for eleven types of cancer: brain, breast, colorectal, esophageal, head and neck, lung, melanoma, ovarian, pancreatic, prostate, and testicular cancer. For each cancer site, at least one health-related quality of life parameter provided additional prognostic information over and above Comprehending comprehension What makes a good reader? First, you have to know how to read the words on a page and understand them -- but there's a higher-level step to reading comprehension. You have to tie together the words over time, maintaining their order and meaning in your memory, so that you can understand phrases, sentences, paragraphs and extended texts. Personal reflection triggers increased brain activity during depressive episodes Research has found that people experiencing depressive episodes display increased brain activity when they think about themselves. Anticipation and navigation: Do your legs know what your tongue is doing? Scientists built a virtual world to manipulate a rat's environment. They found that, depending on the environmental cue, different areas of the brain can work together, or be in disarray. Better understanding concussions in high school, college athletes To better measure the effects and causes of sports concussions, researchers plan to track 130 student-athletes in three sports over the next year. Effects of chronic stress can be traced to your genes New research suggests that if you’re working for a really bad boss over a long period of time, that experience may play out at the level of gene expression in your immune system.


Pleasure, pain brain signals disrupted in fibromyalgia patients New research indicates that a disruption of brain signals for reward and punishment contributes to increased pain sensitivity, known as hyperalgesia, in fibromyalgia patients. Results suggest that this altered brain processing might contribute to widespread pain and lack of response to opioid therapy in patients with fibromyalgia. New research on little-understood brain disease Three recent papers on aging explore the neuropathology behind a littleunderstood brain disease, hippocampal sclerosis (known to scientists and clinicians as HS-AGING). HS-AGING, much like Alzheimer's disease, causes symptoms of dementia -- cognitive decline and impaired memory -- in aged persons. Although Alzheimer's disease is probably the most recognized cause of dementia, HS-AGING also causes Visual representations improved by reducing noise in the brain Neuroscientists have revealed how the activity of neurons in an important area of the rhesus macaque’s brain becomes less variable when they represent important visual information during an eye movement task. This reduction in variability can improve the perceptual strength of attended or relevant aspects in a visual scene, and is enhanced when the animals are more motivated to perform the task. Repetition in music pulls us in, together A researcher explores the psychology of repetition in music, across time, style and cultures. Gambling addicts present brain function abnormalities that affect their decision-making capacity Researchers have analyzed similarities and differences in psychological profile and brain function when comparing cocaine addicts and gambling addicts. The study reveals that gambling addicts present brain function abnormalities affecting their decision-making capacity. New insights into brain neuronal networks A paper published proposes a novel understanding of brain architecture using a network representation of connections within the primate cortex.


Gabapentin is safe, effective for treating alcohol dependence, study shows The generic drug gabapentin, which is already widely prescribed for epilepsy and some kinds of pain, appears to be safe and effective in the treatment of alcohol dependence. The finding comes from a 150-patient randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind clinical trial. Brain aging is conclusively linked to genes For the first time in a large study sample, the decline in brain function in normal aging is conclusively shown to be influenced by genes, say American researchers. Magnesium levels vital to brain health as population ages A clinical study shows that a magnesium formula prevents synapse loss and reverses memory decline in mice with Alzheimer’s Disease. Learning and memory: How neurons activate PP1 A study describes how neurons activate the protein PP1, providing key insights into the biology of learning and memory. Stem cells linked to cognitive gain after brain injury A stem cell therapy previously shown to reduce inflammation in the critical time window after traumatic brain injury also promotes lasting cognitive improvement, according to preclinical research. Transmitting stress response patterns across generations Children of survivors of extremely stressful life events face adjustment challenges of their own, as has been most carefully studied among the children of Nazi Death Camp survivors. This "intergenerational" transmission of stress response has been studied predominately from the psychological perspective. However, recent research points to biological contributions as well. Antidepressant drug induces a juvenile-like state in neurons of the prefrontal cortex Fluoxetine, a commonly prescribed anti-depressive drug, induces a juvenile-like state in the mouse prefrontal cortex. Brain development and maturation has been thought to be a one-way process until now, in which plasticity diminishes with age. The possibility that the adult brain can revert to a younger state and regain plasticity has not generally been considered until now.


Brain tumor removal through hole smaller than dime More than two decades ago, Ryan Vincent had open brain surgery to remove a malignant brain tumor, resulting in a lengthy hospital stay and weeks of recovery at home. Recently, neurosurgeons removed a different lesion from Vincent’s brain through a tube inserted into a hole smaller than a dime and he went home the next day. Breakthrough in identifying effect of epilepsy treatment Fifty years after valproate was first discovered, research published reports how the drug works to block seizure progression. Neuroimaging study sheds light on mechanisms of cognitive fatigue in MS A new study sheds light on the mechanisms underlying cognitive fatigue in multiple sclerosis. This is the first study to use neuroimaging to investigate aspects of cognitive fatigue. Identifying a network of fatigue-related brain regions could help define the pathophysiology of this multifaceted symptom. Mindful individuals less affected by immediate rewards A new study shows that people who are aware of their own thoughts and emotions are less affected by positive feedback from others. New way to monitor induced comas After suffering a traumatic brain injury, patients are often placed in a coma to give the brain time to heal and allow dangerous swelling to dissipate. These comas, which are induced with anesthesia drugs, can last for days. During that time, nurses must closely monitor patients to make sure their brains are at the right level of sedation -- a process that scientists now describe as "totally Surprising variation among genomes of individual neurons from same brain It was once thought that each cell in a person's body possesses the same DNA code and that the particular way the genome is read imparts cell function and defines the individual. For many cell types in our bodies, however, that is an oversimplification. Studies of neuronal genomes published in the past decade have turned up extra or missing chromosomes, or pieces of DNA that can copy and paste the


Microbleeds important to consider in brain-related treatments As growing numbers of America's baby boomers reach retirement, neuroscientists are expanding their efforts to understand and treat one of the leading health issues affecting this population: age-related neurological deterioration, including stroke and dementia. Study on incarcerated youth shows potential to lower anti-social behavior A first study of its kind demonstrates that mindfulness training can be used in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy to protect attentional functioning in high-risk, incarcerated youth. Direct link established between stimulus-response learning, substance abuse A neuroscientist has found that the region of the brain involved in stimulus-response learning is directly linked to the consumption of alcohol, tobacco and drugs. More specifically, she discovered that people who resorted to stimulus-response learning smoked more, had double the consumption of alcohol and were more likely to use cannabis. Aerobic exercise benefits memory in persons with MS A research study provides the first evidence for beneficial effects of aerobic exercise on brain and memory in individuals with multiple sclerosis. Neuroscientists determine how treatment for anxiety disorders silences fear neurons Neuroscientists report that exposure therapy, a common treatment for anxiety disorders, remodels an inhibitory junction in the mouse brain. The findings improve the understanding of how exposure therapy suppresses fear responses and may aid in the development of more effective treatments for anxiety disorders. Brain researchers discover how retinal neurons claim best connections Scientists have discovered how retinal neurons claim prime real estate in the brain by controlling the abundance of a protein called aggrecan. The discovery could shed light on how to repair the injured brain.


The visual brain colors black and white images The perception and processing of color has fascinated neuroscientists for a long time, as our brain influences our perception of it to such a degree that colors could be called an illusion. One mystery was: What happens in the brain when we look at black-and-white photographs? Do our brains fill in the colors?


Biblioteca. Facultad de BiologĂ­a Universidad de Salamanca. Campus Miguel de Unamuno c/Donantes de Sangre s/n 37007 Salamanca angelpoveda@usal.es

http://campus.usal.es/~bibliotecabiologia/

Bionoticias 2ª semana noviembre  

Revista de noticias de Biología, Biotecnología, Medioambiente, Neurociencias, Biomedicina, etc. de la Biblioteca de la Facultad de Biología...

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