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Universidad de Salamanca Facultad de BiologĂ­a

Biblioteca

Bionoticias

Febrero (1ÂŞ) de 2014


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BioNoticias. Resumen de prensa semanal Elaborado por la Biblioteca de Biología. Universidad de Salamanca Para leer el texto completo de los artículos pulse en el título Para agrandar el texto pulse cualquier otra parte de la página Puede enviarnos sus noticias a bibbiol@usal.es Suscribirse a Bionotias + BioEmpleo: dirección de correo electrónico y su nombre a bibbiol@usal.es Boletines anteriores en http://issuu.com/bibliotecabiologia


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iología

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iomedicina

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iotecnología

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eurociencia

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.Biología


El entomólogo Paul R. Ehrlich, premio Fronteras del Conocimiento en la categoría de ecología Paul R. Ehrlich ha sido galardonado con el premio Fronteras del Conocimiento "por demostrar que la interacción entre seres vivos es el principal motor para la generación de biodiversidad", según señala el acta del jurado. Una de sus contribuciones pioneras fue explicar la dinámica e importancia de las metapoblaciones que resultan de la fragmentación de los hábitats y cómo determinan la d Descubren una bacteria capaz de lograr mejoras drásticas en procesos químicos industriales y de biosaneamiento Enterradas en el lodo de un lago de agua salada cerca del Parque Nacional estadounidense de Yosemite, en California, existen colonias de unas bacterias con una propiedad inusual: "respiran" un metal tóxico para sobrevivir. El hallazgo se ha hecho en una expedición al lago Mono realizada por... La edad no es un obstáculo para la regeneración de neuronas Se ha descubierto que lo que limita de manera determinante la regeneración neuronal no es la edad sino la insulina. El hallazgo se ha hecho en gusanos envejecidos, pero es posible que la misma situación descubierta ocurra en otros animales, incluyendo al Ser Humano.En los gusanos estudiados, la... Descubiertas dos nuevas moléculas en el espacio Investigadores de la Universidad de Valladolid han identificado etil mercaptano e isocianuro de hidromagnesio en el medio interestelar. Sus datos sirven para predecir su espectro en otras frecuencias como son las que detecta el interferómetro ALMA, en Chile. Un estudio de restos fósiles de ‘Homo georgicus’ desvela su dieta y enfermedades Laura Martín-Francés del Centro Nacional de Investigación sobre la Evolución Humana lidera un trabajo, portada de la revista Comptes Rendus Palevol, sobre el resto mandibular del cráneo 5 hallado en el yacimiento georgiano de Dmanisi.


Nuevos métodos para combatir las plagas forestales en los bosques de pinos Científicos de la Misión Biológica de Galicia (Pontevedra) y de la Swedish University of Agricultural Sciencies (Suecia) han comprobado que la aplicación en vivero de la fitohormona metil jasmonato a plántulas de cuatro especies de coníferas, entre ellas el pino marítimo, también conocido como 'piñeiro do país' (Pinus pinaster), activa sus mecanismos de defensa proporcionando, una vez establecidas El cambio climático se asocia con un incremento general de parásitos en las aves Investigadores europeos han analizado los efectos del aumento de temperatura en las relaciones entre las poblaciones de 24 especies de aves y 89 parásitos sanguíneos. Según sus resultados, el ascenso de temperatura incrementa la prevalencia de estos parásitos y el cambio climático afecta a la reproducción y condición corporal de las aves. La evidencia más antigua de reproducción sexual en plantas con flores Se ha descubierto una pieza de ámbar de 100 millones de años de antigüedad que contiene restos fósiles que constituyen la evidencia más antigua de reproducción sexual en una planta con flores. Se trata de un conjunto de 18 diminutas flores del Período Cretácico, y una de ellas estaba en el... Investigadores chinos editan de forma selectiva el ADN de embriones de monos Hasta ahora no se había conseguido alterar la acción de genes concretos en embriones de primates. Por primera vez, un equipo de investigadores chinos lo ha conseguido utilizando una técnica que actúa en los fragmentos de ADN elegidos.El procedimiento para editar a voluntad el ADN se llama CRISPR,... Alimentamos el cambio de los ecosistemas Un estudio científico del Laboratorio de Ecología de Poblaciones del IMEDEA argumenta que la comida que los humanos ponen a disposición de los animales a través de actividades como la agricultura, la ganadería, la pesca comercial y el comercio ha dado forma a muchos de los ecosistemas del planeta tal y como los vemos hoy en día.


Más datos sobre la reproducción del hongo que arruina los olivos Concluye con éxito el proyecto VERTIGEN en el que han participado investigadores del ceiA3 en la Universidad de Córdoba y dos equipos estadounidenses de las Universidades de Cornell y del Estado de Pensilvania. Este trabajo ha constatado la evolución genética del hongo que causa una de las enfermedades más ruinosas del sector olivarero europeo. Descubierto un mecanismo molecular que controla el crecimiento y desarrollo de las plantas Un trabajo conjunto entre los equipos de Miquel Coll en el Instituto de Investigación Biomédica (IRB) y el Instituto de Biología Molecular del CSIC, en Barcelona (España), y Dolf Weijers de la Universidad de Wageningen, en Holanda, han descubierto el misterio de cómo unas hormonas de plantas, las... Hallan en el río Ebro una planta que se consideraba extinguida en Cataluña Spirodela polyrrhiza es el nombre de una pequeña planta flotante que no se encontraba en la cuenca mediterránea desde hace más de ochenta años. Esta planta, catalogada como especie extinguida en Cataluña, ha sido descubierta en el curso bajo del río Ebro –en la zona de Tortosa y Amposta– y en el pantano de Vallvidrera, en Barcelona. Notables alteraciones de un hongo común durante un viaje espacial La ingravidez o microgravedad que se experimenta a bordo de una nave espacial no solo afecta de manera evidente a los astronautas humanos, sino también a muchos otros seres vivos. En un estudio reciente se han analizado los efectos que tuvo un viaje espacial sobre un cultivo del hongo Candida... Aclaran el misterio del posicionamiento de los generadores de impulsos nerviosos de las neuronas Después de mucho tiempo desde que se planteó por vez primera, se ha resuelto un importante misterio del sistema nervioso central, al descubrirse cómo una proteína clave se posiciona en los puntos exactos para lanzar los impulsos eléctricos que permiten la comunicación mediante señales nerviosas...


Buscan aprovechar la actividad eléctrica de bacterias ¿Podrán las baterías de los celulares y otros dispositivos electrónicos cargarse con bioenergía? Tal vez sí, si se utilizan bacterias “electrogénicas” capaces de producir electricidad a partir de la biodegradación de efluentes domésticos e industriales.En eso están pensando investigadores del... La química de sistemas, clave para explicar el origen de la vida Una investigación, que cuenta con la participación del Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) español destaca que el origen de las primeras células requirió la combinación de tres sistemas tradicionalmente estudiados por separado: un compartimento que permitiera distinguir al... El gato salvaje formaba parte de la dieta neandertal Las presas más habituales de los neandertales eran ungulados de talla mediana y grande, como ciervos, caballos y uros. Por este motivo, tradicionalmente se les había atribuido una dieta especializada en el consumo de estos animales. No obstante, aunque escasas, cada vez hay más evidencias que...


Descubierto un mecanismo molecular que controla el crecimiento y desarrollo de las plantas Investigadores españoles y holandeses desvelan en la revista Cell el misterio de cómo unas hormonas de plantas, las auxinas, mediante diversos factores de transcripción de genes, acaban activando multitud de funciones vitales de las plantas. Bacterias y cáncer: una historia de coevolución Artículo del blog Cierta Ciencia, de la genetista Josefina Cano, que recomendamos por su interés.La Helicobacter pylori es una bacteria que coloniza la mucosa gástrica en casi la mitad de la población humana, ocasionando inflamaciones y, en un porcentaje bajo de pacientes, cáncer estomacal, la... Analizan cómo un mosquito ‘todoterreno’ responde a la contaminación fluvial gallega Por primera vez, un equipo de investigadores liderados por la Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED) ha estudiado sobre el terreno de qué forma responde a la contaminación un tipo de mosquito que vive en tres ríos gallegos con altos niveles de residuos: el Sar, el Con y el Louro. Nuestros pulmones tienen receptores de olor La nariz no es el único órgano del cuerpo humano capaz de detectar cosas como por ejemplo el humo de un cigarrillo propagándose por el aire. Se ha descubierto que nuestros pulmones también tienen receptores de olor.El hallazgo lo ha hecho el equipo de Yehuda Ben-Shahar, de la Universidad... Descifran el legado de los genes neandertales en los humanos actuales Los científicos saben que los neandertales procrearon con los ancestros de los humanos modernos y dejaron rastros de su material genético. De qué forma afecta al ser humano actual este legado de ADN neandertal y qué cantidad de segmentos han sobrevivido son cuestiones que no están claras.Un...


.Biomedicina


Descrito un nuevo mecanismo de activación del dolor debido a tóxicos bacterianos Un estudio liderado por el CSIC ha identificado un nuevo mecanismo de activación de las neuronas sensoriales del dolor. Este proceso es inducido por una endotoxina presente en la membrana de bacterias patógenas. El descubrimiento podría abrir nuevas vías para el tratamiento del dolor y la inflamación asociado a las infecciones.

Desvelan los defectos genéticos implicados en el inicio del cáncer de riñón Conocer los mecanismos por los que el cáncer renal aparece y se desarrolla puede suponer ir un paso por delante de esta enfermedad, aumentando así las posibilidades de luchar contra ella. Científicos de varios países han estudiado los defectos genéticos presentes en el núcleo de los tumores de riñón y han logrado identificar a los implicados en los primeros estadios del desarrollo del cáncer, lo q El cerebro edita los recuerdos constantemente Según un nuevo estudio, la memoria reconstruye cada información como un puzle formado por experiencias antiguas y recientes. Así, por ejemplo, el recuerdo de haber sentido amor a primera vista es un engaño que se produce al proyectar las emociones actuales al momento del pasado en que conocimos a la persona querida.


Patentan un péptido que podría ser eficaz para frenar tumores cerebrales Científicos españoles han logrado diseñar un péptido que consigue el mismo efecto que la proteína conexina 43, que consigue frenar la proliferación del glioma, el tumor cerebral más frecuente. El equipo además ha obtenido una patente nacional del descubrimiento. Los hermanos gemelos desarrollan distintos grados de sensibilidad al dolor Un estudio publicado hoy en Nature Communications ha sido el primero en plantear que la vulnerabilidad al dolor, que se consideraba relativamente inalterable, puede cambiar gracias a la epigenética, es decir, a la alteración química de la expresión de genes debido a los factores ambientales y al estilo de vida. Obtienen nanocápsulas con actividad antitumoral en líneas celulares de cáncer de mama Investigadores españoles fabrican nanopartículas compuestas de un núcleo de aceite de oliva y una cubierta de biomoléculas, que además incorporan un detector dirigido de manera selectiva a las células cancerígenas y que permiten disminuir los efectos secundarios de los fármacos antitumorales. Identificado un nuevo oncogén que causa cáncer de hígado El hepatocarcinoma es un tipo cáncer de hígado que constituye alrededor del 80% de los tumores hepáticos malignos. Un estudio internacional liderado por el Hospital Mount Sinai de Nueva York, en colaboración con el Institut D’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS)–Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, ha logrado identificar un oncogén en un modelo animal de pez cebra capaz de generar este


Investigadores chinos editan de forma selectiva el ADN de embriones de monos La herramienta CRISPR de edición genómica, que probó su efectividad en 2013, ha permitido inducir por primera vez en el laboratorio mutaciones en genes concretos de embriones de primates. El sistema permitirá estudiar las enfermedades genéticas humanas en modelos animales más fiables. Identifican un subgrupo de pacientes de esquizofrenia con trastornos motores Una investigación liderada por el Instituto de Neuropatología del Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Bellvitge identifica un nuevo subgrupo de pacientes de esquizofrenia caracterizados por sufrir trastornos motores. Los resultados han sido publicados en la revista Psychiatric Research. El entrenamiento pliométrico aumentar el rendimiento físico de los deportistas Un investigador de la Universidad Pública de Navarra ha demostrado en su tesis doctoral, publicada en varios artículos científicos, cómo a través del entrenamiento pliométrico —ejercicios de saltos, carreras cortas y lanzamientos— los futbolistas jóvenes pueden incrementar significativamente su rendimiento físico. Además, potencialmente, también pueden aumentar su rendimiento competitivo. La hormona del crecimiento retrasa el desarrollo de la diabetes Usada por los médicos desde 1950 para tratar su deficiencia en niños y adolescentes, la hormona del crecimiento podría llegar a ser utilizada ahora para el tratamiento de la diabetes tipo 1. Los resultados han sido publicados en la revista PNAS. Un estudio afirma que los antioxidantes pueden empeorar el cáncer en ratones Investigadores de la Universidad de Gotemburgo muestran que ratones con cáncer de pulmón desarrollan los tumores más agresivos y mueren más rápidamente cuando su dieta se complementa con antioxidantes. Los resultados, publicados en la revista Science Translational Medicine, han sido confirmados en células humanas con cáncer de pulmón.


Logran obtener células pluripotentes en mamíferos mediante estrés ambiental Investigadores japoneses han diseñado una técnica para inducir pluripotencia a las células somáticas, presentes en la mayoría de las células de un organismo pluricelular. El fenómeno, al que han llamado ‘adquisición de estímulo-desencadenador de la pluripotencia’ (STAP), supone importantes implicaciones para la medicina regenerativa. Reconstruyen el genoma de la bacteria que causó la primera pandemia de peste de la historia A partir de dos dientes de 1.500 años de antigüedad, un equipo de investigadores ha demostrado que la cepa que produjo la plaga de Justiniano era independiente de la que causó la peste negra unos 800 años después y de brotes posteriores de la enfermedad. Es el genoma de un patógeno más antiguo obtenido hasta la fecha.


.BiotecnologĂ­a


Healthy balance: model for studying cancer, immune diseases The protein STAT1 is involved in defending the body against pathogens and for inhibiting tumor development. If the levels of the protein are out of balance, disease may result. Researchers have developed a mouse whose STAT1 levels can be modified at will, enabling the study of the involvement of STAT1 in various processes. Newly discovered signaling pathway could impact variety of autoinflammatory diseases Researchers have discovered a new signaling pathway in sterile inflammation that could impact the treatment of diseases such as cancer, multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Their findings offer insight into the role that activation of interferon-regulatory factor 1, a protein that functions as a transcriptional activator of a variety of target genes, plays in the production of chemokines a


Cell division finding could boost understanding of cancer New insights into how the cells in our bodies divide could improve our knowledge of a condition linked to cancer, a study suggests. New fruitfly sleep gene promotes the need to sleep All creatures great and small, including fruitflies, need sleep. The timing of when we sleep versus are awake is controlled by cells in tune with circadian rhythms of light and dark. Most of the molecular components of that internal clock have been worked out. On the other hand, what drives how much we sleep is less well understood. Researchers report a new protein involved in the homeostatic regu Primitive artificial cell turned into complex biological materials Imagine starting from scratch with simple artificial microscopic building blocks and ending up with something much more complex: living systems, novel computers or every-day materials. For decades scientists have pursued the dream of creating artificial building blocks that can self-assemble in large numbers and reassemble to take on new tasks or to remedy defects. Now researchers have taken a ste Gene therapy may be possible cure for Hurler syndrome: Mouse Study Researchers used blood platelets and bone marrow cells to deliver potentially curative gene therapy to mouse models of the human genetic disorder Hurler syndrome -- an often fatal condition that causes organ damage and other medical complications. How shape-shifting DNA-repair machine fights cancer Maybe you've seen the movies or played with toy Transformers, those shape-shifting machines that morph in response to whatever challenge they face. It turns out that DNA-repair machines in your cells use a similar approach to fight cancer and other diseases, according to new research. Discovery aids in fight against antifungal drug resistance A research breakthrough is helping pave the way for novel antifungal drugs designed to overcome the world-wide problem of growing resistance to current treatments.


Why cancer incidence increases with age The accumulation of age-associated changes in a biochemical process that helps control genes may be responsible for some of the increased risk of cancer seen in older people, according to a study.

Finding a target for tumor suppression: Protein discovered that blocks scaffolding during cell division Biochemists found a protein that is suspected as a potential tumor suppressor and found how it could block the production of the material used as scaffolding during cell division. Genetic function of tumor suppressor gene discovered; could offer new avenue to cancer therapies Researchers have discovered a genetic function that helps one of the most important "tumor suppressor" genes to do its job and prevent cancer. Finding ways to maintain or increase the effectiveness of this gene could offer an important new avenue for human cancer therapies.


Beneficial insects, nematodes not harmed by genetically modified, insect-resistant crops, studies show Two new studies show that genetically modified Bt crops have no negative effects on two beneficial insect predators or on a beneficial, entomopathogenic nematode. Researchers Advance Findings on Key Gene Related to Cancer Metastasis Researchers report that the disabling of two key genes, SSeCKS/AKAP12 and Rb, led to early development of prostate cancer and was also associated with high rates of metastasis to nearby lymph nodes. Capturing ultrasharp images of multiple cell components at once A new microscopy method could enable scientists to generate snapshots of dozens of different biomolecules at once in a single human cell. Such images could shed light on complex cellular pathways and potentially lead to new ways to diagnose disease, track its prognosis, or monitor the effectiveness of therapies at a cellular level. Split decision: Stem cell signal linked with cancer growth Researchers have identified a protein critical to hematopoietic stem cell function and blood formation. The finding has potential as a new target for treating leukemia because cancer stem cells rely upon the same protein to regulate and sustain their growth. Quicker, cheaper way to detect staph in the body Watch out, infection. Researchers have crated a probe that can identify staph bacteria before symptoms appear. The probe is noninvasive and is expected to be cheaper and faster than current diagnostic techniques. DNA of peanut-allergic kids changes with immune therapy, study finds Treating a peanut allergy with oral immunotherapy changes the DNA of the patient's immune cells, according to a new study. The DNA change could serve as the basis for a simple blood test to monitor the long-term effectiveness of the allergy therapy.


Trees' diminished resistance to tropical cyclone winds attributed to insect invasions Researchers compared the impact of two tropical cyclones that occurred in Guam in 1997 and 2004 on the resilience and health of the native tree species Cycas micronesica. Findings revealed that 100 percent recovery followed the 1997 typhoon, but infestations of two invasive insects were responsible for 100 percent mortality of the trees during the 5 years after the 2004 typhoon. The invasive pests Potential biomarkers for diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease Researchers identify abnormal expression of genes, resulting from DNA relaxation, that can be detected in the brain and blood of Alzheimer's patients. Protocol developed to harvest mouse cell lines for melanoma research Researchers have developed a protocol that permits cells harvested from melanoma tumors in mice to grow readily in cell culture. Epigenetic alterations may contribute to age-related breast cancer risk Age is a key risk factor for breast cancer. A recent study examines the connection between cancer and the aging process to see if epigenetic DNA alterations might contribute to age-related increases in breast cancer risk. Scientists unveil molecular mechanism that controls plant growth, development A new study unravels the mystery behind how the plant hormones called auxins activate multiple vital plant functions through various gene transcription factors. Protein serves as natural boost for immune system's fight against infection, tumors The development of DNA-based vaccines with cytokine adjuvants has emerged as particularly promising for inducing antiviral and anti-tumor, cell-mediated immune responses. The protein IL-33 boosts the immune system of a human papilloma virus animal model of cancer.


Zebra fish fins provide insight into bone regeneration Biologists say they have opened the window on the natural process of bone regeneration in zebra fish, and that the insights they gained could be used to advance therapies for bone fractures and disease. Some lung diseases reversed in mice by coaxing production of healthy cells Introducing proteins that direct lung stem cells to grow the specific cell types needed to repair lung injuries could lead to new ways to treat some lung diseases, according to research published. Researchers identify UHRF1 as oncogene driving liver cancer Using a zebrafish model and patient data, investigators found that UHRF1 is a novel oncogene involved in the pathogenesis of liver cancer. Fruit flies reveal normal function of gene mutated in spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 Disruptive clumps of mutated protein are often blamed for clogging cells and interfering with brain function in patients with the neurodegenerative diseases known as spinocerebellar ataxias. But a new study in fruit flies suggests that for at least one of these diseases, the defective proteins may not need to form clumps to do harm. Two separate molecular profiles of invasive bladder cancer, genomic analysis reveals In the second-ever whole-genome analysis in bladder cancer, researchers found two distinct patterns of genetic alteration in tumors and identified a potential target. Impaired cell division leads to neuronal disorder Researchers have discovered an amino acid signal essential for errorfree cell division. This signal regulates the number of centrosomes in the cell, and its absence results in the development of pathologically altered cells. Remarkably, such altered cells are found in people with a neurodevelopmental disorder, called autosomal recessive primary microcephaly.


Detailed look at HIV in action: Researchers gain a better understanding of the virus through electron microscopy Researchers reporting today are the first to have utilized high-resolution electron microscopy to look at HIV infection within the actual tissue of an infected organism, providing perhaps the most detailed characterization yet of HIV infection in the gut. Researcher turns sights on prostate cancer, tissue engineering, blood vessel repair When biology and materials science converge, the results can be new materials that can be used to deliver targeted drugs, repair damaged arteries or rebuild failing tissues, such as the anterior cruciate ligament, the ACL injury that can end sports careers. One bioengineer is developing polymers designed to target all three. Screening for transformed human mesenchymal stromal cells with tumorigenic potential Spontaneous transformation of human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells has been observed during long-term expansion in cell culture, although it is rare. Engrafting these transformed cells into immunodeficient mice leads to the formation of solid tumors. Using high-throughput profiling methods, a panel of RNA molecules was identified as potential biomarkers for screening for these transformed cells in Said the tumor to its neighbor, 'You’ve got mail': Cell communication via exosomes Cells have their own miniaturized postal service in the shape of vesicles, or tiny bubbles through which molecules crucial for biological processes like communication and food intake are sorted, packaged and delivered. Scientific interest in a particular group of vesicles called exosomes has accelerated over the last several years. Researchers are studying the potential clinical applications of th Bladder cancer study: Potential drug targets, similarities to several cancers identified Investigators have identified new potential therapeutic targets for a major form of bladder cancer, including important genes and pathways that are disrupted in the disease.


Prostate cancer signal reawakens 'sleeper agent' cells in bones Dormant prostate cancer cells in bone tissue can be reawakened to cause secondary tumors, according to new research. Targeting the wake-up call could prevent metastasis and improve prostate cancer survival rates.

Trick identified that aids viral infection Scientists have identified a way some viruses protect themselves from the immune system’s efforts to stop infections, a finding that may make new approaches to treating viral infections possible. Researchers develop new tool to identify genetic risk factors Researchers developed a new biological pathway-based computational model, called the Pathway-based Human Phenotype Network, to identify underlying genetic connections between different diseases. The Pathway-based Human Phenotype Network mines the data present in large publicly available disease datasets to find shared SNPs, genes, or pathways and expresses them in a visual form. Cell cycle speed is key to making aging cells young again Researchers identified a major obstacle to converting cells back to their youthful state -- the speed of the cell cycle, or the time required for a cell to divide. When the cell cycle accelerates to a certain speed, the barriers that keep a cell's fate on one path diminish. In such a state, cells are easily persuaded to change their identity and become pluripotent, or capable of becoming multiple


Precise gene editing in monkeys paves the way for valuable human disease models Monkeys are important for modeling diseases because of their close similarities to humans, but past efforts to precisely modify genes in primates have failed. Researchers have now achieved precise gene modification in monkeys for the first time using an efficient and reliable approach known as the CRISPR/Cas9 system. The study opens promising new avenues for the development of more effective treat World's first butterfly bacteria sequenced: Suprising events found during metamorphosis For the first time ever, scientists have sequenced the internal bacterial makeup of the three major life stages of a butterfly species, a project that showed some surprising events occur during metamorphosis. Antibiotic 'smart bomb' can target specific strains of bacteria Researchers have developed a de facto antibiotic "smart bomb" that can identify specific strains of bacteria and sever their DNA, eliminating the infection. The technique offers a potential approach to treat infections by multi-drug resistant bacteria. Researchers find novel approach for controlling deadly C. difficile infections Researchers have revealed the first molecular views showing how highly specific antibodies derived from llamas may provide a new method for controlling deadly infections from the opportunistic bacterial pathogen Clostridium difficile. Self-aligning DNA wires for application in nanoelectronics Since miniaturization in microelectronics is starting to reach physical limits, researchers seek new methods for device fabrication. One candidate is DNA origami in which strands of the biomolecule selfassemble into arbitrarily shaped nanostructures. The formation of entire circuits, however, requires the controlled positioning of these DNA structures on a surface -- which is only possible using


Mirror-image nucleic acids as molecular scissors in biotechnology and molecular medicine Biochemist have now created mirror-image enzymes -- so-called Spiegelzymes -- out of nucleic acids. The Spiegelzymes can be used in living cells for the targeted cutting of natural nucleic acids. RNA tail linked to protein production during embryogenesis, study shows Researchers have determined that poly(A) tails on messenger RNAs (mRNAs) shift their role in the regulation of protein production during early embryogenesis. This finding about the regulation of mRNA translation also provides insight into how microRNAs control protein production. A simple new way to induce pluripotency: Acid An unusual reprogramming phenomenon by which the fate of somatic cells can be drastically altered through changes to the external environment is described in two new articles. Puzzling question in bacterial immune system answered Researchers have answered a central question about Cas9, an enzyme that plays an essential role in the bacterial immune system and is fast becoming a valuable tool for genetic engineering: How is Cas9 able to precisely discriminate between non-self DNA that must be degraded and self DNA that may be almost identical within genomes that are millions to billions of base pairs long. Novel genes determine division of labor in insect societies Novel or highly modified genes play a major role in the development of the different castes within ant colonies. Evolutionary biologists came to this conclusion in a recent gene expression study by looking at the question of how the different female castes arise. An ant colony generally consists of a queen and the workers. Moreover, workers can differ depending on the task they perform, such as br Obesity-induced fatty liver disease reversed in mice Researchers have discovered that valproic acid, a widely prescribed drug for treating epilepsy, has the additional benefits of reducing fat accumulation in the liver and lowering blood sugar levels in the blood of obese mice.


Lung, bladder cancers have common cell-cycle biomarkers Bladder and lung cancers are marked by shared differences in the genetics that control the cell cycle, with diagnostic, prognostic and treatment implications, research indicates. Hempseed oil packed with health-promoting compounds, study finds Long stigmatized because of its "high"-inducing cousins, hemp -derived from low-hallucinogenic varieties of cannabis -- is making a comeback, not just as a source of fiber for textiles, but also as a crop packed with oils that have potential health benefits. A new study details just how many healthful compounds hempseed oil contains. Animal model demonstrates role for metabolic enzyme in acute myeloid leukemia In recent years, mutant IDH proteins have been proposed as attractive drug targets for acute myeloid leukemia. Investigators have developed a new animal model that supports IDH2 as a therapeutic target for this widespread blood cancer. Engineered virus effective against triple negative breast cancer cells, study shows Scientists have discovered a potential cure for one of the most aggressive and least treatable forms of breast cancer called "triple negative breast cancer." Zebrafish use sunscreen also for camouflage For diurnal animals like zebrafish embryos, which grow up in shallow pools and are practically see-through, exposure to the sun constitutes a major problem since ultraviolet (UV) radiation damages DNA. Neurobiologists set about investigating which mechanisms zebrafish embryos use to protect themselves against the aggressive UV radiation. Interestingly, scientists have found that the UV-protection La diabetes podría llegar a tratarse con hormona del crecimiento Cuando nuestro propio sistema inmune ataca a las células del páncreas encargadas de producir insulina no hay mucho que podamos hacer. Tenemos diabetes de tipo 1, y el único recurso que tienen los médicos es el


.Neurociencia


Your memory is no video camera: It edits the past with present experiences Your memory is a wily time traveler, plucking fragments of the present and inserting them into the past, reports a new study. In terms of accuracy, it's no video camera. Rather, memory rewrites the past with current information, updating your recollections with new experiences to aid survival. Love at first sight, for example, is more likely a trick of your memory than a Hollywood-worthy moment. Brain scans show we take risks because we can't stop ourselves A new study correlating brain activity with how people make decisions suggests that when individuals engage in risky behavior, such as drunk driving or unsafe sex, it’s probably not because their brains’ desire systems are too active, but because their self-control systems are not active enough. This might have implications for how health experts treat mental illness and addiction or how the legal


First evidence of common brain code for space, time, distance A new study provides the first evidence that people use the same brain circuitry to figure out space, time and social distances. The results may help to determine whether we care enough to act: Is something happening here, now, to someone I love? Or over there, years from now, to a stranger? Eyemusic sensory substitution device enables the blind to 'see' colors and shapes Using auditory or tactile stimulation, Sensory Substitution Devices (SSDs) provide representations of visual information and can help the blind "see" colors and shapes. SSDs scan images and transform the information into audio or touch signals that users are trained to understand, enabling them to recognize an image without seeing it. Currently SSDs are not widely used within the blind c Long-term survival among patients with most common childhood brain tumor is high; lower if treatment included radiation Study of long-term survival of children with most common pediatric brain tumor finds almost 90 percent are alive 20 years later and few died from the tumor as adults. However, children treated with radiation had significantly lower long-term survival rates than children who were not radiated.


Effect of lowering blood pressure on risk for cognitive decline in patients with diabetes Intensive blood pressure and cholesterol lowering was not associated with reduced risk for diabetes-related cognitive decline in older patients with long-standing type 2 diabetes mellitus, according to a recent study. NFL concussions study shows higher altitudes reduce risk significantly A new study analyzing concussion data for NFL players during the 16game regular season schedules for 2012 and 2013 may provide insight that could lead to safer play, including a pathway for concussionprevention strategies. Early autism detection: Speech disrupts facial attention in 6-month-old infants who later develop autism From birth, infants naturally show a preference for human contact and interaction, including faces and voices. These basic predispositions to social stimuli are altered in individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A new study now reports that 6-month-old infants later diagnosed with autism divert their gaze from facial features when that face is speaking. Blue light may fight fatigue around the clock Researchers have found that exposure to short wavelength, or blue light, during the biological day directly and immediately improves alertness and performance. In the brain: Number of neurons in a network may not matter A study has found that the time it takes neural networks in the brain to make decisions is remarkably stable regardless of size. Can a protein controlling blood pressure enhance immune responses and prevent Alzheimer's? Many people with high blood pressure are familiar with ACE inhibitors, drugs that widen blood vessels by limiting activity of ACE – angiotensin-converting enzyme – a naturally occurring protein found in tissues throughout the body. But high activity of the enzyme – in the right context, place and time – may be a good thing. A study found that genetically targeting certain immune blood cells to ove


Gene mutation defines brain tumors that benefit from aggressive surgery A new study has found that malignant astrocytoma patients whose tumors carry a specific genetic mutation benefit greatly from surgical removal of the largest possible amount of tumor. New method to restore skull after brain surgery appears to reduce complication rates Surgeons report they have devised a better, safer method to replace bone removed from the skull after lifesaving brain surgery. The new technique, they say, appears to result in fewer complications than standard restoration, which has changed little since its development in the 1890s.

Your brain is fine-tuning its wiring throughout your life The white matter microstructure, the communication pathways of the brain, continues to develop/mature as one ages. Studies link age-related differences in white matter microstructure to specific cognitive abilities in childhood and adulthood.


Researchers discover how brain regions work together, or alone Various regions of the brain often work independently. But what happens when two regions must cooperate to accomplish a task? What mechanism allows them to communicate in order to cooperate, yet avoid interfering with one another when they work alone? Scientists reveal a previously unknown process that helps two brain regions cooperate when joint action is required. Making your brain social: Identifying brain connections that lead to social behavior Scientists have identified, for the first time, a way in which the decreased functional connectivity seen in the brain of many people with autism can come about: it can be caused by cells called microglia failing to trim connections between neurons, researchers demonstrate in a study published. Fruit flies reveal normal function of gene mutated in spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 Disruptive clumps of mutated protein are often blamed for clogging cells and interfering with brain function in patients with the neurodegenerative diseases known as spinocerebellar ataxias. But a new study in fruit flies suggests that for at least one of these diseases, the defective proteins may not need to form clumps to do harm.


Retrieval practice improves memory in severe traumatic brain injury, researchers demonstrate Researchers have shown that retrieval practice can improve memory in individuals with severe traumatic brain injury. Despite the small sample size, it was clear that retrieval practice was superior to other learning strategies in this group of memory-impaired individuals with severe traumatic brain injury. Potential biomarkers for diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease Researchers identify abnormal expression of genes, resulting from DNA relaxation, that can be detected in the brain and blood of Alzheimer's patients. Autistic brains create more information at rest, study show New research finds that the brains of autistic children generate more information at rest -- a 42 percent increase on average. The study offers a scientific explanation for the most typical characteristic of autism -withdrawal into one's own inner world. The excess production of information may explain a child's detachment from their environment. How to cope with football withdrawal symptoms after Superbowl ends Once the Super Bowl ends, millions of fans will go through withdrawal symptoms from not being able to watch football. In a new article, a psychiatrist describes the effects this has on the brain and offers tips on how fans can cope. How neurons control fine motor behavior of the arm Motor commands issued by the brain to activate arm muscles take two different routes. As a research group has now discovered, many neurons in the spinal cord send their instructions not only towards the musculature, but at the same time also back to the brain via an exquisitely organized network. Imaging technique shows brain anatomy change in women with MS, depression A multicenter research team used a new, automated technique to identify shrinkage of a mood-regulating brain structure in a large sample of women with MS who also have a certain type of depression.


Revealing how the brain recognizes speech sounds Researchers are reporting a detailed account of how speech sounds are identified by the human brain. The finding, they said, may add to our understanding of language disorders, including dyslexia. Genetically diverse cancer cells key to brain tumor resistance For a cancer cell, it pays to have a group of eccentric friends. Like XMen characters, a group of cancer cells with diverse physical traits is safer, because it takes different strategies to kill each member. The more diverse the group, the better the chances are for individual cells to survive and join forces as a cohesive tumor. Sex-specific patterns of recovery from newborn brain injury revealed by animal study Physicians have long known that oxygen deprivation to the brain around the time of birth causes worse damage in boys than girls. Now a study by researchers conducted in mice reveals one possible reason behind this gender disparity and points to gender-specific mechanisms of brain repair following such injury. Worry on the brain: Researchers find new area linked to anxiety Previous studies of anxiety in the brain have focused on the amygdala, but a team of researchers had a hunch that understanding a different brain area, the lateral septum (LS), could provide more clues into how the brain processes anxiety. Their instincts paid off -- the team has found a neural circuit that connects the LS with other brain structures in a manner that directly influences anxiety.


Signs point to sharp rise in drugged driving fatalities The prevalence of non-alcohol drugs detected in fatally injured drivers in the US steadily rose from 1999 to 2010 and especially for drivers who tested positive for marijuana. Researchers found that of 23,591 drivers who were killed within one hour of a crash, 39.7 percent tested positive for alcohol and 24.8 percent for other drugs. The prevalence of non-alcohol drugs rose from 16.6 percent in 19 Intuitive number games boost children's math performance A quick glance at two, unequal groups of paper clips leads most people to immediately intuit which group has more. In a new study, researchers report that practicing this kind of simple, instinctive numerical exercise can improve children's ability to solve math problems. Individuals with ADHD have communicative difficulty, study finds People with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are less able to consider the perspective of their conversational partner, concludes new research. The findings may lead to new remediation that can improve the way individuals with the disorder interact and communicate with others. Measuring brain activity in premature infants A procedure to identify newborns and children at-risk for developmental problems, especially those born prematurely has been published. The technique is an infant friendly way of measuring brain activity using non-traditional methods, and it will aid in the invention of treatment strategies leveraging neural plasticity present in the first three years of life. Parkinson's gene: Nerve growth factor halts mitochondrial degeneration Neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's disease involve the death of thousands of neurons in the brain. Nerve growth factors produced by the body, such as GDNF, promote the survival of the neurons; however, clinical tests with GDNF have not yielded in any clear improvements. Scientists have now succeeded in demonstrating that GDNF and its receptor Ret also promote the survival of mitochondria,


Lightwaves used by neuroscientists to improve brain tumor surgery First-of-its-kind research shows promise for developing a method of clearly identifying cancerous tissue during surgery on one of the most common and deadliest types of brain tumor. New molecule protects brain from detrimental effects associated with diabetes, high blood sugar Researchers have created a molecule that could potentially lower diabetic patients’ higher risk of developing dementia or Alzheimer’s disease. New subgroup of schizophrenia patients with motor disorders Researchers have identified a new subgroup of patients suffering from schizophrenia characterized by motor disorders. Protein modifies thyroid hormone levels according to body temperature Research improves our understanding of the changes that occur during fevers; it also sheds light on the euphoric feeling some people get when in a hot bath or sauna. Finding points to possible new Parkinson's therapy A new study shows that, when properly manipulated, a population of support cells found in the brain called astrocytes could provide a new and promising approach to treat Parkinson's disease. These findings, which were made using an animal model of the disease, demonstrate that a single therapy could simultaneously repair the multiple types of neurological damage caused by Parkinson's, providing an Low levels of pro-inflammatory agent help cognition in rats Although inflammation is frequently a cause of disease in the body, research indicates that low levels of a pro-inflammatory cytokine in the brain are important for cognition. Cytokines are proteins produced by the immune system. Bacterial toxin potential trigger for multiple sclerosis Researchers have added to the growing body of evidence that multiple sclerosis may be triggered by a toxin produced by common foodborne bacteria.


Biblioteca. Facultad de BiologĂ­a Universidad de Salamanca. Campus Miguel de Unamuno c/Donantes de Sangre s/n 37007 Salamanca angelpoveda@usal.es

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Boletín de noticias sobre biología, biotecnología, medioambiente, biomedicina, política científica y ciencia en Castilla y León

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