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Universidad de Salamanca Facultad de BiologĂ­a

Biblioteca

Bionoticias Diciembre (1ÂŞ) de 2013


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BioNoticias. Resumen de prensa semanal Elaborado por la Biblioteca de Biología. Universidad de Salamanca Para leer el texto completo de los artículos pulse en el título Para agrandar el texto pulse cualquier otra parte de la página Puede enviarnos sus noticias a bibbiol@usal.es Suscribirse a Bionotias + BioEmpleo: dirección de correo electrónico y su nombre a bibbiol@usal.es Boletines anteriores en http://issuu.com/bibliotecabiologia


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dice

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iología

4

B

iomedicina

10

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iotecnología

14

élulas madre y epigenética

27

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eurociencia

olítica científica

30 40


.Biología


Los híbridos de ADN y ARN condensan los cromosomas y favorecen las mutaciones Un estudio liderado por el Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), en España, ha demostrado que la formación de híbridos de ADN y ARN hace que los cromosomas se compacten e impide que se repliquen correctamente, lo que provoca mutaciones. La estabilidad de los cromosomas es un... Diseñan una planta de producción de anticuerpos monoclonales Investigadores de la Universidad de Salamanca en España han diseñado una planta biofarmacéutica pensada para la fabricación de moléculas de origen biológico que generan anticuerpos monoclonales con aplicaciones terapéuticas en ámbitos muy diversos, como el cáncer, las enfermedades autoinmunes e... El número de aves en peligro crítico de extinción en el mundo bate un nuevo récord La última Lista Roja de las Aves elaborada por BirdLife Internacional revela que entre las 10.065 especies conocidas de aves, 198 están incluidas en la categoría de máxima alarma de la Unión Internacional para la Conservación de la Naturaleza. La pardela balear es la única especie española con esta distinción a nivel mundial. Hallazgo de una extraña bacteria en dos centros espaciales Un raro microbio descubierto recientemente, y que sobrevive con muy escasos nutrientes, ha sido encontrado en dos lugares llamativos de la Tierra: Dos recintos dedicados a preparativos finales de naves espaciales. La bacteria es muy diferente de cualquier otra conocida. De hecho, se la considera... Descubierta una nueva y enigmática especie de tigrillo salvaje en Brasil Científicos del proyecto ‘Gatos do Mato–Brasil’ han revelado que no existe una sola especie de leopardo tigre brasileño, también conocido como tigrillo (Leopardus tigrinus) como se creía hasta ahora. Aunque visualmente todos los ejemplares parecen iguales, en realidad pertenecen a dos especies distintas.


Descubren una planta única en su género por vivir a gran altura en las montañas Se ha descubierto una especie de juncia que vive en zonas de alta montaña en el sudoeste de Tasmania. Esta pequeña planta, a la que se le ha dado el nombre de Lepidosperma monticola, vive en montañas como por ejemplo el Monte Field y el Monte Sprent. En su género es la única planta esencialmente... ¿Qué justifica la muerte celular? La ciencia ha demostrado que existen decesos que aportan ventajas al desarrollo armónico de un organismo. “Uno de ellas es la muerte celular programada, que consiste en desechar a lo largo de la vida estructuras que el organismo ya no necesita”, refiere el investigador del Departamento de... La creciente complejidad de los factores de transcripción hizo posible la evolución de los seres vivos Un estudio el que ha participado el Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), en España, revela que la creciente complejidad de los factores de transcripción permitió la evolución de los seres vivos y su paso de organismos unicelulares a pluricelulares. Este trabajo, publicado en la... Cerca del 40% de las tortugas atrapadas por la pesca en el Mediterráneo fallecen Cuando una tortuga marina es capturada accidentalmente por un palangrero, los pescadores intentan cortar el hilo de pescar —sin subir el animal a bordo— para devolver la tortuga al mar. Sin embargo, cerca del 40% de las tortugas liberadas muere meses después por las secuelas de esta pesca accidental, según alerta un estudio publicado en la revista Marine Ecology Progress Series. Los caballitos de mar son cazadores sigilosos gracias a la forma de su cabeza Los hipocampos se alimentan de presas huidizas y muy sensibles a los cambios, capaces de sentir cualquier deformación en el agua circundante. Investigadores estadounidenses han averiguado su truco para cazar: es la forma de la cabeza lo que les permite moverse sin perturbar su entorno.


La creciente complejidad de los factores de transcripción hizo posible la evolución de los seres vivos Los factores de transcripción son proteínas que se unen al ADN y activan o reprimen la expresión de genes, y son esenciales en el desarrollo animal. Científicos del Instituto de Biología Evolutiva (CSIC-UPF) han descubierto que las plantas y los animales tienen el repertorio más complejo de factores de transcripción. Resuelta la primera parte del puzle genético del olivo El proyecto ‘Primera secuenciación completa del ADN del olivo’, liderado por el CSIC, ha logrado secuenciar el ADN de un olivo de unos 1.200 años de edad, de la variedad Farga, que procede de la Sierra del Maestrazgo (Castellón). Los resultados de este estudio, que ha completado así su fase inicial, servirán para mejorar la producción olivarera.


Los hombres se sienten más atraídos por sus parejas después de inhalar oxitocina Investigadores de la Universidad de Bonn (Alemania) han analizado en 20 parejas heterosexuales la respuesta de los hombres al visualizar fotografías de mujeres desconocidas o de su pareja tras haber inhalado oxitocina.Los resultados, publicados en la revista PNAS, revelan que se produce una mayor... Bacterias, no tan malas como las pintan Entrega del podcast Quilo de Ciencia, realizado por Jorge Laborda (catedrático de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular de la Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, España), en Ciencia para Escuchar, que recomendamos por su interés. Desde los inicios de la civilización, las plagas y las pestes...

Los visones que se crían felices ligan más Los ejemplares masculinos de visón criados en cautividad con juguetes, piscinas y columpios obtienen una mejor respuesta de las hembras en la época de celo. La investigación ayudará a mejorar la reproducción de otras especies que tienen dificultades, como los osos panda.


Una planta transgénica se aclimata sin influencia exterior La Universidad de Ginebra, en Suiza, en colaboración las universidades de Gante (Bélgica) y Friburgo (Alemania) ha creado plantas transgénicas resistentes a los rayos ultravioleta que producen altos niveles de antioxidantes. El esqueleto del dinosaurio Misty, a subasta Cualquiera que haya visitado el Museo de Historia Natural de Londres recordará el esqueleto de dinosaurio del Jurásico Tardío, de 17 metros de largo y 6 de alto, que se exhibe en el hall central. Se trata de una réplica de Diplodocus longus. Este miércoles, la casa de subastas británica Summers Place Auctions pone a la venta a Misty, un ejemplar auténtico. Crean un catálogo de cetáceos del sur peninsular de acceso libre El intercambio de datos fotográficos de las poblaciones de cetáceos es fundamental para realizar estimaciones de su abundancia. El equipo de Conservación, Información y Estudio de Cetáceos, CIRCE, ha puesto a disposición de todos los usuarios interesados sus catálogos del sur peninsular. Un hongo colocado en olivares a modo de apósito los protege frente a las plagas Investigadores del Grupo de Investigación Entomología Agrícola de la Universidad de Córdoba han desarrollado un método que permite la utilización de hongos a modo de ‘apósitos’ para proteger al olivar de las heridas de poda, granizo o cualquier otro origen frente al ataque de la polilla Euzophera pinguis. Los humedales de las zonas semiáridas se adaptan peor a los cambios durante el período seco La capacidad de los humedales para hacer frente a las perturbaciones es diferente en la fase seca y en la fase húmeda, según revela un estudio del Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (CSIC) en el Parque Nacional Las Tablas de Daimiel.


.Biomedicina


Más del 40% de los niños con parálisis cerebral sufre dolor Un estudio realizado por el Instituto Universitario de Integración en la Comunidad (INICO) de la Universidad de Salamanca indica que el 41,8% de los niños con parálisis cerebral sufren dolor y que esto tiene un impacto muy significativo en la calidad de vida de los afectados, sobre todo en el aspecto psicológico. Detectar de forma temprana el dolor y controlarlo sería una importante ayuda para est ¿Por qué los tumores se vuelven resistentes a la quimioterapia? Un nuevo estudio analiza las causas por las que un paciente se vuelve resistente a la quimioterapia y describe los cambios epigenéticos que explican la falta de respuesta al fármaco en cáncer de colon. Los resultados han sido publicados en The Journal of The National Cancer Institute. Los híbridos de ADN y ARN condensan los cromosomas y favorecen las mutaciones Un estudio liderado por el Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) ha demostrado que la formación de híbridos de ADN y ARN impide que los cromosomas se repliquen correctamente, lo que provoca mutaciones. El fenómeno descrito ha sido observado en levaduras, nematodos y células humanas. Hallan un gen responsable de la susceptibilidad a padecer trastorno del pánico Un estudio publicado recientemente en el Journal of Neuroscience señala por primera vez al gen trkC como factor relacionado con el desarrollo de trastorno del pánico. Los investigadores han definido el mecanismo específico de formación de las memorias del miedo, lo que abre la puerta a nuevos tratamientos farmacológicos y cognitivos. El colesterol alto fomenta el crecimiento del cáncer de mama Un subproducto del colesterol, que funciona de forma similar a la hormona estrógeno, impulsa el crecimiento y la propagación de los tipos más comunes de cáncer de mama. En un estudio realizado en ratones, los investigadores también encontraron que los medicamentos contra el colesterol, como las estatinas, parecen disminuir el efecto de esta molécula.


Investigadores españoles diseñan moléculas sintéticas capaces de bloquear la replicación del VIH Un equipo multidisciplinar de científicos de la Universidad Católica de Valencia, el Centro de Investigación Príncipe Felipe, la Universitad de València y el Instituto de SaludCarlos III ha conseguido por primera vez en el mundo crear moléculas sintéticas que bloquean la replicación del virus del SIDA e impiden la infección de las células. Alertan del riesgo por dengue en el Mundial de Fútbol de Brasil Un científico de la Universidad de Oxford (Reino Unido) advierte de que en tres de las sedes del Mundial Fútbol de 2014 existe un alto riesgo de contraer dengue. “No quiero disuadir a nadie de acudir a la cita mundialista, pero es necesario informar a los aficionados acerca de los riesgos y cómo pueden protegerse de ellos”, destaca Simon Hay, autor del artículo. Las mujeres de entre 35 y 60 años con VIH presentan peor calidad de vida que las más jóvenes El primer proyecto de investigación realizado en España para conocer la calidad de vida, la prevalencia de detección positiva de ansiedad y depresión y la función neurocognitiva de mujeres seropositivas desvela la necesidad de optimizar el estudio y tratamiento de su salud mental y emocional. En España seguirá habiendo muertes por amianto hasta el año 2040 La exposición al amianto seguirá causando muertes en España hasta el año 2040, fundamentalmente a causa de mesoteliomas pleurales y carcinomas de pulmón. Así lo afirma un equipo de investigadores españoles en un artículo publicado recientemente en la revista BMC Cancer. Analizan las propiedades beneficiosas de cuatro compuestos del aceite de oliva virgen Un nuevo estudio, publicado en el Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, refleja las propiedades saludables de cuatro compuestos del aceite de oliva virgen contra enfermedades cardiovasculares o cáncer. Dichos compuestos cuentan con propiedades antiinflamatorias, inhiben el estrés oxidativo y reducen el daño que se produce en el ADN.


Los medicamentos con alto contenido en sodio aumentan el riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular Un equipo de investigadores británicos ha demostrado en más de 1,2 millones de pacientes que los fármacos ricos en sodio, como el paracetamol y la aspirina efervescentes, o como el ibuprofeno soluble, aumentan un 16% el riesgo de sufrir un infarto o un ictus y siete veces el desarrollo de la hipertensión. Describen uno de los mecanismos que favorece el rechazo en el trasplante de cartílago porcino en humanos Investigadores españoles han liderado la demostración de que la inhibición de uno de los componentes básicos del sistema de complemento protege a las células del cartílago porcinos del rechazo en el trasplante entre animales de diferente especie. Los trastornos mentales provocan más estigma en las familias que los problemas físicos Las patologías mentales y físicas suponen un impacto en la vida de los familiares de los afectados, pero el nivel es mayor en las familias que poseen un miembro con una enfermedad mental, ya que sufren más discriminación. Los resultados se basan en un estudio realizado en 28 países, entre ellos, España. Los hombres se sienten más atraídos por sus parejas después de inhalar oxitocina Un estudio analiza la respuesta de los hombres heterosexuales al visualizar fotografías de mujeres tras haber inhalado oxitocina. Los resultados revelan una mayor actividad en las regiones de recompensa del cerebro al ver la cara de su compañera, a la que también calificaron como más atractiva que las mujeres desconocidas. GripeNet predice la incidencia de la gripe en tiempo real con datos de los ciudadanos Una plataforma de ciencia ciudadana en internet creada por investigadores de la Universidad de Zaragoza simula el avance de la gripe en la población a partir de los datos de los usuarios que se registren. Hoy se ha presentado la segunda parte de este proyecto, que servirá para que se eviten colapsos en los hospitales y la población conozca la situación en su entorno.


.BiotecnologĂ­a


Protien Cyclin D1 governs microRNA processing in breast cancer A protein that helps push a replicating cell through the cell cycle also mediates the processing and generation of mature microRNA, according to new research. Mitochondria separate their waste Cellular power plants collect and break down damaged molecules in order to protect themselves from harmful substances, research shows. Up to now, it was unclear whether this housekeeping work involves sorting out defective proteins when they digest mitochondria. Researchers have now discovered that the proteins are sorted out during the constant fusion and fission of mitochondria. Bone grafting improvements with help of sea coral Sea coral could soon be used more extensively in bone grafting procedures thanks to new research that has refined the material's properties and made it more compatible with natural bone. Researchers find missing component in effort to create primitive, synthetic cells A team of investigators working to create "protocells" -- primitive synthetic cells consisting of a nucleic acid strand encased within a membrane-bound compartment -- have found a solution to what could have been a critical problem, the potential incompatibility between a chemical requirement of RNA copying and the stability of the protocell membrane. Gene found responsible for susceptibility to panic disorder A study published points, for the first time, to the gene trkC as a factor in susceptibility to a panic disorder. The researchers define the specific mechanism for the formation of fear memories which will help in the development of new pharmacological and cognitive treatments. Protecting vital crops in China Evidence of disease in oilseed rape crops across China and how it may spread has been mapped by researchers, providing new strategic information on crop protection to the Chinese government.


The heart's own stem cells play their part in regeneration Up until a few years ago, the common school of thought held that the mammalian heart had very little regenerative capacity. However, scientists now know that heart muscle cells constantly regenerate, albeit at a very low rate. Sca1 stem cells replace steadily aging heart muscle cells, new research shows. Barcodes for trees: Researchers identify genetic fingerprints of endangered conifers In the tropics and subtropics, many evergreen conifers are endangered. Biologists have collected the world’s largest Podocarpaceae collection. They sequenced characteristic parts of the DNA of these conifers in order to generate a “DNA barcode� for each species. With the help of this genetic fingerprint, unknown individuals can be assigned to the respective Podocarpaceae species, which are often v Researchers block replication of AIDS virus A multidisciplinary team of scientists from Spanish universities and research centers has managed to design small synthetic molecules capable of joining to the genetic material of the AIDS virus and blocking its replication. Mutations in mantled howler provoked by disturbances in habitat The disturbances of the habitat could be affecting the populations of the mantled howler, or golden-mantled howling monkey, (Alouatta palliate Mexicana) who in an extreme case could be developing mutations that make them less resistant to diseases and climate events.


Quantitative approaches provide new perspective on development of antibiotic resistance Using quantitative models of bacterial growth, a team biophysicists has discovered the bizarre way by which antibiotic resistance allows bacteria to multiply in the presence of antibiotics, a growing health problem in hospitals and nursing homes across the United States. Are you carrying adrenal Cushing’s syndrome without knowing it? Genetic research suggests that clinicians’ understanding and treatment of a form of Cushing’s syndrome affecting both adrenal glands will be fundamentally changed, and that moreover, it might be appropriate to begin screening for the genetic mutations that cause this form of the disease. New aggressive HIV strain leads to faster AIDS development A recently discovered HIV strain leads to significantly faster development of AIDS than currently prevalent forms, according to new research. Historic first procedure performed using technique of retrograde gene therapy on human heart A new technique uses a minimally invasive method for a physician to go backwards through a patient’s main cardiac vein, or coronary sinus, and inserts a catheter. A balloon is then inflated to block blood flow out of the heart so that a very high dose of gene therapy can be infused directly into the heart. The unique gene therapy doesn’t involve viruses and is pure human DNA infused into patients, New clues to memory formation may help better treat dementia Do fruit flies hold the key to treating dementia? Biologists have taken a significant step forward in unraveling the mechanisms of Pavlovian conditioning. Their work will help them understand how memories form and, ultimately, provide better treatments to improve memory in all ages. Scientists identify potential target for malaria drugs Researchers have identified the protein in malaria-causing Plasmodium parasites that is inhibited by a newly discovered class of anti-malarial compounds known as imidazopyrazines. The protein, phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase, is the first potential malaria drug target


shown to be essential to all stages of the Plasmodium life cycle; imidazopyrazines impede its activity throughout this process. Researchers identify rescuer for vital tumor-suppressor The tumor-suppessing protein PTEN is absent in many cancers, yet defects in the PTEN gene do not account for this disappearance. Researchers identified an enzyme that keep PTEN from being fed to the cell's protein-recycling mechanism. Prostate cancer stem cells found to be moving target Prostate cancer stem cells evolve into different cells as prostate cancer progresses becoming a moving target for therapy. Scientists must be prepared for the continual evolution of the stem cell as tumors adapt and become resistant to new and more potent therapies. With this knowledge, researchers can now design therapies that target the elements of the cancer stem cells that remain unchanged.

Implantable slimming aid Biotechnologists have constructed a genetic regulatory circuit from human components that monitors blood-fat levels. In response to excessive levels, it produces a messenger substance that signalizes satiety to the body. Tests on obese mice reveal that this helps them to lose weight. HIV vaccine preventing healthy cells' infection AIDS research has attempted many strategies to tackle the HIV virus infection. Now, a new type of vaccine is based on one of the envelope proteins of the HIV virus, called the gp41 protein. What makes it interesting is that it is directly responsible for the fusion of the HIV virus into human cells. By integrating the gp41 protein into the vaccine, researchers try to trigger the production of anti


Big brains are all in the genes Scientists have moved a step closer to understanding genetic changes that permitted humans and other mammals to develop such big brains. Leukemia cells exploit 'enhancer' DNA elements to cause lethal disease A team of researchers has identified a leukemia-specific stretch of DNA called an enhancer element that enables cancerous blood cells to proliferate in acute myeloid leukemia, a devastating cancer that is incurable in 70 percent of patients. Just as important, the findings offer a mechanistic insight into how a new class of promising drugs -- one version of which is already in human clinical trial New agent against cancer cells Scientists have discovered a new active substance that inhibits cell division in leukemia cells and could play an important role in the fight against cancer. Vitamins: Potential damage to body's defences Vitamin supplements are a billion-dollar industry. We want to stay healthy and fit and help our bodies with this. But perhaps we are achieving precisely the opposite? Iron preserves, hides ancient tissues in fossilized remains Iron may play a role in preserving ancient tissues within dinosaur fossils, but also may hide them from detection. This finding could open the door to the recovery of more ancient tissues from within fossils.


'Molecular motors' involved in chromosome transport observed Researchers have for the first time directly observed the “molecular motor”, called Xkid, that plays a critical role in facilitating the proper alignment of chromosomes during cell division. The study provides invaluable knowledge on the mechanisms of materials transport in biological systems. Inner workings of bacterial black box caught on time-lapse video Using a pioneering visualization method, researchers made movies of a complex and vital cellular machine called the carboxysome being assembled inside living cells. They observed that bacteria build these internal compartments in a way never seen in plant, animal and other eukaryotic cells. The findings will illuminate bacterial physiology and may also influence nanotechnology development. Mmechanism behind blood stem cells' longevity discovered Researchers have long wondered what allows blood stem cells to persist for decades, when their progeny last for days, weeks or months before they need to be replaced. Now, a study has uncovered one of the mechanisms that allow these stem cells to keep dividing in perpetuity. Using microRNA fit to a T Researchers have successfully targeted T lymphocytes – which play a central role in the body’s immune response – with another type of white blood cell engineered to synthesize and deliver bits of non-coding RNA or microRNA (miRNA).


Scientists re-imagine how genomes are assembled Scientists have developed a new method for piecing together the short DNA reads produced by next-generation sequencing technologies that are the basis for building complete genome sequences. Human neural stem cells could address critical limb ischemia New research has shown human neural stem cells could improve blood flow in critical limb ischemia through the growth of new vessels. Marijuana's potential for treating autoimmune disorders A new study provides evidence that THC (tetrahydrocannabinol), a principal ingredient in marijuana, may be beneficial in treating those with autoimmune disorders. The study is the first to explore how tiny, yet powerful molecules called microRNAs are influenced by THC. The ability to alter microRNA expression could hold the key to successful treatments for a whole host of autoimmune diseases, incl Dysfunctional mitochondria may underlie resistance to radiation therapy The resistance of some cancers to the cell-killing effects of radiation therapy may be due to abnormalities in the mitochondria -- the cellular structures responsible for generating energy, according to an international team of researchers. Discovery of progenitor cells key to placenta development may illuminate pregnancy complications Researchers have identified a novel progenitor cell and a related cell communication pathway key to growth of a healthy placenta. The team’s discovery gives scientists a “tool box� for understanding the developmental hierarchy of progenitor cells that initiate growth of the placenta, and greatly increases the knowledge of what might cause pregnancy complications. Killer cocktail fights brain cancer A novel immune-boosting drug combination eradicates an aggressive form of brain cancer in mice, according to a study. Golden staph paralyzes immune defenses When golden staph enters our skin it can identify the key immune cells and 'nuke' our body's immune response. Now we know how, thanks to an international research group.


New tool for profiling critical regulatory structures of RNA molecules A molecular technique that will help the scientific community to analyze -- on a scale previously impossible -- molecules that play a critical role in regulating gene expression has been developed by a research team. The technique, which has potential uses in human health, enables more-accurate prediction of how ribonucleic acid molecules fold within living cells, shedding new light on how living Viruses are as simple as they are 'smart' Viruses are as simple as they are “smart”: too elementary to be able to reproduce by themselves, they exploit the reproductive “machinery” of cells, by inserting pieces of their own DNA so that it is transcribed by the host cell. To do this, they first have to inject their own genetic material into the cells they infect. An international team of researchers has studied how this occurs and how long Scientists capture 'redox moments' in living cells Scientists have glimpsed key chemical events, known as redox reactions, inside living cells of fast-growing Synechococcus. The work marks the first time that redox activity has been observed in specific proteins within living cells. Cancer-fighting technology progressing well New work abolishes otherwise unmanageable human cancers in preclinical rodent studies. The technology is based on the notion that solid tumors can be programmed to generate their own very potent chemotherapy. The collared treerunner is more than a single species The lowland tropics were once though filled with widespread species, while moderate and higher elevations were thought to contain species with more restricted distributions. That idea is turning out to be partially incorrect. A new study describes four species once considered to be the collared treerunner, a lizard known to the scientific community as Plica plica. Research finds combo of plant nutrients kills breast cancer cells A study has found that a super cocktail of six natural compounds in vegetables, fruits, spices and plant roots killed 100 percent of sample breast cancer cells without toxic side effects on normal cells.


Chromosomes show off their shapes Researchers calculate the shape of a chromosome. The new view of our chromosomes reveals a complex picture. Researchers use nanoscale 'patches' to sensitize targeted cell receptors Researchers have developed nanoscale 'patches' that can be used to sensitize targeted cell receptors, making them more responsive to signals that control cell activity. The finding holds promise for promoting healing and facilitating tissue engineering research. Researchers create compounds that boost antibiotics' effectiveness Inhibitor compounds developed by biologists and chemists have been shown to bolster the ability of antibiotics to treat deadly bacterial diseases such as MRSA and anthrax. Scientists find potential cause for deadly breast cancer relapse Researchers have found that the protein Engrailed 1 is overexpressed in basal-like carcinomas, and designed a chain of amino acids to shut down the protein and kill basal-like tumors in the lab. Hallmark for development of testicular tumors found in genes Researchers have studied the role of a peculiar class of small noncoding RNAs that are mainly expressed in the human male germline. Mouse study finds gut microorganisms may determine cancer treatment outcome An intact population of microorganisms that derive food and benefit from other organisms living in the intestine is required for optimal response to cancer therapy, according to a mouse study. New link found between obesity, diabetes A single overactive enzyme worsens the two core defects of diabetes— impaired insulin sensitivity and overproduction of glucose, suggesting that a drug targeting the enzyme could help correct both at once, according to mouse studies. Your first hug: How early embryo changes shape In research published, Australian scientists have revealed new insights into how cells organize and form an early mammalian embryo.


Meat, egg, dairy nutrient essential for brain development Research indicates that brain cells depend on the local synthesis of asparagine to function properly. "The cells of the body can do without it because they use asparagine provided through diet. Asparagine, however, is not well transported to the brain via the blood-brain barrier," said senior co-author of the study. First map of autism-risk genes by function Scientists mapped groups of autism-risk genes by function, and identified how mutations in these genes disrupt fetal brain development. Their findings prioritize targets for future research and shed light on autism's molecular origins. How living cells solved a needle in a haystack problem to produce electrical signals Scientists have figured out how cells do the improbable: pick the charged calcium ions out of vast sodium sea to generate electrical signals. The speed and accuracy of this selection is crucial to the beating of the heart and the flow of nerve impulses in the brain. The finding is likely to assist the development of new drugs, such as safer medications for chronic pain. Gene-silencing study finds new targets for Parkinson's disease Scientists have used RNA interference technology to reveal dozens of genes that may represent new therapeutic targets for treating Parkinson's disease. The findings also may be relevant to several diseases caused by damage to mitochondria, the biological power plants found in cells throughout the body.


Study of human blood fluke parasites identifies drug resistance mutations An international group of scientists has identified the mutations that result in drug resistance in a parasite infecting 187 million people in South America, Africa and Asia. The new finding allows detailed understanding of the drugs’ mechanism of action and raises prospects of improved therapies. Study finds gene network associated with alcohol dependence Using a new approach that combines genome-wide association studies with information about which human proteins interact with one another, researchers have identified a group of 39 genes that together are strongly associated with alcoholism.

Scientists show how cells protect DNA from catastrophic damage Researchers have unveiled a profound biological process that explains how DNA can be damaged during genome replication. In addition, the scientists developed a new analytical tool to measure the cell's response to chemotherapy, which could have an important impact on future cancer therapy. Different cellular mechanisms behind regenerated body parts Scientists have discovered that two separate species of salamander differ in the way their muscles grow back in lost body parts. Their findings on the species-specific solutions demonstrate there is more than one mechanism of tissue regeneration.


Scientists find invisibility cloak that shields HIV-1 from immune system Of the two major types of HIV, only one, HIV-1, typically causes AIDS in infected people who don't receive treatment. A study reveals how HIV-1 escapes detection by essentially becoming invisible to a patient's immune system, whereas HIV-2 triggers protective immune responses in patients. This understanding of how HIV-1's "invisibility cloak" works could lead to the development of effect Scientists identify gene that regulates body weight in humans, mice Research has pointed to the importance of genetic factors in human obesity and has shown that heritability plays a role in 40 percent to 90 percent of cases. Now investigators have found that loss of a particular gene's function in humans and mice causes morbid obesity. The study of a morbidly obese family provides insights into pathways that control body weight and nutritional status, and the res Fungus-fighting drug may make mild flu meaner Mice given a drug commonly used in patients to fight systemic fungal infections more often succumb to what would otherwise be a mild case of the flu. The evidence shows that the drug called Amphotericin B, which has an estimated $330 million in sales around the world each year, can render a protein important for antiviral defense ineffective in both cells and mice. Attractants prevent nerve cell migration A vision is to implant nerve precursor cells in patients with Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases. However, the implanted nerve cells frequently do not migrate as hoped. Scientists have now discovered an important cause of this: Attractants secreted by the precursor cells prevent the maturing nerve cells from migrating into the brain. Study identifies protein essential for immune recognition, response to viral infection A research team has identified an immune cell protein that is critical to setting off the body's initial response against viral infection. They found that a protein called GEF-H1 is essential to the ability of macrophages -major contributors to the innate immune system -- to respond to viral infections like influenza.


.CĂŠlulas madre y epigenĂŠtica


Scientists design, test new approach for corneal stem cell treatments Researchers have designed and tested a novel, minute-long procedure to prepare human amniotic membrane for use as a scaffold for specialized stem cells that may be used to treat some corneal diseases. This membrane serves as a foundation that supports the growth of stem cells in order to graft them onto the cornea. This new method may accelerate research and clinical applications for stem cell cor Prostate cancer stem cells found to be moving target Prostate cancer stem cells evolve into different cells as prostate cancer progresses becoming a moving target for therapy. Scientists must be prepared for the continual evolution of the stem cell as tumors adapt and become resistant to new and more potent therapies. With this knowledge, researchers can now design therapies that target the elements of the cancer stem cells that remain unchanged. Human neural stem cells could address critical limb ischemia New research has shown human neural stem cells could improve blood flow in critical limb ischemia through the growth of new vessels. Discovery of progenitor cells key to placenta development may illuminate pregnancy complications Researchers have identified a novel progenitor cell and a related cell communication pathway key to growth of a healthy placenta. The team’s discovery gives scientists a “tool box� for understanding the developmental New agent against cancer cells Scientists have discovered a new active substance that inhibits cell division in leukemia cells and could play an important role in the fight against cancer. Maternal mood disorder, newborn neurobehavior Researchers have now tested the influence of maternal depression and/or anxiety during pregnancy on newborn neurobehavior. Hallmark for development of testicular tumors found in genes Researchers have studied the role of a peculiar class of small noncoding RNAs that are mainly expressed in the human male germline.


Epigenetic changes may explain chronic kidney disease Researchers found, in a genome-wide survey, significant differences in the pattern of chemical modifications on DNA that affect gene expression in kidney cells from patients with chronic kidney disease versus healthy controls. This is the first study to show that changes in these modifications – the cornerstone of the field of epigenetics – might explain chronic kidney disease. Aging impacts epigenome in human skeletal muscle Our epigenome is a set of chemical switches that turn parts of our genome off and on and are impacted by environmental factors including diet, exercise and stress. Research reveals that aging also effects the epigenome in human skeletal muscle. The study provides a method to study sarcopenia, the degenerative loss of muscle mass that begins in middle age. Linking risk factors, disease origins in breast cancer Researchers have found that epigenetic changes to DNA are associated with aging in disease-free breast tissues and are further altered in breast tumors. Epigenetic changes describe heritable alterations caused by mechanisms other than by changes in DNA sequence. The discovery illustrates how cancer and aging are tightly interconnected processes by identifying epigenetic alterations present in the Aging erodes genetic control, but that's flexible In yeast at least, the aging process appears to reduce an organism's ability to silence certain genes that need to be silenced. Now researchers who study the biology of aging have shown that the loss of genetic control occurs in fruit flies as


.Neurociencia


Memories 'geotagged' with spatial information Using a video game in which people navigate through a town delivering objects, a team of neuroscientists has discovered how brain cells that encode spatial information form "geotags" for specific memories and are activated immediately before those memories are recalled. Their work shows how spatial information is incorporated into memories and why remembering an experience can bring to m Gene found responsible for susceptibility to panic disorder A study published points, for the first time, to the gene trkC as a factor in susceptibility to a panic disorder. The researchers define the specific mechanism for the formation of fear memories which will help in the development of new pharmacological and cognitive treatments. Genetic mutation increases risk of Parkinson's disease from pesticides Study uses patient-derived stem cells to show that a mutation in the ιsynuclein gene causes increased vulnerability to pesticides, leading to Parkinson’s disease. Speech recovery after stroke Scientists investigate how speech is anchored in the brain, focusing their research on the difference between left- and right-handed people. Study connects dots between genes, human behavior Establishing links between genes, the brain and human behavior is a central issue in cognitive neuroscience research, but studying how genes influence cognitive abilities and behavior as the brain develops from childhood to adulthood has proven difficult. Now, an international team of scientists has made inroads to understanding how genes influence brain structure and cognitive abilities and how n


Buildup of amyloid in brain blood vessels promotes early cognitive impairment A team of researchers has discovered in a model of Alzheimer’s disease that early accumulation of a small protein, known as amyloid β, in the blood vessels of the brain can drive early cognitive impairment. Surviving survival In the largest study of its kind, researchers have investigated the caregivers of 186 mothers to childhood brain tumor survivors aged 1440 whose care needs last long into adulthood. They discovered that a complex interaction among the health of the caregivers, the demands experienced by the caregiver, the caregiver’s perceptions about the health of the survivor, and the family’s support interact Geriatric care may help older patients find independence after trauma A year after a trauma injury, seniors had difficulty with daily tasks such as simple shopping trips. Promising new treatment helps people with spine injuries walk better Scientists may have found a new treatment that can help people with spinal cord injuries walk better. New clues to memory formation may help better treat dementia Do fruit flies hold the key to treating dementia? Biologists have taken a significant step forward in unraveling the mechanisms of Pavlovian conditioning. Their work will help them understand how memories form and, ultimately, provide better treatments to improve memory in all ages. Key protein responsible for controlling communication between brain cells identified Scientists are a step closer to understanding how some of the brain's 100 billion nerve cells co-ordinate their communication. Polymer foam expands potential to treat aneurysms Researchers are using the unique contraction and expansion properties of shape memory polymer foam to design a much improved treatment for brain aneurysms, which cause severe neurological damage or death for 30,000 Americans each year.


Drug reduces brain changes, motor deficits of Huntington's disease A drug that acts like a growth-promoting protein in the brain reduces degeneration and motor deficits associated with Huntington's disease in two mouse models of the disorder, according to a study. The findings add to a growing body of evidence that protecting or boosting neurotrophins -- the molecules that support the survival and function of nerve cells -- may slow the progression of Huntington' Big brains are all in the genes Scientists have moved a step closer to understanding genetic changes that permitted humans and other mammals to develop such big brains. Brain bypass surgery gives young man his life back A neuroradiologist inserts a micro-catheter into an aneurysm and injects a flourescent dye, a complex, rare and new procedure which provides a neurosurgeon a clear view of the blood vessel that feeds the aneurysm. The surgeon then knows where to sew in a tranplanted blood vessel to bypass the aneursym.

MR spectroscopy shows differences in brains of preterm infants Premature birth appears to trigger developmental processes in the white matter of the brain that could put children at higher risk of problems later in life, according to a study.


Gene mutation for excessive alcohol drinking found Researchers have discovered a gene that regulates alcohol consumption and when faulty can cause excessive drinking. They have also identified the mechanism underlying this phenomenon. The study showed that normal mice show no interest in alcohol and drink little or no alcohol when offered a free choice between a bottle of water and a bottle of diluted alcohol. However, mice with a genetic mutation New therapeutic target identified for Huntington's disease A new study published identifies a new target in the search for therapeutic interventions for Huntington's disease -- a devastating lateonset neurodegenerative disorder. ADHD study: Expensive training programs don't help grades, behavior A two-year study found that computer-based training programs that claim to help children with ADHD succeed in the classroom and in peer relationships while reducing hyperactivity and inattentiveness do not produce significant or meaningful long-term improvements. Parents are better off saving their money, the lead researcher says. Brain imaging differences in infants at genetic risk for Alzheimer's Researchers have found that infants who carry a gene associated with an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease tend to have differences in brain development compared to infants who do not carry the gene. The findings do not mean that these infants will get Alzheimer's, but they may be a step toward understanding how this gene confers risk much later in life. Postmenopausal estrogen decline unrelated to changes in cognition, mood A new study shows that decreased estrogen levels after menopause are largely unrelated to changes in cognitive ability and mood. It did find, however, a possible link between levels of another hormone -progesterone -- and cognition among younger postmenopausal women. Oxytocin leads to monogamy How is the bond between people in love maintained? Scientists have discovered a biological mechanism that could explain the attraction between loving couples: If oxytocin is administered to men and if they are shown pictures of their partner, the bonding hormone stimulates the


reward center in the brain, increasing the attractiveness of the partner, and strengthening monogamy. Common brain cell plays key role in shaping neural circuits Neuroscientists have discovered a new role played by a common but mysterious class of brain cells.

Navigational ability visible in brain The brains of people who immediately know their way after traveling along as a passenger are different from the brains of people who always need a GPS system or a map to get from one place to another. Controlling circadian rhythms Most people have experienced the effects of circadian-rhythm disruption. To have any hope of modulating our biological “clocks,� we need to first understand the physiology at play. A new study helps explain some of the biophysical processes underlying regulation of circadian rhythms. Killer cocktail fights brain cancer A novel immune-boosting drug combination eradicates an aggressive form of brain cancer in mice, according to a study.


New immunotherapy for malignant brain tumors Glioblastoma is one of the most ominous brain tumors. Despite aggressive surgery, radiation and chemotherapy the outcome of this disease is almost always fatal. A research team has now achieved success with a novel form of treatment that involves encouraging the body’s own immune system to recognize and eliminate cancer cells in the brain. PCBs still affecting health decades later Although PCBs have been banned in the United States since 1979, a researcher has found that higher levels of the toxin was associated with lower cognitive performance in seniors. The good news in bad news: Repeatedly exposing yourself to a negative event may prevent it from affecting you Psychology shows that it doesn't take much to put you in a bad mood. And being in a bad mood slows your reaction time and affects your basic cognitive abilities like speech, writing, and counting. But new research now reveals that repeated exposure to a negative event neutralizes its effect on your mood and your thinking. The study has broad implications for understanding our emotions. Making sense of sensation in autism Occupational therapy helps children with autism improve their ability to perform everyday better than standard behavioral therapy. Swarming insect provides clues to how the brain processes smells Our sense of smell is often the first response to environmental stimuli. Odors trigger neurons in the brain that alert us to take action. However, there is often more than one odor in the environment, such as in coffee shops or grocery stores. How does our brain process multiple odors received simultaneously? Researchers find chemical signature for 'fast' form of Parkinson's Scientists have discovered a potential biochemical signal that can predict the progression of the rapid form of Parkinson's disease earlyon, right after onset of motor symptoms. The hope is that blood-based biochemical signals such as this may aid in earlier detection and more effective management of the disease.


New kind of genetic switch can target activities of just one type of brain cell Mysterious brain cells called microglia are starting to reveal their secrets thanks to research conducted at the Weizmann Institute of Science. Different gene expression in male, female brains may help explain brain disorder differences Scientists have shown that there are widespread differences in how genes, the basic building blocks of the human body, are expressed in men and women’s brains. Improvement of mood associated with improved brain injury outcomes Researchers found that improvement of mood over the course of postacute brain rehabilitation is associated with increased participation in day-to-day activities, independent living, and ability to work after rehabilitation is complete. Broken cellular 'clock' linked to brain damage A new discovery may help explain the surprisingly strong connections between sleep problems and neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer's, vascular changes in the neck An international research team studying Alzheimer's and mild cognitive impairment is reporting potentially significant findings on a vascular abnormality outside the brain.


Water-based imaging maps brain neurons before surgery Some neurosurgeons are using a new approach to visualize the brain’s delicate anatomy prior to surgery. The novel technique allows neurosurgeons to see the brain’s nerve connections thus preserving and protecting critical functions such as vision, speech and memory. No needles, dyes or chemicals are needed to create the radiology scan. The main imaging ingredient? Water. First map of autism-risk genes by function Scientists mapped groups of autism-risk genes by function, and identified how mutations in these genes disrupt fetal brain development. Their findings prioritize targets for future research and shed light on autism's molecular origins. Meat, egg, dairy nutrient essential for brain development Research indicates that brain cells depend on the local synthesis of asparagine to function properly. "The cells of the body can do without it because they use asparagine provided through diet. Asparagine, however, is not well transported to the brain via the blood-brain barrier," said senior co-author of the study. Gene-silencing study finds new targets for Parkinson's disease Scientists have used RNA interference technology to reveal dozens of genes that may represent new therapeutic targets for treating Parkinson's disease. The findings also may be relevant to several diseases caused by damage to mitochondria, the biological power plants found in cells throughout the body.


Study pinpoints cell type, brain region affected by gene mutations in autism Researchers have identified the disruption of a single type of cell -- in a particular brain region and at a particular time in brain development -as a significant factor in the emergence of autism. Preventing marijuana-induced memory problems with over-the-counter painkillers In addition to being used as a recreational drug, marijuana has been used for centuries to treat a variety of conditions, from chronic pain to epilepsy. However, its medical value is greatly limited by debilitating side effects. A study has revealed the molecular pathways responsible for marijuana-induced learning and memory problems. The findings suggest that preventing these side effects could b Attractants prevent nerve cell migration A vision is to implant nerve precursor cells in patients with Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases. However, the implanted nerve cells frequently do not migrate as hoped. Scientists have now discovered an important cause of this: Attractants secreted by the precursor cells prevent the maturing nerve cells from migrating into the brain. Scientists find brain region that helps you make up your mind One of the smallest parts of the brain is getting a second look after new research suggests it plays a crucial role in decision making. A new study published in Nature Neuroscience says the lateral habenula, a region of the brain linked to


.Política científica


La red de colaboración científica de Atapuerca ha convertido al yacimiento en una gran infraestructura El complejo de Atapuerca (Burgos) se puede ver como una instalación unida a una fuente de datos única –su registro arqueológico–, con un gran impacto científico internacional y también socioeconómico regional y a escala estatal indiscutible. Esto la ha convertido en una gran infraestructura de investigación científica (LSRI), deviniendo a la vez un caso muy especial dentro de esta catalogación. El mercado negro de los artículos científicos en China Una investigación del departamento de prensa de Science revela un mercado negro en auge de las publicaciones científicas en China, donde los investigadores están dispuestos a pagar decenas de miles de yuanes para que añadan sus nombres al trabajo de otra persona. Añadir dos nombres costaría unos 26.300 dólares. FECYT y Loterías se unen para celebrar el sorteo de la ciencia La Fundación Española para la Ciencia y la Tecnología (FECYT) y Loterías y Apuestas del Estado colaboran para celebrar el Sorteo de la Semana de la Ciencia en A Coruña, en el que se repartirán 42 millones de euros. A los países se les acumulan los deberes climáticos Esta cumbre del clima de Varsovia –que se ha alargado durante toda la noche de ayer hasta hoy a las 19:30 horas– deja muchas cuentas pendientes a Lima y París, las sedes de 2014 y 2015. De aquí ha salido un 'mecanismo internacional de Varsovia' de pérdidas y daños, se ha fijado un nuevo calendario para la Plataforma de Durban y se ha dado continuidad al compromiso de los 100.000 millones de dólare Arranca la segunda edición de Famelab en España La Fundación Española para la Ciencia y la Tecnología (FECYT) y el British Council organizan por segunda vez en España el mayor certamen internacional de monólogos científicos. El objetivo es encontrar nuevas voces de la ciencia que


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