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@= ltdL;Fu Ps;fy lhpF5' eGb} lyPF xfF;LxfF;L sfns'6 lkpF5' eGb} lyPF cflv/ uof} cs}l{ ;t d'6n ' fO{ r'F8fn]/ d t cem} dfofk|Llt l;pF5' eGb} lyPF . #= hlt lyP d]/f cfF;' ;a} lkof} ltdLn] v';L xfF;f] h]–h] lyP cfkm} lnof} ltdLn] 7"nf] ljZjf; / cf:yf af]sy] F] d}n] lk|of t/ v} wf]sf / kL8fdfq lbof} ltdLn] .

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8fFkm], d'gfn / d[u ;fjsx? x'n afFlw/x]sf 5g\ ofqLsf] :jfutsf nflu lagfof], d'rª {' u\ f / 9f]n tof/ 5g\ kysfdLsf kfp prfNgsf nflu xfa|,] /]8kfG8f, sfF8E] ofs'/ d:t 5g\ n's/] cg'xf/ b]vfpgsf nflu cfkm\g} kl/sf/df Jo:t 5g\ g]kfnL e"ldsf cgfhx? cltly b]jf] ej ;Tsf/sf nflu cfkm\g} :jklxrfgsf lglDt d]/f] b]z g]kfn ofqf jif{ dgfO/x]sf] 5 .

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pQ/ cfw'lgstfsf s]xL clenIf0fx? pQ/ – – – – – – – – – –

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8


– – – – – – – – –

k|fljlws ;+:s[lt / ;fOa/ ;Eotfdf lqmofzLntf b]vfpF5, lgif]w / z"GotfnfO{ ljZjf; ub{5, cfwf/e"t husf] lgif]w ub{5, s]Gb|Ls/0fsf] lj/f]w ub{5, oyfy{, ;+:s[lt, ;dfh / JolStsf] cGTo :jLsf/ ub{5, c;Dejsf] :jLsf/ ub{5 ;Dejsf] lg/fs/0f ub{5, v08Ls/0f xf], ;fk]Iftf / ;Gb]x xf], cfw'lgstfsf] ;dflKtsf] ;"rgf pb\3f]if ub{5 / pQ/ cfw'lgstfjfb gf/Ljfb, kof{j/0f, eo, pQ/ pklgj]z, ;LdfGtLotf, cfk|jf;g cflb ;Gbe{df lj:tfl/t x'g ;S5 . pQ/ cfw'lgstfjfbL ;dfnf]rgf pk¥o'St d"Nox?sf] ;d'k:yfkg cg'?ksf] cj:yf k/Dkl/t lrGtgsf] lgif]w / ljrngdf s]lGb|t /xG5 . log} ljz]iftfsf kIfx?sf cfwf/df pQ/ cfw'lgstfsf j}lzi6Ø klxNofpg ;lsG5 . ljZj;flxTodf ljsl;t pQ/ cfw'lgstfjfbsf s]xL ljlzi6 klxrfgx? lgDg lnlvt d"Nox?sf] ;d'k:yfkgdf b]vf k/]sf 5g\ . ;f]cg'?ksf] cj:yf k/Dkl/t lrGtgsf ljk/Lt gofF / ljrngzLn ;dLIff lrGtgdf s]lGb|t /x]sf] b]lvG5 . lgDg lnlvt ljz]iftfsf kIfx?nfO{ s]Gb|df /fv]/ pQ/ cfw'lgstfsf gf/LjfbL ;dfnf]rgf, pQ/ cf}klgj]lzstfjfbL ;dfnf]rgf, ;LdfGtLotfjfbL ;dfnf]rgf, pQ/ ;f+:s[lts ;dfnf]rgf, cfk|jf;LotfjfbL ;dfnf]rgf, kof{j/0fLo ;dfnf]rgf / cle3ftjfbL ;dfnf]rgfsf cfwf/df pQ/ cfw'lgstfsf j}lzi6Ø klxNofpg ;lsG5 . pk¥o'St lsl;dsf ;ftj6f ;flxlTos d"Nox?sf] ;+lIfKt ;d'k:yfkg ug]{ k|oTgdf of] ;dfnf]rgf lrGtg tof/ ePsf] 5 .

gf/LjfbL ;dfnf]rgf lrGtg

gf/LjfbL ;dfnf]rgfnfO{ dlxnfjfbL ;dfnf]rgfsf gfdn] klg ;Daf]wg ul/G5 . st} :qL ;dfnf]rgf klg eGg] ul/G5 . ;dLIff zf:qLx?n] ljZj ;flxTosf ;Gbe{x?df dlxnf lrGtgsf cfwf/e"t dfGotfx? ;}4flGts cfwf/x?sf] ljj]rgf ug]{ k/Dk/f ;dfnf]rgfdf :yflkt ePsf] b]lvG5 M gf/LjfbL lrGtgsf] cf/De ;g\ !&&^ df ePsf] cd]l/sfnL /fHo qmflGt / ;g\ !&*( sf] k|mfG;]nL /fHo qmflGtsf] k|efjaf6 gf/LjfbL lrGtg / dfGotf k|ltkfbg ePsf] xf] . gf/L ;dfgtf / :jtGqtfsf kIfx? ;dfnf]rgfsf cfwf/ ag]/ pkl:yt x'Fb} cfPsf 5g\ . gf/Ldfly x'g] of}g zf]if0f, lkt[;QfTds cfly{s zf]if0f / /fhgLlts clwsf/sf] lgif]wsf lj¿4 dlxnfn] p7fPsf clwsf/ k|flKtsf cfjfhx? bfz{lgs cfwf/ ag]/ ljsl;t aGb} uPsf 5g\ . ljsl;t aGb} uPsf bfz{lgs cfwf/df gf/Ljfbsf hDdf kfFrj6f cfwf/x? tof/ ePsf 5g\ — != pbf/ gf/Ljfb @= dfS;{jfbL gf/Ljfb #= pu|jfbL gf/Ljfb zAbfª\s/' h]7 @)^*

9


$= cfw'lgs ;dfhjfbL gf/Ljfb %= pQ/ cfw'lgs gf/Ljfb gf/Ljfbsf ljleGg r/0f / ltgsf k|f| lKtnfO{ r/0fut ljsf;sf cfwf/df ljleGg k|jl[ Q k|flKtsf ?kdf lng] u/]sf] kfOG5 . ltgnfO{ lgDgfg';f/ rf/j6f k|sf/sf cfwf/df ljefhg u/]sf] b]lvG5 M != lnª\u e]but gf/LjfbL ;dfnf]rgf @= dfS;{jfbL gf/LjfbL ;dfnf]rgf #= dgf]ljZn]if0fjfbL gf/LjfbL ;dfnf]rgf $= cNk ;ª\Vos gf/LjfbL ;dfnf]rgf Gff/Ljfbsf] ;flxlTos lrGtgsf ;DaGwdf pQ/ cfw'lgstfsf] k|lti7fsf d"n kl/lwsf] ;Ldfleq ;g\ !(&) kl5 ax'n ;dfnf]rgfsf] Ps ljsNk ag]/ ljsl;t ePsf] ;dfnf]rgf e]b ag]sf] b]lvG5 . gf/LjfbL ;dfnf]rgf lrGtg r/0fut ljsf;nfO{ lgDgfg';f/ k|:t't ug{ ;lsG5 M -s_ ;g\ !&&^ b]lv !($( ;Dd ePsf gf/L d'lSt ;DaGwL ljleGg cfGbf]ngx?nfO{ k"j{ k[i7e"ldsf ;Gbe{df lng] ul/G5 . o; ;dodf gf/L cl:tTj / ltgsf] k|lti7f rogsf 3f]lift c3f]lift cg]s k|oTg ePsf] s'/f klg k|fKt ug{ ;lsG5 . -v_ ;g\ !(%) b]lv !(^& ;Ddsf] ;dodf ePsf gf/L ;flxTo l;h{gf / ;dfnf]rgfsf sfdnfO{ gf/Ljfbsf] pQ/ k[i7e"ldsf ?kdf lng] ul/G5 . o; sfnfjlwdf gf/L s]lGb|t ;flxTosf] l;h{gf / ;dfnf]rgf, gf/L /fhgLlts / ;f+:s[lts lrGtgsf k|;ª\ux? lj:tfl/t aGb} uPsf] k|s/0f klg ylkFb} uPsf] kfOG5 . pQ/ cfw'lgstfsf clenIf0fx? ylkFb} uPsf ;Gbe{df b]vf k/]sf] gf/LjfbL lrGtgsf /fhgLlts kIfx?sf] pk:yfkg x'Fb} uPsf] s'/f klg ;g\ !(^* b]lv !(&^ ;Ddsf] ;don] l;4 u/]s ] f] 5 . o; ;dosf] /fhgLlts lrGtgnfO{ k'¿if ;Qflj/f]wL cleofgsf ?kdf lng] ul/G5 . Sof6 ldn]6sf] ;]S;'on kf]lnl6S; -;g\ !(^(_ gfds s[ltaf6 of] k/Dk/f ljsl;t ag]sf] 5 . o; wf/fnfO{ ult lbg] lrGtsx?df dfuf{/6] ld8, ld;]n jf/]6x?sf] klg k|an e"ldsf /x]sf] 5 . ;g\ !(&& b]lv !(** ;Ddsf] cjlwnfO{ gf/L ;flxTosf] d"No klxrfgsf] ;dosf ?kdf lng] ul/G5 . gf/Ljfbdf s]lGb|t ;flxTosf l;h{gfTds / ;dfnf]rgfTds ;fdu|Lx?sf] cGj]if0f / ltgsf k|flKtx?sf] lg¿k0f ug{ nfluPsf] ;do eg]/ lrGg] ul/G5 . kl5Nnf] ;dodf o; ;dfnf]rgfnfO{ ufOgf] ;dfnf]rgf eg]/ gfds/0f ug]{ k|mfG;]nL ;dfnf]rsx?sf] klg ljz]if e"ldsf /x]sf] dflgG5 . l;df]g b a'ef, elh{lgof pNkm, h'lnof lqm:t]ef, Pn]g ;f]efN6/, x]ng] l;S;'h h:tf lrGtsx?sf] lqmofzLntfn] gf/LjfbL ;dfnf]rgfn] ljz]if ult k|fKt u/]sf] 5 -u|=] k[= !!*_ . ;g\ !(*( b]lv kl5sf] ;donfO{ gf/L ;dfnf]rgfsf] / k|mfG;]nL ;dfnf]rgfsf] wf/0ff k|an ag]sf] cjlw dfGg] ul/G5 . zAbfª\s/' h]7 @)^*

10


oL ;dfnf]rgfut dfGotfsf cfwf/x? b]zLo cfwf/df logsf] ;|ft] hDdf ltgj6f dflgPsf 5g\ . ltgsf] k|sf/ lgDgfg';f/ /x]sf 5g\ M != cd]l/sfnL gf/LjfbL ;dfnf]rgf —gf/L dfgl;stf / gf/L n]vgdf k|jQ[ ePsf] Oltxf;sf] cf/Detkm{sf] n]vg . a] @= nfotL gf/LjfbL ;dfnf]rgf —s[ltk/stf / j}rfl/s b[li6sf]0flt/ pGd'v ePsf] n]vg . #= k|mfG;]nL gf/LjfbL ;dfnf]rgf —dlxnf n]vgsf ;ª\sygut JofVof / efiff, bz{g, dgf]lj1fg;Fu ;Da4 n]vg . Gff/LjfbL ;dfnf]rgfnfO{ gf/L n]vg / gf/LjfbL n]vgsf cfwf/df b'O{ lsQfdf juL{s/0f u/]sf] kfOG5 . gf/Ln] n]v] hlQ ;a} n]vg gf/LjfbL n]vg xf] eGg] Pp6f dt b]lvG5 / csf]{ dt cgf/LjfbL lrGtgdf c8]sf] gf/L n]vssf n]vgx? gf/LjfbL n]vg xf]Og eGg] dt klg kfOG5 . gf/L ljifos / gf/Ld"ns lrGtgdf s]lGb|t n]vg gf/L k'¿if h;n] n]v] klg gf/LjfbL n]vg xf] eGg] dt klg kfOG5 . oL b'O{ dtdWo] kl5Nnf] dt a9L j}1flgs / ;an lrGtgdf s]lGb|t /x]sf] s'/f l;4 x'G5 . ;dfhsf ;f+:s[lts, cfly{s, /fhgLlts / wfld{s h:tf cfwf/x? cjnDag u/]/ gf/LnfO{ lsgf/Ls/0f ug]{ cj}1flgs k/Dk/fsf] ljkIfdf :yfkgf ePsf ;dfnf]rgf lrGtgnfO{ gf/LjfbL ;dfnf]rgf lrGtg eGg] ul/Psf] 5 . lgisif{df gf/Ljfbsf] ;an JofVof jt{dfg ;Gbe{df dfS;{jfbL gf/Ljfbsf cy{df lng] ul/G5 . cfbz{jfbL gf/Ljfb, pbf/jfbL gf/Ljfbsf ?kdf lnOg] ljifo ag]sf] 5 . gf/Lsf lj¿4df ljsl;t ePsf ljs[ltsf] ljWj:ttfsf] nIodf b]lvg] gf/Ljfb pu| gf/Ljfbsf gfdn] kl/lrt 5 . gjdfS;{jfbL gf/Ljfb rflxF cfh cfw'lgs ;dfhjfbL gf/Ljfbsf] gfdaf6 lrlgG5 . cfhsf] ;Gbe{df pQ/ cfw'lgstfsf gfddf rlr{t /x]sf ;dfnf]rgfsf wf/df b]lvg] gf/LjfbnfO{ pQ/ cfw'lgstfjfbL gf/Ljfbsf ?kdf klg lng] ul/Psf] 5 . o;/L gf/Ljfb cfhsf] ;dfnf]rgf lrGtgdf uxg cWoogsf] ljifo ag]sf] 5 .

pQ/ cf}klgj]lzstfjfbL ;dfnf]rgf lrGtg

pklgj]zd"ns ;+:s[lt k"j{ cfw'lgs / cfw'lgs o'usf] lj:tf/jfbL zf;sLo ;+:s[lt xf] . o;n] d"n ?kdf zlSt;DkGg /fi6«x?n] zlStxLg /fi6«x?df ul/g] ef}uf]lns cflwkTosf] x}sd hdfpg] zf;sLo clwsf/nfO{ pklgj]z eg]/ lrlgGYof] . klxnf] / ljz]if u/L bf];f| ] ljZjo'4kl5 pklgj]zaf6 /fi6«x? d'St eO;Sbf zlSt;DkGg /fi6«x?n] ltg} d'St /fi6«x?df hdfPsf] x}sdsf] cfGtl/s :j?k g} pQ/ cf}klgj]lzs lrGtg xf] . ;flxTo / ;dfnf]rgfdf o;sf] k|efj b]lvPkl5sf] ;dLIff lrGtg pQ/ cf}klgj]lzs ;dfnf]rgfsf gfdn] ;Daf]lwt x'g nfu]sf] 5 . pQ/ cf}klgj]lzstfsf cWo]tfx?n] ;flxTodf o;sf] cWoog ug]{ qmddf o;sf] Jo'Tkfbg / e]bx?nfO{ lgDgfg';f/ Joj:yf u/]sf 5g\ . …pklgj]zÚ zAb cª\u\ h |] L zAb sf]zdf /x]sf] …sf]nf]gLÚ zAbsf] g]kfnL ?kfGt/0f xf] . Nofl6gdf /x]sf] sf]nf]gL -Colonye) zAbaf6 cfPsf] o;sf] cy{ ef}uf]lns cfwf/df gofF 7fpF cfkm\gf] clwsf/df lnP/ ;~rfng ul/g] zf;g ;Qf / gofF zAbfª\s/' h]7 @)^*

11


x}sdsf] :j?k xf] eGg] a'lemG5 . o;/L zf;g ;Qf ;~rfng ubf{ cfjZos kg]{ ljlwljwfsf] cf}krfl/stf k|bfg ul/g] lgodnfO{ …ODk]l/oflnhdÚ eGg] ul/of] . t/ dfly pNn]v eP h:t} pklgj]zsf] If]q Wj:t xFb' } uPsf] l:yltnfO{ …l8sf]nf]gfOh];gÚ eGg] / gofF Pjd\ j:tL ljxLg If]qdf a9\b} uPsf] dfgjsf] pkl:ylt cfdL{,{ ofqL, cf}Bf]lus sfdbf/ s'g} g s'g} x}l;otsf dfG5]x?sf] pkl:ylt b]lvPdf …;]6n/ sf]nf]lgoflnhdÚ eGg] ul/G5 . e"uf]ndflysf] clwsf/ 5f]8/] Jofkfl/s, z}l} Ifs, cfly{s / ;f+:s[lts h:tf clwsf/x? dfq cfkm"n] lnP/ ul/g] x}sdnfO{ kf]:6sf]nf]lgon eGg] ul/of] . o;nfO{ cfh zf:qLo ;Daf]wg pQ/ cf}klgj]lzs ;+1faf6 ul/G5 . s'g} Ps 7fpFdf e]nf ePsf ljleGg d'ns ' sf ljleGg eflifs, ;f+:s[lts, j}rfl/s ;d'bfosf dfG5]x?sf] ldl>t pkl:yltdf hlGdg] gofF kl/j]z …/]l;hdÚsf] gfdaf6 klg lrGg] ul/G5 . pQ/ cf}klgj]lzs n]vgsf ;Gbe{df :Yfflkt ePsf zf:qLo cfwf/x? lgDgfg';f/ ;d'kl:yt ePsf 5g\ M peo, ldl>t cyjf ax' ;f+:s[ltstf /fli6«otf, hftLotf :yfgLotf cyf{t\ cflbjf;L, cfk|jf;L / ljZj dfgjtfjfbL k/Dkl/t df}lnstf / aflx/L cfuGt'sx?sf] bafa, Jofjxfl/s k/Dk/fsf] cg'z/0f ;f+:s[lts gjlgdf{0fsf] k|oTgaf6 :yflkt x'g ul/g] ;ª\3if{ clk|msf / Pl;ofsf w]/} d'ns ' x? bf];|f] ljZjo'4kl5sf] ;dodf ljb]zLx?sf] k|ToIf zf;gaf6 :jtGq eP . zf;sx?n] :jb]zLx?nfO{ zf;g lhDdf lbP t/ tL b]zx?sf efjL sfo{qmdx?sf] of]hgfdf ck|ToIf k|efjsf] h/f emg\ alnof] ?kdf uf8] . ef}uf]lns ;Ldfsf] k|ToIf zf;g ljb]zLx?n] 5f8] t/ dgf]j1 } flgs ?kdf ;f+:s[lts, cfly{s, wfld{s / /fhgLlts txdf ulx/f] ks8 hf]ufO{ /fVg] h:tf sfd u/]/ uP . o;kl5sf r/0fdf s]xL gofF ;d:ofx? ylkP . To:tf ;d:ofsf] ks8 lgDg lsl;dsf txdf k|ltkfbg ePsf] b]vf k/]sf] 5 M ljeSttfsf] cleofg ;LdfGtLotfsf] klxrfgsf] cleofg e"d08nLs/0fsf] k|oTg pQ/ cf}klgj]lzs ;flxTosf] d"n wf/0ff / ljifosf] d"n lrGtgsf] s]Gb|df /x]sf ljz]iftfx? sf/0f ag]/ a;]sf x'G5g\ . ltgsf] cj:yfnfO{ ;d'lrt Joj:yfkg ug]{ qmddf kfFrj6f cfwf/x? k|:t't ul/Psf 5g\ — ;f+:s[lts cfwf/sf] vf]hL cl:tTjsf] bfjL k|jh | gsf sf/0fx?sf] vf]hL ax' ;f+:s[ltstf lj:yfkgsf] l:ylt Psftkm{ cfk|jf;gsf] cy{ klg lbg vf]Hg] / csf{tkm{ gjcf}klgj]lzs klxrfg l;h{gfdf ;dflxt ug]{ snfnfO{ ;dfnf]rgf ug]{ ;f}Gbo{ zf:q pQ/ cfw'lgs ;dfnf]rgfsf] zAbfª\s/' h]7 @)^*

12


pQ/ cf}klgj]lzs lrGtg xf] . o; ;dfnf]rgf lrGtgnfO{ cfwf/ agfP/ ;flxTosf] ;dLIff ug]{ ;f}Gbo{ zf:qLx?df Oª\N\ ofG8af6 k|sflzt hg{n ckm sdgj]Ny ln6/]r/ -;g\ !(^%_ df klxnf]kN6 lj:yfkg / knfognfO{ cfwf/ dfg]/ ltgsf] v]fhL ug]{ / l:yltsf] lg¿k0f ug]{ qmddf cf}klgj]lzs ;+:s[ltsf] gofF :j?k / gofF JofVof eof] . ljz]if u/L ;g\ !(&) b]lv !(*) ;Ddsf] ;donfO{ pQ/ cf}klgj]lzs ;dfnf]rgf lrGtgsf] d"n k|efj /x]sf] bzs dflgG5 -gfo/, k[= !*_ . o;kl5sf jif{x?df klg o; lsl;dsf] ;dfnf]rgf lrGtg cfkm\gf 7fpFdf ;an ?kdf b]lvFb} /xØf] . To:Tff ;dfnf]rgfsf k|ltefx?df P8jf8{ ;Obsf] cf]l/oG6flnHd -;g\ !(&*_, xf]dL efef, ufoqL l:kjfs, bLk]z rqmjtL{, k|m8] l/s s'k/, /a6{ of]ª\u h:tf ;dLIfsx?sf] k|efj klg la:tf/} ljsl;t aGb} uPsf] b]lvG5 . s]= jfdL, Pg= qm'Dofr, ufGwL, h'lno;, Gffo/, s]gy ] sfpG8f Pldns/ Sofa|n ] h:tf cg]sf}F g]tfsf efif0fdf cfPsf pklgj]z / gj pklgj]zjfbsf lj/f]wL wf/0ffx?n] ;flxTosf] ;f}Gbo{ zf:qsf] :yfkgfsf lglDt gj pklgj]z lj¿4sf] /fhgLlts wf/0ff k|:t't ul/lbP . pklgj]z / gj pklgj]zjfbsf b'u0{' fx?sf af/] ePsf] klxnf] JofVof n]lggsf] PDk]l/lnhd, b xfOP:6 :6]h -;g\ !(!^_ af6 cf/De ePsf] dfGg] ul/G5 . cfhsf] ;dodf pklgj]zsf gofF ?k / ;Gbe{x? lj:tfl/t ePsf 5g\ . ltgnfO{ cfwf/ agfP/ ul/Psf ;[hgfsf] ;dLIff ug]{ b[li6 klg pk¥o'St 9ª\un] ljsl;t ag]sf] 5 .

;LdfGtLotfjfbL ;dfnf]rgf lrGtg

kl5Nnf] r/0fdf ;flxTosf] ;f}Gbo{ lrGtg ag]/ b]vf k/]sf] of] klg Pp6f gofF wf/f xf] . bf];|f] ljZjo'4f]Q/ ;dodf ;flxTodf b]lvPsf] ljz]iftf xf]—;LdfGtLs[ttf . ;afN6g{ -Sabaltern_ sf gfdaf6 lrlgg] of] k|jl[ QnfO{ ;dfnf]rgfsf] lbzfdf kl5Nnf] r/0fdf lgs} pRr :j/df rrf{ ug]{ ul/Psf] 5 . ;dfhsf] ;+/rgfdf dfG5]nfO{ hflt, ju{, lnª\u, /ª\u, Joj;fo, >d, cfª\lus b'an { tf cflbsf sf/0f dfG5]sf] d"NonfO{ dgf]ljz]iftf ;d]tsf ;Ldfdf ljeflht u/]/ st} s'gflt/ yGSofpg] sfd ul/g] l:ylt ljsl;t ag]sf] 5 . o; l:yltsf sf/0f dfG5]sf] ;d'bfo dfG5]åf/f g} vl08t ePsf] cj:yf ;dfhdf ljBdfg 5 . o; kl/l:yltsf] lg/fs/0fsf lglDt ul/g] ;ª\3if{sf cleofgx? cfh ;flxTo l;h{gf / ;dLIffsf cfwf/e"t ljifoj:t' ag]sf x'G5g\ . ;LdfGtLotfsf] lrGtgdf klg w]/} g} /fhgLlts r]tgfsf] k|efj /x]sf] 5 . k"js { f] j0f{ / hflt ljefhgsf ljlEfGg cfwf/x? klg ;LdfGtLs/0fsf lglDt sf/s ag]sf 5g\ . ljz]if u/L ef/tLo ;dfhsf] j0f{ Joj:yfnfO{ cfwf/ dfg]/ klZrdLx?n] ;afN6g{ ljifos cWoognfO{ cfkm\gf] s]Gb| agfPsf 5g\ . To;f] t of] ;d:of ljZjsf ljleGg d'ns ' df klg b]lvPsf] 5 . blIf0f Pl;ofsf ;a} d'ns ' df b]lvPsf] hflt e]bsf] ;d:of ljZjsf cGo d'ns ' df klg w]/yf]/ ljBdfg /x]sf] 5 . c:6«l] nof, Sofgf8f, blIf0f cd]l/sf / clk|msfdf klg o;sf] k|efj /x]sf] kfOG5 -gfo/, k[= ((_ . o;tkm{sf] klxnf] n]vg PG6f]lgof] u|fDrLsf] lk|hg gf]6 a's -;g\ !(&!_ nfO{ lng] zAbfª\s/' h]7 @)^*

13


ul/G5 . ;LdfGtLo cWoog eg]sf] blIf0f Pl;ofdf s]lGb|t ljljw hflt, wd{ / ;+:s[ltn] e]befjsf] ;Ldf sf]l/gfn] lgdf{0f ePsf ;d:ofx?sf] P]ltxfl;s / ;fdflhs Pj+ ;f+:s[lts cWoogsf] d"n s]Gb|af6 ljsl;t ePsf] ;dlGjt ljifo xf] -gfo/, k[= !)&_ . o; If]qsf] e":jfldTj, k}lqs ;DklQsf] k':t}gL x:tfGt/0fsf] k/Dk/f, n}ª\lus cfwf/df ;Gtfgk|lt ul/g] e]befjsf] k|rng, 5'jf5'tsf cfwf/df dfG5]nfO{ ul/g] e]befj, ;f+:s[lts / wfld{s cfwf/ lnP/ d7dlGb/ / o1ofuflbdf ul/g] hfltut Jojxf/x? ;afN6g{sf d"ne"t lrGtgsf ;|ft] x? x'g\ . slyt s'nLg / clehft ;+:s[ltsf] bdgdf blaPsf ;fdfGo hg;+:s[ltsf kIfx? klg o; cWoogsf d"n ljifo ag]sf 5g\ . o'/f]k / cd]l/sfsf] kl/j[QeGbf klg leGg / Pl;ofsf] klg blIf0fjtL{ efudf /x]sf d'ns ' df /x]sf ;d:ofsf cfwf/df a9L JofVof ePsf o; ljifonfO{ lbk]z rqmjtL{n] dfS;{jfbL 9ª\un] JofVof ug{ k|oTg u/]sf 5g\ -gfo/, k[= @$^_ . ef/tLo kl/j]znfO{ s]Gb| dfg]/ /l~ht u'xn] u/]sf] cWoogn] klg o; ;Gbe{nfO{ k|:t't u/]sf] 5 . Plnd]G6/L cf:k]S6 ckm lkh]G6 OG;h{G] ;L Og sf]nf]lgon OlG8of -;g\ !(*#_ df o;nfO{ Jofks ?kdf rrf{ ul/Psf] 5 . O= kL= yf]D;gsf] o'lhª EjfO; b ckm lx:6«L, ldvfOn kmf]sN6sf] gf];g ckm lx:6«L, P8jf8{ ;Obsf]] cf]l/oG6flnhd /oG6flnhd, /f]nfF afy{sf] ;]ldof]nf]hL nufotsf ;fdu|Ln] ;LdfGtLotfsf cg]s k|Zgx? pk:yfkg u/]sf 5g\ -gfo/, k[= @$&_ . clehft / s'nLgtfsf ;fd' blnt pk]lIft / ;LdfGtLs[tx?n] cfjfh lgsfNg g;s]sf ;Gbe{x? klg ;afN6{gsf] d"n ;Gbe{leq /x]/ ;dLIff ug]{ lrGts ufoqL l:kjfsn] ;lj:tf/ k|:t't u/]sf] kfOG5 . la:tf/} ;LdfGtLs[tx?n] cfkm\gf] cl:tTjsf] klxrfg klg vf]Hg ul/Psf ;Gbe{x?nfO{ s]Gb| agfP/ n]lvPsf] logsf] …:6«f6]lhs o'h ckm kf]lhl6E;\ P;]lG;oflnhdÚ gfds /rgfn] l;4 u/]sf] 5 -gfo/, k[= @$*_ . ;dfh zf:qleqsf] pk]lIfttfsf] cWoogsf ;Gbe{df ;dfh zf:qL uf]N8Dofgsf] lrGtg klg lgs} nfebfos ePsf] s'/f :d/0fLo 5 . ;LdfGtLotfsf ljljw ?ksf] rrf{ ug]{ qmddf pgn] ;LdfGtleqsf cg]s txx? klxNofpg' kg]{ s'/fx? k|:t't u/]sf 5g\ . Ps} lnª\uleqsf ;LdfGttf, Ps} hfltleqsf ;LdfGttf, Ps} ju{leqsf ;LdfGttf, Ps} ?k, /ª\u / Ifdtfleqsf ;LdfGttf h:tf sf/0fn] klg dfG5]df lje]bstfx?sf] hGd ePsf] x'G5 . o:tf cj:yfsf] juL{s/0f ug]{ qmddf pgaf6 l:6Udf -Stigma_ l;4fGtsf] k|ltkfbg ePsf] 5 . ;LdfGttfleq} /x]sf] cj:yfdf klg pk]lIfttf, lje]lbttf / xLgtfsf] k|of]u ul/Psf x'G5g\ . ;d ;LdfGtLotfleqsf ljifdtfx? cem l67nfUbf] x'g] s'/f uf]N8Dofgsf] dtn] k|ltkfbg u/]sf] 5 . ljsl;t / ;DkGg kl/j]zdf of] cem 8/nfUbf] cj:yfdf b]vf kb{5 . ;d of]Uotf, ;d ;Gbe{ / ;d l:yltdf klg cj;/ nfe lng]x?sf] Ifdtfsf lardf hlGdg ;Sg] lje]bstfsf sf/0f ljleGg cj;/, cfsfª\Iff cflbdf cfpg] Jojwfgx?nfO{ l:6Udfsf] kl/lwdf /fv]/ JofVof ug{ ;lsG5 -uf]N8Dofg, k[= %^_ . ;afN6g{sf] ;Gbe{df ljsl;t ePsf] of] kl5Nnf] lje]bs d"No ce}m hl6n / vt/fk"0f{ l:yltdf b]lvPsf] 5 . zAbfª\s/' h]7 @)^*

14


pQ/ ;f+:s[lts ;dfnf]rgf lrGtg

dfgj ;d'bfosf] klxrfg ;+:s[ltn] k|bfg ub{5 . dfG5]nfO{ cGo k|f0fLaf6 cnu aGg 5'§} ?kdf k|bfg ul/Psf] klxrfg eg]sf] ;+:s[lt xf] . dfgj ;d'bfonfO{ :jtGq / df}lns d"No k|bfg u/]/ 5'§} ljz]iftfdf :yfkgf ug]{ ;+:s[lt klg ljleGg ;do / ;Gbe{df kl/jlt{t x'Fb} hfG5 . ljZjsf] ;+:s[lt ljleGg ;do / ;Gbe{edf s]xL lg/Gt/tf / s]xL ljR5]b ePsf] l:yltdf b]vf kb{5 . k/fk"j{ sfnb]lv ljsl;t / lg/Gt/ aGb} cfPsf] / s]xL ljR5]b klg x'Fb} cfPsf] ;f+:s[lts d"Nodf b]lvPsf ?kx?df cy{sf] lgwf{ot{ f klg Jojl:yt aGb} uPsf] 5 / cfh xfdL;Fu hf]l8g cfPsf] ;+:s[ltn] g} o; kIfnfO{ l;4 u/]sf] 5 . pQ/ cfw'lgs ;flxTosf ljleGg ;Gbe{df ;+:s[ltsf ljz]iftfx? pQ/ ;f+:s[lts d"Nosf ?kdf k|ltli7t aGb} uPsf] s'/f klg pNn]Vo /x]sf] 5 . cfh /fhgLltsf kl/efiffx? k]ml/Psf 5g\ . cy{ / wd{sf kl/efiffx? ablnPsf 5g\ . ;du| d"Nox?df cfPsf ljrngx? pQ/ ;f+:s[lts k|flKt ag]/ pk:yfkg ePsf 5g\ . ;f+:s[lts cWoogsf ;Gbe{df kl5Nnf] o'usf kIfx? cem Jofks rrf{sf ljifo ag]sf 5g\ . ;dosf ;fGble{s k|;ª\ux? o; lsl;dsf j}lzi6Ødf ?kfGtl/t ePsf 5g\ . ljz]if u/L ;g\ !(^) kl5sf jif{x?df ;f+:s[lts :j?kx? klg ljz]if ?kdf ?kfGtl/t ePsf 5g\ . lnª\usf cfwf/df klg ;f+:s[lts d"Nox? kl/jlt{t ag]sf 5g\ . hflt / j0f{sf lardf ePsf d"Nox? kl/jlt{t ePsf 5g\ . dfG5]sf] klxrfgsf kIfx?sf] ;f+:s[lts d"No casf] ;Gbe{df sndL (Hibridity) aGb} uPsf] 5 . dfG5] dfqsf] hftdf kl/jt{g x'Fb} uPsf] ljZjsf] ;du| dfgj ;d'bfo;fd' ef}lts ;To dfq pkl:yt x'g cfpg] ;Gbe{nfO{ pQ/ ;+:s[ltsf ;Gbe{df sndL -Hibridity_ ;+:s[ltsf cy{df lng] ul/G5 -gfo/, k[= @))_ . j+zf0f' lj1fgsf] k|efj, ;fdflhs tyf ;f+:s[lts d"Nox?n] dfgj hLjgsf ;Gbe{df kf/]sf k|efjx? klg o; ;dosf ;flxlTos d"Nodf pk:yfkg ePsf 5g\ -kmfpsN6, k[= !@$_ . :yfgLo / ;fj{ef}d ;fdflhs tyf ;f+:s[lts ljz]iftfsf l:yltx?sf] ax'ntfsf] pkl:ylt cem alnof] ag]sf] b]lvG5 . ax'n ;+:s[l[ tsf d"Nodf ablnPsf] jt{dfg ljZjdf ;f+:s[lts ljjt{g pkl:yt ePsf] b]lvG5 . jt{dfgsf] dfG5] ljZj:t/df g} ;f+:s[lts lj8Dagfdf k|jQ[ ePsf] 5 . pQ/ cf}klgj]lzs d"Nosf] cg'xf/df km]l/Psf] jt{dfgsf l:yltx? pQ/ eflifs ;+:s[lt, pQ/ hfltut ;+:s[lt, pQ/ cfly{s ;+:s[ltsf :j?kdf ablnPsf 5g\ . Jofkfl/s / cf}Bf]lus If]qdf klg pQ/ ;+:s[ltsf :j?kx? pbfPsf 5g\ . log} clenIf0fx? ;flxToleq k|jw{g ePsf sf/0faf6 cfhsf ;flxTosf] ljz]iftf k|ltkfbg ePsf] b]lvG5 . ;f+:s[lts e"d08nLs/0fsf ljleGg k|efjx? cfhsf ;dodf ;xh u|fXo ag]/ b]vf k/]sf 5g\ . oxfF ;Togf/fo0fsf] k"hf eO/x]sf] b[Zosf] ;xefuL aG5 — ;ft ;d'bk| fl/ k'us ] f] Pp6f wd{sf] ;b:o . ;ft ;d'bk| fl/sf d'ns ' df k'us ] f] ;b:o lqm:d; / df]x/{ddf ;xefuL ePsf] cg'et" u5{ — ;DalGwt d'ns ' leqs} ;+:s[ltsf] ;b:o ag]/ . ljZj g} Pp6f ;fFu/' f] ag]sf] jt{dfg lgs} l67nfUbf] eO;s]sf] 5 . ;f+:s[lts sndL -Hibridity_ ePsf] cfhsf] l:ylt lgs} hl6n / ef]Ug ;d]t uf/f] zAbfª\s/' h]7 @)^*

15


kg]{ ljml;dsf] ag]sf] 5 . Pp6f r'nf] / rf}sfdf e]6 x'g] ;b:ox? ljZjsf cg]s wd{, ;+:s[lt / lrGtgsf] ljefhgdf vl08t ag]/ klg ;dfof]hg ePsf] b]lvPsf 5g\ . lj:tf/df k'us ] f cg]s b]zsf ;b:ox? cfkm\gf df}lns b]zaf6 k|;fl/t ;+:s[ltsf ef]Stf klg alg/x]sf 5g\ / To; gofF :Yffgsf] ;+:s[ltsf] ef]Stf klg alg/x]sf 5g\ . o; ;fOa/ ;+:s[ltsf] k|efjnfO{ g} pQ/ ;+:s[ltsf] ;DaGwdf ;+of]hg ug{ ldNb5 . pQ/ ;+:s[ltsf b'u0{' f / u'0fsf kIfx? klg xfd|f] jt{dfgdf P]h F ¿] ag]/ /x]sf b]lvG5g\ . hftLotfdf ax' hftLotfsf] k|efj lj:tf/ ePsf] 5 . n}ªl\ ustfdf ax' n}ªl\ ustf tyf ;dn}ªl\ ustf / t[tLo n}ªl\ ustfsf k|efjsf] lj:tf/ ePsf] 5 . wfld{stfdf ax' wfld{stfsf] lj:tf/ ePsf] 5 . efiffdf ax' eflifstfsf] 3';k}7 ePsf] 5 . /fli6«otfdf ax' /fli6«otfsf] bVvn k/]sf] 5 . ;'/Iffsf] ;+:s[ltdf ax' ;+:s[ltsf] 3';k}7 ePsf] 5 . /fhgLltdf ax' /fhgLlts 3';k}7 ePsf] 5 . o; ax' ;f+:s[ltstfsf] cleofgdf zlSt ;DkGg d'ns ' n] zlSt ljkGgdfly 3';k}7 sfod /fv]sf] 5 . cfhsf] ;flxTodf oL ljz]iftfx? cg'zLngsf ljifoj:t' ag]/ cfPsf x'gfn] ;f]xL cg';f/sf] ;}4flGts lrGtg cjnDag ug'{ pko'St b]lvG5 .

cfk|jf;LotfjfbL ;dfnf]rgf lrGtg

cfk|jf;gnfO{ klg ;flxTo ;[hgf / lrGtgsf] sf/0f ag]sf] cj:yfdf lng] ul/G5 . o;nfO{ cfhsf] ;Gbe{df ;dLIffsf] Ps gofF lsl;dsf] k|flKtsf ?kdf lng] ul/Psf] 5 . Ps d'ns ' sf] JolSt ljljw sf/0fjz csf]{ d'ns ' df k'u/] hLjg ofkg ug'{ kbf{ p;sf dgdf hlGdg ;Sg] cg]sfF} pxfkf]x / ltgsf k|ltlqmof JoSt x'g] ;Gbe{ ;flxTosf dfWodaf6 k|s6 ePdf To:tf] ;flxTonfO{ cfk|jf;Lo cg'el" t hlgt ;flxTosf ?kdf lng] ul/G5 . o;df ;flxTosf] ;|i6f cfkm\gf] df}lns :ynsf ljleGg d"Noaf6 lj:yflkt x'g' kbf{ hlGdPsf] lrGtf / Gof;|f] Jofks ?kdf b]vf kb{5 . O;fk"js { f] kfFrf}F ztfAbLlt/sf] ;dodf u|L;df /x]sf y'gj' fx?sf] d'lStsf] k|;ª\u;Fu hf]l8Psf] ljifonfO{ lnP/ ljsl;t ePsf wf/0ffx?df 8fo:kf]/f -Diaspora_ Pp6f gofF ;+1f tof/ eof] . lu|;n ] L zAb l8P:k]/fsf] tTsfnLg cy{ lj:yflkt cyjf ljsL0f{ eGg] lyof] . o;af6 s] :ki6 x'G5 eg] Pp6f df}lns / d"n ynf]af6 5/k:6 eP/ htf;'s} 5l/g' (Dispersed_ eGg] cy{ lgwf{/0f aGb} uof] . OShfon cyf{t\ Oldu|G] 6sf] tfTko{ cfkm\gf] d"n ynf], d"n /fi6« / d"n ;+:s[lt 5f8]/ ljleGg sf/0faf6 kNfflot agL csf]{ 7fpF / csf]{ d'ns ' df k'u/] a;]sfx?sf] kL8f, Gof;|f] ;d]tsf] ;+jb] gfsf] cleJolStdf s]lGb|t ;[hgfnfO{ 8fo:kf]l/s /rgf eGg] ul/of] . o;nfO{ ;dLIff ug]{ zf:qnfO{ eg] 8fo:kf]l/s lqml6l;hd eGg] ul/of] . cfhsf] dfG5] ljleGg sfdsf l;nl;nfdf ljZjsf ljleGg efudf 5l/Psf] 5 . cfh dfG5] cWoog / cWofkgsf lglDt, Jofkf/ Joj;fo / /f]huf/Lsf lglDt, ;+/If0f / ;'/Iffsf lglDt, ;'ljwf / ;d[l4sf lglDt e"d08nel/ JofKt ag]/ 5l/Psf] 5 . dfG5] ljZjsf ljleGg s'gfsfgL;Dd 5l/P/ cfkm\gf] cl:tTj ;+/If0f ug{ ljjz ag]sf] 5 . cfhsf] ;ª\3if{ / åGå ;ª\3ft ljZjdf lgjf{;g x'g] cg]s sf/0fx? 5g\ . dfG5] zAbfª\s/' h]7 @)^*

16


ltg} sf/0faf6 l;sf/ alg/x]sf] 5 . x/]s b]zdf cfk|jf;Lx?sf] 3'OrF f] nfu]s ] f] 5 . ;d:t cfk|jf;Lx?nfO{ juL{s/0f ubf{ ltgsf] lje]b lgDgfg';f/sf] ;"rL aGg k'U5 M o'4kLl8t cfk|jf;L Hofnfsf] vf]hLdf cfPsf >lds cfk|jf;L, Jofkfl/s sfddf cfPsf cfk|jf;L, k|dft[el" d klxNofpFb} cfPsf cfk|jf;L, ;f+:s[lts / z}lIfs lkm/Gtfsf ?kdf cfOk'us ] f cfk|jf;L, cltly / cflty]osf ?kdf /xg' kg]{ lrGtfsf kl/0ffdn] cfhsf dfG5]df peofTds ;+:s[ltsf] k|efj Jofks ?kdf a9]sf] b]lvG5 -OG;fOSnf]= = @))$, k[= !)%_ . ljrf/df ljdlt /x]sf sf/0faf6, zf;g ;Qfsf] cfnf]rgf / ljb|fx] sf sf/0faf6 o'4 kLl8t ag]/ st} k'us ] f cfk|jf;Lx?sf] kL8fn] 8fo:kf]l/s r]tgf hGdfPsf] 5 . bf];f| ] ljZjo'4sf] kl/0ffdkl5 ljZj ;]gfdf ;]jf ubf{ub}{ st} k'u/] 5'6s ] f / gofF d'ns ' df cf>o lnPsf hjfgx?sf cl:tTjaf6 klg 8fo:kf]/fsf] hGd eof] . o'4sf] df/af6 ljleGg :yfglt/ knflot ag]sf kLl8t of]4f / knflot JolStsf pkl:yltdf klg 8fo:kf]/fsf] hGd eof] . o; o'4sf] kL8f dTy/ x'g gkfpFbd} f pQ/ cf}klgj]lzs / zLt o'4sf] eo lj:tf/ eof] . o;kl5sf] cfk|jf;gsf] l:ylt emg\ eofjx eP/ b]vf k¥of] . ljZjsf ;a} b]zdf b}lgs hLjg wfGg ufx|f] k/]sf ;Gbe{x? o'/f]ksf kf]NofG8, cfo/NofG8, cfd]l{ gof / tTsfnLg o'uf]:nfleof, ;f]leot ¿;, clk|msfsf ¿cfG8f, n'cfG8f, blIf0f clk|msf, Olyof]lkof h:tf d'ns ' af6 ljleGg b]zdf k'us ] f cfk|jf;Lx? cfhsf 8fo:kf]/f ag]/ b]lvPsf 5g\ . cd]l/sfdf klg ljleGg sfndf cfPsf 8fo:kf]l/sx?sf] pkl:ylt Jofks /x]sf] 5 . cfh knfog x'gx] ?sf HjnGt ;d:ofx? 5g\ . Pl;ofsf ckmuflg:tfg, aª\unfb]z, lrg, leotgfd, e'6fg, >Lnª\sf / g]kfn h:tf d'ns ' af6 ljZj:t/df 5l/Psf cfk|jf;Lx?sf] cj:yf jt{dfgdf ljZj:t/sf] cfk|jf;L ;d:of ag]/ ljs/fn ?kdf a9]sf] 5 -OG;fOSnf]= = @))$, k[= !)%_ . ljleGg lsl;dsf r'gf}tLx?sf] ;fdgf ub}{ cfkm\gf] hu]gf{ ug]{ k|oTgdf ul/Psf ;ª\3if{sf] lardf hGd]sf kl/l:yltx?sf] Gof;|f] -Nostalziya_ ef]u/] afFRg' kbf{sf] kL8fhGo cg'el" t o; lsl;dsf] ;flxTosf] sf/s tÎj dflgG5 . ljZjJofkL / cGt/f{li6«o dfgjsf] pkl:yltsf sf/0f cfh ljZjsf ufpF, ;x/, gu/ / dxfgu/x? klg ;lDdl>t ?kdf ablnFb} uPsf 5g\ . cg]s ;f+:s[lts, /fhgLlts / cfly{s d"No ;lDdl>t gu/ ag]sf] cfhsf] ljZj ljZj gu/Ls/0f (Cosmopolitan city) df ablnFb} uPsf] cj:yf 5 -gfo/, k[= @!#_ . ljWj:t sf]nf]gLsf] l:yltsf sf/0faf6 klg 8fo:kf]/f k|jw{gsf lglDt cg'sn " jftfj/0f tof/ ePsf] 5 . cfkm\gf] d"n b]zsf] dfof, dft[ efiffsf] dfof, dft[ ;+:s[ltsf] dfof, dft[ wd{ / k/Dk/fsf] dfofdf kLl8t ag]sf] cj:yfdf hlGdPsf] Gof;|fs ] f] ;+jb] gfsf kIfx? cfk|jf;L ;flxTosf sf/s tÎjx? x'g\ . ljZjJofkLs/0fsf ljleGg ;d:ofx? JolStn] cfkm\gf] d"n ynf]af6 nu]sf] efiff, ;+:s[lt, wd{ / k/Dk/fsf d"Nox? cfk|jf;Lsf] k|y | d k':tfdf tfhf kL8fsf ?kdf /x]sf x'G5g\ / Jofks kL8fsf ljifo zAbfª\s/' h]7 @)^*

17


ag]/ ;flxTodf k|s6 ePsf x'G5g\ -OG;fOSnf]= = @))$, k[= !$%_ . lj:yfkg ePsf 7fpFaf6 knflot ag]/ ljleGg :yfgdf k'us ] f sf/0f ToxfF ag]sf 8fo:kf]/fx? cfkm\gf] dft[ :ynsf eflifs / ;f+:s[lts, cfly{s / wfld{s :d[ltdf afFr/] Gof;|f] hGdfO/xg] l:yltsf] k|s6 u/fpg] lsl;dsf hLjg d"Nox? o; lrGtgsf ljz]iftfx? x'g\ . ;Eotfsf cf/Deb]lv g} dfG5]sf] :jefj ofofj/Lo lsl;dsf] /x]sf] 5 . yf]/} yf]/s } f] ;d"xdf lj:yfkg ePsf sf/0f ;do ;dodf cfk|jf;L aGg] l:ylt ;Eotfdf k|frLg sfnb]lv g} ljBdfg 5Fb} 5 . yk s] klg b]lvG5 eg] kl5Nnf] r/0fdf ljZjsf ljleGg d'ns ' af6 cfk|jf;g ePsf dfG5]sf] ;aeGbf 7"nf] / yf]s 8fo:kf]/fsf] ynf] ag]sf] xf]— cd]l/sf . cfhsf ljZjdf ljleGg ;d:ofsf] l;sf/ ag]sf z/0ffyL{x?sf] lj:yfkg / k'gM:yfkgsf dfG5]x?sf] pkl:ylt klg st} yf]sd} / st} v'bf| v'bf| df cfk|jf;gsf] ofqf k|z:t} ePsf] b]vf kb{5 . dfG5]sf] lj:yfkg / k'gM:yfkgsf sf/0f d"No kIfsf ;Gbe{x?sf] l:ylt klg lgs} hl6n b]vf k/]sf] 5 . klxnf] k':tfsf JolStx?df /x]sf] Gof;|f] bf];f| ] k':tfdf s]xL sd / bf];f| ] k':tfsf JolStx?df eGbf t];f| ] k':tfdf k'Ubf cem sd x'bF } uP/ ToxL cfl>t :ynsf] ;+f:s[lts ;Defjgfdf ljnLg x'g] k/Dk/f Jojl:yt aGb} uPsf] cj:yf ljsl;t ag]sf] 5 —dfgjLo lrQj[lQdf . le= P;= g}kf]n, ;Ndfg ¿:bL, Hofs 8]l/8f h:tf k':tf k|ltk':tfsf lrGtsx? klg 8fo:kf]/fs} k|ltkmng x'g\ . cfhsf] 8fo:kf]/fsf d"ne"t df}lnstfk"0f{ lrGtgsf] kIf k|ltli7t x'gdf Psflt/ ofofj/Lo j[lQsf] k|an e"ldsf 5 eg] csf{lt/ ljleGg cfk|jf;gsf sf/0fx?sf] k|efj klg TolQs} lhDd]bf/ 5 . g]kfnsf e'6fgL z/0ffyL{sf] cfhsf] ;d:of cGt/f{li6«o z/0ffyL{sf] Joj:yfkgn] ef]l] nsf] le=P;= g}kf]n klg hGdfpg] ;Defjgf b]vfpFb} 5 . cfhsf] g]kfnL ;Gbe{df 8fo:kf]l/s ;flxTosf hLjf nfld5fg], pk]Gb| dxtf] h:tf 8fo:kf]/fsf k|flKtsf] k|ltlglwTj ug]{ JolSt k|ltlglw / s[i0fk|sfz >]i7, xf]dgfy ;'jb] L, uf]ljGb lu/L k|/] 0ff, ;"o{ ;'jb] L nufotsf w]/} ;|i6f k|ltlglw cfhsf] 8fo:kf]l/s lrGtgnfO{ ;[hgfTds d"No k|bfg ul//x]sf 5g\ . logsf ;flxTo ;[hgfdf cfkm\gf] df}lns / dft[ /fi6«sf] Gof:f|f] ef]Ug] k|yd k':tfsf ;|i6fsf ?kdf k|ltli7t ag]sf ;flxTo lrGtgx? b]vf k/]sf 5g\ . cfhsf] 8fo:kf]l/s ;flxTo lrGtgsf ;Gbe{df log} pbfx0f klg kof{Kt ag]sf b]lvG5g\ .

kof{j/0fLo ;dfnf]rgf lrGtg

kl5Nnf] r/0fdf b]vf k/]sf] ;flxTo lrGtgsf] csf]{ Pp6f kIf kof{j/0f lrGtg klg xf] . o; lsl;dsf] ;flxTodf dfG5]s ] f clwsf/sf] ;+/+ If0fsf] cleofgnfO{ ult lbP h:t} hnr/ :ynr/ / ger/ hLjx?sf] clwsf/sf] ;+/If0fsf] b[li6 k|:t't ul/Psf] x'G5 . ;flxTo klg kof{j/0f;Fu ;DalGwt ag]/ k|:t't x'g] ;flxTo lrGtg xf] . o;/L g} jg:kltsf] clwsf/nfO{ k|fyldstf lbg] l:ylt cfh clgjfo{ aGb} uPsf] 5 . dfgj, dfgj]Q/ k|f0fL / jg:klt ;d]tsf] cGtM;DaGwaf6 ljZj ;~rflnt 5 . o;sf] ;+/If0fdf b[li6 o'usf] ;flxTo lrGtg kof{j/0f ;flxTo xf] . kof{j/0fLo ;+/If0fsf lglDt gofF ;[h [ gf lrGtgsf] cfjZostf 5 eGg] s'/fdf cfh dfG5] kl/lrt zAbfª\s/' h]7 @)^*

18


aGb} uPsf] 5 . dfG5]sf] k|ToIf k|efj 5 eGg] s'/f k|:t't ePsf]] 5 -h'l8gf; k[= &!_ . dfG5] x'gs ' f] ck|ToIf k||efjsf sf/0f k|sl[ tsf] :jfefljs ultdf cfPsf c;Gt'ngx?sf ;Gbe{x? Jofks aGb} uPsf] s'/f klg cfhsf] ;flxTon] k|ltkfbg u/]sf] 5 . ljZjsf] ;flxTosf] Oltxf;df k|f| rLg sfnb]lv g k|sl[ tsf] dfgj;Fusf] ;DaGw / k|sl[ tsf] dfgjLs/0fsf] k/Dk/f kl5Nnf] r/0fdf b]vf k/]sf] ;flxTo lrGtgsf] csf]{ Pp6f kIf kof{j/0f lrGtg xf] . kof{j/0fdf dfG5]sf] k|efjsf] k|ToIf k|efj / dfG5] x'gs ' f] ck|ToIf k|e| fjsf sf/0f k|sl[ tsf] :jfefljs ultdf cfPsf c;Gt'ngsf ;Gbe{x? Jofks aGb} uPsf] s'/f klg cfhsf] ;flxTon] cjnDag u/]s ] f] 5 . ljZjsf] ;flxTosf] Oltxf;df k||frLg sfnb]lv g k|sl[ tsf] dfgj;Fusf] ;DaGw / k|s[ltsf] dfgjLs/0fsf] k/Dk/f kf}/fl0fs sfnLg ;flxTodf klg lyof], dWo sfnLg ;flxTosf] sfndf klg lyof] / cfw'lgs sfnLg ;flxTodf klg k|sl[ t k|of]usf] j}lzi6Ø b]lvG5 . cfw'lgs sfnsf] :jR5Gbtfjfbsf] ;flxTo ;[hgfdf k|sl[ tsf] k|of]u st} ;'sf]dn / d}qL k|s[ltsf] k|of]u clg st} ljå]ifs ?kdf cjtl/t ljb|fx] L k|sl[ tsf] ?k :jR5GbtfjfbL sljx?df k|z:t k|of]u ePsf] b]vf k5{ . t/ pQ/ cfw'lgs ;flxTo lrGtgsf ;Gbe{df k|sl[ t k|of]usf lrGtg lgtfGt ljleGg /xg] s'/f cfhsf] ;Gbe{df k|s[lt lrGtg kof{j/0fsf ;Gbe{df cly{g] k/Dk/f cf/De ePsf] 5 . ;g\ !(*) kl5sf jif{df o'/f]k, cd]l/sf / Pl;ofsf d'ns ' df b]vf k/]sf k|fs[lts ljv08gsf kIfx?k|lt lbOg] b[li6 klg oxfF cfP/ gofF JofVof / gofF lrGtg ljsl;t aGb} uPsf] cj:yf b]vf k/]sf] 5 . dfgjsf pkl:yltsf sf/0f k|:t'ltdf cfPsf ljs[lt k"0f{ l:yltsf k|ltlqmofx? htftt} b]lvg] cj:yf klg oxfF pk:yfkg ePsf] 5 . cfh dfgjsf] b'ik|efjsf sf/0f k|s[ltsf] :jfefljs ultdf cfPsf :vng, Iflt / ljb"k| 0fsf] cj:yf o; sfn v08sf] k|sl[ tk|ltsf] lrGtg pb\af]wg b]vf k/]sf] 5 . cfhsf] ljZjk|s[lt ;+/If0fsf] ofrgf ul//x] 5 . dfgj / dfgjdf cfl>t k|f0fL ;dfhsf sf/0f k|sl[ tdf cfPsf] Wj:ttfsf kIfx?sf ljljw sf]0fx? oxfF k|ltkfbg ePsf 5g\ . jfo' k|bl" ift ag]sf] 5 . ;du| ged08n JofKt ag]sf] 5 . ;d'bs | f] hn ld;fon / OGwgIf/0fsf] b'ik|efjsf sf/0f k|bi" f0f o'St ag]sf] 5 . e" ;tx, jg:klt ;dfh, lxd k|bz ] sf] c;Gt'ngsf sf/0f k|bi" f0f o'St ag]sf] 5 . cGtl/Ifsf] / u|x d08nsf] ;tx klg dfG5]s} pkl:yltsf sf/0f ljb"l| kt / k|bl" ift ag]sf] 5 . ANofs xn / k|f0fL hut\sf] lardf /xg] cg'sn " tf / k|lts"ntfsf ;Ldf ;Gt'ng sfod ug]{ cf]hf]g txsf] ljgfz klg dfG5]s} Jojxf/sf sf/0faf6 ePsf] xf] . o:tf sf/0faf6 k|f0fL hut\ k|tfl8t aGb} hfgfn] cfhsf] ;Gbe{df k|sl[ t ;+/If0fsf] cfjZostf af]w ePsf] s'/f klg o; lsl;dsf] ;flxTon] k|:t't u/]sf] 5 . kof{j/0fLo k|jl[ Qsf] ;flxTo l;h{gfsf] sf/s ag]sf] 5 / ;dLIff lrGtgdf gofF cfofd sfod ePsf] b]lvG5 . o'/f]k] Lo tyf cd]l/sL ;dfhdf kof{j/0f ;+/If0f r]tgfsf kIfx? ljsl;t aGb} uPsf] cj:yfdf, clk|msf / c/alt/sf d¿:yndf klg xl/ofnL;Fu dfG5]sf] d}qL ljsl;t aGb} uPsf] 5 . kof{j/0f lrGtgsf ?kdf Jofks aGb} uPsf] s'/f cfhsf] l:yltn] k|:t't u/]sf] 5 . zAbfª\s/' h]7 @)^*

19


;fs{ /fi6«sf If]qdf kof{j/0f ;+/If0fsf r]tgfsf] cf/Dedf b]lvg] l:yltsf] ef/tLo kl/j]zsf] …lrksf]Ú cfGbf]ng k|sl[ t arfpm, kof{j/0f hf]ufpm, k|sl[ t / dfG5]sf larsf] ;DaGwnfO{ ;Gt'ngdf /fVg] k|oTg u/ eGg] p2]Zosf ;fy kof{j/0fsf] ;+/If0f u/ eGg] r]tgfsf] pb\af]wgdf ;flxTo l;h{gf s]lGb|t aGg k'Uof] . sf]nfh gfdaf6 ef/tsf] c;ddf ;g\ !(*) lt/ cf/De ePsf] ;flxlTos cleofgdf klg kof{j/0f ;+/If0f r]tgf d'vl/t lyof] . @)%) ;fnkl5sf jif{x?df g]kfnsf] kf]v/faf6 cf/De ePsf] k|sl[ tsf] arfpmdf s]lGb|t …;+/If0f sljtfÚ sf] cfGbf]ng klg o; If]qsf] dxÎjk"0f{ lrGtg ag]/ pkl:yt ePsf] 5 . k|sl[ tsf] ljb"|ktf dfG5]s} pkl:yltsf sf/0fn] eofgs aGb} uPsf] ;Gbe{ klg o; lsl;dsf] ;flxTo lrGtgn] l;4 ub}{ uPsf] 5 . d"NonfO{ rsgfr'/ agfOlbof] . kof{j/0f ;flxTo r]tgf klg d"n ?kdf pQ/ cfw'lgs ;flxTo l;h{gf r]ts} k|ltkmng xf] eGg] s'/f klg l;4 x'g cfPsf] 5 . ;dfnf]rgfsf l;4fGtx?df dfgjsf] pkl:yltsf sf/0f cfPsf k|sl[ t ljb|fx] fTdstf, ef}ulEf{s, g};lu{s d"Nodf cfPsf ljifdtfsf sf/0f la:tf/} ljgi6tflt/ pGd'v ag]sf k|sl[ tsf k|ltlqmof e"sDk, cf0fljs ljikmf]6g, ;fd'lb|s ;'gfdL, af9L, klx/f] / UofF; tyf cf0fljs ljlsl/0fsf eofjx ljikmf]6gn] kf/]sf ;d:ofx? ;flxTo l;h{gfsf sf/s ag]/ /x]sf ;Gbe{x? cfhsf] sfJo aLh ag]/ pkl:yt ePsf 5g\ . o:tf lrGtgnfO{ cfwf/ dfg]/ ul/g] ;dfnf]rgf cfhsf] ljZj ;flxTosf] ;dfnf]rgf lrGtg ag]/ pkl:yt ePsf 5g\ . log} k|flKtx? kof{j/0f ;flxTo l;h{gf / ;flxTo ;dLIffsf ;fwg ag]/ pkl:yt ePsf b]lvG5g\ .

cle3ftjfbL ;dfnf]rgf lrGtg

kl5Nnf] r/0fsf] ;flxTo l;4fGt ag]/ :yflkt aGb} uPsf] ;flxTosf] Pp6f wf/ xf] —cle3ftjfbL ;flxTo l;h{gf . qf; cyjf eosf sf/0f hlGdg] dfgl;s ;+ju] xf] —cle3ft l;4fGt (Truma Theory) . ;flxTodf eonfO{ ;f}Gbo{dn " s 9ª\un] pkof]u ug]{ k/Dk/f k"jd{ f / klZrddf klg lgs} nfdf] /x]sf] b]vf kb{5 . k"js { f] /fdfo0f / dxfef/t tyf klZrdsf] Olno8 / cf]l8;L 8;Lsf ;du| syfx? åGåhGo ;ª\3ftaf6 hGd]sf ;fdu|Lx? x'g\ . logdf eo cToGt k|an ag]/ /x]sf] 5 . ljZjsf ljleGg If]qdf / ljleGg sfn v08df ePsf cg]sf}F åGåsf l:yltx? hlGdg] dgf];ª\3fthGo cg'el" t eo xf] / o;nfO{ o'4 ;flxTon] /fd|/L pkof]u u/]/ ;flxTosf] l;h{gf ug]{ sfd lg/Gt/ x'bF } cfPsf] 5 . klxnf] / ljz]if u/L bf];f| ] ljZjo'4sf ;Gbe{df dfG5]n] ef]Ug' k/]sf ljs/fn / 3fts Wj:ttfn] dfG5]sf dfgjLo d"NonfO{ IftljIft agfOlbof] . o'4sf cg]s ?k / ltgaf6 hlGdg] k|ltlqmof klg dfG5]n] a]xf]g'{ k/]sf] cj:yf cfhsf] ljZj dfgjdf ljBdfg /x]sf] 5 . bf]:f|f] ljZjo'4sf] ;dflKtkl5sf] k|ltlqmof ;flxTodf cl:tTjjfb / lj;ª\ultjfb ag]/ b]vf k/] h:t} eosf] l:ylt qf; / s¿0ffsf] sf/s tÎj ag]/ klg b]vf k/]sf] 5 . ljZjsf ljleGg /fi6«x?sf] ;ª\u7g, lju7g / k'gu{7gsf] k|s/0f, ef}lts pGgltsf /rgfTds / Wj+;fTds pks/0fx?sf] pTkfbg, cfbfg k|bfg, pkof]u / b'¿kof]usf ;Gbe{n] Psflt/ v'Nnf ?kdf z:qf:qsf åGåx? rn] eg] csf{lt/ zAbfª\s/' h]7 @)^*

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z:qf:qsf slyt lg/:qLs/0fsf gf/fx? klg rn] . logsf lardf leq leq ghfFlgFbf] ?kdf zLt o'4sf k|s/0fx? klg r'lng nfu]sf] cj:yf cfhsf] jt{dfgn] k|:t't u/]sf] 5 . cGt/f{li6«o ;DaGwsf] ljsf;, s"6gLlts ;DaGwsf] ljZj:t/sf] u7g / ;+oS' t /fi6«sf] ax'/fli6«o ;]gf kl/rfngsf] cf}krfl/s :jLs[lt / ;dy{g dfk{mt hlt a]/ klg o'4sf] 3f]if0ff ug{ ldNg] ax'/fli6«o ;]gf ansf] :yfkgf / hlt a]nf klg k|xf/ ug{ ldNg] xftxltof/sf uf]bfdx?sf] pkof]usf] ;j{;n ' etf h:tf cfhsf kof{j/0fn] ;|i6fdf eofjx l:yltsf] ljs/fn ;d:of k|jt{g u/fOlbof] . dWok"jd{ f ePsf] nfdf] o'4, leotgfd / cd]l/sfsf] o'4, ;f]leot ¿;sf] 36gfkl5 ToxfFsf ljvl08t /fi6«x?df ePsf] eLif0f åGå, k]¿, ¿cfG8f / Olyof]lkofdf ePsf] åGå, O/fs / O/fg tyf ckmuflg:tfgdf ePsf ;ª\3if{x?, cle3ft r]tgfsf pkhsf sf/0f b]lvPsf 5g\ . s:dL/ / kfls:tfgsf åGå, >Lnª\sf / ltAatsf cfv]6x?, uf]vf{NofG8 / g]kfns} dfcf]jfbL åGån] 5f8]sf eofjx l:yltx? eosf df}lns sf/0fx? jt{dfgdf ljBdfg /x]sf 5g\ . z:qf:qsf åGåsf cltl/St, ;"rgf / ;~rf/sf dfWodaf6 cfpg] cftª\s, ljiffSt j:t'sf] ljls/0faf6 hlGdg] cftª\s, b}lgs pkef]usf j:t', cf}ifwL / cfjfudgsf ;fwgaf6 k|jt{g x'g] vt/fk"0f{ l:ylt ;fdgf ug'{ kg]{ cj:yfsf kIfx? cfh eosf sf/0f ag]/ pkl:yt ePsf 5g\ . ;'/Iff / e08f/gsf lglDt vfBj:t'df pkof]u u/]sf cf}ifwLsf] k|efjaf6 hlGdPsf] vt/f, ljsl;t d'ns ' n] cljsl;t d'ns ' sf dfG5] / kz'df k|of]u ul/g] cf}ifwLsf] k/LIf0fsf] lglDt 3f]lift ?kdf ;xof]usf] gfd lbP/ ul/a /fi6«x?nfO{ l;sf/ agfPsf] eo, ;~rf/ / ;"rgfsf ;fwg dfkm{t efO/; k|If]k0f u/]/ JolStsf ;du| df}lnstf s'l07t u/fpFb} cfPsf sf/0faf6 hlGdPsf] eo o; ;dosf lj8Dagfo'St eosf ;Gbe{x? x'g\ . ztflAbof}F cl3 ul/Psf cf0fljs ljikmf]6gsf sf/0f k|bl" ift ag]sf] kof{j/0fsf] k|efj cfh / cem} slt ztfAbLkl5;Dd klg h}ljs jg:klt / k|f0fLx?df cfª\lus ljsnfª\utfsf] k/Dk/f a]xf]//] hlGdg' kg]{ l:yltsf] zfZjt eo klg cfhsf o'un] cToGt kL8fbfos cj:yfdf ef]Ug' kg]{ cle3ft ag]sf] 5 . lxhf]sf] o'u ;Demf}tfdf kl/0ft t eof] t/ To; o'4sf] ;Gbe{df vlgPsf ;'¿ªleq n'sfOPsf ljikmf]6s kbfy{ slt kl5;Dd 3fts ag]/ k8\ls/xg] x'g\ eGg] eo o; ;flxTo lrGtgsf cfwf/e"t bfz{lgs ;fdu|L x'g\ . ljifodf qf;sf ;Gbe{x? Pskl5 csf]{ / csf]k{ l5 csf]{ x'Fb} cfPsf ljz]i] f l:yltsf] pb\3f6g o; ljifosf] n]vgdf Jojl:yt eP/ cfPsf x'G5g\ . ;ndfg ¿:bL, cf/=s=] gf/fo0fg\, w|j' rGb| uf}td, ;¿eSt, dx]zljqmd zfx, Clif/fh a/fn nufotsf n]vsx?sf ;[hgfdf eosf eofjx ?kx? k|of]u ePsf 5g\ . ljleGg l:yltsf sf/0f dfG5] ljeLlifsfsf] l;sf/ alg/x]sf] 5 eGg] ;Gbe{ klg o; vfnsf] ;flxTo lrGtgsf] ;f}Gbo{ zf:qsf ?kdf pkof]u eP/ cfPsf] x'G5 . ljz]if u/L pQ/ cfw'lgs sfn v08sf gf6sx?df :j}/ sNkgf, dfofjL oyfy{, clwoyfy{ / k/fcfVofg / k/f sljtf / gf6ssf] ;dLIffsf ;Gbe{df eosf rfkx? a9L k|of]u ePsf x'G5g\ . cle3ftsf cg]s ;Gbe{ / ltgsf k|ltkmng ef]Ug' k/]sf sf/0f ;|i6fsf] cGtZr]tgfsf] o;/L ;Gbe{df ;[lht ;dfnf]rgfn] k'li6 u/]sf] x'G5 . zLt o'4f]Q/ zAbfª\s/' h]7 @)^*

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sfnsf ;flxTon] ljZj:t/df kf/]sf ljiffSt k|efjsf If0fnfO{ jt{dfgn] eok|b agfP/ k|:t't u/]sf] x'G5 . ljZj ;flxTodf o;nfO{ pQ/ cfw'lgs sfnsf] ;f}Gbo{ lrGtgsf] ljifo agfP/ k|:t't u/]sf] x'G5 . cfh ljZjdf ;aeGbf cftª\ssf] ljifo k/df0f' ad ag]sf] 5, pkef]Uo j:t' dfkm{t l;ª\u} ljZjnfO{ cftª\lst agfPsf] 5 . dgf]j1 } flgs / ;f+:s[lts bf;tf, cfly{s / /fhgLlts bf;tfsf] :jLs[t t/ To;eGbf klg eofjx ad eg]sf] bf;tf lgdf{0fsf] ad xf] . ;fgf] cfotgdf cfkm\gf] klxrfg /fVg k|oTg ug]{ d"Noo'St /fi6«sf] ;+:s[lt, d"Nosf] cy{, d"Nosf] wd{ / d"Nosf] /fhgLltnfO{ of] ck;+:s[ltsf] ad lj:kmf]6g u/]/ ;dfKt ug]{ sfd klg o;} lqmofsnfkaf6 eO/x]sf] 5 . ljz]if u/]/ g]kfnL ;+:s[lt b'Oc { f]6f ck;+:s[ltaf6 cfqmfGt aGb} uO/x]sf] 5 . g]kfnsf] df}lns / k/Dk/fut ;+:s[ltdfly cfqmd0f ug]{ p2]Zon] b'Oc { f]6f ;zSt ad lj:kmf]6g ePsf 5g\ . lj:kmf]l6t klxnf] ad xf] —klZrdL kof{j/0faf6 ef/tdf cfPsf sRrf kbfy{x? k|zf]wgkl5 g]kfn lelqPsf] ;f+:s[lts ad / bf];f| ] rflxF —klZrdL ;fd|fHojfbL, lj:tf/jfbL lrGtgsf k|v/ ljb"ifs ag]sf /fi6«x?af6 l;w}F k|If]k0f ul/Psf] ck;f+:s[lts ad . oL b'j} ck;+:s[ltsf] l;sf/df kl/0ft ePsf] jt{dfg ;Defljt b'36{ gfsf] lgs6tflt/ clek|l] /t ePsf] 5 . xfd|f] h:tf] ;fgf] / b'an { ;+:s[ltsf] kof{j/0fdf lelqPsf] pQ/ cfw'lgstfsf] k|efj ;f+:s[lts df}lnstfnfO{ Wj:t ug{ cToGt ;kmn alg/x]sf] 5 . pQ/ cfw'lgstfsf] lgisif{ s] xf] eg] o'uf}bF l] v cfkm\gf] ;dfhsf :yflkt d"Nok|ltsf] ljt[i0ffefj hufOlbg] j}olSts nx8af6 hGd]sf cg'Q/bfoL lrGtgsf] kl/0ffd xf] . nfdf] ;do nufP/ :yflkt ePsf d"Nox?nfO{ Ps} lj:kmf]6gaf6 Wj:t kfl/lbg ;Sg] jt{dfgsf] ck;+:s[lt klZrdL d'ns ' af6 lj:tf/ eO/x]sf] 5 . c;DkGg / b'an { /fi6«x?nfO{ klg lrGtgdf j}olStstflt/ / lqmofsnfkdf k/lge{/tflt/ clek|l] /t ug{ ;kmn aGb} uPsf] 5 . cd]l/sf / o'/f]k s]lGb|t bf;tflt/ pGd'v clej[lQ lgdf{0fsf] ;fwg ag]sf] 5 . ljZjsf cGo d'ns ' sf k"h F LjfbL lrGtg ePsf s'nLg / ;De|fGt ;dfhdf k|rlnt cg'zf;gxLg ck;+:s[ltsf] ;+jfxs ag]sf] 5 . cljsl;t /fi6« / c;DkGg ;dfhsf hLjgd"Nosf] ;+xf/s aGb} uPsf] 5 . ;dli6df pQ/ cfw'lgstfsf] ;+:s[lt g]kfn / g]kfn h:tf cGo d'ns ' sf] lxtdf 5}g . o:tf c;DkGg / cljsl;t /fi6«nfO{ s] yfxf x'g' k5{ eg] cfkm\gf d'ns ' sf s'gf s'gf;Dd lzIff / /fli6«o cl:dtf af]wsf] efjgf hful/t x'g ;s]sf] 5}g t/ ufpF ufpF;Dd ax'/fli6«o lgudaf6 lgld{t ljleGg ljs[ltsf lj1fkg k|;f/0f ug]{ 7"nf ;"rgf kf6Lx? 6fFlu;lsPsf 5g\ . d'b0| f / b[Zo lrqsf dfWodx?af6 lj1fkgsf k|jfxx? k|jflxt ePsf 5g\ . xfd|f h:tf sdhf]/ d'ns ' df ltgsf b'ik|efjaf6 hf]lug ;Sg] ;+:s[ltsf] hu bx|f] ag]sf] 5}g . ;a}eGbf klxn] cfkm\gf] ;+:s[ltsf] hu bx|f] agfpg / cfkm\gf ;+/rgfx? ;an agfpglt/ pGd'v x'g' kg]{ lrGtgsf] ljsf; clgjfo{ 5 eGg] ;Gb]z g]kfn h:tf d'ns ' n] u|x0f ug'{ k5{ . dgf]/~hg / lzIffsf gfddf cg]sf}F ljsf/sf /ª\u el/Psf 6]lnlehgsf Rofgnx? hf]l8Psf 5g\ . :jf:Yosf gfddf k|fylds pkrf/sf] r]tgf k'us ] f] 5}g t/ cfw'lgs ljs[ltsf pkh / :jf:Yosf lglDt xflgsf/s /S;L, r'/f]6 / dfbs b|Josf laqmL sfpG6/ Jojl:yt 9ª\n] v'ln;s]sf zAbfª\s/' h]7 @)^*

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5g\ . wfdL, emfFqmLsf] emf/km's / ;'8gF] Lsf e/df dfgjLo :jf:Yo c8]sf 7fpFdf P8\; / SofG;/sf ;|ft] sf] ljlgdo cf/De eO;s]sf] 5 . o; lsl;dsf ljs[ltsf] k|If]k0fsf] ;|ft] pQ/ cfw'lgstf hlgt ;f+:s[lts ad g} t xf] . ;f+:s[lts ;fd|fHosf clwgfos klZrdL /fi6«x?sf] if8\oGq g} uDeL/ ljifosf ?kdf xfd|f] h:tf] d'ns ' df km}lnO/x]sf] 5 . xfdL cfWoflTds anaf6 ljsl;t x'Fb} cfP/ jt{dfgdf l6s]sf xf}F . klZrdLx? 7Ls o;sf] ljk/Lt ef}lts ef]u lnK;faf6 ljsl;t x'Fb} hfFbf oxfF cfOk'us ] f x'g\ . ;]jf, tk:of / ;fwgfaf6 dfgj sNof0fsf] nIo;Dd cf/f]lxt x'g] xfd|f] Wo]o xf] t/ 7Ls ljk/Lt klZrdLx?sf] cfqmd0f, x:tIf]k / cf}klgj]zLs/0faf6 cfkm\gf] p2]Zo k"lt{ ug'd{ f /x]sf] 5 . cfh xfdL cfkm\g} d"Nodf uj{ /fVgdf klg nfh dfGg yfn]sf 5f}F . xfd|f] wd{, ;+:s[lt / k/Dk/f Tofu]df ef]hgsf] k|aGw x'g] k|:tfjx? cfpg yfn]sf 5g\ . xfdLn] cfkm\gf] klxrfg k"/} u'dfPsf xfd|f 5f]/f 5f]/Lx?sf] k9fOsf] z'Ns a]xf]l/lbg] / xfdLn] cfkm\gf] uf}/j Tofu]df Joj;fosf] ;'lglZrttf ul/lbg] k|:tfjx? cfpg yfn]sf 5g\ . ef]hg, cfjf; / kl/wfgsf cltl/St dgf]/~hg ;d]tsf] 7]Ssf lng]x?n] To;sf] ;§fdf xfd|f :yflkt d"Nosf] lj36gsf/L ;Demf}tfdf x:tfIf/ dfq dfu]sf 5g\ . oL ;Dk"0f{ kIfsf k|:t'ltaf6 xfd|f] lubf]{ cfTdan pQ/ cfw'lgstfhGo vf8nlt/ b'3l{ 6t x'g k'us ] f] :ki6 x'G5 . ha;Dd ;f+:s[lts / cfly{s ?kdf ;an Pjd\ cfTdlge{/ aGg ;St}gf},F ta;Dd klZrdL cltjfbsf] kmGbfaf6 hf]lug ;St}gf}F . clg ha;Dd ef}lts ?kdf klg cfTdljZj:t aGg ;St}gf}F, ta;Dd pQ/ cfw'lgstfsf cfFwLaf6 cfkm\gf] df}lns klxrfg ;+/If0f ug{ ;dy{ aGb}gf}F . pQ/ cfw'lgstfjfbLx?sf] cfx\jfg 5 —dfG5] cfkm\gf] lg0f{osf lglDt :jod\ g} kof{Kt / :jtGq 5 . p;sf cGtt{xdf cgGt ;Defjgfx? hlGdG5g\ . xfdLn] ltgnfO{ lgodsf Jojwfg hGdfP/ s'l07t agfpg' x'Gg eGg' :yflkt d"NonfO{ Roftr't kf/, c/fhs ag, clgolGqt xf]pm eGg' xf] . o;f] eGg'sf] tfTko{ s] xf] eg] ltdL ;f+:s[lts b[li6n] cToGt rfF8} db}{ 5f} / xfd|f] ;f+:s[lts ;fd|fHo ljZjJofkL aGb} 5 . xfdLn] sxfFg/] ;ts{ aGg' k5{ eg] k'/fgt o'ub]lv ;+od / cg'zf;gsf] g}lts dof{bfdf a;]sf xfdLx? aFwj' f ufO{ km'Ssf x'gf;fy htftt} bf}8/] e8\vf/f]df k/] h:t} v'/d'l/g klg a]/ 5}g . To; sf/0f o:tf k|jl[ Qx? u|x0f ug{ ;dod} ;r]t / ljj]szLn agL lg0f{o ug'{ k5{ . snf, ;+:s[lt, ;flxTo / bz{gsf ;Defif0fx?, cd"t{ JofVof / ljZn]if0fx? cefju|:t dfG5]sf lglDt efn'nfO{ k'/f0f dfq aGb} 5g\ . o;af6 vt/f s] klg hlGdO/x]sf] 5 eg] cfly{s cefj / ;f+:s[lts c/fhstfsf sf/0fn] xfdL :jod\ df}lnstfaf6 ljrlnt / :vlnt aGb} uO/x]sf 5f}F . qmdzM pQ/ cfw'lgstf hlgt s'nLg, gjwlgs / ;De|fGt ju{sf] ljsf/u|:t ;+:sf/af6 km:6fPsf] ck;+:s[ltsf cGwut{df lub}{ uO/x]sf 5f}F . d"No lj36gsf] l;sf/ alg/x]sf 5f}F . ;du|df pQ/ cfw'lgstf :yflkt d"Nox?sf] lj:yfkssf ?kdf xfd|f cl3lNt/ pkl:yt eO/x]5 . xfdL cl:tTj z"Gotfsf vf8nlt/ ws]lnFb} hfg] ;fOtsf] k|tLIffdf 5f}F . zAbfª\s/' h]7 @)^*

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;Gbe{ ;fdu|L ;"rL c:j], cfog, -;Dkf= !((@_, b SoflDa|h ufO8 6' ln6/]r/ Og Oª\ln;, SoflDa|h, o'lgel;{6L k|; ] . Uff}t} d, s[i0f, -@)^$_, pQ/ cfw'lgs lh1f;f lh1f;f, sf7df8f}F, e[s6' L klAns];g . Uff}t} d, s[i0f, -@)^&_, pQ/ cfw'lgs ;+jfb fb, sf7df8f}F, e[s6' L klAns];g . Uff}td, nId0f, -@)^%_, pQ/ cfw'lgstfjfbL g]kfnL ;dfnf]rgf, sf7df8f},F df]8g{ klAns];g . Gffo/, k|df]b s]=, -@))*_ kf]:6 sf]nf]lgon ln6/]r/ Pg OG6«f]8S;g S;g, nª\Dofg, lko;{g . krf}/L, ;'wLz, -@))^_, ;flxTosf pQ/ ;dfh zf:q, goL lbNnL, /fwfs[i0f k|sfzg . a/fn, Clif/fh, -@)^$_, ;flxTo / ;dfh ;dfh, nlntk'/, ;femf k|sfzg . e§/fO{, Uff]ljGb/fh, -@)^%_, pQ/ cfw'lgs ljd;{, g]kfn, df]8g{ klAns];g . ;'jb] L, /fh]Gb| -@)^!_ g]kfnL ;dfnf]rgf k/Dk/f / k|j[lQ, af/f0f;L, e"ldsf k|sfzg . xfpn], hf]xg ;L=, -;Dkf= @))!_ OG;fOSNff]lkl8of ckm kf:6 sf]nf]lgon :6l8h :6l8h, nG8g, u|Lgj'8 k|; ] . 

uhn

uhn ;'/z ] ;'dg 8fFuL t'N;Lk'/ %, bfª

ef]s pxL xf], yfn gofF nfUof] kL8f p:t} xf], ;fn gofF nfUof] . g ;lsof] k'Ug, nIodf cem} kfOnf pxL, rfn gofF nfUof] . pxL xf] hjfkm, ;a}n] lbg] oxfF dfq ltd|f,] ;jfn gofF nfUof] . sfd s'/f ;a}, k'/fg} 5g\ oxfF km]l/of] ;'/, tfn gofF nfUof] . hf] cfP lg yfk], w/fk dfq} ltd|f] tl/sf, hfn gofF nfUof] .

(suresh_tulsipur@yahoo.com)

xflb{s ;dj]bgf ;flxTosf/ b]js'df/L yfkfsf] lgwgdf ;Dk"0f{ zf]s;GtKt kl/jf/k|lt xflb{s ;dj]bgf k|s6 ub{5f}F .

zAbfª\s/' –kl/jf/ zAbfª\s/' h]7 @)^*

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syf

;DaGw wg/fh e§/fO{

Online Sahitya dot com

zAbfª\s/' h]7 @)^*

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;fy u|x0f u/]sf] x'gk' 5{ . nuftf/ $ dlxgfsf] c:ktfnaf;kZrft\ a'afdf qmdzM ;'wf/sf ;ª\st] b]vf k/] . 8fS6/x?n] ;'wf/f]Gd'v cj:yf b]v/] c:ktfnaf6 labf klg lbP . d'vaf6 vfgf vfg gldn]/ gfsaf6 kfOk nufOPsf] lyof] . clg gfs / d'vaf6 Zjf; km]g{ g;Sg] ePsf]n] 6«ofsf]:6f]kL -3fF6L cufl8kl§ 5]8/] kfOk nfpg'_ ul/Psf] lyof] . o:tf] cj:yfdf d}n] a'afnfO{ sf7df8f}F -cfkm\gf] sf]7f_ NofPF . /fv]F . x]/ljrf/ u/]F . efO 3/ -ufpF_ uof] . d]/L >LdtLn] v'a; } Fu ;xof]u k'¥ofO{ . eujfg\n] cfkm"x?sf] k|fy{gf ;'Gg] s'/f atfpFb} d pgnfO{ af/Daf/ ;DemfpFyF] . kl5sf lbgdf d}n] /ftf]lbg v6]/ a'afsf] x]/ljrf/ u/]F . b'Ob{ O' { lbgsf] cGt/df sf7df8f}Fs} l;gfdª\unl:yt sf7df8f}F d]l8sn c:ktfn n}hfg'kYof]{ . n}hfGy]F . a'afnfO{ qmdzM ;'wf/ ePsf] dx;'; x'GYof] . Pslbg 8fS6/x? hDdf eP/ a'afnfO{ s] ug]{ egL 5nkmndf h'6s ] f] kfPF . a'afsf] gfs / 3fF6Ldf nufPsf kfOkx? lgsfn]df t'¿Gt} d[To' x'g] ts{ s;}n] uy]{ eg] ;'wf/sf] of] qmd /lx/x] kfOkx? vf]Ng ;lsg] ts{ s]xL uy]{ . cGttM a'afnfO{ c:ktfn egf{ ug{ elgof] . 8fS6/x? pxfFnfO{ k|ToIf cjnf]sg ub{y] . eujfg\sf] s[kfn] a'af 8fS6/sf] cg'dfgeGbf a9L rdTsfl/s ?kdf 7Ls x'bF } hfg yfNg'eof] . To;} tfsfsf] s'/f xf], xfd|fe] Gbf 7Ls ljk/Ltkl§sf] sf]7fdf uf]bfj/L km"nh:tf b'O{ o'jtLx?sf] k|jz ] eof] . pgLx? s'ga]nf ;'6S' s;Fu sxfFaf6 cfOk'u] d}n] kQ} kfpg ;lsgF . t/ sf]7flt/ k|jz ] ub}{ ubf{ d}n] pgLx?nfO{ k5fl8af6 lgofNg] df}sf kfPF . a8f] ;'Gb/ b[Zo . x+z kIfLsf hf]8Lem}F nfUof] dnfO{ tL o'jtLx? . a'afsf] lbgfg'lbgsf] ;'wf/n] xf}l;Psf] d]/f] dg p;} klg v';L lyof] . tyflk k6\of/nfUbf] c:ktfn a;fOdf cfkm\g} l5d]sLem}F eP/ cfPsf o'jtLsf] cfudgn] d cem xf}l;PF . lgSs} ulxFl/P/ ltgnfO{ lgofn]F, …la/fdL xf]nfg\ ls s'¿jf = = <Ú dgdf yf]/} kfk knfof], …Pp6LrflxF la/fdL e}lbP lg x'GYof] . sd;] sd oxfF a;'Gh]n b]Vg t kfOGYof] .Ú b'j} o:tf lyP ls k5fl8kl§ af6 dfq lgofNbf klg cnf}lss cfsif{0f emlNsGYof] . b'j} cUnfcUnf ;'xfpFlbnf lh/fkmh:tf . sfFw b'js } f a/fa/ . ;'8f}n z/L/ . yf]/} gfs RoflK6Psf d[ugogL . cfw'lgs km];gn] lrl/Rof§ k/]sf . b'js } f s]z/fzL 3'F8f;Dd} ns]s { f / s'gs } g' } ;do xfjfn] bfofFafofF kfl/lbFbf k'i6 lgtDasf] emNsf] b]lvg] . ;'Gb/ clg lgSs} cfsif{s . dnfO{ nf]EofP hf]8L o'jtLn] . s]xL a]/d} v} s;/L xf]– d pgLx?sf] ;fd'Gg] k'lu;s]sf] lyPF . b'Os { f aLrdf cleefjsTj k|bz{g ul//x]sf] lyPF . pgLx? klg a];xf/f ePsfn] d;Fu lgSs} cfzfjfbL ag] . s'/fsfgLs} k|;ª\udf yfxf kfPF d]/f] kfkL dgn] lrtfPem}F b'Od{ Wo] alxgLrflxF la/fdL / lbbLrflxF s'¿jf eP/ cfPsf /x]5g\ . sl/a b'O{ xKtfsf] c:ktfn a;fOdf d pgLx?;Fu lgSs} glhlsO;s]sf] /x]5' . laxfg % ah] p7\g,] sf]7fdf cfpg], vfgf–b"w tof/ ug],{ a'afnfO{ nu]/ v'jfpg], lbpF;f] sfddf hfg], sfd ;s]/ $ ah]lt/ k'gM c:ktfn k'Ug], ToxfFaf6 l6lkmg aS; af]s/] sf]7fdf kmls{g,] vfgf tof/ u/L c:ktfn hfg] / /ftel/ a'afnfO{ s'//] km]l/ ef]lnkN6b]lv pxL sfdnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg]df d cEo:t eO;s]sf] lyPF . a'afnfO{ lbgel/ PSn} 5f8]/ lxF8\bf ltg} o'jtLsf] kmf]gdf ;Dks{ u/L va/ a'‰y]F . pgLx?nfO{ k/]sf] ;d:ofdf ;'emfj lbGy]F / pgLx?sf] b'Mvdf b'MvL alglbGy]F . zAbfª\s/' h]7 @)^*

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