In physical geography, Tundra is a biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons. It is also one of the coldest biomes. The two major nutrients are nitrogen and phosphorus.
BY: SARAH ERTEK, RACHEL MANNING, EMMA BRANDAU, BIANCA WHATTS
Tundra Abiotic Factors
The Abiotic Factors of the tundra include precipitation, average temperature, interesting geological features, topology. The average temperatures during the winter drop to averages of (-30 F) ,only reach an average of (50 F) in summer.Yearly precipitation, including melting snow, is 15 to 25 cm.Some interesting geological features of Tundras include, super cold, and windy. Arctic tundras are mostly flat, cold and desert like.
Succession primary succession WOULD PROBABLY BEGIN AFTER A GLACIER HAS RETREATED. IN PRIMARY SUCCESSION, PIONEER SPECIES LIKE MOSSES, LICHEN, ALGAE AND FUNGUS AS WELL AS OTHER ABIOTIC FACTORS LIKE WIND AND WATER START TO NORMALIZE THE HABITAT
secondary succession - would began after a tundra fire even though these are very rare since they must reach a certain threshold before spreading.
Primary Producers and Decomposers
Primary Producer Bearberry
Bearberry; is a low growing evergreen, all parts of the plant can be used in different ways. The producer has a stem that rises 2-8" off the ground. This plant is covered in a hard thick bark and smooth hairs
Lichens; area symbiotic relationship between an algae and a fungus. The algae helps to provide food, while the fungus supports and protects the algae. Lichens grow on bark, leaves, mosses, on other lichens. Lichens do not have roots, but like plants, they make their own food by photosynthesis.
An example of symbolism An example of symbolism for the bear berry, is for the Lichens, is a a parasitism relationship is mutualistic relationship.It is when a bearberry is eaten between a fungus and a by another organism like photosynthetic organism, in bears. the end neither plant harm from this happening.
SPOTLIGHT ON THE ARCTIC HARE PRIMARY CONSUMERS OF THE TUNDRA
The Arctic Hare is the biggest species of hare. The Arctic Hare's scientific name is Lepus arcticus. Hares survive by eating woody plants, mosses, and lichens. They may dig through the snow to find food in winter.
Organism Spotlight on the Brown Bear Secondary consumers of the tundra
Brown bears are well known for their shoulder hump.Powerful shoulder muscles help them dig up roots and rip apart logs they can find food. They eat grass, fruit, insects, roots and bulbs of plants along with carrion.When hungry enough, they will hunt small animals. A large number of grizzlies have a mutual relationship with berry producing plants.
Tertiary Consumer Polar Bears Polar bears are the largest land carnivores in the world. They are said to eat ringed seals, bearded seals, walrus, beluga whale, bowhead whale carcasses, and birdsâ€™ eggs. There are between 20,000-25,000 polar bears in the world. The Polar Bear has a Mutualistic symbiotic relationship with Arctic Foxes.
Biome Food Web
tarantula scorpion lizard
Geographical FeaturesÂ Above is a picture of an example of what the tundra biome looks like in Hellisheidi, Iceland
The tundra biome is treeless since it gets too cold for trees to grow. This biome is usually covered in snow most of the year with mountains everywhere
FEBRUARY 10, 2019
Ecological threats for Tundra
Global Warming The melting of a permafrost as a result of global warming could radically change the landscape
Air pollution Industrial air pollutions, such as organochlorines, and heavy metals, are carried to the arctic on air currents from populated areas.
At the North and South poles means stronger ultraviolet rays that will harm the Tundra
Solutions for Threats Switch to alternative energy uses to minimize human-made global warning. Establish protected areas and park reserves to human influence. Limit road construction, mining activities, and the building of pipelines in tundra habitat.
Works Cited Arctic Hare. National Geographic, www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/mammals/a/arctic-hare/. Accessed 12 Feb. 2018. “Bearberry.” Wikipedia, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bearberry. Accessed 14 Feb. 2018. Food Web. www.google.com/search? q=food+web+biome&rlz=1C5CHFA_enUS729US729&source=lnms&tbm=isch &sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiub2_gaHZAhUFjlkKHRi4CroQ_AUICigB&biw=1440&bih=780#imgdii=3nnUF4r HF_yWVM:&imgrc=A_5Er8m3R1LItM. Accessed 14 Feb. 2018. Kang, Starr. “Tundra Biomes & Abiotic Factor.” Sciencing, 24 Apr. 2017, sciencing.com/tundra-biomes-abiotic-factors-8260321.html. Accessed 14 Feb. 2018. “Lichen Biology and the Environment.” Lichen, www.lichen.com/biology.html. Accessed 14 Feb. 2018. Life in the Tundra. beyondpenguins.ehe.osu.edu/issue/tundra-life-in-the-polarextremes/life-in-the-tundra. Accessed 12 Feb. 2018. Prince, Alicia. “What Are Some Producers in the Tundra Biome.” Sciencing, 24 Apr. 2017, sciencing.com/producers-tundra-8707304.html. Accessed 14 Feb. 2018. “Tundra.” Tundra Biome. National Geographic, www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/habitats/tundra-biome/. Accessed 14 Feb. 2018. “Tundra.” Venngage, infograph.venngage.com/p/197434/tundra. Accessed 14 Feb. 2018. “The Tundra Biome.” UCMP Berkley, www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/glossary/gloss5/biome/tundra.html. Accessed 14 Feb. 2018.