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move backward. Because the person is heavier, the bowling ball will move farther.”Nasa’s Website ROCKET-SHIP SCIENCE… NEW LAUNCHES? First of all, what’s a rocket? According to the Nasa’s website, “The word "rocket" can mean different things. Most people think of a tall, thin, round vehicle. They think of a rocket that launches into space. "Rocket" can mean a type of engine. The word also can mean a vehicle that uses that engine.” – Nasa’s Website

Time for History The first rocket was invented in China around 1100 AD and they were used as fireworks and weapons. Since then, three remarkable scientists begun their own rocket projects, in between them, Robert Goddard. In 1926 he launched the first liquid-propellant rocket. R-7 ICBM rocket was launched in October 4th, 1957 and was the first one to actually launch Sputnik, the first satellite, into space. Present

How does it work? “In space, an engine has nothing to push against. So how do rockets move there? Rockets work by scientific rule called Newton's third law of motion. English scientist Sir Isaac Newton listed three Laws of Motion. He did this more than 300 years ago. His third law says that for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. The rocket pushes on its exhaust. The exhaust pushes the rocket, too. The rocket pushes the exhaust backward. The exhaust makes the rocket move forward. This rule can be seen on Earth. Imagine a person standing on a skateboard. Imagine that person throwing a bowling ball. The ball will go forward. The person on the skateboard will move, too. The person will 3

The next shuttle launch will be released in July 31, 2018. The “Parker Solar Probe” spaceship’s mission is to get closer to the sun and understand its relation with Earth better.


Based on what scientists know about planets and moons form, the core of the Moon is believed to be at least partly molten and consists primarily of iron.

As the Moon orbits the Earth, different parts of its surface are illuminated. ¨We see that the Moon go through a cycle of phases from new to full and back to new again. To understand Moon´s phases, you need to see the play of light and shadow on its surface. ¨ (Barnes, 2003).

Per Barnes investigation, to follow the Moon´s motion in more detail you can track its position in respect to the stars. ¨It’s pretty easy once you´ve learned to recognize a few constellations. ¨ (Barnes,2003). 4

According to Openstax ; Astronomy book: ¨The Sun moves 1/12 of its path around the sky each month, The Moon, on other hand, moves completely around Earth in that time. As we watch the Moon from our vantage point on Earth, how much of its face we see illuminated by sunlight depends on the angle the Sun makes with the Moon. ¨

The moon does not remain in a phase to long because it moves eastward each day in a monthly path around us. Since it takes about 30 days to orbit Earth and there are 360° in a circle, the Moon will move about 12° in the sky each day.

In this picture, you can see the appearance of the Moon and how it changes over the course of a completely monthly cycle. MOTION OF THE STARS

Stars are made of a very hot gas. According to Nasa, this gas is mostly hydrogen and helium, which are the two lightest elements. Most stars have small amounts of heavier elements like carbon and nitrogen.

The stars move due to the Earth’s orbit. But stars can move for other reasons as well. It could be a binary system where two stars are orbiting around each other

FUN FACT: the material in stars is recycled from other stars.

Stars also have their own motion in space. The star is moving because of gravity, because they are moving around the center of their galaxy. Because gravity makes every object in space move. ¨Stars that are close to the Earth´s axis of rotation — what we call the north and the south pole — rotate around the poles. If the pole’s location is far enough above the horizon, some stars never set. They just keep spinning. ¨ (Howell, 2015). Howell also agree that if your geographical location happens to be close to the pole, a lot of stars will be rotating of that same pole and a very few will rise and set.

The star with higher motion is Barnard´s Star that moves 10.3 seconds of arc per year.


Space junk or space debris is a term used to describe defunctive mass in space, most notably in Earth orbit, such as old satellites and spent rocket stages. It includes the fragments from their disintegration, erosion and collisions.

Satellite collisions have resulted in generating space waste. In 2016 the United States tracked racked a total of 17,852 artificial objects in orbit above the Earth. This is very worrying for us because this space junk is one of the causes of all the contamination in the world and it is something that we have to try to destroy or to bring back because of the risks and contamination it creates, the problem of bringing back this trash to earth or destroying it is that there are no advances in technology for us to do that, this is still a mystery, but as always the Asians are ahead of us and they already got an idea what to do. “The Japanese space agency will soon be testing a new


technology that would use a roughly halfmile-long tether to grab large pieces of space debris and dispose of them.� (Cofield, C. (2016). Space Junk Solution, Japan Would Use a Tether to Nab Debris & Destroy It.) proposed technology would include a spacecraft that would deploy a 700-meterlong electrodynamic tether and guide it toward a piece of space junk. The tether

would latch onto the orbiting hunk of trash, and the operating spacecraft would then drag the debris down into the incinerator of Earth's atmosphere. This is the closest solution we have to deal with the space trash.


The black holes are one of the most interesting things in the hole universe, there is no certain explication of what is inside them we only know that they are a thing made of nothing but space and time. They are considered a dead star, they are part of the motion and evolution of stars.

realize not only that black holes are real, but also that they are everywhere. How can we investigate black holes if they destroy everything on its path? NASA has discovered that we can explore the outline of black holes to discover its anatomy “We cannot directly image what’s going on near objects like black holes and neutron stars but studying the polarization of X-rays emitted from their surrounding environments reveals the physics of these enigmatic objects,” said Paul Hertz, astrophysics division director for the Science Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters in Washington. This is a very good improvement in the investigation.

Imagine a place that is a one-way exit from our universe. Imagine an object that can stop time and tear a star apart, atom-by-atom. The black hole is considered the strangest natural thing in the universe because ones something goes in it never gets out. The modern notion of a black hole BIGGEST STAR WE’VE EVER KNOWN, THE SUN came from the mind of Albert Einstein when, almost a century ago, he created a new way to think about gravity that lead to some wild possibilities, including black holes. Nobody The sun is a star, a hot ball of glowing at the time, including Einstein, believed they gases at the heart of our solar system. Its could possibly exist in reality. Now, with the influence extends far beyond the orbits of help of advanced distant Neptune and Pluto.

space telescopes such as NASA's Chandra XRay observatory, we have come to 7

The sun is composed by a dense concentration of gas at the center of the solar nebula. Which later its temperature and

pressure will increase and become a nuclear fusion.

This Proyecto will help massively to understand how we can get closer to the sun.

Without the sun's intense energy and heat, there would be no life on Earth. And though it is special to us, there are billions of stars like our sun scattered across the Milky Way galaxy. The sun is extremely hot, the hottest thing in the whole universe, so it isn’t easy to explore it is very difficult to send something there is practically impossible all that gets close gets destroyed and disappears. The investigations are not as easy as the Moon ones so we are still preparing to get closer to the sun, the sun is the only star that we can travel directly and observe it. But two upcoming missions will soon take us closer to the Sun than we’ve ever been before, providing our best chance yet at uncovering the complexities of solar activity in our own solar system and shedding light on the very nature of space and stars throughout the universe.

NASA Parker solar investigation, as the magazine has already talked about in article 1, is one of the most important and revolutionary. This project helps us understand what exactly is inside of the sun, the goal is to understand how the Sun works and how it affects the space environment to the point of predictability. 8


According to Las Cumbres Observatory: “The planets in our Solar System are believed to have formed from the same spinning disc of dust that formed the Sun. This disc, called the solar nebula, was composed mainly of hydrogen and helium, but also had other elements in smaller proportions. The nebula had a certain amount of angular momentum orbiting the forming Sun. Particles in the spinning disc began to clump together as gravity attracted them to each other. Over a few million years many of these chunks had merged together and there were about 109 objects called planetesimals, with diameters of about 1000 m. Over time the planetesimals continued to collide and join together, attracted by gravity. These larger objects, about the size and mass of our Moon, are

called protoplanets. The accumulation of material to form planets in this way is called accretion.�


SATELLITES The fundamental principle to be understood concerning satellites is that a satellite is a projectile. That is to say, a satellite is an object upon which the only force is gravity. Once launched into orbit, the only force governing the motion of a satellite is the force of gravity. Newton was the first to theorize that a projectile launched with sufficient speed would actually orbit the earth. Consider a projectile launched horizontally from the top of the legendary Newton's Mountain - at a location high above the influence of air drag. As the projectile moves horizontally in a direction tangent to the earth, the force of gravity would pull it downward. 9

The motion of an orbiting satellite can be described by the same motion characteristics as any object in circular motion. The velocity of the satellite would be directed tangent to the circle at every point along its path. The acceleration of the satellite would be directed towards the center of the circle - towards the central body that it is orbiting. And this acceleration

is caused by a net force that is directed inwards in the same direction as the acceleration. Occasionally satellites will orbit in paths that can be described as ellipses. In such cases, the central body is located at one of the foci of the ellipse. Similar motion characteristics apply for satellites moving in

elliptical paths. The velocity of the satellite is directed tangent to the ellipse. The acceleration of the satellite is directed towards the focus of the ellipse. And in accord with Newton's second law of motion, the net force acting upon the satellite is directed in the same direction as the acceleration - towards the focus of the ellipse

Earth’s rotation is the amount of time that it takes to rotate once on its axis. This is, apparently, accomplished once a day (24 hours). However, there are actually two different kinds of rotation. For one, there’s the amount of time it takes for the Earth to turn once on its axis so that it returns to the same orientation compared to the rest of the Universe. Then there’s how long it takes for the Earth to turn so that the Sun returns to the same spot in the sky.

As we all know, it takes exactly 24 hours for the Sun to return to the same spot in the sky, which would seem obvious that 24 hours is what we think of as being a complete day, and the time it takes to transition from day to night and back again. But in truth, it actually takes the Earth 23 hours, 56 minutes, and 4.09 seconds to turn rotate once on its axis compared to the background stars. Well, that would be because the Earth is orbiting around the Sun, completing one orbit in just over 365 days. If you divide 24 hours by 365 days, you’ll see that you’re left with about 4 minutes per day. In other words, the Earth rotates on its axis, but it’s also orbiting around the Sun, so the Sun’s



position in the sky catches up by 4 minutes each day.

The amount of time it takes for the Earth to rotate once on its axis is known as a sidereal day – which is 23.9344696 hours. The amount of time it takes for the Sun to return to the same spot in the sky is called a solar day, which is 24 hours. As Johannes Kepler stated in his “Astronomia Nova” (1609), the Earth and Solar planets do not rotate about the Sun in perfect circles. This is known as Kepler’s First Law, which states that “the orbit of a planet about the Sun is an ellipse with the Sun’s center of mass at one focus”.

Have you ever seen a “star” or “rock”, or how you want to call it, flying around in the sky? Legends say that if you see one, it will guarantee one wish. But that phenomenon has a scientific explanation. According the Nasa’s website: “Comets are cosmic snowballs of frozen gases, rock and dust that orbit the Sun. When frozen, they are the size of a small town. When a comet's orbit brings it close to the Sun, it heats up and spews dust and gases into a giant glowing head larger than most planets. The dust and gases form a tail that stretches away from the Sun for millions of miles. There are likely billions of comets orbiting our Sun in the Kuiper Belt and even more distant Ort Cloud.”

The could have different components, like: - Ice (water, carbon dioxide and methane) - Dust - A rocky center



Comets are thought to be made from the earliest materials of the solar system. When the sun first formed, it blew gases and dust into space. Some of this material (mainly gas) condensed to form the outer planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune) and some remains in orbit far from the sun in two areas: -

Oort Cloud: an old sphere 50 000 AUs from the sun.


Kuiper Belt: an area outside Pluto’s orbit, in which the plane of the solar system

FUN FACT: Did you know that astronomers use another method to measure distance? They use the unit “UA”, which is the supposed distance between Earth and the Sun. Approximately is about 93 million miles (15o million kilometers).

References: - page=0&per_page=40&order=name +asc&search=&condition_1=102%3 Aparent_id&condition_2=comet %3Abody_type%3Ailike


Cofield, C. (2016). Space Junk Solution? Japan Would Use a Tether to Nab Debris & Destroy It. Retrieved from


ESA. (2017). Space Debris. Retrieved from erations/Space_Debris


NASA. (2018). NASA - Black Hole: Extreme Exploration. Retrieved from cators/912/features/F_Black_Hole_Extreme_Ex ploration.html


Garner, R. (2018). Two Missions Will Go Closer to Our Sun Than Ever Before. Retrieved from /2018/new-views-of-sun-2-missionswill-go-closer-to-our-star-than-everbefore





Schroeder, D. (2010-2011) Understanding Astronomy: Motion of the Stars. Retrieved from: a/StarMotion.html


Howell, E. (2015) Do Stars Move?. Retrieved from: 0/do-stars-move/


Barnes, J. (2003) Lunar Motion and Phases. Retrieved from: STR110L_S03/lunarmotion.html