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HUMANITIES MID-YEAR REVISION By Bonnie Hao 7B


2016 年冬季

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SOURCES & EVIDENCES Lesson Objectives: -To understand the difference between the 2 types of evidence - Identify examples of primary and secondary sources

PRIMARY EVIDENCES A PRIMARY EVIDENCE is evidence that was created at the time of the event. Primary evidence can be broken down into 4 categories: written source, images, oral testimony and artifacts. For example, letters, newspapers, maps, photographs, film, porcelain doll, story telling, cartoons etc.

SECONDARY EVIDENCES

Most people would probably say that they would look in a book, ask a teacher or other expert, and check it out on the Internet. Resources like this can tell us not only historical facts but we can also use them to find out about what other people think about what happened, in other words the interpretation of history.

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2016 年冬季

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SOURCE SKILLS: BIAS Lesson Objective: To examine what bias and reliability of sources are

What does the Phrase “There are 2 sides to every story mean? It means every story has its good and bad side, it depends how you judge or view it.

VOCABULARY: Bias: one-sided/point-of-view Reliable: trustworthy Misled: being told the wrong thing

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Bias: A view that is highly unbalanced and does not present both sides


2016 年冬季

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Lesson Objective: To identify key terms describing time To describe the difference between BC and AD To give names to centuries

CHRONOLOGY

BC= Before Christ AD= Anno Domino

The easiest way is to cover the last two digits up and add one. For example, if you cover last two digits of 1873, you see 18, so 1873 is the 18th century.

- (BC)

500 years

WHAT IS CHRONOLOGY? Chronology is the study of exactly when things happened. When historians put events in chronological order, they put them in the order that they happened.

Century= One hundred year AD=In Latin words, it means after Christ Decade=every 10 years Periods=separate division of time BC=Before Christ Millennium=One thousand years

+ (AD)

2012 years

YEAR 0 when Jesus was born

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2016 年冬季

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HISTORICAL CATEGORIES Lesson Objective: To identify and understand key terms for historical categories To place historical events into the correct category

CATEGORIZING HISTORICAL EVENTS Political: To do with war, power, government and rights Economics: how people earn money and spend their money Social: people’s everyday life at work and at work Technology: to do with developments in computers and medicines POLITICAL 1810- Britain and Ireland make one country 1914- World War One began 1918- Women are allowed to vote 1939- World War II began

ECONOMICS 1908- First pensions given to people over 70 1946- Child benefit was introduced in the UK 1970- Equal pay for men and women

TECHNOLOGY 1829- First passenger steam train 1947- National Health Service was set up 1981- First home computer

SOCIAL 1872- First FA Cup final 1839- Charles Dickens wrote “Oliver Twist” 1963- First Beatles song was recorded

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EARTH Lesson Objective:

Identify examples of how the Earth is changing naturally, how humans are changing it, and how these changes can be dangerous to us

Key Vocabulary: Natural: not man-made, created naturally Weathering: the breaking down of rocks, caused mainly by the weather; it turns into soil in the end Fossil fuel: coal, oil and natural gas Global Warming: average temperatures around the world are rising; experts say this is mainly due to carbon dioxide from burning fossil fuels.

CHANGED NATURALLY -Water, scraping rocks, drowns land -Volcanoes, mountains, creating countries and islands -Rocks weathering caused my wind -Earthquakes separate land -Waves CHANGED BY HUMANS -Technology -Farming -Building towns and cities -Deforestation -Dividing Earth into 200 countries


MAPS & DISTANCE

Lesson Objectives: Understand map key, scale and grid lines To measure distance using two methods To identify the main map symbols

VOCABULARY Aerial Photo- taken from the air Sketch Map- a simple map to show what a place is like, or how to get there; it is not drawn to scale Scale- the ratio of the distance on a map to the real distance Gridlines- they divide the map into squares, the columns and rows of squares have been labeled (A, B, C… 1, 2, 3…) Key- symbols used to show where things are Labels & Annotations- notes

MAP SYMBOLS Abbreviations Fm= Farm Sch= School Mus= Museum Road Symbols Road under construction Path Tourist Information Picnic Sites

METHODS OF MEASURING DISTANCES Method 1- AS THE CROW FLIES, a straight-line distance between two places, ignoring the turns of roads. Method 2- BY ROAD, takes consideration the twists and turns of roads.


VOLCANOES

VOCABULARY Magma- melted rock below the Earth’s surface; when it reaches the surface it is called lava Lava- melted rock that erupts from a volcano Crust- the thin outer layer of the Earth, made of rock Dormant- not active Active- when a volcano can erupt Plates- the Earth’s surface is broken into large slabs; these are called plates Vent- a hole through which lava erupts, on a volcano Pyroclastic flow- a flood of gas, dust, ash and other particles rushing down the side of a volcano, after an eruption Mudflow- a river of mud; it can form when the material from an eruption mixes with rain or melting ice

HOW IS A VOLCANO FORMED?

ONE. OCEAN PLATES

Convection Currents

The plates are pulled apart by the convection currents in the soft rock below them.

THREE New Ocean Floor

TWO Magma hardens to form ridge of new basalt

Magma

Liquid rock or magma rises between the plates. It hardens to basalt…

… which forms new ocean floor. So the ocean floors getting widerby 2cm every year.


DAMAGES CAUSED BY A VOLCANIC ERUPTION Lesson Objective: Identify and explain five examples of damage caused by a volcanic eruption

Pyroclastic flow- the flow can travel up to 200km/hour, you can’t escape, it scorches everything Mudflow- mudflows can travel up to 100km.hour, you will drown in mud. Volcanic Gas- causes acid rain, kills trees and plants. Dust- rise high in the atmosphere and blocks the sun, this causes temperatures to fall. Shower of Ash- a thick blanket of ash will ruin crops, it can also suffocate you. Lava Flow- lava flows destroy crops, and bury towns and

A volcano is an opening, or rupture, in a planet’s surface or crust, which allows hot magma, volcanic ash and gases to escape from the magma chamber below the surface.


WHY DO PEOPLE LIVE NEAR VOLCANOS? Lesson Objective: Examine and restate why people live near dangerous volcanoes. Fertile Soils: Why are volcanic soils so good for growing crops? Because they release valuable nutrients and minerals which enrich the soil, as well as improving soil characteristics What kinds of crops are grown around volcanoes? Rice, olives, fruits etc. Example locations and data: Java, Indonesia, attract due to the rich farming opportunity (one million live within 20 million) Italy, slopes of Vesuvivs and Etha, one in five Sicilians are believed to live on the slopes of Etna

Geothermal Energy: How is Geothermal energy created? Superheated steam, created by the heating of water in permeable rocks in magma can be used to drive turbines. Why is geothermal energy better than some other types? This energy is renewable and sustainable, and is also pollution free. Example locations and data: US, New Zealand, Italy, Iceland etc. In fact 17% of Iceland’s electricity is created this way.

Tourism How is geothermal energy created? Superheated steam, created by the heating of water in permeable rocks in magma can be used to drive turbines. Why is geothermal energy better than some other types? This energy is renewable and sustainable, and is also pollution free. Example locations and data: US, New Zealand, Italy, Iceland, in fact 17% of Iceland’s electricity is created this way. Minerals Why are precious metals and minerals found in volcanic areas? Valuable metals such as cooper, gold, silver, lead, zinc and diamonds are found as magma cools and hardens beneath the volcano. What types of minerals are found? Cooper, gold, silver, lead, zinc and even diamonds. Example locations and data: Mount St. Helens (USA) as early as 1892.


EARLY HUMANS Lesson Objective: Describe the traits and achievements of early humans Scientific Name: Australopithecines Traits: Fed on leaves, fruits and the remains of dead animals Achievement: First to grow the opposable thumb

Scientific Name: Homo Erectus (Up Right Man) Traits: -1.6-30,000 million BC -More intelligent and adaptable -Brain size 1000 cubic centimeter Achievements:

Scientific Name: Homo Habilis (Man of Skill) Traits: -2.5-1.5 million BC -Brain size of 700 cubic centimeter Achievements: -Made tools from lava rock -Use tools to cut meat and crack bones

Scientific Name: Neanthedrals Traits: -200,000-30,000 BC -Powerfully built -Brain size 1450 cubic centimeter -Heavy, slanted eyebrows Achievements: -First to have ritual burials -Tried to control and explain the world

FEATURES OF A CIVILIZATION Lesson Objective: Define civilization Identify five basic features of a civilization

A civilization is a human community located in a particular place and time and has advanced political, economic and social

The five basic features of a civilization are: ADVANCED CITIES: In order to be considered a city it must have Large population Must be a center of trade. COMPLEX INSTITUTIONS Institution- a long lasting pattern of organization in a community such as Government Religion Economy TECHONOLOGY New tools and techniques that solve problems and make life easier SPECIALIZED WORKERS Specialized means someone has the skills to do a specific kind of work RECORD KEEPING Must have a developed system of writing so the people can Record business Write a set of laws Priests can record rituals and dates


CONTRIBUTIONS OF ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS BABYLONIANS (1900BC-110BC) The Babylonians created a numeral system based on the number 60. This helped us to derive the 360-degree system.

GREEKS (1100BC-200BC) The thermometer is a old invention that the Greeks of Alexandria invented. They first offered Logic and Philosophy. Most modern philosophical currents are based either on Plato or Aristotle.

EGYPTIANS (3100BC-100BC) They Ancient Egyptians were the first to use geometry to survey land.

ROMANS (500BC-400AD) The Roman buildings and aqueducts are considered great contributions to history civilization, they built large edifices like the Colosseum and the Pantheon. Rome was the first republic.

ANCIENT CHINA CHINA (2200BC-Modern Day) They invented many things that are still used today, like paper, tea, process of printing, the compass, and medicines based on herb and minerals. They also discovered substances for dyeing cloth and glazing pottery.

DYNASTY A dynasty is when one family rules a country or region over a long period of time. Generally, the head of the family will be the ruler of the land, like an emperor or king. When that ruler dies, another member of the family will take power, usually the oldest son. When a new family takes control, then a new dynasty begins.

THE MANDATE OF HEAVEN The Mandate of Heaven is what the Chinese people believed gave their rulers the right to be king or emperor. It meant that the gods had blessed that person with the right to rule. A ruler had to be a good and just ruler to keep the Mandate of Heaven. When a ruler or dynasty lost power, this meant that they must also have lost the Mandate of Heaven.


Humanities Mid-Year Reivision