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6.0 LANDSCAPE & VISUAL INTRODUCTION 6.1

This Chapter considers the existing landscape resource and the nature of views which sets the landscape baseline. It provides an assessment of potential effects on the landscape and on views which would arise from the proposed development.

6.2

Landscape assessment seeks to identify the key features of the landscape which comprise the landscape character of the site and to consider the effect on the character from the proposed development. The assessment of impacts on the landscape considers the changes which would result from the proposal. The significance of landscape impacts is a value judgement which relates to the existing landscape in terms of distinctiveness, values or scarcity and termed 'sensitivity' of feature/receptor. The magnitude of impact is the extent to which the landscape feature/receptor is affected.

6.3

Visual assessment considers the views of and into the site and the impacts of the proposed development on those views and visual amenity. Significance of visual impacts is considered in relation to the sensitivity of receptor and magnitude or extent to which a view is affected.

6.4

The scope of this assessment has been largely determined by the Scoping Report, which is found at Appendix 1.1 in Volume 2: Technical Appendices of this ES. The land use planning policy framework is reviewed from a national, regional and local context. The assessment methodology is outlined.

6.5

The Chapter includes a description of the baseline environment, identification of effects and sensitive resources/receptors, and analysis of potential change to the baseline. The prediction and evaluation of the likely effects are then considered and the key proposals for avoiding or reducing negative effects along with the residual and cumulative effects are set out.

6.6

The proposed development will introduce lighting into areas which are currently largely unlit. This will have a visual impact on both day and night-time views and this Chapter therefore takes into account the overall effects of lighting on the landscape and in visual terms.

6.7

The landscape has a close inter-relationship with cultural heritage (refer to Chapter 7.0: Archaeology & Cultural Heritage in Volume 1: Main Text & Figures of this ES) and ecology (see Chapter 5.0: Ecology of this ES) as there are aspects of cultural heritage and ecology which can be considered as sensitive resources/receptors in landscape and visual terms. The landscape aspects relating to ecology and cultural heritage should therefore be read in conjunction with the relevant chapters.

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6.8

This Chapter is supported by a Technical Appendix, which are included as Appendix 6.1 in Volume 2: Technical Appendices of this ES, and contains details of the following: 

Visual Analysis;

National Character Area (extract);

Broadland District Landscape Assessment (extract);

Local Landscape Character Assessment; and

Accompanying Plans and Images.

PLANNING POLICY & LEGISLATIVE CONTEXT National Policy National Planning Policy Framework 6.9

The National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF) published in March 2012, sets out the 1

Government's planning policies for England and how these are expected to be applied. It is a material consideration in planning decisions. It sets aside all previous Planning Policy Guidance and Planning Policy Statements. 6.10

The NPPF1 makes it clear that there is a presumption in favour of sustainable development. Paragraph 14 makes it clear that 'for decision taking this means: 

Approving development proposals that accord with the development plan without delay; and

Where the development plan is absent, silent or relevant policies are out-of-date, granting permission unless:

Any adverse impacts of doing so would significantly and demonstrably outweigh the benefits, when assessed against the policies in this Framework taken as a whole; or

 6.11

Specific policies in this Framework indicate development should be restricted.'1

Paragraph 17 of the NPPF1 sets out the core land use planning principles which should underpin both plan making and decision making. Those most relevant to this submission include: 

Proactively drive and support sustainable economic development to deliver the homes, business and industrial units, infrastructure and thriving local places that the country needs;

1

122

Communities and Local Government, (2012); The National Planning Policy Framework. TSO.

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Seek to secure high quality of design and a good standard of amenity for all existing and future occupants of land;

Take account of the different roles and character of different areas;

Support the transition to a low carbon future in a changing climate;

Contribute to conserving and enhancing the natural environment;

Promote mixed use developments; and

Actively manage patterns of growth to make the fullest use of public transport, walking and cycling.

6.12

The Government attaches great importance to the design of the built environment. Paragraph 561 makes it clear that good design is a key aspect of sustainable development, is indivisible from good planning, and should contribute positively to making places better for people.

6.13

Paragraph 58 makes it clear that 'planning… decisions should aim to ensure that developments: 

Will function well and add to the overall area, not just for the short term but over the lifetime of the development;

Establish a strong sense of place, using streetscapes and buildings to create attractive and comfortable places to live, work and visit;

Optimise the potential to accommodate development, create and sustain an appropriate mix of uses (including incorporation of green and other public space as part of developments) and local facilities and transport networks;

Respond to local character and history;

Create safe and accessible environments; and

Are

visually attractive as a result of

good

architecture

and appropriate

1

landscaping.’ 6.14

Paragraph 641 states that in determining proposed developments, great weight should be given to outstanding or innovative designs which help raise the standard of design more generally in the area.

6.15

Paragraph 651 states that local planning authorities should not refuse planning permission for buildings or infrastructure which promote high levels of sustainability because of concerns about incompatibility with an existing townscape, if those concerns have been mitigated by good design (unless the concern relates to a designated heritage asset and the impact would cause material harm to the asset or its setting which is not outweighed by the proposal's economic, social and environmental benefits).

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Regional Policy The Joint Core Strategy for Broadland, Norwich and South Norfolk 6.16

Three local authorities including Broadland, adopted a Joint Core Strategy (JCS) in 2

March 2011, providing co-ordinated strategic planning guidance for delivering growth. 6.17

The application site is located within the Norwich Policy Area (NPA) which is a focus for major growth with some 7,000 dwellings sought via an urban extension to Old Catton, Sprowston, Rackheath and Thorpe St Andrew growth triangle. Around 30ha of new business park space are also proposed for allocation.

6.18

A Northern Distributor Road (NDR) is proposed to provide strategic access to the growth triangle.

6.19

Of particular relevance to this Chapter, the urban extension is to include: 

The retention of existing important green spaces and significant levels of heathland re-creation; and

 6.20

Restoring and conserving historic parkland and important woodland.

A number of JCS policies2 are relevant to this chapter namely: 

Policy 1 – Addressing climate change and protecting environmental assets; and

Policy 2 – Promoting good design.

Local Policy Broad Broadland Local Plan (Replacement) Saved Policies 6.21

There are a number of planning policies within the Broadland Replacement Local Plan

3

which are of particular relevance, including: 

ENV2 – Layout and Design of Development;

ENV3 – Landscaping of Development;

ENV5 – Management of natural features and provision of compensating features for those lost through Development;

2 3

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ENV8 – Areas of Landscape Value;

ENV10 – Historic Parklands;

RL2 – Provision of additional sports and recreational facilities; and

Greater Norwich Development Partnership, (2011); Joint Core Strategy for Broadland, Norwich and South Norfolk. GNDP. Broadland District Council, (2006); Broadland District Local Plan (Replacement). BDC.

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RL7 – New residential development and the provision of outdoor recreational space.

6.22

The Proposals Map of the area is shown on Figure 6.1. Landscape Character Assessment Supplementary Planning Document

6.23

The Landscape Character Assessment Supplementary Planning Document (SPD) is 4

supplementary to JCS Policy 1 – Addressing Climate Change and Protecting Environmental Assets2. The SPD defines particular landscape character areas within the council’s administrative boundaries and identifies the extent to which proposals for development preserve or enhance landscape character.

ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY 6.24

This assessment has been prepared in accordance with published and widely accepted guidance, namely the Guidelines for Landscape & Visual Impact Assessment, 2002 ; 5

and the Landscape Character Assessment Guidance for England and Scotland, 2002 . 6

These are widely regarded by professionals as the industry standard on the subject. The guidance reflects recent changes in the recommended approach. As with the 1st Edition of the Guidance for the Assessment of Landscape & Visual Impacts, it is the responsibility of the landscape professional carrying out the assessment to ensure that the approach and methodology adopted is appropriate to the particular development being proposed. 6.25

The assessment distinguishes between landscape impacts and visual impacts which, although related, are different. Landscape impacts are changes in the fabric, character and quality of the landscape. Visual impacts relate solely to changes in available views of the landscape and the effect of these changes on people.

Temporal Scope 6.26

The time frame, or temporal scope of this Chapter is 15 years following completion of the proposed development. An assessment of the proposed development’s impact during construction is undertaken as well as impact on completion in Year One, Winter, which is the worst-case scenario. The 'worst-case' is when leaves are off the trees and is used to describe the potentially most significant and most negative impact. A predicted impact assessment is undertaken for Year Fifteen, Winter, which includes the

4

Broadland District Council, (2008); Landscape Character Assessment SPD 2008 adopted in 2012. Broadland District Council

5

The Landscape Institute and Institute of Environmental Management and Assessment, (2002); Guidelines for Landscape & Visual Impact Assessment. Second Edition. Ed. Taylor and Francis. Spon Press 6

The Countryside Agency and Scottish Natural Heritage, (2002); Landscape Character Assessment. Guidance for England and Scotland. The Countryside Agency & Scottish Natural Heritage

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proposed mitigation such as the established landscape when the new vegetation will have matured. The residual impact is considered to be after 15 years from completion.

Technical Scope 6.27

6.28

Preparation of this assessment involved the following key stages; 

Baseline survey;

Identification of potential effects;

Identification of sensitive landscape and visual receptors;

Description and quantification of the changes to the baseline;

Identification of mitigation measures; and

Evaluation of the predicted effects.

Effects

are

assessed

on

landscape/townscape

resources/receptors

(landscape/townscape impact assessment) and visual resources/receptors (visual impact assessment). The significance of effect on a landscape or visual receptor is a function of the sensitivity of the receptor to change and the magnitude of change caused by the proposed development. 6.29

A number of site visits have been undertaken to get a good working knowledge of the application site and the initial tranche of panoramas from the specified viewpoints for the visual assessment were taken in winter 2011 when the leaves were off the trees. This represents the 'worst-case' scenario in terms of landscape and visual impact.

6.30

A digital SLR camera was used with a 35mm focal length, which represents as closely as possible the view from the human eye. The panoramic photographs were stitched together digitally to represent a continuous field of view. It should be noted, however, that the merged photographs illustrate the views from the viewpoint locations but there is no substitute for visiting the site personally to ascertain the views and potential impacts.

6.31

A number of viewpoints, illustrated in Figure 6.2 Viewpoint Locations were selected from the total taken to best represent a comprehensive representation of the views towards the development.

Baseline Survey 6.32

The baseline survey was carried out to record and analyse the existing landscape characteristics and the value of the Landscape & Visual resources in the vicinity of the proposed development. This included: 

Desk-study to identify the landscape character and likely Zone of Visual Influence (ZVI);

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Research to establish the landscape and environmental context including nature conservation interest and aspects of cultural heritage;

An analysis of landscape/townscape characteristics in order to understand how they are made up and experienced as well as ascertaining their relative sensitivity; and

The desk-top survey established the ZVI from which the Zone of Visual Significance (ZVS) was established by field survey. A number of site visits made over a period of time helped refine the ZVS. The ZVS represents worst-case. Whilst this is an indication of the spatial scope where the visual effects could be expected to be more or less significant, a more extensive record of panoramas from viewpoints beyond the ZVS was made.

The Study Area 6.33

The study area for this Chapter has been largely determined by the proposed development's ZVI, defined as the extent of visibility of the proposed development. This was determined by a desk-top review and verified on-site. The ZVI is essentially the area contained by the urban edge of North East Norwich, Spixworth to the north, Rackheath to the east and St Faith's Road. However, there are aspects of the landscape which extend beyond this and the most appropriate area is used for the aspects under consideration. These areas are illustrated by the relevant plans. Proposed Development

6.34

A full description of the proposed development is given in Chapter 2.0: Proposed Development of this ES.

6.35

The process of masterplanning is iterative, and the findings of this assessment have fed into the Masterplan so that, for example, the lowest densities and building heights are around sensitive edges. At the rural edge, a maximum of three storey dwellings are proposed, representing overall densities of between 15 and 25 dwellings per hectare (dph). This allows a greater integration and soft edge between the proposed development and rural hinterland. The greater area is typically between 32.5 and 37.5 dph. The density and heights build up to the squares. The maximum height is five storeys on the High Street and Wroxham Road Square with the High Street having an average density of 70 dph and Wroxham Square 55 dph.

6.36

The primary access points are: 

Off Wroxham Road opposite the current entrance to the Sprowston Manor golf course and hotel;

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Diversion of the North Walsham Road to run through the proposed main square and then follow the current alignment of Church Lane north of the square, rejoining the current North Walsham Road at Red Hall Farm; and

 6.37

Access off the Buxton/Spixworth Road.

Church Lane will remain closed to vehicular traffic where it enters the application site to the south. Landscape & Visual Impact Assessment Scope

6.38

The scope of the Landscape & Visual Impact Assessment (LVIA) has been informed by the Scoping Report (Appendix 1.1. of this ES) and the desk-top review. The inherent landscape sensitivities which were identified in the scoping report are: 

Areas of mature landscape structure – including blocks of woodland, tree belts, copses of mature trees, remnant hedge boundaries and hedgerow trees, and parkland trees – punctuating a landscape of predominantly arable farmland;

Landscape and recreational value associated with mature woodland;

Landscape setting to the city of Norwich, albeit with a strongly ordered human influence; and

 6.39

Historic buildings with a strong local vernacular.

The proposed viewpoints were sent to officers at the Broadland District Council on the 22nd December 2011. Officers then requested that the panoramas from the proposed viewpoints were sent. This was done on 9th January 2012.

The viewpoints and

panoramas were subsequently tabled at a meeting with the Council on 26th January 2012 for their further consideration. 6.40

The opinion of the Council was sought considered to ensure that the applicant had considered all viewpoints considered important or whether they wished for additional viewpoints to be included.

6.41

No additional viewpoints were requested, however, the applicant has added Viewpoint 18a and 18b since that time to ensure a comprehensive coverage of viewpoint locations at Figure 6.2 Viewpoint Locations.

6.42

This assessment is based on the Parameter Plans and documentation supporting the planning

proposed

development

and

as

described

in

Chapter

2.0:

Proposed

Development. 6.43

Beyond the area chosen, the visual effects of the proposed development are not considered likely to be significant. This is due in part to:

128

Intervening distance;

Scale and height of the built components of development in relation to distance;

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The effect of reduced contrast between different landscape textures and colours at increasing distance;

6.44

Topography;

Intervening buildings, trees and vegetation; and

The increasing importance of atmospheric conditions such as haze.

In this way, a record of landscape character and sensitive receptor viewpoints was made and potential mitigation measures identified.

Identification of Potential Effects 6.45

Identification of potential effects has formed part of the design process and fed back into the evolving design. The design parameters (Parameter Plans) provide sufficient information to identify the likely:

6.46

Visual impacts are concerned wholly with the effect of the development on views as perceived by people who have, or will have, views of the development. 

Scale and nature of changes to landscape characteristics and landscape value; and

Changes affecting visual amenity.

Impacts and Receptors 6.47

6.48

The potential impacts have been assessed by the consideration of: 

The sensitivity of the resource or receptor; and

The magnitude of change brought by the development to the resource or receptor.

From this, the impact is extrapolated by means of a matrix (see Table 6.1). The use of matrices allows transparency to the judgements made.

6.49

Landscape impacts are defined by the Landscape Institute as 'changes to landscape elements, characteristics, character and qualities of the landscape as a result of development.’5 These can be adverse, neutral or beneficial. Landscape receptors are elements which can be affected by landscape impacts.

6.50

The term 'resource/receptor' is used in LVIAs to mean an element or assemblage of elements that will be directly or indirectly affected by the proposed development. The desk and field studies identify sensitive resources/receptors.

6.51

The sensitivity of the landscape/townscape (landscape/townscape receptors/resources) depends upon an evaluation of 'each key element or characteristic of the landscape likely to be affected by the proposed development, considering factors such as quality, value and contribution to landscape character, its ability to accommodate change and the degree to which elements or characteristics can be replaced or substituted.’5

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6.52

Identification of the sensitivity of the visual resource (visual receptors/resources) depends upon the location and context of the viewpoint and enabled viewing opportunities,

the

context,

expectations,

activity

or

occupation

of

the

receptor/resource, and the importance of the view. It is also a function of the context and proximity of the viewpoint in relation to the proposed development. This is illustrated by the viewpoints chosen. 6.53

Assessing receptor sensitivity is a complex task as the landscape, including character and visual aspect of value, is subjective to the individual due to perception and experience. The principles for identifying sensitivity are set out in Table 6.1. Thus the sensitivity of the receptor is a value judgement depending upon relative importance to the individual or society to its various aspects or components. This assessment is made by a professional experienced LVIA and to enable a more transparent review of how these judgements are made, assessment matrices are used. The sensitivity matrix is set out in Table 6.1 below. The terminology used within this Chapter differs from those set out in Chapter 1.0: Introduction & Assessment Methodology of this ES. The terminology, used within this Chapter is considered appropriate and has been adopted with reference to key industry guidance and professional expertise.

6.54

The sensitivity of the landscape or visual receptors/resources is categorised as Very High, High, Medium, Low or Negligible. Table 6.1 Landscape & Visual Sensitivity Matrix Sensitivity VERY HIGH

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Resource/Receptor

Characteristics

Landscape Receptor

Distinctive landscape feature/resource of national importance such as Site of Special Scientific Interest, National Parks and Scheduled Ancient Monuments with no or limited potential for substitution.

Landscape Character

Distinctive landscape character within nationally designated areas very susceptible to change with no or limited potential for substitution. Users are often very aware of the value of the landscape.

Townscape Character

Resources of national importance such as Grade I and Grade II* listed buildings.

Visual

Users are often very aware of the importance of the view over nationally or regionally distinctive areas.

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Sensitivity HIGH

MEDIUM

LOW

VERY LOW

Resource/Receptor

Characteristics

Landscape Receptor

Regional or County important components of the landscape such as Regional and Country Wildlife Sites susceptible to relatively small change.

Landscape Character

Regional or County important landscape character susceptible to relatively small change.

Townscape Character

Regional of County important resources or receptors such as Grade II listed buildings and Conservation Areas.

Visual

Viewers with proprietary interest and prolonged viewing opportunities e.g. a person viewing from their home, or a person on a bridleway or public footpath.

Landscape Receptor

Resources of district importance.

Landscape Character

A landscape of moderately valued characteristics reasonably tolerant of change.

Townscape Character

Buildings and groups of buildings of moderately valued characteristics with limited potential for substitution.

Visual

Viewers with a moderate interest in their environment e.g. users of recreation facilities, sports grounds and public open spaces.

Landscape Receptor

Resources of local importance with potential for substitution.

Landscape Character

A landscape of local significance, with potential for substitution.

Townscape Character

Relatively indistinct townscape e.g. undesignated buildings of some limited historical significance.

Visual

Viewers with a passing interest in their surroundings, e.g. motorists, or workers at an industrial estate.

Landscape Receptor

Unimportant or degraded, relatively easily substituted.

Landscape Character

Unimportant or degraded, relatively easily substituted.

Townscape Character

Unimportant or degraded, relatively easily substituted.

Visual

Viewers with minimal interest in their surroundings.

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Magnitude of Effect 6.55

The effects of the proposed development are quantified by identifying the magnitude of the effect on the landscape and visual resources/receptors described in the baseline.

6.56

The magnitude of effect on landscape features and character includes consideration of the scale and nature of features in either removed or introduced, the extent of loss of vegetation and other features and the degree to which the landscape character may be altered.

6.57

The magnitude of visual effect is gauged by the degree to which specific views would change. This would depend on distance, for example, on views of increasing distance the effect becomes less significant. This is why the ZVI of a proposal is generally greater than the zone in which the effects are likely to be significant – the ZVS.

6.58

The magnitude of effect on the landscape and visual resources/receptors is defined in Table 6.2 below. Table 6.2 Magnitude of Effect Magnitude SEVERE

Resource/Receptor Landscape Receptor Landscape Character

Characteristics Total loss/damage/destruction of, or major alteration/changes to key elements/features/characteristics of the receiving environment.

Townscape Character Visual

MAJOR

Landscape Receptor Landscape Character

Significant loss of, or major alteration/changes to key elements/features/characteristics of the receiving environment.

Townscape Character Visual

MODERATE

Landscape Receptor Landscape Character

Partial loss or alteration/changes to key elements/features/characteristics of the environment or the introduction of elements that may be prominent within the receiving environment.

Townscape Character Visual

MINOR

Landscape Receptor Landscape Character

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Minor loss or alterations/changes to key elements/features/characteristics of the environment or the introduction of elements noticeable within the receiving environment.

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Resource/Receptor

Magnitude

Characteristics

Townscape Character Visual

NEGLIGIBLE

Landscape Receptor Landscape Character

Very minor loss or alterations/changes to key elements/features/characteristics of the environment or the introduction of elements noticeable within the receiving environment.

Townscape Character Visual

NONE

Landscape Receptor Landscape Character

No loss or alterations/changes to key elements/features/characteristics of the environment or the introduction of elements noticeable within the receiving environment.

Townscape Character Visual

Significance of Impacts 6.59

The significance of an impact on the landscape or visual receptor is a function of the scale, duration, magnitude of the effect, and the sensitivity of the receptor, as illustrated in Table 6.3.

6.60

The matrix shows how a slight effect on a highly sensitive view is more significant than a moderate effect on a low sensitive view.

6.61

Impacts can be beneficial, adverse or neutral. The impacts are described as beneficial to some degree, neutral, or adverse to some degree. These are largely professional value judgements.

6.62

The assessment of significance and whether the impact is adverse, neutral or beneficial assumes a worst-case scenario – when leaves are off the trees and there is minimal screening from vegetation for example.

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Table 6.3 Significance of Impact SENSITIVITY OF RECEPTOR Very High

MAGNITUDE OF EFFECT

Severe

Major

Major

Major

Medium Major/

Moderate

Major

Major/

Major/

Moderate

Moderate

Minor

Moderate

Very Low

Moderate

Moderate/

Moderate

Minor Moderate/

Moderate/

Minor

Minor/

Minor Moderate/

Minor

Minor

Negligible

Minor

Minor/

Minor

None

Low

Moderate

Moderate

Negligible

6.63

Severe/

High

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

None

None

None

None

None

This method allows transparency showing how impacts are assessed. However, there are occasional circumstances when an adjustment is required to the matrix to reflect local conditions or the relative weighting of factors. In these instances, professional judgement is used to assess impact.

6.64

In this way changes in landscape characteristics, including elements of landform, land cover and land-use as well as significant features are described and broadly quantified. The effect of these changes of aspects of landscape value are also described in terms of scenic quality, designated landscape, heritage interests, tranquillity, sense of place, rarity or uniqueness and nature conservation interests.

6.65

Predicted

changes

to

the

visual

baseline

are

described

for

each

sensitive

resource/receptor. 6.66

Consideration is given to change during construction including enabling work and the operation phase – on completion and after 15 years.

6.67

Changes to the baseline can have a different character ranging from Large Positive to Large Negative change. These are set out in Table 6.4 below.

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Beyond Green Developments North Sprowston and Old Catton

Large number of small- to medium-size 18th Century estates, with more parkland north of river Wensum and a notable parkland belt between the rivers Wensum and Bure;

Dispersed villages and isolated farmhouses within complex minor road network. Red brick and flint with pantiled or pegtile roofs. Cohesive 17th and 18th Century vernacular architecture. Denser settlement pattern south of river Wensum;

Great density and stylistic variety of churches, often associated with small villages or estates;

Areas of heathland, especially along Cromer Ridge and in the west, reflecting lighter soils north of river Wensum; and

 6.91

Coastal holiday resorts of Cromer and Sheringham.

The land is described as rolling within the Wensum and Yare valleys close to Norwich. This rolling aspect is typical of the area immediately around the site and small- to medium-size 18th Century estates described as characteristic of this character type is also typical of this area. The sunken lanes described as a feature of the Cromer Ridge are not typical of this area. For example, Church Lane is a narrow lane with banks on both sides and not sunken in the accepted sense of the term.

6.92

This is a landscape of moderately valued characteristics and reasonably tolerant of change. The sensitivity of this receptor is therefore Medium. Broadland District Landscape Character

6.93

This document8, undertaken in 2008 by Chris Blandford Associates on behalf of Council, describes the application site as within two character areas; E3 Spixworth Wooded Estatelands and E4 – Rackheath and Salhouse Wooded Estatelands illustrated in Figure 6.6. Local Character Area E3 Spixworth

6.94

This character area is described as forming a narrow belt of land abutting the northern settlement edge of Norwich. The land within this area forms part of an extensive area of sands and gravels that rises gently northwards towards the centre of the district. Its simple geology is broken up by areas of loam, which coincides with higher quality agricultural land. Although land use within the area is influenced by its close proximity to Norwich, a large proportion of the area is still in arable cultivation, especially in western parts.

6.95

Although the area abuts the urban edge of Norwich, the landscape generally comprises a semi-rural character. The influence of the Airport is substantial and greatly dilutes the area's rural character. In eastern parts of the area, parcels of land form a patchwork of rectangular fields and woodland. Part enclosure of the land has allowed

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6.101

The area has only a recent history of agricultural development. The Enclosure Acts that eventually led to the parcelling of this land have created a strong geometric layout, with medium-sized regular fields and a strong grid road pattern. These mostly arable fields are interspersed with plantations, copses of mature trees and woodland belts, along with remnant patches of heath.

6.102

Retained for a long period as an area of common land, few settlements developed within this landscape. Many of the settlements located in this area have only developed in recent years, providing housing on the outskirts of Norwich along main transport routes, often nucleated around road junctions. The settlements form blocks within the surrounding rural landscape, and often comprise abrupt boundaries. This is particularly evident in western parts of the area.

6.103

In northern and western parts of the area, part enclosure of the land has allowed medium sized estates to develop around large houses and halls, such as Beeston Park, Salhouse Hall, Rackheath Hall and Woodbastwick Hall, in several places with their associated Historic parkland. These are smaller and less dramatic than those in the north of the district, but comprise a similar parkland character.

6.104

The following inherent landscape sensitivities have been identified: 

Mosaic of parkland, arable fields and woodland, providing a diverse and interesting landscape character, particularly in northern and western parts;

Mature landscape structure including blocks and belts of woodland, copses of mature trees and intact hedgerows, providing a robust visual mosaic, particularly in eastern parts;

Landscape setting of historic houses, halls and churches;

Architectural and landscape features of houses and halls, including scenic parkland landscapes rich in idyllic components such as rides, parkland trees and lakes;

Linear hamlets with a strong historic core;

Landscape setting of hamlets and villages;

Rich historic character and a strong sense of place, particularly in northern and western parts;

Characteristic northerly views over descending wooded slopes to the Broads, and associated close wooded horizon; and

Historic buildings and settlement character within Salhouse and Woodbastwick (recognised by designation as a Conservation Area).

6.105

Beeston Park lies within the application site. This is a landscape of moderately valued characteristics reasonably tolerant of change and therefore of Medium sensitivity.

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Local Landscape Character 6.106

The land use of the application site is shown at Figure 6.7 and primary landscape features associated with the site are shown at Figure 6.8. These were taken into account to make a local character assessment undertaken through observation during site visits. The character areas described below are shown at Figure 6.9. Plateau Farmland

6.107

The summary of characteristics is as a generally flat arable landscape with medium/large fields.

6.108

Historic lanes are associated with this character type. These are typically narrow with banked, hedged verges and often with mature Oak trees of considerable stature.

6.109

There are some strong hedgerow boundaries often with substantial Oak trees. These are often associated with historic lanes such as Church Lane and field boundaries as shown on the Tithe in Map at Figure 6.10 and the 1946 aerial photographs at Figure 6.11. Some of these are likely to be historic. The medium/large fields allow views across to woodland beyond.

6.110

This character area is determined to be moderately valued and reasonably tolerant of change. It is therefore of Medium sensitivity. Beeston Parkland

6.111

This has the original 18th Century hall with a local designation as historic parkland. It is enclosed by mixed plantation woodland. The topography slopes up from the north to the southern end of the park and the public road which passes through has an informal rural character of a parkland drive. Whilst it is still recognisable as an estate it is likely that over the years its condition is not as it once was.

6.112

This is Historic Parkland covered by Policy ENV10 in the Local Plan3, as well as being within a designated Area of Landscape Value ENV8 in the Local Plan (Figure 6.1).

6.113

Certain areas have been identified for the protection of their landscape importance, based on their scenic quality, sense of place, unspoilt character and value as a resource, conservation interest and consensus of opinion. The higher quality areas have been classed as Areas of Landscape Policy ENV83.

6.114

Policy ENV8 states that 'Areas of landscape value are defined on the proposals map, indicating those areas of special scenic quality or importance in the landscape. The inherent visual qualities and distinctive character of these areas will be protected. Development will only be permitted where this is not detrimental to the character, scenic quality or visual benefit of the area.'3

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6.168

The sensitivity of this receptor is given weight to reflect that receptors would have a higher than normal expectation to the view due to the proximity of Church Lane, popular for walkers. Viewpoint 11

6.169

View north eastwards from the B1150 North Walsham Road at the urban fringe. The road is a dominant feature and with mixed development creates a somewhat confused character (Figure 6.12k).

6.170

The sensitivity of this receptor is Low to reflect that the view will be seen primarily by occupants of passing cars. Viewpoint 12

6.171

View south eastwards form North Walsham Road, with glimpsed views towards St. Mary and St. Margaret's Church. This is a flat area with a relatively featureless landscape with roadside hedgerows limiting views to the open landscape beyond (Figure 6.12l).

6.172

The sensitivity of this receptor is Low to reflect that the view will be seen primarily by occupants of passing cars. Viewpoint 13

6.173

View south westwards from the North Walsham Road to the north of the application site. The view is over fields and paddocks on the flatter plateau landscape of this area (Figure 6.12m).

6.174

The sensitivity of this receptor if Low to reflect that the view will be seen primarily by occupants of passing cars. Viewpoint 14

6.175

View south westwards from the North Walsham Road to the northeast of Spixworth (Figure 6.12n).

6.176

The sensitivity of this receptor is Low to reflect that the view will be seen primarily by occupants of passing cars. Viewpoint 15

6.177

View south westwards from the residential area on the south side of Spixworth (Figure 6.12o).

6.178

The sensitivity of this receptor is weighted to reflect the proximity to Spixworth and allow for viewers with a proprietary interest.

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Viewpoint 16 6.179

View south westwards from public footpath close to residential area on the southern side of Spixworth (Figure 6.12p).

6.180

The sensitivity of this receptor is High as it is taken from a PRoW. Viewpoint 17

6.181

View south eastwards from Quaker Lane to the southwest of Spixworth. The hedgerow and Oak tree boundaries are an important feature of this flat landscape (Figure 6.12q).

6.182

The sensitivity of this receptor is Low to reflect that most of the views will be seen primarily by occupants of passing cars. Viewpoint 18a

6.183

This view is into the parkland of Beeston Hall along the entrance road through the boundary plantation (Figure 6.12s).

6.184

The sensitivity of this receptor is taken as High to reflect that the receptor may have heightened awareness of their surroundings. Viewpoint 18b

6.185

This view is glimpsed through gaps in the hedgerow along the enclosed landscape od Beeston Lane (Figure 6.12t).

6.186

The sensitivity of this receptor is weighted to Medium to reflect that although most of the views will be primarily by occupants of passing cars it has been weighted to reflect the potential heightened awareness of the landscape of Beeston Park and to reflect worst-case. Viewpoint 18

6.187

View south eastward from St Faith's Road (Figure 6.12r).

6.188

The sensitivity of this receptor is Low to reflect that most views will be seen primarily by occupants of passing cars. Viewpoint 19

6.189

View eastwards over arable fields at the urban fringe over the flat landscape and large fields characteristic of this area (Figure 6.12u).

6.190

The sensitivity of this receptor is Low to reflect that most views will be seen primarily by occupants of passing cars.

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Viewpoint 20 6.191

View eastwards over arable fields at the urban fringe over the flat landscape and large fields characteristic of this area (Figure 6.12v).

6.192

The sensitivity of this receptor is High to reflect the proprietary interest of the nearby residents. Viewpoint 21

6.193

View northwards from residential area off Buxton Road (Figure 6.12w).

6.194

The sensitivity of this receptor is High to reflect the proprietary interest of the nearby residents. Viewpoint 22

6.195

View northwards from residential area off Buxton Road (Figure 6.12x).

6.196

The sensitivity of this receptor is High to reflect the proprietary interest of the nearby residents. Viewpoint 23

6.197

View south eastwards from Church Lane, now closed to vehicles and regularly used by local walkers. There is a strong landscape structure with mature hedgerows and a number of veteran and mature boundary Oak trees (Figure 6.12y).

6.198

The sensitivity of this receptor is taken as High to reflect the heightened awareness of receptors. Viewpoint 24

6.199

View westwards from Beeston Lane, closed to through traffic. An area with a strong landscape structure (Figure 6.12z).

6.200

The sensitivity of this receptor is High to reflect the potentially heightened awareness of receptors. Viewpoint 25

6.201

View southwards on Buxton Road. This area has a strong landscape structure with mature hedgerow and field boundary Oaks with glimpsed views to the landscape beyond (Figure 6.12aa).

6.202

The sensitivity of this receptor is Low to reflect that most of the views will be seen by occupants of passing cars.

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Viewpoint 26 6.203

View northwards from the residential area near St. Mary's Grove over fields to the Park and Ride scheme. The field is regularly used by local walkers (Figure 6.12bb).

6.204

The sensitivity of this receptor is High. Additional weighting is given to sensitivity to reflect proximity of existing residences. Viewpoint 27

6.205

View south eastwards from North Walsham Road with glimpsed views towards St. Mary and St. Margaret's Church, Sprowston. This is a flat, relatively featureless landscape with roadside hedgerows limiting views to the open landscape beyond (Figure 6.12cc).

6.206

The sensitivity of this receptor is Low to reflect that the views will be seen mostly by the occupants of passing cars.

ASSESSMENT OF POTENTIAL IMPACTS Construction Phase 6.207

The enabling and construction phase of the proposed development is described in more detail in Chapter 3.0: Development Programme & Construction of this ES. Key potential impacts during construction include: 

Cranes and scaffolding within the landscape/townscape, in particular during the later phases of construction;

The effect of site vehicles and construction traffic within the application site and in the surrounding areas;

Other components of construction, including stockpiles of materials;

Lighting of specific areas such as construction compounds; and

Through the construction phase, the change form an open area to an area of development.

Operational Phase Upon Completion 6.208

Key effects on completion include: 

Change of land use and operation, which will not be uncharacteristic of the surrounding land uses associated with the urban area of Norwich and will read as very much part of the local scene on the edge of Norwich;

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Change from a land use from a pastoral farmed landscape to a residential development with associated infrastructure including lighting;

Establishment of new focal points, landmarks and vistas; and

The creation of a well-connected public realm and residential areas set in a well tree'd and established landscape with considerable areas of open space and access to water bodies.

15 years after Completion 6.209

Key effects include: 

Maturing of the landscape infrastructure;

Maturing of the boundary and screening vegetation; and

Increasing integration of the proposal with the surrounding townscape – existing and recently developed.

Effects of Lighting 6.210

The proposed development would introduce artificial lighting into an area which is generally unlit at the present time. The application site and immediate surrounding identified as an E2 Environmental Zone, characterised as an area of low district brightness.

6.211

The application site lies to the northeast of Norwich, but if other developments come on-stream including the NDR, this area would be at the outer edge of the greater residential area of Norwich and contained within the NRP. The proposed development would not, therefore, be an outlier development but contained within the greater Norwich area.

6.212

It is assumed that any proposed lighting, either during construction or operation, will be restricted to the minimum required for construction works and for highway safety requirements, and controlled in order to reduce or prevent light spillage onto adjacent areas. It is also expected that times for on-plot luminance during the construction phase will be controlled to accommodate working hours.

6.213

As a result, the effect on the nature conservation interest is likely to be kept to a minimum and the effect on the landscape and townscape character is also likely to be minimal.

6.214

The impact on very local views is likely to be significant, but these are relatively limited as demonstrated in the visual assessment and would be further reduced when viewed against the sky glow from the existing and proposed built areas.

6.215

In general, the occupiers of existing adjacent residential properties are likely to experience elevated levels of artificial light; however extensive green infrastructure is

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proposed which will include substantial planting helping reduce light spill into adjacent areas.

Potential Impacts on Landscape Character 6.216

The interpretation of sensitivity and magnitude of effect is described in detail in the preceding section. These two factors lead directly to the extrapolation of significance of impact. National Character Area

6.217

The magnitude of effect on this receptor (Character Area 78) is Negligible, considering the overall extent of the receptor. Receptor: Character Area 78 Central North Norfolk Sensitivity: Medium DURING CONSTRUCTION

ON COMPLETION

15 YEARS POST COMPLETION

Magnitude

Negligible

Significance of Impact

Negligible

Magnitude

Negligible

Significance of Impact

Negligible

Magnitude

Negligible

Significance of Impact

Negligible

Broadland Landscape Character Area E3 and E4 6.218

The magnitude of effect on this character area (E3) is likely to be Negligible as the proposed development represents a very minor loss.

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Receptor: Red Hall Parkland and Buildings Sensitivity: Medium/High DURING CONSTRUCTION

ON COMPLETION

15 YEARS POST COMPLETION

6.223

Magnitude

Minor

Significance of Impact

Moderate/Minor

Magnitude

Minor

Significance of Impact

Moderate/Minor

Magnitude

Minor

Significance of Impact

Moderate/Minor

The magnitude of effect on the Sportsfields is considered to be Moderate – worst-case is taken. Receptor: Sportsfields Sensitivity: Low DURING CONSTRUCTION

ON COMPLETION

15 YEARS POST COMPLETION

6.224

Magnitude

Moderate

Significance of Impact

Minor

Magnitude

Moderate

Significance of Impact

Minor

Magnitude

Moderate

Significance of Impact

Minor

This local character area, Enclosed Plateau Farmland, is relatively typical in the local area and the magnitude of effect is likely to be Moderate with the partial loss of key elements and the introduction of elements that may be prominent in the receiving environment.

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Receptor: Enclosed Plateau Farmland Sensitivity: Medium DURING CONSTRUCTION

ON COMPLETION

15 YEARS POST COMPLETION

6.225

Magnitude

Moderate

Significance of Impact

Moderate/Minor

Magnitude

Moderate

Significance of Impact

Moderate/Minor

Magnitude

Moderate

Significance of Impact

Moderate/Minor

This local character area, Fragmented Plateau, is relatively influenced by the Airport and residential edge. The magnitude of effect is likely to be Moderate with the partial loss of key elements and the introduction of elements that may be prominent in the receiving environment. Receptor: Fragmented Plateau Sensitivity: Medium DURING CONSTRUCTION

ON COMPLETION

15 YEARS POST COMPLETION

Magnitude

Moderate

Significance of Impact

Moderate/Minor

Magnitude

Moderate

Significance of Impact

Moderate/Minor

Magnitude

Moderate

Significance of Impact

Moderate/Minor

Potential Impacts on other Landscape receptors Public Rights of Way 6.226

PRoWs are highly valued at local level; the closest PROW lies to the south of the application site, and will not be affected by the proposed development. Church Lane, closed to through traffic, is used by walkers. This will continue to be available to walkers.

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Viewpoint 6 6.248

The magnitude of effect is considered Negligible. Receptor: View from Wroxham Road. Sensitivity: Low DURING CONSTRUCTION

ON COMPLETION

15 YEARS POST COMPLETION

Magnitude

Negligible

Significance of Impact

Negligible

Magnitude

Negligible

Significance of Impact

Negligible

Magnitude

Negligible

Significance of Impact

Negligible

Viewpoint 7 6.249

The magnitude of effect is considered Major to reflect that there will be a significant alteration in key elements. Receptor: View from Wroxham Road. Sensitivity: Low DURING CONSTRUCTION

ON COMPLETION

15 YEARS POST COMPLETION

166

Magnitude

Major

Significance of Impact

Moderate/Minor

Magnitude

Major

Significance of Impact

Moderate/Minor

Magnitude

Major

Significance of Impact

Minor

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Viewpoint 8 6.250

The magnitude of effect is considered Major to reflect that there will be a significant alteration in key elements. Receptor: View from Wrowham Road. Sensitivity: Low DURING CONSTRUCTION

ON COMPLETION

15 YEARS POST COMPLETION

Magnitude

Major

Significance of Impact

Moderate/Minor

Magnitude

Major

Significance of Impact

Moderate/Minor

Magnitude

Major

Significance of Impact

Minor

Viewpoint 9 6.251

The magnitude of effect is considered Moderate as there partial alteration to key elements. Receptor: View from edge of Tesco Development. Sensitivity: Low DURING CONSTRUCTION

ON COMPLETION

15 YEARS POST COMPLETION

Magnitude

Moderate

Significance of Impact

Minor

Magnitude

Moderate

Significance of Impact

Minor

Magnitude

Moderate

Significance of Impact

Minor

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Viewpoint 14 6.256

The magnitude of effect is considered to be None due to the intervening distance. Receptor: View from North Walsham Road. Sensitivity: Low DURING CONSTRUCTION

ON COMPLETION

15 YEARS POST COMPLETION

Magnitude

None

Significance of Impact

None

Magnitude

None

Significance of Impact

None

Magnitude

None

Significance of Impact

None

Viewpoint 15 6.257

The magnitude of effect is considered Minor to reflect worst-case that there may be minor alterations to key elements. Receptor: View from the residential area to the south of Spixworth. Sensitivity: High DURING CONSTRUCTION

ON COMPLETION

15 YEARS POST COMPLETION

170

Magnitude

Minor

Significance of Impact

Moderate/Minor

Magnitude

Minor

Significance of Impact

Moderate/Minor

Magnitude

Minor

Significance of Impact

Minor

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Viewpoint 16 6.258

The magnitude of effect is considered Minor to reflect the worst-case that there may be minor alterations to key elements. Receptor: View from public footpath close to the residential area of Spixworth. Sensitivity: High DURING CONSTRUCTION

ON COMPLETION

15 YEARS POST COMPLETION

Magnitude

Minor

Significance of Impact

Moderate/Minor

Magnitude

Minor

Significance of Impact

Moderate/Minor

Magnitude

Minor

Significance of Impact

Minor

Viewpoint 17 6.259

The magnitude of effect is considered Minor to reflect the worst-case that there may be minor alterations to key elements. Receptor: View from Quaker Lane Sensitivity: Low DURING CONSTRUCTION

ON COMPLETION

15 YEARS POST COMPLETION

Magnitude

Minor

Significance of Impact

Minor/Negligible

Magnitude

Minor

Significance of Impact

Minor/Negligible

Magnitude

Minor

Significance of Impact

Negligible

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Viewpoint 18a 6.260

The magnitude of effect is considered to be Minor to reflect the worst-case that there may be minor alterations to key elements. Receptor: View into the parkland of Beeston Hall along the entrance road through the boundary plantation. Additional weighting given to Sensitivity. Sensitivity: High DURING CONSTRUCTION

ON COMPLETION

15 YEARS POST COMPLETION

Magnitude

Minor

Significance of Impact

Moderate/Minor

Magnitude

Minor

Significance of Impact

Moderate/Minor

Magnitude

Minor

Significance of Impact

Moderate/Minor

Viewpoint 18b 6.261

The magnitude of effect is considered to be Moderate to reflect that there will be alterations to key elements. Receptor: Glimpsed view southward through gaps in the hedgerows along the enclosed landscape of Beeston Lane with the boundary plantations of Beeston Hall on the right. Sensitivity given additional weighting. Sensitivity: Medium DURING CONSTRUCTION

ON COMPLETION

15 YEARS POST COMPLETION

172

Magnitude

Moderate

Significance of Impact

Moderate/Minor

Magnitude

Moderate

Significance of Impact

Moderate/Minor

Magnitude

Moderate

Significance of Impact

Moderate/Minor

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Viewpoint 18 6.262

The magnitude of effect is Minor to reflect that there will be minor alterations to key elements. Receptor: View south eastward from St Faith's Road. This is a largely rural landscape but with degraded landscape features, such as fragmented hedgerows and fewer mature trees than elsewhere within the study area. Sensitivity: Low DURING CONSTRUCTION

ON COMPLETION

15 YEARS POST COMPLETION

Magnitude

Minor

Significance of Impact

Minor/Negligible

Magnitude

Minor

Significance of Impact

Minor/Negligible

Magnitude

Minor

Significance of Impact

Minor/Negligible

Viewpoint 19 6.263

The magnitude of effect is Minor to reflect that there will be minor alterations to key elements. Receptor: View from lane at the urban fringe. Sensitivity: Low DURING CONSTRUCTION

ON COMPLETION

15 YEARS POST COMPLETION

Magnitude

Minor

Significance of Impact

Minor/Negligible

Magnitude

Minor

Significance of Impact

Minor/Negligible

Magnitude

Minor

Significance of Impact

Negligible

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Viewpoint 20 6.264

The magnitude of effect is Moderate to reflect that there will be alterations to key elements. Receptor: View from lane close to urban edge. Weighting given to Sensitivity because of residences. Sensitivity: High DURING CONSTRUCTION

ON COMPLETION

15 YEARS POST COMPLETION

Magnitude

Moderate

Significance of Impact

Moderate

Magnitude

Moderate

Significance of Impact

Moderate

Magnitude

Moderate

Significance of Impact

Moderate

Viewpoint 21 6.265

The magnitude of effect is Moderate to reflect that there will be alterations to key elements. Receptor: View from The Paddocks. Additional weighting given to Sensitivity due to residences. Sensitivity: High DURING CONSTRUCTION

ON COMPLETION

15 YEARS POST COMPLETION

174

Magnitude

Moderate

Significance of Impact

Moderate

Magnitude

Moderate

Significance of Impact

Moderate

Magnitude

Moderate

Significance of Impact

Moderate

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Viewpoint 22 6.266

The magnitude of effect is Moderate to reflect that there will be alterations to key elements. Receptor: View taken from Buxton Road junction with The Paddocks. Additional weighting given to Sensitivity due to residences. Sensitivity: High DURING CONSTRUCTION

ON COMPLETION

15 YEARS POST COMPLETION

Magnitude

Moderate

Significance of Impact

Moderate

Magnitude

Moderate

Significance of Impact

Moderate

Magnitude

Moderate

Significance of Impact

Moderate

Viewpoint 23 6.267

The magnitude of effect is Major to reflect that there will be significant alterations to key elements. Receptor: View from Church Lane – used by walkers. Sensitivity: High DURING CONSTRUCTION

ON COMPLETION

15 YEARS POST COMPLETION

Magnitude

Major

Significance of Impact

Major/Moderate

Magnitude

Major

Significance of Impact

Major/Moderate

Magnitude

Major

Significance of Impact

Major/Moderate

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Viewpoint 24 6.268

The magnitude of effect is considered Negligible due to the very minor alterations to key elements. Receptor: View from Beeston Lane, closed to through traffic. Sensitivity: High DURING CONSTRUCTION

ON COMPLETION

15 YEARS POST COMPLETION

Magnitude

Negligible

Significance of Impact

Negligible

Magnitude

Negligible

Significance of Impact

Negligible

Magnitude

Negligible

Significance of Impact

Negligible

Viewpoint 25 6.269

The magnitude of effect is considered Major as there will be significant alterations to key elements. Receptor: View from Buxton Road. Sensitivity: Low DURING CONSTRUCTION

ON COMPLETION

15 YEARS POST COMPLETION

176

Magnitude

Major

Significance of Impact

Moderate/Minor

Magnitude

Major

Significance of Impact

Moderate/Minor

Magnitude

Major

Significance of Impact

Moderate/Minor

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Viewpoint 26 6.270

The magnitude of effect is considered Moderate as there will be alterations to key elements. Receptor: View from St Mary's Grove. Additional weighting given to Sensitivity due to proximity of residences. Sensitivity: High DURING CONSTRUCTION

ON COMPLETION

15 YEARS POST COMPLETION

Magnitude

Moderate

Significance of Impact

Moderate

Magnitude

Moderate

Significance of Impact

Moderate

Magnitude

Moderate

Significance of Impact

Moderate

Viewpoint 27 6.271

The magnitude of effect is Major to reflect that there will be significant alterations to key elements. Receptor: View from North Walsham Road. Sensitivity: Low DURING CONSTRUCTION

ON COMPLETION

15 YEARS POST COMPLETION

Magnitude

Major

Significance of Impact

Moderate/Minor

Magnitude

Major

Significance of Impact

Moderate/Minor

Magnitude

Major

Significance of Impact

Moderate/Minor

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Table 6.5 Summary of Impacts with Character of Change Receptor

Sensitivity

Magnitude

Significance of Impact

Magnitude

During Construction

Significance of Impact

On Completion

Magnitude

Significance of Impact

Character of Change

15 Years Post Completion

National Character Area 78

Medium

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Neutral

Broadlands Character Area E3

Medium

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Slight Adverse

Broadlands Character Area E4

Medium

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Slight Adverse

Plateau Farmland

Medium

Moderate

Moderate/Minor

Moderate

Moderate/Minor

Moderate

Moderate/Minor

Slight Adverse

Beeston Parkland

Medium/High

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Moderate Benefit

Red Hall Parkland

Medium/High

Minor

Moderate/Minor

Minor

Moderate/Minor

Minor

Minor

Moderate Benefit

Sportsfield

Low

Moderate

Minor

Moderate

Minor

Moderate

Minor

Neutral

Enclosed Plateau Farmland

Medium

Moderate

Moderate/Minor

Moderate

Moderate/Minor

Moderate

Minor

Slight Adverse

Fragmented Plateau

Medium

Moderate

Moderate/Minor

Moderate

Moderate/Minor

Moderate

Moderate/Minor

Slight Adverse

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Receptor

Sensitivity

Magnitude

Significance of Impact

Magnitude

Significance of Impact

Magnitude

Significance of Impact

Character of Change

Rights of Way

High

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Slight Beneficial

Trees

Medium

Minor

Minor

Minor

Minor

Minor

Minor

Slight Adverse

Hedges

Medium

Major

Moderate

Major

Moderate

Major

Moderate

Adverse

Historic Parkland

High

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Neutral

Area of Landscape Value

High

Minor

Minor

Minor

Minor

Minor

Minor

Slight Adverse

Grade I Parish Church of St Mary and St Margaret

Very High

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Neutral

Grade II Walls, gate and gatepiers of churchyard of Parish Church of St Mary and St Margaret

High

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Neutral

Grade II Oak Lodge farm house

High

Minor

Moderate/Minor

Minor

Moderate/Minor

Minor

Moderate/Minor

Slight Adverse

Grade II Walls to south of Beeston St

High

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Neutral

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Receptor

Sensitivity

Magnitude

Significance of Impact

Magnitude

Significance of Impact

Magnitude

Significance of Impact

Character of Change

Andrew Hall

180

Viewpoint 1

High

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Neutral

Viewpoint 2

Low

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Neutral

Viewpoint 3

Low

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Neutral

Viewpoint 4

Medium

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Neutral

Viewpoint 5

Medium

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Neutral

Viewpoint 6

Low

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Neutral

Viewpoint 7

Low

Major

Moderate/Minor

Major

Moderate/Minor

Major

Minor

Slight Adverse

Viewpoint 8

Low

Major

Moderate/Minor

Major

Moderate/Minor

Major

Minor

Slight Adverse

Viewpoint 9

Low

Moderate

Minor

Moderate

Minor

Moderate

Minor

Slight Adverse

Viewpoint 10

Medium

Major

Moderate

Major

Moderate

Major

Moderate

Slight Adverse

Viewpoint 11

Low

Major

Moderate/Minor

Major

Moderate/Minor

Major

Moderate/Minor

Slight Adverse

Viewpoint 12

Low

Major

Moderate/Minor

Major

Moderate/Minor

Major

Moderate/Minor

Slight Adverse

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Receptor

Sensitivity

Magnitude

Significance of Impact

Magnitude

Significance of Impact

Magnitude

Significance of Impact

Character of Change

Viewpoint 13

Low

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Neutral

Viewpoint 14

Low

None

None

None

None

None

None

Neutral

Viewpoint 15

High

Minor

Moderate/Minor

Minor

Moderate/Minor

Minor

Minor

Neutral

Viewpoint 16

High

Minor

Moderate/Minor

Minor

Moderate/Minor

Minor

Minor

Neutral

Viewpoint 17

Low

Minor

Minor/ Negligible

Minor

Minor/ Negligible

Minor

Negligible

Neutral

Viewpoint 18a

High

Minor

Moderate/Minor

Minor

Moderate/Minor

Minor

Moderate/Minor

Neutral

Viewpoint 18b

Medium

Moderate

Moderate/Minor

Moderate

Moderate/Minor

Moderate

Moderate/Minor

Slight Adverse

Viewpoint 18

Low

Minor

Minor/Negligible

Minor

Minor/Negligible

Minor

Minor/Negligible

Slight Adverse

Viewpoint 19

Low

Minor

Minor/ Negligible

Minor

Minor/ Negligible

Minor

Negligible

Neutral

Viewpoint 20

High

Moderate

Moderate

Moderate

Moderate

Moderate

Moderate

Slight Adverse

Viewpoint 21

High

Moderate

Moderate

Moderate

Moderate

Moderate

Moderate

Slight Adverse

Viewpoint 22

High

Moderate

Moderate

Moderate

Moderate

Moderate

Moderate

Slight Adverse

Viewpoint 23

High

Major

Major/Moderate

Major

Major/Moderate

Major

Major/Moderate

Slight Adverse

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Receptor

182

Sensitivity

Magnitude

Significance of Impact

Magnitude

Significance of Impact

Magnitude

Significance of Impact

Character of Change

Viewpoint 24

High

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Neutral

Viewpoint 25

Low

Major

Moderate/Minor

Major

Moderate/Minor

Major

Moderate/Minor

Slight Adverse

Viewpoint 26

High

Moderate

Moderate

Moderate

Moderate

Moderate

Moderate

Slight Adverse

Viewpoint 27

Low

Major

Moderate/Minor

Major

Moderate/Minor

Major

Moderate/Minor

Slight Adverse

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MITIGATION MEASURES 6.272

Throughout the evolution of the proposed development, landscape related mitigation measures have been proposed.

6.273

Mitigation is divided into Primary and Secondary measures. Primary mitigation relates to measures that have informed the Parameter Plans and therefore have formed the basis of this Chapter. Secondary mitigation refers to more site-specific measures.

6.274

Some mitigation measures apply to the construction and the operation phases.

6.275

The general principles for mitigation which have been incorporated within the proposed development: 

The layout and design of the proposed development has a substantial amount of open space;

The scale and density of the proposed development has been carefully considered so that it fits in with the context of the place;

Wherever possible, significant landscape features within the application site are retained and enhanced by incorporating them into the development/open space framework;

Areas of biodiversity are retained and enhanced where possible;

Hard and soft landscape design will enhance the character of the development and its integration into the surrounding area; and

Screen planting and other boundary treatments will be appropriately used to help stitch the proposed development into its surroundings.

6.276

Specific principles for mitigation include: 

The retention of Beeston Park as the main public park comprising 29.5ha of parkland north and south of Beeston Hall framed by 13.6ha of plantation. A new landscape edge around the southern and western boundary will allow the retention of existing bat habitat and provide 1.5ha of additional public spaces incorporating play space, walking routes, Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS) features and forest garden;

A park south of Red Hall Farm including 7.6ha parkland framed by 2.1ha plantation. Strong emphasis on food and farming in the wider Red Hall Farm area including allotments and intensive food growing opportunities;

A linear park of 2.1ha along Beeston Lane linking Red Hall and Beeston Park, serving as a formal entrance to the park and enabling the character of the lane to be retained;

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A number of green routes identified on streets within the proposed development. These comprise of main green routes along Old North Walsham Road, Beeston Lane and alongside Beeston Park will maintain bat commuting corridors; secondary routes linking green spaces within the proposed development will provide wildlife corridors and pleasant, legible walking routes for local people. Features of green routes include street tree planting, green roofs, green walls, front gardens, some landscaped edge and swales;

Over 31 of new and retained natural and semi-natural space including significant parkland, managed woodland, wetland and potential for forest garden;

Multifunctional green spaces distributed throughout the development – parks, greens, play areas, SuDS, habitat and potential for community food growing areas;

1.8ha allotments and community gardens for food production identified within the redline boundary plus additional 1.2ha allotment space provided through the extension of existing Sprowston allotments;

Three public recreation grounds totalling 12.1ha;

Smaller scale green spaces associated with each dwelling including gardens, green roofs, green walls and balconies acting as urban microspaces for food growing, climate change adaptation and biodiversity; and

A SuDS strategy based on existing natural catchment boundaries comprising rainwater harvesting ring, attenuation basins including a water feature in Beeston Park, green roofs and permeable paving.

6.277

In this way a network of both hard and soft open space which responds to the landscape character of the application site and its surroundings will be created. These are largely multifunctional, containing swales and other sustainable drainage features for example, as well as enhanced habitats and informal play opportunities. This will help create a new landscape in which the proposed development sits and help off-set any residual adverse impacts which may be caused by development.

6.278

Although there are few residential properties close to the application site, appropriate landscape treatment to adjacent boundaries, including the siting and orientation of new buildings, will be considered.

6.279

Night-time lighting impacts will be mitigated by using best practice guidance to reduce light spill and pollution by using horizontally cut-off light fittings at appropriate mounting heights for exterior use. Time control lighting (where appropriate) will be specified so that it can be switched off during hours of darkness when it is not needed and lighting which is commensurate to health and safety considerations for a particular use both during the construction and operational phases.

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6.280

Lighting can also have an impact on biodiversity and wildlife. Lighting is considered to be the key operational impact on bats. The key commuting routes identified are along the North Walsham Road and also along the edges of the Beeston Park woodlands. One of the key objectives of the masterplanning work was to retain these identified and other likely routes and where necessary develop new movement corridors along and through the urbanised landscape. To ensure that any impacts from lighting are minimised, the key bat commuting routes as identified in the baseline surveys will be lit, if appropriate, with low intensity and low level lighting to appropriate lux levels. Stand heights and the use of baffles will also be considered.

6.281

The key movement corridors for bats within the proposed development are: 

Between existing estate housing and application site: The objectives will be to retain an east-west movement corridor, incorporating buffers where possible, including public open space and rear gardens;

South end of Church Lane: The objective will be to maintain a wide buffer and an east west corridor by the provision of a wide dark corridor in the vicinity of the church, including the existing Millennium woodland, allotments and cemetery and the expansion of the latter two. It is also proposed to include a green route from the northeast corner of this area to the Beeston Park woodland;

Beeston Park woodland: The objective is to create a 20m buffer outside of the woodlands to allow bats to fly along the woodland edge; and

North Walsham Road, Beeston Lane: The objective is to maintain these as commuting routes across the wider landscape.

Construction Phase 6.282

A Construction Management Plan will be drawn up and implemented during the construction phase. This is an important tool to implement a detailed landscape strategy to limit negative impacts and would take account of constraints on timing of operations, protection of retained features and habitats, reducing the impact of construction phase lighting.

6.283

The proposed development will be brought through in a number of construction phases as outlined in Chapter 3.0: Development Programme & Construction. Implementation of the landscape strategy will follow the construction phases as outlined below.

6.284

Pre-construction will see the arable reversion of the parkland areas to restored parkland trees and pasture.

6.285

Phase 1 will see Beeston Park open of public access, including implementation of footpaths and woodland management. Red Hall Farm Park and woodland will be open to public access including implementation of footpaths, signage and entrances. On North Walsham Road hedgerows and trees will be retained as bat habitat in early

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stages. A landscape buffer will be planted on Beeston Park edge and linked to woodland management plan. Church Lane will see the implementation of the village green and eastern link to Sprowston Millennium Woods. Hedgerows will be retained as bat habitat in the early stages. The distributed green spaces will be implemented concurrent with development of the building frontages. Implementation of green roofs, green walls, street tree planting, soft landscape and SuDS will follow the construction phase. 6.286

Phase 2 will bring the implementation of the park plan, which for Red Hall Farm will mean the implementation of features for fold production and biodiversity. On North Walsham Road, the street planting will be implemented concurrent with the development of building frontages. The southern half of Beeston Lane Park will be implemented concurrent with development of buildings fronting the land. On Church Lane South and Church Lane, street planting will be implemented concurrent with development of building frontages. Distributed green space will be implemented concurrent with development of building frontages. Implementation of green roofs, green walls, street tree planting, soft landscape and SuDS will follow the construction phase.

6.287

Phase 3 will bring the North of Beeston Park accessible to the public. A PRoW will be put in place to link north and south. In Church Lane South and Church Lane, street planting will continue concurrent with the building frontages. Distributed green spaces will continue to be implemented concurrent with the development of building frontages. Implementation of green roofs, green walls, street tree planting, soft landscape and SuDS will follow the construction phase.

6.288

Phase 4 will see the northern half of Beeston Lane Park implemented concurrent with development of buildings fronting the lane. The implementation of Beeston Lane Park will be completed by the end of Phase 4 as will the implementation of Beeston Park edge. Distributed green space will continue to be implemented concurrent with the development of building frontages. Implementation of green roofs, green walls, street tree planting, soft landscape and SuDS will follow the construction phase.

6.289

Phase 5 sees the completion of the western link to Sprowston Millennium Woods. Distributed green space will be implemented concurrent with development of building frontages. Implementation of green roofs, green walls, street tree planting, soft landscape and SuDS will follow the construction phase.

6.290

Phase 6 sees the continuing implementation of distributed green space concurrent with development of building frontages. Implementation of green roofs, green walls, street tree planting, soft landscape and SuDS will follow the construction phase.

6.291

In this way, the implementation of green space will be front loaded to the early phases of development so that early residents will benefit from an in situ green infrastructure providing both amenity and recreation opportunities.

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Operational Phase 6.292

The mitigation proposed can be summarised as follows under two headings – Primary and Secondary mitigation. The Primary mitigation relates to measures which have informed the evolving masterplan and Parameter Plans. Secondary mitigation measures refer to more detailed, site specific measures. Table 6.6 Proposed Mitigation Proposal

Purpose

Primary Locally designated Historic Park and Garden retained.

To ensure the surrounding area and the development benefit for a mature landscape which will provide opportunities for informal recreation.

Beeston Park dedicated as a major new public park comprising 29.5ha of parkland, framed by 13.6ha of plantation. Beeston Park, currently arable, will be restored to its former landscape of historic parkland framed by magnificent trees along its boundary. Several new water features will be located within the park as part of SuDS strategy.

To ensure the historic park will provide opportunities for informal recreation, with landscape and biodiversity benefit for the residents in the local area.

Red Hall Farm will be a park including 7.6ha of parkland framed by 2.1ha plantation. Linked with the centre for food and rural activity at Red Hall Farm, the park will have a strong emphasis on food and farming, with grazing of the parkland area and planting of edible fruit and nut trees within the woodland blocks.

Opportunities for informal recreation with a strong emphasis on food and farming, including allotments and intensive food growing opportunities.

Existing trees and tree groups will be retained where possible.

To ensure the development benefits from a relatively mature landscape giving a quick return on visual amenity, benefits to biodiversity and settling the development into the larger landscape.

Ecological enhancement of Beeston Park, woodland management, which includes street tree planting along green routes, all other streets and within squares and green spaces. There will also be planting within gardens along the southern edge of development for those houses backing directly onto existing residential plots in Old Catton.

To help mitigate the loss of trees, as well as biodiversity gain and mitigation of visual effects on sensitive residential receptors.

3.6km of species rich hedgerow planted in strategic locations, sky lark plots and seed rich verges on neighbouring farmland.

To help mitigate the loss of hedgerows.

Green space network.

The green space network proposed will create a development in which access to open space and the amenity created by that space is easily accessible to the new residents. The multifunctional green spaces will vary in size and character and provide opportunities for parks, greens, play areas, habitat and potential for community food growing areas.

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Purpose

Proposal A new landscaped edge around the southern and western boundary including 1.5ha of additional public space.

To allow the retention of bat habitat as well as public space incorporating walking routes, SuDS features and forest garden.

A linear park along Beeston Lane linking Red Hall and Beeston Park. The rural, hedge lined character of Beeston Lane will be retained and integrated into the green space network. The park will provide a new orchard or forest garden integrated with landscaped areas, space for SuDS and formal areas for play.

Serves as a formal entrance to the park and enables the character of the lane to be retained.

Green streets – North Walsham Road, Beeston Lane, Beeston Park Edge and Church Lane South. All streets within the development will be abundant with greenery; street trees and roadside planting.

To soften the streetscape and provide character and distinctiveness within the development.

Landscape Strategy.

Implement strategic planting at the early stages of development to help create a landscape incorporating, where appropriate, the planting of trees of significant size which will be ultimately forestry scale to enhance the landscape.

Drainage strategy – SuDS based on natural catchment areas, comprising rainwater harvesting ring, attenuation basins including a water feature in Beeston Park, green roofs and permeable paving.

Brings features into the landscape as well as enhancing habitats.

Create a green edge to the north of West Acre Drive and Edgefield Close off Buxton Road.

To help offset any effects arising from the development to these residents.

Create a recreation space to the north of Mountbatten Drive between Buxton Road and North Walsham Road.

To help offset any effects arising from the development to these residents.

Create parks, extension to allotments and existing cemetery to the north of St Mary's Grove between Wroxham Road and North Walsham Road.

To help offset any effects arising from the development to these residents.

Generally along the northern part of the development create areas of open space or plantations.

To soften the edge of the development from the countryside.

Secondary

188

Choice of building materials and colours.

To help create a quality environment and sense of place.

Lighting – use of hooded, directional lighting and low intensity lighting commensurate with ensuring safety and to Highway requirements.

To help reduce the impact of night time lighting effects and light pollution.

Creation of green streets. Main green routes along Old North Walsham Road, Beeston Lane and alongside Beeston Park.

Will maintain bat commuting corridors, secondary routes linking green spaces within the development, will provide wildlife corridors and pleasant, legible walking routes for local people. Features of green routes include: street trees, green roofs, green

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Purpose

Proposal

walls, front gardens and some landscaped edges and swales. Small scale green spaces associated with each dwelling including gardens, green roofs, green walls and balconies.

Act as urban microspaces for food growing, climate change and biodiversity.

RESIDUAL IMPACTS 6.293

This section examines the residual impacts that would occur after the completed implementation of mitigation and the planting associated with the landscape strategy has had a chance to establish and become reasonably mature i.e. 15 years and beyond.

Construction Phase 6.294

The residual impacts from this phase, including the development of the application site, the implementation of the landscape strategy will be subsumed within the overall residual impacts and are dealt with below.

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Operational Phase Table 6.7 Residual Impacts

Receptor

190

Impact/Character of Change at 15 Years

Significance of Residual Impact/Character of Change

Residual Impact Justification

National Character Area 78

Negligible/Neutral

Negligible/Neutral

Only a negligible area of this character area will be affected. The development proposed will not be significant at this scale. The landscape structure of the development proposal will help mitigate any residual impact as it matures.

Broadland Character Area E3

Negligible/Slight Adverse

Negligible/reducing to Neutral

Only a negligible area of this character area will be affected. The landscape structure of the development proposal will help to mitigate any residual impact as it matures, resulting in an insignificant residual impact.

Broadland Character Area E4

Negligible/Slight Adverse

Negligible/reducing to Neutral

Only a negligible area of this character area will be affected. The landscape structure of the development proposal will help to mitigate any residual impact as it matures, resulting in an insignificant residual impact.

Plateau Farmland

Moderate/Minor/Slight Adverse

Minor/reducing to Neutral

Whilst this character area is impacted and will change, the development has a considerable green strategy which will help mitigate any long term effects.

Beeston Parkland

Negligible/Moderate Benefit

Negligible/Large Benefit

The parkland will be retained for the benefit of the community.

Red Hall Parkland

Minor/Moderate Benefit

Minor/Negligible/Large Benefit

The parkland will be essentially retained for the benefit of the community.

Sportsfield

Minor/Neutral

Minor/Negligible/Neutr al/ Beneficial

A very minor part of this area will be developed, but the significant landscape strategy associated with the proposed development will help mitigate any adverse impacts in this currently low/medium value landscape.

Enclosed Plateau Farmland

Moderate/Minor/Slight Adverse

Minor/reducing to Neutral

The character of this area will change. Some of the area will be reserved as recreation space and the proposed development includes provision of green spaces and green streets will help mitigate any residual impacts.

Fragmented Plateau Farmland

Moderate/Minor/Slight Adverse

Minor/reducing to Neutral

The character of this area will change. Some of the area will be reserved as recreation space and the proposed development will include the provision of green spaces and green streets will

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Receptor

Impact/Character of Change at 15 Years

Significance of Residual Impact/Character of Change

Residual Impact Justification

help mitigate any residual impacts.

Rights of Way

Negligible/Slight Beneficial

Negligible/Slight Beneficial

New routes will be created through the proposed development stitching into the local network and enriching walking and cycling opportunities.

Trees

Minor/Slight Adverse

Negligible/Slight Beneficial

Whilst a small number of trees will be removed, there will be an overall benefit to the green infrastructure due to the landscape strategy of the proposed development.

Hedges

Moderate/Adverse

Moderate/Slight Adverse

Whilst a number of hedges will be removed the adverse effect will reduce due to the mitigation proposed.

Historic Parkland

Negligible/Neutral

Negligible/Slight Beneficial

This will remain unchanged and Beeston Park will be dedicated as a community resource.

Area of Landscape Value

Minor/Slight Adverse

Minor/Neutral

Whilst some of this resource will be developed, a grand entrance to Beeston Park will be developed. The proposed development to the north of the grand entrance will encroach into the area, but a vegetated screen will separate this visually from the area to the north.

Grade I Church of St Mary and St Margaret

Negligible/Neutral

Negligible/Neutral

The impact on this resource will be insignificant.

Grade II Walls, gates and gate piers St Mary and St Margaret

Negligible/Neutral

Negligible/Neutral

The impact on this resource will not be significant.

Grade II Oak Lodge Farmhouse

Moderate/Minor/Slight Adverse

Moderate/Minor/Neutr al

The impact on this resource will be insignificant.

Grade II Walls of Beeston St Andrew Hall

Negligible/Neutral

Negligible/Neutral

The impact on this resource will be insignificant.

Viewpoint 1

Negligible/Neutral

Negligible/Neutral

The receptor will not be impacted.

Viewpoint 2

Negligible/Neutral

Negligible/Neutral

The receptor will not be impacted.

Viewpoint 3

Negligible/Neutral

Negligible/Neutral

The receptor will not be impacted.

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Receptor

192

Impact/Character of Change at 15 Years

Significance of Residual Impact/Character of Change

Residual Impact Justification

Viewpoint 4

Negligible/Neutral

Negligible/Neutral

The receptor will not be impacted.

Viewpoint 5

Negligible/Neutral

Negligible/Neutral

The receptor will not be impacted.

Viewpoint 6

Negligible/Neutral

Negligible/Neutral

The receptor will not be impacted.

Viewpoint 7

Minor/Slight Adverse

Minor/reducing to Neutral

The receptor will be impacted and there will be change. The green infrastructure proposed will help mitigate any adverse residual impacts.

Viewpoint 8

Minor/Slight Adverse

Minor/reducing to Neutral

The receptor will be impacted and there will be change. The green infrastructure proposed will help mitigate any adverse residual impacts.

Viewpoint 9

Minor/Slight Adverse

Minor/reducing to Neutral

The receptor will be impacted and there will be change. The green infrastructure proposed will help mitigate any adverse residual impacts.

Viewpoint 10

Moderate/Slight Adverse

Moderate/Slight Beneficial

The receptor will be impacted and there will be change. The green infrastructure proposed will help benefit the immediate area.

Viewpoint 11

Moderate/Minor/Slight Adverse

Moderate/Minor/reduci ng to Neutral

The receptor will be impacted and there will be change. The green infrastructure proposed will help mitigate any adverse residual impacts.

Viewpoint 12

Moderate/Minor/Slight Adverse

Moderate/Minor/reduci ng to Neutral

The receptor will be impacted and there will be change. The green infrastructure proposed will help mitigate any adverse residual impacts.

Viewpoint 13

Negligible/Neutral

Negligible/Neutral

The change to this receptor will be insignificant.

Viewpoint 14

None/Neutral

None/Neutral

The receptor will not be impacted.

Viewpoint 15

Minor/Neutral

Negligible/Neutral

The receptor is unlikely to be impacted.

Viewpoint 16

Minor/Neutral

Negligible/Neutral

The receptor is unlikely to be impacted.

Viewpoint 17

Negligible/Neutral

Negligible/Neutral

The receptor is unlikely to be impacted.

Viewpoint 18a

Moderate/Minor/Neutral

Moderate/Minor/Neutr al

The impact insignificant.

Viewpoint 18b

Moderate/Minor/Slight Adverse

Moderate/Minor/Slight Adverse

The impact on this resource is not significant.

on

this

resource

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Receptor

Impact/Character of Change at 15 Years

Significance of Residual Impact/Character of Change

Residual Impact Justification

Viewpoint 18

Minor/Negligible/Slight Adverse

Negligible/reducing to Neutral

The impact insignificant.

on

this

resource

Viewpoint 19

Negligible/Neutral

Negligible/Neutral

Although the receptor is impacted, there will be a replication of the existing development. Over time this will be barely noticeable.

Viewpoint 20

Moderate/Slight Adverse

Moderate/reducing to Neutral

This impact was weighted to take account of the nearby residences. As the proposed development matures, the low density housing and recreation area proposed for this area will reduce any potentially adverse impact to neutral as the vegetation grows on and matures.

Viewpoint 21

Moderate/Slight Adverse

Moderate/reducing to Neutral

This impact was weighted to take account of the nearby residences. As the proposed development matures, any potentially adverse impact will be reduced to Neutral.

Viewpoint 22

Moderate/Slight Adverse

Moderate/reducing to Neutral

This impact was weighted to take account of the nearby residences. As the proposed development matures, any potentially adverse impact will be reduced to Neutral.

Viewpoint 23

Major/Moderate/Slight Adverse

Moderate/reducing to Neutral

The receptor will be impacted and there will be change. The green infrastructure proposed will help mitigate any adverse residual impacts.

Viewpoint 24

Negligible/Neutral

Negligible/Neutral

This receptor will not be impacted.

Viewpoint 25

Moderate/Minor/Slight Adverse

Minor/Neutral

The receptor will be impacted and there will be change. The green infrastructure proposed will help mitigate any adverse residual impacts.

Viewpoint 26

Moderate/Slight Adverse

Moderate/reducing to Neutral

This receptor will be impacted and there will be change. The green infrastructure proposed will help mitigate any adverse residual impacts.

Viewpoint 27

Moderate/Minor/Slight Adverse

Moderate/Minor/reduci ng to Neutral

This receptor will be impacted and there will be change. The green infrastructure proposed will help mitigate any adverse residual impacts.

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Residual Effects Conclusion 6.295

The magnitude of many effects cannot be reduced due to their nature. For example, if an entire view is taken up by the proposed development, the magnitude will not change if the design of the development is good or poor quality. However, the tendency is that in many circumstances, the effect reduces due to maturing vegetation growing on.

6.296

It is, however, possible to reduce the degree to which the effects are adverse through the use of quality landscape and townscape design. For example, the magnitude of impacts upon views from Church Lane cannot be reduced due to their proximity. However, the creation of a green route with tree planting will ensure the impact is overall more beneficial in nature.

6.297

The most significant residual impacts for Landscape receptors are Moderate, Slight Adverse for hedges. The hedges proposed to be removed are judicious. Hedges will be retained if possible where they provide benefit to the wider landscape and where they benefit wildlife, specifically bats for example. 3.6km of species rich hedgerow planted in strategic locations, sky lark plots and seed rich verges on neighbouring farmland. It is expected that gradually the overall benefit of the mitigation proposed will reduce the character of change to Neutral and possibly Slight Beneficial.

6.298

The most significant residual impacts for Visual receptors are Moderate, including Viewpoints 10, 11, 12, 18b, 20, 21, 22, 23, 26 and 27. This is because these viewpoints are located either within or very close to the application site. It is expected that gradually over time the mitigation proposed will reduce the character of change to Neutral. It is anticipated that Viewpoint 10 will have a Slight Beneficial.

6.299

It is also anticipated that Beeston Park and Red Hall parkland, due to the extensive landscape work and opening up public access will be of a large benefit to the area in general as a direct consequence of the proposed development.

6.300

Impacts of the development on the night-time landscape can be reduced through the careful use of lighting that reduce light spill and glare associated with residential developments as part of the lighting strategy.

SUMMARY & CONCLUSIONS Landscape Impacts 6.301

The main part of the application site is currently in use for arable cultivation. There is a strong network of hedgerows and blocks of trees. The Masterplan proposes to retain and enhance many of the existing landscape features within the site, and provide new contemporary landscapes to help create overall benefit to the landscape.

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6.302

The most sensitive receptor is the Parish Church of St Mary and St Margaret. This is to reflect its national importance as a Grade I listed structure. However, the impact on this is Negligible as it is currently well screened from the application site and in addition an area of green open space is proposed where Church Lane enters the site.

6.303

High sensitive receptors include the locally designated Historic Parkland, Areas of Landscape Value and the Grade II listings. The effect of the proposed development on these receptors is generally insignificant apart from Oak Lodge Farm which although the impact is considered Moderate/Minor, the change of character will be Slight Adverse reducing to Neutral.

6.304

One of the most significant landscape impacts is that on hedgerows. This is considered to be Moderate Adverse reducing to Slight Adverse and over time to Neutral. The design team has taken a conscious decision that where the hedges are of less visual or ecological importance that they will be removed where they do not fit into the constraints of the

evolving design. However, to balance this, a new green

infrastructure will be developed throughout the proposed development and the hedgerows will be replaced with a network of green infrastructure that is, whilst different, not less valuable. 6.305

There will be a large beneficial impact to Beeston Park and Red Hall parkland for the benefit of the community at large.

Visual Impacts 6.306

The undulating nature of the local landscape and the frequent occurrence of hedgerows, trees and woodland, mean that the visual envelope of the proposed development is constrained to views in close proximity to edge of the site.

6.307

The visual receptors with the highest sensitivity are viewers with a proprietary interest, for example householders and people using PRoW when there is an expectation that they are interested in their surroundings.

6.308

Most of the distant householders, including residents on the viewpoints to the southern edge of Spixworth will not be significantly impacted by the proposed development. Most of the magnitude of effects expected will be Negligible or at worst Minor.

6.309

The nearby households abutting the site are essentially in three locations. The St Mary's Grove area off Wroxham Road is considered to have an insignificant impact as an expansion of the existing cemetery is proposed the immediate north of these properties.

6.310

The area to the north of White Woman Lane which lies between North Walsham Road and Buxton Road is separated from development by playing fields. It is considered that the impacts will not be significant.

Chapter 6.0: Landscape & Visual ES Volume 1: Main Text & Figures

195


Beyond Green Developments North Sprowston and Old Catton

6.311

The area of West Acre Drive between Buxton Lane and Quaker Lane will be separated from the development to the north by larger private and communal gardens which will help mitigate the character of change. It is anticipated that the views from these properties will have a Moderate significance of impact with at worst a Slight Adverse, reducing to Neutral character of change.

6.312

The other High sensitivity receptor is viewers from PRoW. There are few in the area although Church Lane is considered here as it is used by walkers. The impact of views from distant PRoWs is considered insignificant. The route of Church Lane will be maintained and there will be open space with a green route on the northwards journey. The impact on this High sensitivity receptor is considered insignificant on most of the PRoWs and Major/Moderate significance of impact with Slight Adverse reducing to Neutral residual effect. Indeed it is arguable that the residual effect may be slightly beneficial as the open space accessible to people will increase.

6.313

The most significant visual impact is Major/Moderate and this is on the views from Church Lane as described above.

Night-time Impacts 6.314

The impacts upon the night-time views will be primarily limited to those views from which the development is directly visible. It is considered that it may still be possible to see some glow from more distant views but that this is likely to be within the context of the existing urban edge of Norwich.

6.315

There will be dark areas within the proposed development primarily in areas where night-time lighting is not required – for example, Beeston Parkland and in areas and along routes which are sensitive to wildlife. Where lighting is required it will be commensurate with safety requirements and be to appropriate light levels. Luminaires which cause minimum light spill will be selected.

6.316

If areas important to biodiversity, especially bats, are required to be lit, then low intensity and low level lighting to appropriate levels, stand heights and the use of baffles will be considered.

6.317

Overall, it is considered that careful building design and the proposed green infrastructure will ensure that the proposed development will sit sensitively into the surrounding landscape and reinforce local character.

196

Chapter 6.0: Landscape & Visual ES Volume 1: Main Text & Figures


NORTH SPROWSTON AND OLD CATTON Assessment Area Redline Boundary of Application Site

N

Greengage Environmental 64 Great Suffolk Street, London, SE1 0BL T: 0203 544 4000 www.greengage-env.com

FIGURE 6.5 National Character Area

Job No. 2179 - Not to scale - September 2012

Reproduced from the Ordnance Survey map with the permission of the Controller of Her Majesty's Stationery Office. Crown Copyright reserved.


N

NORTH SPROWSTON AND OLD CATTON Assessment Area Redline Boundary of Application Site Woodland Parkland Paddocks Arable Rough Grass Sport Field Cemetry

Greengage Environmental 64 Great Suffolk Street, London, SE1 0BL T: 0203 544 4000 www.greengage-env.com

FIGURE 6.7 Existing Land Use

Job No. 2179 - Not to scale - September 2012

Reproduced from the Ordnance Survey map with the permission of the Controller of Her Majesty's Stationery Office. Crown Copyright reserved.


N

NORTH SPROWSTON AND OLD CATTON Assessment Area Redline Boundary of Application Site

Greengage Environmental 64 Great Suffolk Street, London, SE1 0BL T: 0203 544 4000 www.greengage-env.com

FIGURE 6.10 Tithe Map

Job No. 2179 - Not to scale - September 2012

Reproduced from the Ordnance Survey map with the permission of the Controller of Her Majesty's Stationery Office. Crown Copyright reserved.


NORTH SPROWSTON AND OLD CATTON Assessment Area

Greengage Environmental 64 Great Suffolk Street, London, SE1 0BL T: 0203 544 4000 www.greengage-env.com

FIGURE 6.12b Viewpoint 2

Job No. 2179 - Not to scale - September 2012

Reproduced from the Ordnance Survey map with the permission of the Controller of Her Majesty's Stationery Office. Crown Copyright reserved.


NORTH SPROWSTON AND OLD CATTON Assessment Area

Greengage Environmental 64 Great Suffolk Street, London, SE1 0BL T: 0203 544 4000 www.greengage-env.com

FIGURE 6.12l Viewpoint 12

Job No. 2179 - Not to scale - September 2012

Reproduced from the Ordnance Survey map with the permission of the Controller of Her Majesty's Stationery Office. Crown Copyright reserved.


NORTH SPROWSTON AND OLD CATTON Assessment Area

Greengage Environmental 64 Great Suffolk Street, London, SE1 0BL T: 0203 544 4000 www.greengage-env.com

FIGURE 6.12m Viewpoint 13

Job No. 2179 - Not to scale - September 2012

Reproduced from the Ordnance Survey map with the permission of the Controller of Her Majesty's Stationery Office. Crown Copyright reserved.


NORTH SPROWSTON AND OLD CATTON Assessment Area

Greengage Environmental 64 Great Suffolk Street, London, SE1 0BL T: 0203 544 4000 www.greengage-env.com

FIGURE 6.12n Viewpoint 14

Job No. 2179 - Not to scale - September 2012

Reproduced from the Ordnance Survey map with the permission of the Controller of Her Majesty's Stationery Office. Crown Copyright reserved.


NORTH SPROWSTON AND OLD CATTON Assessment Area

Greengage Environmental 64 Great Suffolk Street, London, SE1 0BL T: 0203 544 4000 www.greengage-env.com

FIGURE 6.12o Viewpoint 15

Job No. 2179 - Not to scale - September 2012

Reproduced from the Ordnance Survey map with the permission of the Controller of Her Majesty's Stationery Office. Crown Copyright reserved.


NORTH SPROWSTON AND OLD CATTON Assessment Area

Greengage Environmental 64 Great Suffolk Street, London, SE1 0BL T: 0203 544 4000 www.greengage-env.com

FIGURE 6.12p Viewpoint 16

Job No. 2179 - Not to scale - September 2012

Reproduced from the Ordnance Survey map with the permission of the Controller of Her Majesty's Stationery Office. Crown Copyright reserved.


NORTH SPROWSTON AND OLD CATTON Assessment Area

Greengage Environmental 64 Great Suffolk Street, London, SE1 0BL T: 0203 544 4000 www.greengage-env.com

FIGURE 6.12q Viewpoint 17

Job No. 2179 - Not to scale - September 2012

Reproduced from the Ordnance Survey map with the permission of the Controller of Her Majesty's Stationery Office. Crown Copyright reserved.


NORTH SPROWSTON AND OLD CATTON Assessment Area

Greengage Environmental 64 Great Suffolk Street, London, SE1 0BL T: 0203 544 4000 www.greengage-env.com

FIGURE 6.12r Viewpoint 18

Job No. 2179 - Not to scale - September 2012

Reproduced from the Ordnance Survey map with the permission of the Controller of Her Majesty's Stationery Office. Crown Copyright reserved.


NORTH SPROWSTON AND OLD CATTON Assessment Area

Greengage Environmental 64 Great Suffolk Street, London, SE1 0BL T: 0203 544 4000 www.greengage-env.com

FIGURE 6.12s Viewpoint 18a

Job No. 2179 - Not to scale - September 2012

Reproduced from the Ordnance Survey map with the permission of the Controller of Her Majesty's Stationery Office. Crown Copyright reserved.


NORTH SPROWSTON AND OLD CATTON Assessment Area

Greengage Environmental 64 Great Suffolk Street, London, SE1 0BL T: 0203 544 4000 www.greengage-env.com

FIGURE 6.12t Viewpoint 18b

Job No. 2179 - Not to scale - September 2012

Reproduced from the Ordnance Survey map with the permission of the Controller of Her Majesty's Stationery Office. Crown Copyright reserved.


NORTH SPROWSTON AND OLD CATTON Assessment Area

Greengage Environmental 64 Great Suffolk Street, London, SE1 0BL T: 0203 544 4000 www.greengage-env.com

FIGURE 6.12u Viewpoint 19

Job No. 2179 - Not to scale - September 2012

Reproduced from the Ordnance Survey map with the permission of the Controller of Her Majesty's Stationery Office. Crown Copyright reserved.


NORTH SPROWSTON AND OLD CATTON Assessment Area

Greengage Environmental 64 Great Suffolk Street, London, SE1 0BL T: 0203 544 4000 www.greengage-env.com

FIGURE 6.12v Viewpoint 20

Job No. 2179 - Not to scale - September 2012

Reproduced from the Ordnance Survey map with the permission of the Controller of Her Majesty's Stationery Office. Crown Copyright reserved.


NORTH SPROWSTON AND OLD CATTON Assessment Area

Greengage Environmental 64 Great Suffolk Street, London, SE1 0BL T: 0203 544 4000 www.greengage-env.com

FIGURE 6.12w Viewpoint 21

Job No. 2179 - Not to scale - September 2012

Reproduced from the Ordnance Survey map with the permission of the Controller of Her Majesty's Stationery Office. Crown Copyright reserved.


NORTH SPROWSTON AND OLD CATTON Assessment Area

Greengage Environmental 64 Great Suffolk Street, London, SE1 0BL T: 0203 544 4000 www.greengage-env.com

FIGURE 6.12x Viewpoint 22

Job No. 2179 - Not to scale - September 2012

Reproduced from the Ordnance Survey map with the permission of the Controller of Her Majesty's Stationery Office. Crown Copyright reserved.


NORTH SPROWSTON AND OLD CATTON Assessment Area

Greengage Environmental 64 Great Suffolk Street, London, SE1 0BL T: 0203 544 4000 www.greengage-env.com

FIGURE 6.12y Viewpoint 23

Job No. 2179 - Not to scale - September 2012

Reproduced from the Ordnance Survey map with the permission of the Controller of Her Majesty's Stationery Office. Crown Copyright reserved.


NORTH SPROWSTON AND OLD CATTON Assessment Area

Greengage Environmental 64 Great Suffolk Street, London, SE1 0BL T: 0203 544 4000 www.greengage-env.com

FIGURE 6.12z Viewpoint 24

Job No. 2179 - Not to scale - September 2012

Reproduced from the Ordnance Survey map with the permission of the Controller of Her Majesty's Stationery Office. Crown Copyright reserved.


NORTH SPROWSTON AND OLD CATTON Assessment Area

Greengage Environmental 64 Great Suffolk Street, London, SE1 0BL T: 0203 544 4000 www.greengage-env.com

FIGURE 6.12aa Viewpoint 25

Job No. 2179 - Not to scale - September 2012

Reproduced from the Ordnance Survey map with the permission of the Controller of Her Majesty's Stationery Office. Crown Copyright reserved.


NS&OC OPA Enivironmental Statement Volume 1, Part 2  

Volume 1, Part 2 of the Environmental Statement for the North Sprowston and Old Catton Outline Planning Application