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Health Impact Assessment October 2012

North Sprowston & Old Catton Beyond Green Developments


Beyond Green Developments North Sprowston & Old Catton

QA North Sprowston & Old Catton Health Impact Assessment

Issue/Revision:

Draft

Final

Date:

October 2012

October 2012

Georgina Dowling

Georgina Dowling

Mitch Cooke

Mitch Cooke

550156GD02Oct12DR01_HIA

550156GD02Oct12FR01_HIA

Comments:

Prepared by:

Signature:

Authorised by:

Signature:

File Reference:

Health Impact Assessment

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CONTENTS 1.0

2.0

iv

INTRODUCTION

7

NATURE OF THE APPLICATION

7

WHAT IS HIA & NEED FOR AN HIA

7

What is HIA?

7

Need for an HIA

8

Policy & Legislative Context

8

AIMS & VALUES OF THIS HIA

10

Aims

11

Values

11

STRUCTURE

11

MEANS OF ASSESSMENT FOR THE HIA

12

Means of Assessment

12

Primary Data Used

12

THE SCOPE OF THE HIA

13

Geographical Area

13

People Potentially Affected

15

IMPACT PREDICTION AND SIGNIFICANCE CRITERIA

16

BASELINE CONDITIONS

18

SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS

20

Population

20

Deprivation

22

Employment

23

Earnings

24

Housing

24

Education

25

Crime

26

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3.0

4.0

5.0

Open Space

26

Health

27

ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS

32

Application Site Description

32

Contaminated Land

34

Flood Risk

34

Transport

34

Noise & Vibration

34

Air Quality

35

BASELINE CONDITIONS SUMMARY

35

Socio-Economic Considerations

35

Environmental Considerations

35

THE PROPOSED DEVELOPMENT

36

POPULATION INFLUX

37

POTENTIAL HEALTH IMPACTS OF THE PROPOSED DEVELOPMENT

42

PROVISION OF A MIX OF LANDUSE

43

Provision of Private Housing

43

Provision of Affordable Housing

49

PROPOSED DEVELOPMENT’S DESIGN

52

Good Design, Safety and Security

52

Energy Efficiency

57

Environmental Considerations (Air Quality, Noise, & Climate Change)

60

Street Layout, Connectivity & Provision for Active Travel

67

ACCESS TO EMPLOYMENT (CONSTRUCTION & OPERATIONAL)

72

PROVISION OF BOTH FORMAL & INFORMAL OPEN SPACE

75

PROVISION OF GOOD & SUITABLE FOOD ACCESS

78

IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTHY URBAN PLANNING

83

INCREASED DEMAND FOR SERVICES

83

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6.0

Health Services

83

Emergency Services

85

Education Services

86

INCREASED DEMAND FOR FACILITIES

87

INCREASED DEMAND FOR UTILITIES

88

Sewerage & Drainage

88

Potable Water

89

Energy

91

POTENTIAL HEALTH IMPACTS ASSOCIATED WITH CONSTRUCTION

93

Transport

93

Landscape & Visual Impact

94

Noise & Vibration

95

Air Quality

97

Contaminated Land

99

7.0

CONCLUSIONS

102

8.0

ABBREVIATIONS

103

9.0

REFERENCES

106

APPENDIX 1.0 HEALTH SUMMARY SPINE CHART

vi

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1.0

INTRODUCTION

1.1

Greengage Environmental LLP were appointed to undertake a Health Impact Assessment (HIA), to accompany the planning application submitted on behalf of Beyond Green Developments (hereafter referred to as ‗the Applicant‘).

1.2

This HIA has been undertaken in accordance with the Health Impact Advice Note

1

produced by the Greater Norwich Development Partnership (GNDP). The HIA Advice Note supports the implementation of Policy 7 of the Joint Core Strategy (JCS), which 2

deals with health issues and is discussed in more detail subsequently within this report. 1.3

The Applicant proposes to develop an integrated, mixed use urban extension to the north of Norwich (hereafter referred to as the ‗application site‘). The application site is located in the administrative area of Broadland District Council (hereafter referred to as ‗BDC‘). In this HIA, the application proposals are referred to as ‗the proposed development‘.

NATURE OF THE APPLICATION 1.4

As a large-scale, masterplanned development which will come forward in phases over 15-20 years, the scheme will be promoted via a multi-stage consent process beginning with an outline planning application, with all matters except access reserved to detailed stages of design.

1.5

Professional expertise has been used to assess the likely form and qualities of the proposed development with regards to potential impacts on health, with assumptions or uncertainties clearly highlighted. This has enabled appropriate effects to be assumed for the purpose of the HIA. This allows a full and proper assessment to be undertaken in relation to realistic predicted impacts of the proposed development.

WHAT IS HIA & NEED FOR AN HIA What is HIA? 1.6

Health Impact Assessment (HIA) has been defined as: ‘a combination of procedures or methods by which a policy, program, or project may be judged as to the effects it may have on the health of a population.’

1.7

3

In HIA, impacts on the health and well-being of various people or communities are identified in two main ways, by asking: 

What are the direct effects on health?; and

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What are the indirect effects mediated through the determinants of health, such as employment, housing conditions, community cohesion and social support, and access to services and amenities?

Need for an HIA 1.8

Almost every planning decision has a potential effect on human health , some of these 4

links are obvious but others are more obtuse and interwoven with other issues. The introduction of The Planning and Compulsory Purchase Act 2004 widened the scope of 5

planning concerns to include the environmental, economic and social impacts of developments. As such, it is important to address the intrinsic link between health and control of development.

Policy & Legislative Context National Planning Policy Framework 1.9

The National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF) specifically addresses the need for 6

policies and plans that support and enable the development of healthy communities within Section 8 including safe, accessible and inclusive communities with suitable provision of facilities. However, the NPPF also refers to the environmental effects of plans and development on health throughout the Framework including in: 

Achieving Sustainable Development, which describes the social role that the planning system should perform: o

‘Supporting strong, vibrant and healthy communities, by providing the supply of housing required to meet the needs of present and future generations; and by creating a high quality built environment, with accessible local services that reflect the community’s needs and support its health, social and cultural well-being’;

Section 4. Promoting sustainable transport, which requires that transport policies address the role they play in facilitating sustainable development but also in contributing to wider sustainability and health objectives; and

Section 11 Conserving and enhancing the natural environment, regarding the need to consider: o

‘the effects (including cumulative effects) of pollution on health, the natural environment or general amenity, and the potential sensitivity of the area or proposed development to adverse effects from pollution, should be taken into account. Where a site is affected by contamination or land stability issues, responsibility for securing a safe development rests with the developer and/or landowner…

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o

The need to avoid noise giving rise to significant adverse impacts on health and quality of life as a result of new development’.

Joint Core Strategy 1.10

Policy 7 of the JCS, states: ‘Appropriate and accessible health facilities and services will be provided across the area including through new or expanded primary health facilities serving the major growth locations. Health Impact Assessments will be required for large-scale housing proposals. Provision will be made for the expansion of the Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital to meet the needs of growing communities. Healthier lifestyles will be promoted by maximising access by walking and cycling and providing opportunities for social interaction and greater access to green space and the countryside.’2 Health and Social Care Act 2012

1.11

The health and social care system in England is being significantly reformed to put patients at the heart of the health and care service, giving them greater control over their health. Health care professionals will have more autonomy and, in return, be more accountable for the results they achieve. They will be accountable to patients who will be able to choose where they are treated and who they are treated by and they will be accountable to the public through their local authorities.

1.12

The Health and Social Care Bill was introduced into the House of Commons on 19 January 2011, following the publication of the White Paper, Equity and Excellence: Liberating the NHS . The Bill was the largest piece of health legislation since the 7

creation of the NHS. 1.13

In early April 2011, the Government announced that it was taking the opportunity of a natural break in the passage of the Health and Social Care Bill to ‗pause, listen and engage‘. The NHS Future Forum was established to lead this exercise and submitted its report after the pause to the Government in June 2011. The Government then published its response and revised the Bill before it continued its passage through Parliament.

1.14

The Health and Social Care Act (2012) received Royal Assent on 27 March 2012.

1.15

The reforms give the Secretary of State a duty to take steps to protect the health of the people of England. The Act abolishes the Health Protection Agency (HPA) and transfers its functions to the Secretary of State. Abolishing the HPA is part of a wider programme of reform that abolishes several other public health organisations in order to streamline a fragmented public health system. The aim of the reform is to exploit synergies across services and reduce inefficiencies due to overlapping responsibilities.

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Public Health England will bring together a range of organisations into one organisation in a public health system directly accountable to Secretary of State. 1.16

At the local level, the Act gives local authorities the responsibility for improving the health of their local populations. The Act says that local authorities must employ a director of public health, and they will be supported by a new ring-fenced budget. The Act requires directors of public health to publish annual reports that can chart local progress.

1.17

The Government believes that many of the wider determinants of health (for example, housing, economic development, transport) can be more easily impacted by local authorities, who have overall responsibility for improving the local area for their populations. Local authorities are well-placed to take a very broad view of what services will impact positively on the public's health, and combine traditional "public health" activities with other activity locally to maximise benefits.

1.18

The NHS will continue to have a critical part to play in securing good population health. The public health system will support the NHS at every level to do this, for example by supporting and encouraging GP practices to maximise their impact on improving population health.

1.19

Providers of health and care services will be more accountable to patients, who will have the ability to choose their provider based on quality of services and their experiences. Most NHS services will be commissioned by clinical commissioning groups (CCGs). GPs are ideally suited to lead on commissioning based on their understanding of the needs of their patients and local communities.

1.20

Unlike previous approaches to GP-led commissioning, such as practice based commissioning, this will be a universal system involving all practices. CCGs will hold real budgets and be able to reinvest any savings they generate in patient care.

1.21

The fundamental principle of the NHS, to be open to all based on need not ability to pay, is one based on reducing inequalities in healthcare. The Government fully endorses this principle and seeks to strengthen it.

1.22

Currently, there is unjustified variation in many spheres of the health service including access, quality and outcomes of care, and relative to particular social determinants of health. The plans for modernisation address these challenges head on. The Government recognises the causes of inequalities in health are wide and diverse. As such, actions to reduce inequalities are being taken across the system.

AIMS & VALUES OF THIS HIA 1.23

The main purpose of conducting an HIA is to identify the impacts of a proposed development on health and then identify interventions that can minimise any negative impacts and potentially, enhance any positive ones.

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Aims 1.24

The aims of this HIA are as follows: 

To identify the potential impacts on the health and well-being of new and existing residents,

during

both

the

construction

and

operation

of

the

proposed

development; 

To identify ways in which negative impacts can be minimised and any potential positive impacts enhanced; and

To disseminate the conclusions of this HIA to the relevant parties so that it may be used to inform the planning process.

Values 1.25

The values for this HIA are as follows: 

Health improvement;

Reduction of health inequalities;

Health protection;

Accessibility; and

Sustainability.

STRUCTURE 1.26

This HIA comprises seven chapters as follows: 

1.0 Introduction, which details the purpose of this HIA, its scope and means of assessment;

2.0 Baseline Conditions, which provides details regarding the baseline condition of the local area, with particular regard to those conditions that have been identified to have health impacts;

3.0 The Proposed Development, which details relevant information pertaining to the proposed development;

4.0 Potential Health Impacts of the Proposed Development, which gives regard to the potential health impacts as a result of the main identified aspects of the proposed development including: o

o

Provision of a mix of landuse: o

Provision of private housing;

o

Provision of affordable housing;

Proposed development‘s design;

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o

Good design, safety and security;

o

Energy efficiency;

o

Environmental considerations (air quality, noise, & climate change);

o

Street layout, connectivity & provision for active travel;

o

Access to employment (construction & operational);

o

Provision of both formal & informal open space;

o

Provision of good & suitable food access;

5.0 Implications for Healthy Urban Planning, which provides the potential implications of the proposed development with regard to services, facilities and utilities provision;

6.0 Potential Health Impacts Associated with Construction, which details the potential health impacts with regard to the proposed developments construction phase;

7.0 Summary and Conclusions; and

8.0 Glossary and Abbreviations.

MEANS OF ASSESSMENT FOR THE HIA Means of Assessment 1.27

The means of assessment in the formation of this HIA included a desktop appraisal and document analysis. The desktop appraisal involved the establishment of the current baseline condition, including the sensitivity and importance of those aspects likely to be significantly affected in health terms by the proposed development. This was determined to provide a context for the analysis and a benchmark for impact prediction. Any change from the baseline informs the magnitude of the potential impact and its significance.

1.28

For the elements under consideration within this HIA, the baseline conditions have been established using a combination of published databases, maps, and reports.

Primary Data Used 1.29

The primary data sources referred to in the production of this HIA are listed below: 

Greengage Environmental LLP, (2012); North Sprowston & Old Catton (NS & OC) Environmental Statement. GG. (hereafter ‗the ES‘);

Cave, B and Molyneux, P. (2004); Healthy Sustainable Communities. A spatial planning checklist;

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NHS

Information

Centre,

(2012);

NHS

IC

Indicator

Portal.

https://indicators.ic.nhs.uk/webview/ 

EDAW/AECOM, (2009); Greater Norwich Infrastructure Needs & Funding Study. www.gndp.org.uk/content/wpcontent/uploads/downloads/2010/03/Infrastructure09_final%20report.pdf

NHS London Healthy Urban Development Unit (HUDU), (2004); Watch Out for Health. NHS London HUDU;

Resources provided by the Erpho - The East of England Public Health Observatory. www.erpho.org.uk/ep/aboutErpho.aspx; and

Norfolk Insight - A partnership resource for exploring key information, data and intelligence about Norfolk and its local communities, at the heart of which is the Joint Strategic Needs Assessment, an overall analysis of the health and wellbeing needs of the people of Norfolk (www.norfolkinsight.org.uk/).

THE SCOPE OF THE HIA 1.30

The scope of this HIA is bounded by two factors; the primary factor is the geographical area of study and the secondary factor, the people potentially affected by the proposed development.

Geographical Area 1.31

It is important when undertaking an assessment of health impacts that the geographical scope of the assessment is clearly understood.

1.32

The proposed development is essentially the formation of a substantial new or extended community within the predominantly rural BDC administrative area. However, it is also on the north-eastern fringe of Norwich City Council‘s (NCC) administrative area and will, effectively, be an urban extension to the City. The existing area of the application site supports very few inhabitants, being mainly agricultural in nature. Consequently, drawing an understanding of the baseline from just the existing area within the application site would reveal very little about the prevailing conditions. It is the proposed development‘s intention to knit with the existing communities adjacent and therefore, understanding their health conditions would be of great benefit.

1.33

Consequently, in terms of geographical scope the HIA has focussed upon the administrative districts of Broadland and Norwich, to gain an understanding of the majority of the baseline health conditions.

1.34

For many aspects of the assessment but in particular housing, reference has been made to the Greater Norwich Development Partnership (GNDP) area. This comprises

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the administrative districts of Norwich, Broadland, and South Norfolk. Therefore, reference has been made to all three administrative areas where relevant. 1.35

The Old Catton, Sprowston, Rackheath and Thorpe St Andrew Growth Triangle is a proposed major growth location that is located to the northeast of Norwich, within Broadland. The parts of the JCS dealing with the north-east growth triangle have been remitted to the Regulation 19: Publication of a Local Plan Stage (previously known as the ‗pre-submission stage‘) by a Judgment and Court Order. In addition, the Growth Triangle area is larger than the application site but within the Broadland District area. Therefore, it is not typically addressed as a specific geographic area within this assessment. The majority of the baseline and other subsequent impact considerations are made at the District level.

1.36

For comparison purposes and to understand the wider context of the baseline conditions reviewed, the following additional geographic scopes have been considered: 

County area of Norfolk;

The East of England region; and

National averages for England, Great Britain, or the United Kingdom dependent upon data availability to provide context.

1.37

A large amount of data, particularly that which originates from the census, is provided in aggregated output area (OA) geographies; the most common of which is the Lower Super Output Area (LSOA).

1.38

LSOAs are typically formed of neighbourhoods of approximately 1,500 people, with the next level of census output geography being Middle Super Output Areas (MSOAs), which are formed of an average of 7,500 persons. This consideration of output area geographies allows a more refined assessment of local impacts where these would be of particular relevance to the application site.

1.39

Finally, some further geographic areas have been referenced where data availability is only available at those levels. These include parishes, Primary Care Trust (PCT) or Health Authority areas, and police force areas. Where these areas have been included within the assessment, they have been specifically referenced.

1.40

In terms of the geographical extent of effects, the following definitions have been adopted for the purposes of this assessment: 

Local level: relating to the application site and its environs;

District level: relating to the adjoining districts of Broadland and Norwich City;

Sub-County level: Relating to the GNDP area of Norwich, Broadland and South Norfolk;

14

County level: relating to Norfolk;

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Regional level: Relating to the East of England; and

National level: relating to England, Great Britain or the UK as described.

People Potentially Affected 1.41

The people potentially affected by the proposed development include: 

New residents of the proposed development (as these are likely to be drawn from across Norwich and Broadland a distinction has been made between the wider inhabitants and those existing residents living in close proximity to the application site as below);

Existing residents of the Norwich and Broadland considered to live in close proximity to the application site;

Construction phase and operational employees;

Users and occupiers of the future community facilities such as pupils of the future primary schools; and

 1.42

Users of the provided amenity space within the proposed development.

Specific consideration is given to potential impacts on vulnerable people within these population groups where appropriate. The vulnerable people considered include: 

Older people;

Pregnant women;

Children under the age of 5yrs and 5-16 years;

Young people aged 16-19 years and 19-25 years;

Students;

Unemployed people and their families;

People on a low income and their families;

Homeless people;

People with pre-existing medical conditions (chronic or acute);

People with mental health problems;

People with a physical disability;

People with a learning disability;

Carers;

People from black and minority ethnic groups;

Refugees and asylum seekers; and

People from the traveller community.

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IMPACT PREDICTION AND SIGNIFICANCE CRITERIA 1.43

A number of criteria have been used to determine whether or not the potential health impacts from the proposed development are significant. So far as appropriate, the health impacts are assessed quantitatively using definitive standards and legislation.

1.44

Particular care has been taken to distinguish between health impacts and health effects. For the purposes of this assessment these are defined as: 

Health Impacts: the processes whereby a change, which may be beneficial or negative or both, is brought about in the existing environment as a result of development activities; and

Health Effects: the consequences for human beings in terms of health and wellbeing, which stem from the health impacts.

1.45

The significance of impacts and effects has been assessed, taking into consideration a range of criteria including:

1.46

Sensitivity of the receptor;

Reversibility and duration (short-, medium-, long-term) of the impact;

Nature of the impact (direct/indirect, positive/negative);

Extent of influence and magnitude of the impact; and

Inter-relationship between impacts.

The impacts that were considered to be significant prior to and following interventions have been identified in the HIA. The significance of residual effects following mitigation reflects judgements as to the sensitivity of the affected receptor(s) and the nature and magnitude of the predicted changes. For example, an adverse impact on a receptor of low sensitivity will be of lesser significance than the same impact on a receptor of high sensitivity (Figure 1.1). Figure 1.1 Impact and Receptor Sensitivity Relationship

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1.47

The following terms have been used to define the significance of effects, where they are predicted to occur: 

Major Positive or Negative - where the proposed development would cause a significant improvement or deterioration to existing health;

Moderate Positive or Negative - where the proposed development would cause a marginal improvement or deterioration to existing health;

Minor Positive or Negative - where the proposed development would cause a barely perceptible improvement or deterioration to existing health; and

 1.48

Neutral - no discernible improvement or deterioration to existing health.

A distinction between direct and indirect; short- and long-term; permanent and temporary; primary and secondary; cumulative; positive and negative impacts has been made, where applicable.

1.49

For the purposes of this HIA the following terms have been defined: 

Temporary (e.g. less than 6 months);

Short term (e.g. over a limited period of the construction phase);

Medium term (e.g. 5-10 years); and

Long term (e.g. greater than 10 years and for the duration of the operational phase of the development).

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2.0

BASELINE CONDITIONS

2.1

Health is largely determined outside of the ‗health‘ service – a point reinforced in the report Securing Good Health for the Whole Population , which uses the term ‗National 8

Sickness Service.‘ Effective health improvement requires investment in the social systems and places in which people spend their time and live their lives. 2.2

The Marmot Review into health inequalities in England shows that there is a social 9

gradient in health, characterised by dramatic differences between best-off and worstoff and a graded relationship between social circumstances and health: the higher one‘s social position, the better one‘s health is likely to be. The report argues that: ‘Inequalities are a matter of life and death, of health and sickness, of well-being and misery. The fact that in England today people in different social circumstances experience avoidable differences in health, well-being and length of life is, quite simply, unfair.’ 2.3

Reflecting that, traditionally, government policies aimed at reducing inequalities have focused resources only on those most in need, it argues for a new approach called ‗proportionate universalism‘ whereby actions are universal, but with a scale and intensity appropriate to the level of disadvantage. Central to the report's approach is a commitment to create the conditions for people to take control of their own lives. This requires action on the wider determinants of health, which are described as the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work and age. These can lead to health inequalities – the unfair and avoidable differences in health status that arise because of inequalities in society.

2.4

The health map below (Figure 2.1), developed by Barton and Grant , shows the 10

complex interrelationships between health, lifestyle and the physical, social and economic environments. People are at the core of the map, being surrounded by layers of influence that could theoretically be modified. The first of these is lifestyle, for example a person could decide to give up smoking. Beyond this, the map shows how the individual is situated in a community, a broader social world comprising social networks and social support that can affect an individual‘s health – for example, the individual could be encouraged by their friends or conversely feel pressured to remain a smoker because everyone around them is smoking. As the health map radiates out, wider influences exist that impact on decisions to stop smoking – for example, the availability of services to support people who want to stop smoking, the cost of cigarettes and legislation banning smoking in work and public spaces. The map also illustrates how human health is intimately connected to the health of the wider environment and ecosystems – pointing to the importance of integrating health and sustainable development agendas.

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Figure 2.1 A health map for the local human habitat

2.5

Consequently, the baseline conditions of this HIA have reviewed both socio-economic considerations, in addition to environmental considerations to ensure that all of the wider determinants of health have been captured.

2.6

The baseline conditions for the HIA are considered in respect to the District level (Broadland and Norwich) and the County level (Norfolk). However, they are placed in context against sub-regional, regional and national levels where appropriate. The majority of the baseline conditions for the HIA have been taken from Chapter 13.0: Socio-Economic chapter of the ES, and for the environmental considerations have summarised key points from the remaining ES chapters as relevant (for example Chapter 9.0: Air Quality).

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2.7

It is not considered beneficial to replicate in detail the full baseline assessment undertaken in either the Socio-Economic Chapter or the wider ES Chapters but a summary has been provided regarding key determinants. The summarised baseline conditions from the ES have been supplemented with additional information regarding the health situation and wider health determinants as appropriate.

SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS Population Age Structure 2.8

Analysis of the latest 2011 census data shows that the population of the GNDP Area covered by the JCS, including Norwich, Broadland and South Norfolk is 381,200 people with 49% men and 51% women. The population is relatively balanced across all age groups for the GNDP area but with a slightly aging population.

2.9

More in-depth population analysis has been undertaken with regard to the populations of Broadland and Norwich, with the former having a much older population profile than that seen across the GNDP area and the latter, a much younger 20-30 year old profile.

2.10

In both instances, the 0-15 age group is significantly constrained and therefore, as a whole the population is aging. However, there is an increase in 0-4 year old age group for Norwich, indicating a recent increase in fertility rates. Ethnicity

2.11

In Broadland, 99% of the population stated for the 2001 census that their ethnic group was white. For the Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) groups that comprise the remaining 1% of the population, although there are some larger groups (Chinese, Indian, and White and Asian), there is no real dominant community within the area and the actual number of people in each group is never greater than 200. When compared to the LSOA neighbourhood concept of 1,500 people, this indicates that any such community is unlikely to have formed an established population in a focussed place.

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Fertility and Mortality 2.12

Norfolk‘s birth rates have recovered from a very low point in 2001 but are still significantly below the national rate, with the Total Fertility Rate (TFR)

1

having

increased from 1.56 in 2001 to 1.89 in 2010 for Norfolk but at 2.00 for England . 11

2.13

Deaths in Norfolk are on a long-term upward trend but Standardised Mortality Ratio (SMR) deaths in Norfolk are fewer than would be expected based on national mortality 2

rates. Infant mortality rates are at the lowest level ever for England at 4.3 infant deaths per thousand live births and Norfolk‘s rate is below this at 3.311. Components of Population Change 2.14

Population change comprises the difference between birth rates and death rates, and the effects of internal and international migration. Considering the components of population change in Norfolk over the period 2001-2010; overall birth and death rates have resulted in a negative population change. However, internal net migration and to a lesser extent international net migration have had the main contribution to the growth in population. For Norwich particularly, higher birth rates have contributed to an increase in population. However, the main component of population change across the GNDP area is migration. For Broadland and South Norfolk, this is as a result of internal net migration, however for Norwich, internal net migration was negative but international net migration was substantial. Migration Internal

2.15

Internal migration may be tracked by National Health Service Central Register (NHSCR) counts of patient re-registrations with GPs, which represent moves between the former Family Health Service Authorities11. Overall, there is a significant quantity of in migration from the East region into Norfolk, followed by from London and then the South East region. In addition, internal migration gains into Norfolk are highest in the 45-64 age bracket, followed by the 30-44 age bracket. However, the 15-29 age bracket sees a 6.3% decrease as a result of net out migration.

Total Fertility Rate (TFR) is the number of children that would be born to a woman if current patterns of fertility persisted throughout her childbearing life. 1

Standardised Mortality Ratio (SMR) is observed deaths as a percentage of expected deaths, where expected deaths is the number that would occur if the population of the area experienced the age/sex mortality rates of England and Wales. 2

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International 2.16

Two main methods: Flag 4 registrations; and new National Insurance Number (NINOs) registrations, have been used to consider international migration within Norfolk. Flag 4 registrations are codes within the NHS Patient Register Data Service (PRDS) data to indicate that someone who has registered with a GP in England and Wales was previously living overseas. Whereas, the number of new National Insurance Numbers (NINOs) registered by migrants in the UK provides an indication of the number of economically active foreign nationals entering the UK.

2.17

Flag 4 registrations for Norfolk have decreased slightly since 2005 when they were 7,020 persons to 6,890 persons in 2010. However, for Norwich whilst total migration numbers have fluctuated slightly, overall numbers remain significantly high. NINO registrations for Norfolk show a total of 50,300 nationals coming into Norfolk in the year ending March 2011. Norfolk had a large proportion of migrants from the EU Accession countries, predominantly Poland (20%), Lithuania (15%) and Latvia (7%), representing people coming to the County under the Worker Registration Scheme for EU Accession 8 countries. Population Forecasts

2.18

ONS forecasts indicate that the overall population of Norfolk will rise from 847,300 in 2008 to 963,400 in 2021 and 1,065,700 in 20331. Norfolk‘s projected population increase is more than a quarter over the period from 2008-2033 and one of the largest increases would be seen in Norwich, which is forecast to have the ninth largest percentage growth of all local authorities (excluding the City of London) at 46,300 people from 2008-2033. Households

2.19

Household numbers are forecast to increase from an estimated 371,000 in mid-2008 for Norfolk to 500,000 in 2033. The largest percentage increase was in Norwich at 40%, whilst Broadland would see a 32% increase on the 2008 figures and South Norfolk a 36% increase11. Two thirds of the total increase will be one person households and by 2033, 40% of households will be headed by those aged 65 or over. This will also drive a decrease in the average household size (AHS) from 2.33 persons in 2008 to 2.16 persons per household in 2033.

Deprivation 2.20

The Indices of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) is the principal official Government measure of the spatial distribution of deprivation across the country. Levels of deprivation are calculated for neighbourhoods (LSOAs), at which level, deprivation is ranked across several separate indices including income, employment, education, health, skills and

22

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Beyond Green Developments North Sprowston & Old Catton

training, barriers to housing and services, and crime. This represents the proportion of the population at most risk from a given type of deprivation. 2.21

Overall deprivation (a summary of all the separate indices) is also provided for local authority areas. Broadland is within the 15% least deprived local authority areas, whilst Norwich is in the 25% most deprived.

2.22

With regard to the deprivation sub-indicators of income, employment, education, health, skills and training, barriers to housing and services, and crime, the constituent LSOAs of both Broadland and Norwich have been reviewed. 

Broadland: The majority of LSOAs for all indicators fall within the average to least deprived ranges. There are no LSOA indicators within the most deprived 0-1%, but a small number of LSOAs for the Barriers to Housing & Services indicator do fall as low as the 1-10% most deprived. The crime indicator is the least deprived with most LSOAs within the 10% least deprived in the country and a few in the 1% least deprived;

Norwich: There is a noticeable shift for all indicators into the most deprived section. The foremost of these is Education with the majority of LSOAs within the 1-10% most deprived and a small number in the 0-1% most deprived. Income also has a number of LSOAs in the 10-25% most deprived and a small number in the

1-10%

most

deprived.

Whilst,

Barriers

to

Housing

and

Services

is

predominantly in the least deprived 25-50% average range, which perhaps reflects the greater accessibility to services in the urban Norwich than the more rural Broadlands.

Employment 2.23

The economic activity rate provides a measure of the success of the economy in engaging the population in some form of production activity. In Broadland (82.1%), South Norfolk (85.1%) and to a lesser degree, Norwich (77%), the economic activity rate is higher than the national average of 76.4%. A high level of economic activity typically suggests good accessibility to employment opportunities.

2.24

The average unemployment rate for the UK was 8.2%. Norwich‘s rate is higher than this at 9.1%, whilst Broadland has a significantly lower rate of unemployment at just 2.4%. This is remarkable given the continued economic climate and average UK levels of unemployment.

2.25

The economically inactive rate in Broadland at 17.9% is less than that in Norwich (23%) or the UK (23.6%). Norwich‘s economically inactive population is predominantly students at nearly 40%, followed by the long-term sick at just over 23%, and then those who are looking after their family or home at 22%. In contrast, Broadland is dominated by those who have retired at just under 30%, followed by those looking after family or home at just over 23%, and students at just 18%. Broadland has a

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Beyond Green Developments North Sprowston & Old Catton

significantly lower proportion of the long-term sick compared to Norwich at just under 8%.

Earnings 2.26

The Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings (ASHE)

12

provisional results for 2011 show

Norfolk‘s median annual earnings (full-time) at just £23,823 were less than the East of England‘s (£27,996) and the average for England (£26,625). Broadland‘s median annual earnings are on a par with England‘s (£26,518) but Norwich‘s are significantly below (£23,645). 2.27

Norwich has 5.8% more benefits claimants than Broadland but is on a par with the average for Great Britain. When the key ‗out of work‘ benefits are considered: job seekers allowance, employment and support allowance (ESA) and incapacity, lone parents, and, others on income related benefits; Norwich‘s claimant count remains 5.8% greater than Broadlands and increases to 0.7% greater than the average for Great Britain.

Housing 2.28

Population growth in Norwich will fuel a demand for housing, while in Broadland it is more likely to be a change in household composition that drives the need for more housing. This increase in the elderly population and thus, the number of one person households, is in part the natural aging of the population but also the in-migration of retirees. Therefore, demand for housing is considered to be evident within the area.

2.29

However, it is necessary to ascertain whether the demand will be for market housing or social housing and further, whether a lack of ability to afford market units will drive a greater demand for more affordable market housing provision such as intermediate tenures or market rented units.

2.30

There are a number of different barriers to housing and consequently, different housing needs. There is an identifiable demand for market housing particularly in Broadland, but there is also an on-going need for affordable housing. In Broadland this takes two forms, first the need for intermediate affordable housing, which reflects the difficulty of first-time buyers getting onto the property ladder. This is a result of a number of elements, including the inflation of the housing market in Broadland due to its desirability, the ability for retirees relocating to the area to invest equity into properties there, and the on-going difficulty in first-time buyers getting a mortgage as a result of the deposit required. This prevents younger households from accessing the property ladder even when their salaries are relatively good.

2.31

There is also a need for social rented tenures in Broadland, where households with very low incomes are in real housing need but this is to a lesser extent than that identified in Norwich.

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Beyond Green Developments North Sprowston & Old Catton

2.32

For Norwich, the need for social rented tenures is more pronounced as a result of the higher proportion of the population employed in low skill/low wage occupations. As the population is also younger than that seen in Broadland, its households have neither the equity built up nor the high wage levels that benefit those in Broadland. Due to the reduction in sales volumes, new affordable housing completions have also fallen and so the need for more affordable units is driven both by increased demand and reduced supply simultaneously.

Education 2.33

Education plays a number of roles in influencing and helping to address inequalities. First, it has an important role in influencing inequalities in socio-economic position. Educational qualifications are a determinant of an individual's labour market position, which in turn influences income, housing and other material resources. These are also all related to health and health inequalities. As a consequence, education is a traditional route out of poverty for those living in disadvantage and its associated health implications.

2.34

The roles of education set out above imply a range of outcomes which are not readily measurable.

However,

inequality

is

observed

when

looking

at

educational

achievement. Children from disadvantaged backgrounds, as measured by being in receipt of free school meals, have been found to have lower educational achievement than other children. The proportion of 15 year olds achieving 5 A*-C GCSEs (or equivalent) including GCSEs in both English and Maths at KS4 (Key Stage 4), and the achievement gap between pupils eligible for free school meals (FSM) and their peers (non-FSM) is a good indicator of educational achievement overall and a measure of educational inequality . 13

2.35

The data shows that overall pupil attainment for Norfolk is relatively poor, with the Local Education Authority (LEA) ranking 132nd out of 154 LEAs for total pupil performance with regards to 15 year olds achieving 5 A*-C GCSEs. Neither, FSM children (those considered to be disadvantaged) nor non-FSM children performed well in terms of GCSE attainment when compared to the 154 other LEAs in England, ranking 130th and 136th respectively.

2.36

In addition, the difference between FSM pupils and non-FSM pupils was significant at 30% and ranked Norfolk 100th out of England‘s 154 LEAs. Therefore, not only did Norfolk perform poorly in terms of the number of pupils achieving 5 A*-C GCSEs but it also had a high level of disparity between those pupils considered deprived and their peers. This suggests that achieving higher levels of educational attainment within Norfolk is a universal problem but that those children who can be considered deprived (those in receipt of FSM) are likely to have far greater difficulties in achieving higher grade GCSEs.

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Beyond Green Developments North Sprowston & Old Catton

Crime 2.37

Crime imposes economic costs, reinforces social exclusion and can hasten the environmental decline of neighbourhoods. Fear of crime can make people reluctant to walk, use public transport, or go out after dark. It can also be a cause of mental distress and social exclusion. In particular, women and older people tend to worry more about becoming victims and this may prevent them from engaging in social activities.

2.38

Not everyone is at equal risk of becoming a victim of crime. People who suffer from poor health are more likely to be victims of crime than those in good health. However, this may be because of the association of disadvantage with victimisation and poor health, rather than poor health causing victimisation. Young men, as well as being the most common perpetrators of crime, are also the most likely victims of street crime, especially physical assaults. Older people, especially women, are more likely to be victims of theft from the person, with much acquisitive crime, such as shoplifting and burglary, committed by drug-misusing offenders to feed their habits.

2.39

The crime incident rates for the Norfolk Police Force area for the period 2010/11 to 2011/12

14

show that the majority of offences have seen a decrease in incidence which

is reflected in the overall fall in total crime. 2.40

However, there are some increases, most notably in serious sexual offences, but also in violence against the person, theft other and drugs offences that the police force are understood to be focussing concerted efforts on.

2.41

In Norfolk, drugs offences are treated as a ‗preventative crime‘ and police officers are encouraged to take proactive measures to combat drug crime and identify offenders. ‗Violence against the person‘ comprises a spectrum of offences from very low level assaults to the most serious. Serious violent crime is subject to a pro-active and wideranging crime prevention strategy with a focus on reducing alcohol-fuelled violent crime in Norfolk‘s night-time economy.

2.42

In June 2012, Norfolk and Suffolk police launched a joint public awareness campaign ‗Time to Stop‘ to prevent rape and violent crime across the counties and sign-post victims to local support and services.

Open Space 2.43

Figure 2.2 below shows the environmental attributes in proximity to the application site as identified within the Growth Triangle Framework Plan Study . The areas 15

identified are those which represent either landscape or ecological value and therefore, have potential as areas of larger open space provision provided a balance can be achieved between the impact of their use for amenity versus any ecological detriment this could cause.

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Beyond Green Developments North Sprowston & Old Catton

Figure 2.2 Environmental Attributes within the Growth Triangle

2.44

Reviewing the averaged ha/1,000 open space ratios for the parishes of Old Catton and North Sprowston, which cover the application site results in open space provision of 3.37ha per 1,000 population. This is in exceedance of the Six Acre Standard

16

set out

by the Recreational Open Space SPD . 17

Health Health Profile 2012 Indicators 2.45

Health Profiles are produced by the Public Health Observatories in England with funding from the Department of Health. They are designed to help local government and health services identify problems in their areas and decide how to tackle them. They provide a snapshot of the overall health of the local population, and highlight potential problems through comparison with other areas and with the national average.

Health Impact Assessment

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Beyond Green Developments North Sprowston & Old Catton

2.46

The profiles are produced at local authority level because they are intended for use by elected Councillors, Directors of Public Health, Council Officers and other members of the Joint Strategic Needs Assessment (JSNA) process and by members of the Health and Wellbeing Boards. Health Profiles are now an established part of planning for health improvement. A component of the Health Profiles is a 'spine chart' health summary showing the difference in health between the area and the average for England for 32 indicators. A combined spine chart for both Broadland and Norwich is provided at Appendix 1.0.

2.47

The Health Profiles show that health in Norwich is mixed compared to the England average, whilst Broadland experiences better than average health

2.48

18,19

.

Broadland‘s health situation either has little difference to the average for England or performs better. Norwich also typically has little difference to the average for England but does perform worse for the following indicators: teenage pregnancy rates, hospital stays for self-harm, drug misuse, acute sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and life expectancy; these indicators and their respective implications are discussed in further detail below. Teenage Pregnancy Rates

2.49

This is measured using the under-18 conception rate per 1,000 females aged 15-17, the rate for which in Norwich is 51.9, compared to 38.1 in England and 22.1 in Broadland.

2.50

Most teenage pregnancies are unplanned and around half end in an abortion. As well as it being an avoidable experience for the young woman, abortions represent an avoidable cost to the NHS. Further, while for some young women having a child when young can represent a positive turning point in their lives, for many more teenagers bringing up a child is incredibly difficult and often results in poor outcomes for both the teenage parent and the child, in terms of the baby‘s health, the mother‘s emotional health and well-being and the likelihood of both the parent and child living in longterm poverty. Hospital Stays for Self-harm

2.51

Measured by the number of emergency hospital admissions for intentional self-harm (directly age-sex standardised rate, all ages, 2010/11, persons), in Norwich this was 310.2 persons, with the England average being 212 and for Broadland 155.3.

2.52

Mental health and well-being are important aspects of public health but there is not a suitable indicator representing all such aspects. As self-harm is an expression of personal distress, and there are varied reasons for a person to harm themselves irrespective of the purpose of the act; intentional self-harm is used as a proxy indicator.

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Beyond Green Developments North Sprowston & Old Catton

2.53

There is a significant and persistent risk of future suicide following an episode of selfharm and it results in approximately 100,000 inpatient admissions to hospital each year in England, with 99% emergency admissions. Drug Misuse

2.54

Measured by the estimated prevalence of opiate and/or crack cocaine use (crude rate per 1,000 population aged 15-64, 2009/10, persons) drug misuse is nearly double the rate in Norwich (15.9) compared to the England average (8.9) and over triple the rate seen in Broadland (4.5). This indicates that Norwich is likely to have a much larger health care burden from drug misuse.

2.55

Drug misuse often occurs in young people and is also common in prisons, socially deprived groups and the homeless. Health effects of drug misuse include both physical and psychological effects on the individual, as well as impacts on society. Drugs are addictive, and this addiction and dependency can have psychological effects on an individual. Drug misuse is associated with anxiety, memory loss and can also lead to a lack of control and lack of interactions in society, leading to decreased social capital.

2.56

Drug-related deaths are an important aspect of the health burden from drug misuse, including both accidental death from drug misuse and suicide. Blood-borne virus infections – particularly hepatitis and HIV infection – are also an important aspect in the health effects and wider impacts of drug misuse. These infections can be transmitted through sharing needles when injecting drugs. Severe drug use can also lead to poor nutrition, and can also be linked with alcohol misuse, and tobacco use and the health effects of these. Finally, health effects also include the harm to society due to antisocial behaviour and crime. Acute Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)

2.57

STIs – measured through the number of diagnoses of acute STIs per 100,000 population – are 36.5% greater in Norwich (1,058) than the average for England (775) and double the rate for Broadland (532).

2.58

Sexually transmitted infections continue to be an important public health problem in England. As well as STIs other consequences of poor sexual health include:

2.59

Pelvic inflammatory disease, which can cause ectopic pregnancies and infertility;

Cervical and other genital cancers;

Hepatitis, chronic liver disease and liver cancer; and

Unintended pregnancies and abortions.

Sexual ill health is not equally distributed across the population. It disproportionately affects those experiencing poverty and social exclusion. The highest burden of sexual ill health is borne by women, gay men, young adults and some black and minority

Health Impact Assessment

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Beyond Green Developments North Sprowston & Old Catton

ethnic groups. Further, individuals and groups with the greatest need for sexual health services are also those least likely to be able to access them, for example asylum seekers, homeless people, looked after children and care leavers. Life Expectancy - Male 2.60

Life expectancy at birth is chosen as the preferred summary measure of all cause mortality as it quantifies the differences between areas in units (years of life) that are more readily understood and meaningful to the audience than those of other measures (years, all ages, 2008-2010, males).

2.61

All cause mortality is a fundamental and probably the oldest measure of the health status of a population. Differences in levels of all-cause mortality reflect health inequalities between different population groups, e.g. between genders, social classes and ethnic groups.

2.62

In Norwich, life expectancy for men is lower and for women higher than the England average; whilst for Broadland both men and women have higher life expectancies than the England average. In the most deprived areas of Norwich, male life expectancy is up to 6.7 years less and female life expectancy 3.2 years less when compared to the least deprived areas. There is no appreciable difference in life expectancy in Broadland between the more deprived and less deprived areas18,19.

2.63

The Marmot Review9 recommended action to tackle social inequalities so as to reduce health inequalities, based on the ‗social determinants‘ approach to preventing ill health. Under the Coalition Government public health responsibilities are being transferred from the NHS to local authorities and as health is closely linked to socioeconomic status, this places the onus on local authorities to address the socioeconomic factors that lead to ill-health. Life expectancy is one of the key indicators identified in the Marmot Review to understand progress in reducing social inequality.

2.64

In Norwich over the last 10 years, all cause mortality rates have fallen and the early death rate from heart disease and stroke has also fallen being now similar to the England average. A similar fall has been seen in Broadland but the death rate from heart disease and stroke is now better than the average for England18,19.

2.65

In addition to the above spine chart key indicators the following considerations are noted as although they do not significantly differ from the England averages, represent a marked difference between the rates for Broadland and Norwich.

2.66

In Broadland, an estimated 18.6% of adults smoke and 25.1% are classified at obese. In Broadland, 2,300 children live in poverty; in Norwich the figure is nearly three times the amount at 6,600 children18,19.

2.67

In Norwich, about 18.5% of Year 6 children are classified as obese and levels of teenage pregnancy are worse than the England average. In Broadland, about 15.6% of

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Year 6 children are classified as obese, lower than the average for England, and levels of teenage pregnancy are also lower than the England average18,19. 2.68

Priorities in Norwich include stopping smoking, reducing incidence of suicide and reducing the levels of poor mental health18,19.

2.69

Priorities in Broadland include monitoring and preventing early deaths from cancer, particularly by targeting risk factors, reducing obesity by encouraging healthy lifestyles, monitoring alcohol consumption and controlling availability of alcohol 18,19. The Local Basket of Inequality Indicators

2.70

The Local Basket of Inequality Indicators

20

(LBII) helps organisations measure health

and the diverse range of factors which influence health inequalities in their local population such as unemployment, poverty, crime and education. They were originally created to help Primary Care Trusts and Local Authorities to track progress against their local priorities for tackling health inequalities. 2.71

A selection of indicators has been reviewed from the LBII to understand whether preventative care and life style, both intervening factors that is, they may prevent poor health are effective. And, if primary health care itself is effective in reducing health incidence or the situation of health. Effective Preventative Care:

2.72

Several indicators reflect whether preventative care is effective. As already discussed, teenage conception is high in Norwich and this is an example of poor or ineffective preventative care but the following additional indicators have also been considered: 

Flu vaccine uptake: In Norfolk PCT the proportion of over 65 year olds that were immunised against influenza in 2010/2011 was 72% compared to 72.8% nationally. Whilst the Norfolk figure is not significantly adrift from the national average it should be considered that Norfolk has the 8 th largest over 65 years population of all PCT‘s and therefore, an influenza epidemic would prove particularly difficult for its population. Consequently, a higher level of vaccine uptake would be preferable.

Breast screening uptake: For Norfolk PCT, the percentage of women aged 53-64 years screened for breast cancer in 2010/2011 was 81.8% compared to an average for England of 77.4%. This is significantly better than the national average and shows that breast screening uptake is being effectively delivered to the target population.

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Beyond Green Developments North Sprowston & Old Catton

Lifestyle 2.73

Lifestyle sub-indicators include smoking, alcohol abuse and drug misuse, and exercise. Smoking, and drug misuse have been previously discussed, with smoking a target for reduction in Broadland, and, alcohol abuse and drug misuse both targeted for reduction in Norwich. Exercise, as measured by the proportion of adults participating in the recommended levels of physical activity is at 10.9% in Broadland, 11.7% in Norwich with an average across England of 11.2%. Therefore, it can be seen that in general, exercise levels are on a par with national average. Effective Primary Healthcare

2.74

Effective primary healthcare has been measured by two indicators: emergency chronic admissions and GPs per 100,000 population. Emergency hospital admissions for asthma and diabetes over 2010/2011 were 102 persons per 100,000 for Broadland, 145.3 for Norwich and 144.7 for the England average. As Broadland has considerably lower rates than the England average, this typically indicates that those with asthma and diabetes are managing their conditions through primary health care visits and preventing a sudden attack that warrants a hospital admissions.

2.75

GPs per 100,000 persons is assessed across the Norfolk PCT area and indicates that there are 67.7, which ranks Norfolk equal 76 th out of 151 PCTs across England, and an average level of provision. Although, against the best practice ratio of 1,800 patients per GP this figure indicates that there are approximately 20% more GPs than required.

ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS Application Site Description 2.76

The application site consists of 207.4ha of land under the ownership of a consortium comprising the Beeston Estate, Morley Agricultural Foundation, Alderman Norman Trust, Norfolk County Council and a number of smaller private landowners (―the consortium‖). It also incorporates an area of the site of Norwich Rugby Club, which is expected to be brought forward for development under separate promotional arrangements to which the applicant is not a party, across which part of the proposed east-west route will be constructed.

2.77

The site lies within the Old Catton, Sprowston, Rackheath and Thorpe St Andrew ‗Growth Triangle‘ designated by the JCS as a location for the development of at least 7,000 homes by 2026, rising to at least 10,000 after 2031, to help meet rising demand for housing in Norwich and Norfolk. The consortium was formed, and the scheme is proposed, with the express aim of responding to and delivering the JCS growth policy now adopted.

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2.78

The application site is bounded to the south by the established communities of Old Catton and Sprowston, to the east by Sprowston Manor Golf Club and to the west by St Faith‘s Lane. North of the site runs the proposed route of the Norwich Northern Distributor Road (NDR), beyond which lies the village of Spixworth. Parts of the site fall within the four civil parishes of Sprowston, Old Catton, Beeston St Andrew, and Spixworth.

2.79

The site benefits from its location on three radial routes to and from central Norwich: the A1151 Wroxham Road immediately east of the site; the B1150 North Walsham Road, which bisects it; and the unclassified Buxton Road to the west. The relatively flat, predominantly agricultural nature of the application site hosts a network of hedgerows, standing trees with a significant part of the site comprising the locallydesignated historic parkland of Beeston Park. Site History

2.80

Historical maps dating back to c.1880 show land within the redline boundary of the application site as predominantly rural, with limited development restricted to farm holdings and detached residential developments. Very little changes have occurred to these areas over the past century. Roads that transgress the site and define the site boundaries typically follow the routes of roads and tracks established during the early development of the land.

2.81

Historical maps show land surrounding the application site has been predominantly rural, until the 1940s when RAF Rackheath is shown to the east of the site with technical buildings bordering the site. RAF Rackheath was disbanded and reclaimed for agriculture purposes post WWII with all associated buildings and hard stand areas removed. Norwich Airport was developed c.1960 and remains to this day, runways and taxiing routes border the site to the west. Suburbs north of Norwich have encroached towards the southern boundary. Development to the south included an industrial area which is denoted as factories during c.1940 to 1970 located approximately 1km from the southwest boundary of the application site. Agricultural Use

2.82

The site itself is also characterised by food and farming, with much of the site in agricultural use either as arable or grassland paddocks. Agricultural and soil surveys undertaken on site in October 2011 and March 2012 confirmed that over threequarters of the application area comprises agricultural fields, 85% of which are in arable use growing crops of wheat, barley, sugar beet, oilseed rape, potatoes and parsnips. Around half of the site has been identified as Grade 2 Agricultural land.

2.83

While the agricultural history of the land has limited its ecological and recreational value, its agricultural heritage is a key component of its landscape character, particularly when taken in combination with Norfolk‘s history of farming.

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Beyond Green Developments North Sprowston & Old Catton

Contaminated Land 2.84

For ground contamination to represent a health risk there needs to be an identified pathway from a source of pollution to the target. The baseline assessment with the ES has considered the potential for sources of contamination within the application site and also the existence of any existing pathways to existing receptors. Although significant widespread contamination is unlikely to exist, there is uncertainty with regards to the level of the contamination in discrete areas. Potential identified sources of ground contamination include Made Ground, although likely to be limited and localised to areas that have been developed, as well as commercial agricultural activities undertaken on the site.

Flood Risk 2.85

Environment Agency Flood Maps show the application site to lie in Flood Zone 1; land assessed as having a less than 1 in 1,000 annual probability of river or sea flooding (<0.1%). This Flood Zone is considered appropriate for development classified as development classed as ‘more vulnerable’, ‘less vulnerable’ and ‗water compatible’ is appropriate for Flood Zone 1.

Transport 2.86

The application site is situated on three important radial routes to and from Norwich: the A1151 Wroxham Road, B1150 North Walsham Road and the unclassified Buxton or Spixworth Road, providing important access to the network.

2.87

The NDR is a proposed 8.7 mile dual-carriageway linking the A47 to the south east of the city to the proposed Rackheath Eco-town and to Norwich International Airport to the north of Norwich. It is understood that the NDR will be complete in 2017 and thus, will be in place when the proposed development is fully completed.

2.88

There are five key pedestrian routes leading from the application site to the centre of Norwich and the following local roads are classified as being on-road cycle routes: 

Buxton Road and Spixworth Road;

St Faith‘s Road and Angel Road (towards the City Centre); and

Quaker Lane; and Church Lane.

Noise & Vibration 2.89

The noise climate of the area generally is as would be expected for this location, and is principally dominated by road traffic noise during the day, from a variety of roads in the area. Aircraft noise contributes to the noise climate in certain locations. At night, noise levels are reduced, but road traffic is still a significant noise source and this

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Beyond Green Developments North Sprowston & Old Catton

controls the background noise climate through the night. Short sample measurements of vibration levels were undertaken at each measurement location during at the time of setting-up the noise surveys. The measured levels were all below the instrument threshold values.

Air Quality 2.90

BDC has carried out detailed assessments of air quality in the Borough and as a result identified exceedances of the annual mean objective for NO 2 at the A140/A1042 junction during 2006. In 2008, an AQMA was declared at the junction. However further monitoring during 2008 and 2009 found no exceedances of the objective and the AQMA was revoked in April 2010.

2.91

Air quality throughout the rest of the Borough has been found to be below the relevant UK objective limits.

2.92

Additional information on background concentrations in the vicinity of the application site has been obtained from the DEFRA background pollutant maps. The data shows that during 2010 estimated annual mean background concentrations of NO 2 and PM10 were well below the annual mean objective of 40 Âľg/m3.

BASELINE CONDITIONS SUMMARY Socio-Economic Considerations 2.93

The baseline conditions indicate that there are existing health inequalities in the area that the local authority and PCT are seeking to address but that should also be considered by the proposed development.

2.94

There is a considerable discrepancy in several measures between the health situation in Broadland and that of Norwich. As the application site seeks to link these two areas and will inevitably attract future residents from both Norwich and Broadland it is important that such health inequalities are addressed and clear consideration given to ensuring that both vulnerable groups and the wider population does not experience a further polarisation of the health inequality gap that is apparent between the two areas.

Environmental Considerations 2.95

The application site is predominantly agricultural in nature and whilst there is some potential for localised areas of contaminated land due to Made Ground the majority of the site is not considered to be significantly polluted. The application site is at low risk of flooding and currently enjoys a relatively low level of air pollution. There are some noise disturbances associated with the nearby Norwich airport, however the majority of

Health Impact Assessment

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Beyond Green Developments North Sprowston & Old Catton

existing noise is background traffic noise which is not considered sufficient to have a had a deleterious effect on health as a result of nuisance. 2.96

Therefore, the application site is considered to have low health implications with regard its environmental considerations.

3.0

THE PROPOSED DEVELOPMENT

3.1

The applicant is proposing to develop an integrated, mixed use urban extension to the north of Norwich. The proposed development comprises: 

Residential development of up to 3,520 dwellings (C3 use class);

Up to 16,800m² (Gross Internal Area (GIA)) of commercial development (B1 use class);

Up to 8,800m² (GIA) of retail and service development (A1-A5 use classes);

Up to 1,000m² (GIA) of hotel development (C1 use class);

Up to 7,000m² (NIA) non-residential uses including up to 5,000m2 for two twoform entry primary schools; two community halls, a library, a health centre, and up to five nurseries/crèches (D1 use class);

An energy centre measuring up to 1,500m² (sui generis use class);

82.5ha of green space including up to 20.1ha of play and recreational space and at least 31.3ha of new and retained natural and semi-natural space, and the dedication of Beeston Park as a major new public park; and

 3.2

Four accesses to the highway network.

The proposed development will additionally deliver: 

An

efficient,

permeable

layout

based

on

the

principles

of

the

walkable

neighbourhood, with character and density varying according to a ‗transect‘ of greatest intensity closest to accessible mixed-use centres and least closer to neighbourhood edges; 

A wide choice of housing, including up to 33% ‗affordable‘ homes, responding to evidence of demographic and market demand in Broadland and Greater Norwich;

Approximately 1,000 jobs within easy access of new and existing residents and an enhanced public transport network;

Employment

space

accommodation,

and

including a

small

business

‗hub‘

business to

incubators

support

micro

and

move-on

companies

and

homeworkers;

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Beyond Green Developments North Sprowston & Old Catton

A new east-west high street connecting the Buxton/Spixworth and Wroxham Roads, forming a link in a potential future orbital route between Broadland Business Park and Norwich Airport;

New primary, secondary and tertiary streets designed to make walking and cycling the primary and most convenient modes of transport and provide easy public transport access;

A major public square at the intersection of the high street and a realigned North Walsham Road, incorporating a small supermarket, shops, cafes and restaurants, with the potential to grow from a local to a district centre, alongside secondary neighbourhood centres;

Sites for two two-form entry primary schools, two flexible community halls and a range of spaces suitable for community facilities including a library, integrated health centre, nurseries and Safer Neighbourhoods Team;

A comprehensive green infrastructure network including the dedication of Beeston Park as a major new public park, plus two new recreation grounds, local parks and play spaces, space for allotments and food production, wildlife corridors, green roofs and new and retained habitat areas;

A very low-carbon decentralised energy network; and

Water supply, sewerage and sustainable drainage system (SuDS) infrastructure based on existing natural catchment boundaries and comprising rainwater harvesting ring, attenuation basins including a water feature in Beeston Park, green roofs, and permeable paving.

3.3

Whilst the planning application is made in outline, in order to properly assess the potential significant health impacts of the proposed development, it is necessary to clearly define the proposed development and to set the extent or scope of the permissible development by reference to parameters, limits and constraints. This will enable the HIA to be carried out in respect of any development that may be implemented pursuant to the permission. By reference to maxima (and minima, where appropriate), the ‗likely-case‘ scenario approach entails the assessment of the maximum permissible development within the defined scope of the permission sought. The proposed development‘s construction programme is forecast to be between 15 to 20 years, over six phases, a conservative assessment of a 20 year period has been taken reflecting current market conditions for housing sales.

POPULATION INFLUX Total Population 3.4

Using the Chelmer Model , and the Greater Norwich Infrastructure Needs & Funding 21

Study

22

(GNIN) Average Household Size (AHS) assumptions for different unit sizes and

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Beyond Green Developments North Sprowston & Old Catton

tenures Chapter 13.0: Socio-Economic of the ES has applied these to the proposed developmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s unit numbers and mix to forecast the proposed developmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s population and demography. 3.5

The result is a population that ages as the development ages, with children from the earliest units moving through school classes as cohorts from primary to secondary and beyond. This provides a much clearer picture of the demands from the proposed developmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s population on local services and facilities. Figure 3.1 shows the population demographics of the proposed development as the construction programme progresses.

3.6

The total population is constrained to 7,678 people as a result of using the GNIN Study AHS . However, the use of the Chelmer Model21 enables greater clarity on who makes 22

up that population. For example, by the time the development is complete the residents will comprise 70 people who are aged 85 years or greater. In keeping with the younger demographic that first moves into new developments, the first 85 year old is not seen until 2019, and by 2028 those aged 85 years or greater have grown to 30 persons. 3.7

Whilst the proposed development includes for the provision of some extra-care homes to be brought forward to meet the needs of the elderly population, the numbers of such units have not currently been confirmed and so these have not been accounted for within the population modelling. However, in terms of the potential for impacts considered, the potential for this more elderly component of the population will be considered with regard to the potential health demand. Child Yield

3.8

A similar approach has been taken with the child yield for the proposed development. Child yield multipliers are provided within Appendix B, page 15 of the GNIN Study 22. However, if these are applied to the proposed development encompassing all of the units, then the yield identified is a snap shot in time, which assumes that all units have been simultaneously constructed.

3.9

In reality, as the proposed development will be brought forward over two decades, children will be born, go to school, and leave home in that period. Therefore, it becomes necessary to take into consideration the aging of the child population across the construction programme so that the demand for aspects such as school places can be properly ascertained.

3.10

The same calculation method as that of the total population has been applied and Figure 3.2 therefore gives the Model based child population forecast across the construction programme. A comparison between the model forecast child population and the child yield multiplier method is provided below in Table 3.1. This shows the child yield as a result of applying the GNIN Study multipliers

38

22

to the total number of

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Beyond Green Developments North Sprowston & Old Catton

units and the highest model forecast child population from across the construction programme. Table 3.1 Child Yield Multipliers applied to Total Units (3,520 units) Compared to Highest Forecast Child Population Age Range

Multiplier (No. children per 100 units)

Multiplier Child Yield

Age Range

Forecast Child Population

3-5 years

8.4

296

0-3 years

447*

5-11 years

25.4

894

4-10 years

641

11-16 years

14

493

11-15 years

376

16-18 years

2.8

99

16-17 years

125

-

1,781

Total

Total

1,589

*This age bracket includes three years compared to the Multiplier methodâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s two years

Health Impact Assessment

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Beyond Green Developments North Sprowston & Old Catton

Figure 3.1 Population Demographics for the Proposed Development over the Construction Programme to Final Occupation

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Beyond Green Developments North Sprowston & Old Catton

Figure 3.2 Child Yield over the Construction Period by Education Age Group

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4.0

POTENTIAL

HEALTH

IMPACTS

OF

THE

PROPOSED

DEVELOPMENT 4.1

The following elements of the proposed development are considered to have potential impacts on health and well-being and have therefore been assessed: 

The provision of a mix of land use including 3,520 dwellings; o

The provision of 67% private housing (2,358 units);

o

The provision of 33% affordable housing (1,162 units) including housing for the elderly;

The implications of the proposed development‘s design including: o

Good design, safety and security;

o

Energy efficiency;

o

Environmental considerations such as air quality, noise, and climate change; and

o

The street layout, connectivity, and provisions for active travel (walking and cycling);

Access to employment including the provision of construction and operational employment opportunities;

4.2

The provision of both formal and informal open space; and

The provision of good and suitable food access.

For each of these elements the analysis will be presented within the following framework of headings:

4.3

What will be provided and in what way?

What will this mean?

What does the evidence base show?

Who will be affected?

How will these people be affected? and

���

Conclusions.

In terms of those people affected, the groups listed in paragraph 1.41 and when appropriate, the vulnerable people highlighted in paragraph 1.42 are considered.

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PROVISION OF A MIX OF LANDUSE Provision of Private Housing What Will Be Provided and In What Way? Number and Type of Dwellings 4.4

The proposed development will bring forward up to 3,520 dwellings (use class C3) over a 15-20 year construction period, dependent upon market conditions with 67% market units and 33% affordable (intermediate and social rented). Table 4.1 below provides the proposed housing mix by tenure, type and unit size. Table 4.1 Proposed Housing Mix â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Tenure, Type & Size Tenure/ Type

All

Flats

Houses

2

3

1

2

3

4+

67.0%

3%

7%

2%

0%

20%

37%

31%

100%

Social Rented

28.05%

21%

10%

0%

0%

33%

33%

3%

100%

Intermediate

4.95%

8%

9%

2%

0%

25%

35%

21%

100%

85

9%

2%

0%

25%

35%

21%

Total

100%

Market

100% 19%

4.5

Total

1

81%

Although the housing mix set out by the applicant is broadly in compliance with that set out in the GNIN Study , it does differ in two areas. First, the proposed 22

development comprises a greater proportion of two bed units. This deviation has been implemented to accommodate a greater number of younger couples starting out that will require smaller dwelling, which are typical in new developments. For the Broadland area this will be particularly welcome given that in the more rural areas detached houses, which tend to be larger properties, comprise roughly half of all homes and make up 1 in 3 of all properties in Greater Norwich. 4.6

Two bed units are also more suitable for downsizing older households. As the recent retirees in the Broadland district continue to age this will become a greater need as larger units become unmanageable for such households.

4.7

In addition, the proposed development excludes one bed houses on the basis of their relatively inefficient land use and commercial unattractiveness, in that typically a two bed dwelling can be found at a low marginal cost increase.

4.8

The applicant has also made provision for the following additional unit types to be brought forward within the proposed development to further the flexibility and adaptability of the scheme to its inhabitants, including:

Health Impact Assessment

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Beyond Green Developments North Sprowston & Old Catton

Self-commissioned and self-build housing: around 2.5% of plots (approximately 90 units) will be made available for self-commissioned and/or self-build homes (within the terms of the outline planning consent and other design codes);

Homeworking units: Homes have been designed to achieve Code for Sustainable Homes credits for enabling home working but in addition to this, around 2.5% of all units will be constructed as homeworking units with dedicated studio or workshop space (C3 not sui generis use class);

Co-housing: This is the development of homes that are supplemented by shared facilities such as, guest rooms, laundry, child care, or larger dining and office space. The applicant is aware of potential interest in such units and would work to enable their delivery should this be required and able to be realised practically;

Extra-care homes: to help meet the accommodation needs of the ageing population that is apparent in Broadland, ‗extra care‘ housing will be brought forward from both market and affordable tenures, in association with a Registered Provider and suitable commercial operators; and

Residential Care: these facilities do not currently form part of the outline application but will be considered as appropriate during the detailed design process and if a need was apparent and an operator identified, separate applications would be made to bring forward such facilities.

4.9

Consequently, the proposed development‘s housing types and sizes are both reflective of policy, whilst also accounting for the changing demographics anticipated in the area. It is also considered that the balance and wider mix of units will accommodate a range of household types and structures that will enable a diverse community to develop.

4.10

the applicant also proposes to consider the following alternate tenures during the operation of the proposed development: 

Long-term rental: where the developer retains or sells the property to an investor, which is then rented to the occupiers with many of the benefits and fewer of the risks and costs of purchase;

Shared equity: where the developer provides a loan on a proportion of the property which bridges the gap between the buyers‘ deposit and the requirements of the mortgage provider;

Equity rent: where the buyer has the option of buying the property at ‗day one‘ prices, but will in fact rent for around three years, paying slightly more than market rent. The difference in rent contributes to a ‗deposit fund‘. By the third year, if property values have increased, the effective ‗equity‘ in the product may now be enough for the buyer to purchase at the ‗day one‘ discounted rate, particularly if bolstered by the ‗deposit fund‘; and

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Beyond Green Developments North Sprowston & Old Catton

Co-ownership: which is a private version of shared ownership. The developer retains a share of the property while selling the other half to the occupier, who also pays rent on the non-owned portion. The applicant notes that this tenure is not yet in commercial operation in the UK.

Construction Period 4.11

The construction period is envisaged to be 20 year duration with some aspects of the proposed development available for occupancy from 2015 with full occupancy by approximately 2034. What Does The Evidence Base Show?

4.12

For all new residents irrespective of employment status, the condition and availability of well-designed housing is critical to the development of sustainable communities 23. Within, ‗Healthy Sustainable Communities: A Spatial Planning Checklist‘23, it is noted that there is an increasing requirement for single occupancy dwellings. Further, it is recommended that large developments should be planned as a balanced community with a range of housing types and tenures24. To contribute to a socially balanced population, it is important to provide housing appropriate for a range of family types and household incomes23.

4.13

The Cabinet Office‘s Social Exclusion Unit states in the ‗National Strategy Action Plan: A New Commitment to Neighbourhood Renewal‘25 that there is no exact definition of what makes a neighbourhood. Local perceptions of neighbourhoods may be defined by ‗natural dividing lines such as roads and rivers, changes in housing design or tenure, or the sense of community generated around centres such as schools, shops or transport links’25. Further, ‘many are dominated by local authority or housing association property, but others have a higher proportion of privately-owned housing’25.

4.14

The Joseph Rowntree Foundation

26

notes that integrating different housing tenures is

an important prerequisite for developing ‗housing of choice‘, but that there are many other aspects of sustainable communities which need to be given equal weight. Well managed, mixed tenure communities have the potential to facilitate social interaction between residents without imposing on residents‘ privacy and may help counteract social exclusion and adverse neighbourhood effects associated with mono-tenure estates. The quality of design and master-planning of new developments has proven to be a major influence on social interaction but mixed developments require careful management and monitoring – for example, systems need to be in place to maintain streets and public spaces.

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Beyond Green Developments North Sprowston & Old Catton

Who Will Be Affected? 

New residents of the proposed development; and

Existing residents in Broadland and Norwich.

How Will These People Be Affected? New Residents of the Proposed Development 4.15

The proposed development will be health promoting for new residents, ensuring that the community that develops has a high potential for being both sustainable and socially balanced. This can be seen as a direct result of the selected dwelling mix, which meets necessary policy requirements and provides a range of housing types conducive to forming a balanced, sustainable community.

4.16

The consideration of alternative market tenures to provide greater accessibility to the proposed development‘s units is considered to be a welcome and appropriate response to the continued issues of high market prices and poor access to financial mortgage products, experienced in Broadland.

4.17

As new residents of the proposed development are likely to be drawn from across Broadland and Norwich, the consideration of existing residents, as discussed below, has focussed on those in close proximity to the application site who are likely to experience the greatest change in their home‘s aspect. Existing Residents in Broadland and Norwich

4.18

The application site is currently agricultural in nature and the proposed development will form part of a significant urban extension to North Norwich. Some existing residents of both Norwich and Broadland are reluctant to see such a large quantum of development brought forward and this is evidenced by a number of community campaign groups that have been formed to object to the wider growth triangle proposals. The most significant of these groups (Stop Norwich Urbanisation – SNUB) has successfully challenged the JCS2 and led to parts within that document referring to the Growth Triangle to be remitted whilst further consultation work is undertaken by the GNDP to ensure that due process is followed.

4.19

In any situation where change is proposed there are typically those for it and those against it. One of the main components of change that can cause the most resistance is a lack of understanding regarding what is proposed and why and a sense of powerlessness and lack of participation in informing what is happening.

4.20

The Whitehall II Study

27

(also known as the Stress & Health Study) is a survey of

health across Whitehall civil servants that was initially undertaken to consider the social class differences in health and investigate the causes of social inequalities in

46

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Beyond Green Developments North Sprowston & Old Catton

disease during the working life. However, in addition to understanding the contribution of unhealthy behaviours and traditional risk factors (such as high blood pressure) in heart disease and diabetes, the Whitehall II study has also shown the importance of psychosocial factors such as work stress, unfairness, and work-family conflict to socioeconomic inequalities and health. 4.21

Fundamentally, it has identified that people's health and general wellbeing thrives because they feel in control of their lives and are engaged but that frustration, stress, and a sense of powerlessness contribute to unhealthy lifestyles, ill health and early death.

4.22

It is not the purpose of this HIA to assess the need or appropriateness of the Growth Triangle and the number of dwellings it proposes. However, as evidenced by the successful challenge to the JCS2, ensuring that the appropriate processes have been followed is as important.

4.23

The World Bank notes that empowerment refers broadly to the expansion of freedom of

choice

and

action

and

this

is

severely

curtailed

by

voicelessness

and

powerlessness . Since powerlessness is embedded in the nature of institutional 28

relations, even though there is no single model for empowerment, experience shows that certain elements are almost always present when empowerment efforts are successful. These four key elements of empowerment are: 

Access to information – Information is power. Informed citizens are better equipped to take advantage of opportunity and exercise their rights;

Inclusion/participation - Participation in decision making is critical to ensure that development

builds on local

knowledge

and

priorities, and

brings about

commitment to change. Sustaining inclusion and informed participation usually requires ensuring the provision of space for people to debate issues and participate; 

Accountability - Public employees and private actors must be held answerable for their

policies,

administrative

actions, and

and

political,

use and

of firms

funds. must

Government have

agencies,

horizontal

or

both

internal

accountability mechanisms, and must also be accountable to their citizens and clients for their performance and 

Local organizational capacity – refers to the ability of people to work together, organize themselves, and mobilize resources to solve problems of common interest. Organized communities are more likely to have their voices heard and their demands met.

4.24

With regard to local organisational capacity, as evidenced by the formation of Snub and other local groups, the existing local residents of Norwich and Broadland have organised themselves and mobilised resources to address their perceived problems of common interest as demonstrated by the successful challenge to the JCS. This is an

Health Impact Assessment

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Beyond Green Developments North Sprowston & Old Catton

indication that the existing local residents are suitably self-enabled with regard to this last key element of empowerment. 4.25

With regard to the three other elements of empowerment, the applicant has undertaken extensive consultation with the existing local residents and their representative groups. The applicant maintains a website that provides regular updates regarding the development of the proposals and their designs. The applicant has undertaken several consultation events over a two year duration to ensure that existing local residents are not just informed of the proposals but also have a role in influencing and shaping the scheme. As important, the applicant has fed back how the design has been influenced by participants in the consultation . The process for 29

community involvement can be summarised as follows: 

Stage 1: Key issues and opportunities (Sept 2009 - May 2011): initial engagement aiming to allow the applicant to introduce itself and to begin to develop a detailed understanding of the key issues and opportunities relating to NS&OC. This took the form of one-to-one meetings, a cycle tour of Norwich with cycle interest groups and the applicant‘s design team; and a series of evening events with key specialist stakeholders;

Stage 2: Community planning (June 2011 - Aug 2011) this period saw the public launch and first events of the applicant‘s formal community involvement programme, aiming to establish a series of key principles to inform the development of proposals for NS&OC. Events included: three evening public exhibition and workshop events at St Cuthbert‘s Church in Sprowston; public exhibitions at Sprowston Fete, Spixworth Fete and Old Catton Flower Show; a youth workshop and a 4-day programme of thematic workshops for specialist stakeholders;

Stage 3: Design review (Sept 2011 - Oct 2011) following a summer working up strategies and plans, this stage of engagement provided an opportunity to review, test and further develop draft proposals for NS&OC. A series of events for community, public and specialist stakeholders included: a 2-day public exhibition and workshops at Sprowston Parish Council offices; a 2-day programme of masterplanning and design workshops with specialist stakeholders; a presentation to the GNDP Design Review Panel; and a stakeholder forum;

Stage 4: Refinement of proposals (Nov 2011 - July 2012) the final period for refinement of proposals, beginning with an internal review and consolidation of findings, followed by ongoing design and strategy refinement with regular feedback

from

pre-application

discussions

and

a

series

of

theme-specific

workshops with specialist stakeholders. 4.26

Full details of the of the stakeholder and community involvement process can be found in the Statement of Community Involvement.

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Beyond Green Developments North Sprowston & Old Catton

4.27

The applicant has ensured that at various consultation events in addition to themselves, other technical consultants that have been appointed to support the application have been present to ensure that the most informed debate and opinion can be gathered to shape the development.

4.28

All of this has been undertaken in addition to the formal consultation exercise that will be undertaken by BDC as a result of the submission of the Outline Planning Application (OPA).

4.29

Therefore, it is considered that whilst opinions will always differ regarding whether development should proceed or not, the applicant has endeavoured to ensure that the existing local residents have been included, informed, listened to and fed back to as part of their independent consultation exercises regarding the development. Conclusions

4.30

The introduction of 2,358 private housing units will be health promoting for the new residents ensuring a sustainable and socially balanced community. It is considered that some existing local residents are and will continue to be concerned regarding the scope of the Growth Triangle urban extension proposals but that the applicant has taken measures of inclusion, participation, consultation and accountability to prevent feelings of powerlessness that could lead to ill-health. Therefore, the health impact upon the new residents is considered to be long-term major positive and upon the existing local residents, particularly those who are concerned by the proposals, due to the level of consultation undertaken the health impact is considered to be neutral.

Provision of Affordable Housing What Will Be Provided and In What Way? Number and Type of Dwellings 4.31

The JCS2 sets a requirement for affordable housing provision at 33% on new developments (greater than 16 dwellings) with a 85:15 ratio of social rented to intermediate tenures or approximately 28% social rented to 5% intermediate. As can be seen from Table 4.1 the proposed tenure mix is in compliance with the policy requirements.

4.32

The applicant has noted that a parametric approach to bringing forward the precise mix of unit sizes and types will be applied. It may also be necessary that the quantity of each of the different tenures brought forward over the construction programme is varied to meet market conditions and the funding mechanisms available to support the affordable units.

4.33

The applicant has also stated that the affordable housing will be designed and provided on a â&#x20AC;&#x2014;tenure blindâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC; basis so that their external appearance is indistinguishable from the

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Beyond Green Developments North Sprowston & Old Catton

market dwellings and ‗pepper-potted‘ throughout the scheme. These are important elements for ensuring equity in the provision of homes. Maintaining the quality of the affordable units and providing a social balance that will help in the formation of community cohesion. What Does The Evidence Base Show? 4.34

The provision of public, social and low-cost housing is central to the interests of vulnerable people in the population; low-income groups do not gain access to adequate housing simply through an ample overall supply but by removing the institutional and market barriers, to provide for special needs and movement of households between sectors24. Access to adequate housing is especially important for the very old and very young, as the health effects of early development can have implications in later life4. Further, lack of hygiene and sanitation in buildings has been widely recognised as causing illness, those who share amenities or who are in overcrowded accommodation can be more susceptible to this 4. Overcrowding is also associated with mental disorders and accidents4. Temporary accommodation for the homeless can vary in its appropriateness; households with children should not be accommodated in Bed and Breakfast accommodation, with rates of self-reported depression and anxiety three times higher among those in Bed and Breakfast accommodation . In addition, families living in temporary accommodation are also 30

likely to suffer more accidents in the home30. Who Will Be Affected? 

Vulnerable groups in the population;

Key or essential workers;

New residents of the proposed development; and

Existing residents in Broadland and Norwich.

How Will These People Be Affected? Vulnerable Groups in the Population 4.35

The provision of and access to affordable housing can reduce the proportion of vulnerable people within the population that are currently homeless, or reside within inadequate, overcrowded or inappropriate temporary housing such as Bed and Breakfast accommodation for households with children. As such, the identified negative health impacts such as lack of hygiene and sanitation, illness, mental disorders and accidents associated with a lack of affordable housing can be alleviated; reducing the level of health inequality experienced by vulnerable groups. In addition, the compounded health and social impacts created by a lack of affordable housing,

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Health Impact Assessment


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such as isolation, as a result of the impermanence of temporary accommodation leading to depression, are also alleviated through the provision of more stable affordable accommodation. 4.36

Of particular concern in Norwich and Broadland is the provision of suitable accommodation for the elderly. Rather than focusing purely on the achievement of the Lifetime Homes standard, the applicant has aimed to create a ‗lifetime community‘ in which people‘s changing needs throughout their lives are met by a common set of universal and enduring qualities such as walkability, quality of the public realm, and local accessibility to amenities and public services; accepting that people may want to move or adapt their home as their needs change but should never need to move away. To comply with policy, all affordable homes will be designed in accordance with Lifetime Homes standards to ensure that suitable accommodation for the elderly is embedded across all affordable tenures.

4.37

In addition, to help meet the growing need of the identified ageing population, a proportion of both affordable and market housing will be provided as ‗extra care‘ housing and/or ‗housing-with-care‘ subject to further discussions and by agreement with Registered Providers and specialist commercial operators. Extra-care housing will be integrated fully into the community (rather than being delivered within ‗standalone‘ or gated complexes) and as far as possible will comprise clusters of properties within core design typologies adapted accordingly. It will be located in areas of the scheme with high levels of accessibility to public transport, local amenities and major public open spaces.

4.38

Residential care facilities do not form part of the outline application but will be considered at a later stage if there is effective demand from operators, and separate applications submitted. Any site for residential care facilities will be located within easy access of public transport and local amenities. Key or Essential Workers

4.39

Access to affordable housing, will enable some key or essential workers to obtain good-quality housing in the area, bringing stability and security to them and their families. It may also facilitate access to good-quality employment. New Residents of the Proposed Development & Existing Residents in Norwich and Broadland

4.40

As the majority of the new residents within the affordable element of the proposed development‘s housing will be from the Greater Norwich Housing Partnership (GNHP) area (Norwich, Broadland and South Norfolk) the health impacts of both new and existing residents have been considered as one. The provision of additional affordable housing in compliance with policy and tenure blind will enable residents to have suitable homes that do not differentiate them on the basis of poverty. Beyond having a

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Beyond Green Developments North Sprowston & Old Catton

home, social inclusion is a fundamental factor in the empowerment aspects previously discussed and tenure blind developments both facilitate this but also provide a social mixing that births greater understanding between different groups within society. Conclusions 4.41

The provision of affordable housing is likely to protect and/or improve the health of vulnerable groups in the population, protect or enhance the health of key and essential workers, living in or attracted to the area and provide homes and social inclusion to those households that qualify for affordable housing within the GNHP area. Therefore, the provision of affordable housing of a suitable mix of social rented and intermediate tenures and unit sizes is considered to be a long-term major positive health impact.

PROPOSED DEVELOPMENT’S DESIGN Good Design, Safety and Security What Will Be Provided and In What Way? 4.42

The proposed development is primarily a residential development: delivering up to 3,520 new homes of mixed tenures, sizes and types. However, the applicant‘s aim has been to create a place that feels and functions like a traditional town, with many people working and shopping close to where they live and generating the bustle and busyness characteristic of any prospering urban place. This is essential to the underlying sustainability aims of the project: without more people living more of their lives locally, the prospects for reducing environmental footprints whilst improving quality of life are dim.

4.43

In terms of basic land use amounts, the scheme proposals are as follows: 

A total of up to 8,800m2 A-class high street uses including up to 1,500m2 will be for a small, primarily food-retailing supermarket of the type found in many successful market town high streets and the remainder will be for small shops of up to 250m2 in size;

Up to 16,800m2 of class B1 employment space including: approximately 12,000m2 of purpose-built adaptable office space in flexible floorplates plus smaller studio, office and workshop space and a business ‗hub‘ and small workshop and light industrial spaces connected to the rural economy;

Up to 1,000m2 of class C1 hotel accommodation;

Up to 3,520 no. class C3 residential dwellings; and

Up to 7,000m2 of class D1 non-residential uses including up to 5,000m2 for two two-form entry primary schools and approximately 2,000m2 for the provision of health services, community halls and a public library.

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Health Impact Assessment


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4.44

The applicant also set out the following principles to guide design development from the outset: 

First-order design principles: o

Working at scale to shape sustainable behaviours;

o

Meeting housing and other social needs;

o

Using resources efficiently and responsibly;

o

Making it easy to walk and cycle and reducing dependence on the private car;

o

Integrating multifunctional green infrastructure;

Context-sensitive design principles o

Learning from the best of Norwich and Norfolk urbanism;

o

Enabling and supporting development across the ‗Growth Triangle‘;

o

Connecting with Sprowston, Old Catton, the city and the countryside;

o

Retaining what is best in the landscape and integrating it into exceptional townscape;

4.45

o

Protecting water resources and sensitive ecology;

o

Welcoming through traffic and capturing passing trade; and

o

Airport safeguarding.

In addition, the applicant intends to remain committed to the development during its construction in the role of ‗master developer‘. The applicant intends to develop and set in place a site-wide Design and Sustainability Code, to ensure that the build-out of the development maintains the high design standard aspirations set out in the OPA. The NS&OC Design and Sustainability Code is likely to cover the following: 

More detailed block-by-block coding of layout including scaling of building height to street width, ground floor heights, building line and setbacks, continuity of frontage, plot size and assembly, building types, parking treatments and identification of ‗special‘ plots;

Articulation of the street hierarchy and public realm including cycle lane and parking design, surfacing, sightlines, kerb details, street lighting, street furniture, planting and on-street parking;

Coding

of

green

infrastructure

typologies

including

green

streets,

SUDs,

distributed parks and play areas; 

Architectural design coding including aesthetic principles, adaptability, use of materials, and some more detailed aspects such as window dimensions and roof treatments; and

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Sustainable building coding, including thermal performance standards, materials specification, incorporation of renewable energy technologies, dual water supply.

4.46

The mix of residential, commercial and community uses across the site at this outline stage has been designed to ensure an active and bustling community that will not fall into the sleeper village trap. During detailed design further consideration will be given to key safety and security considerations such as ensuring active frontages, appropriate safety and security lighting, and natural surveillance. These elements and the wider design aspirations are inherent in ensuring the development of an environment that is not just unconducive to criminal opportunity but is also not permissive to crime. A key aspect of this is ensuring that residents have a sense of ownership.

4.47

The applicant recognises that there may be a need arising due to the quantum of development, to bring forward a new police station or Safer Neighbourhoods Team on the site. Should this be the case, such a facility would be incorporated at the detailed design stage in consultation with Norfolk Constabulary.

4.48

Advice will be sought on the detailed design from the Crime Prevention Design Advisor (CPDA) and their recommendations taken on board. Buildings will comply with Secured by Design standards wherever possible

4.49

In addition, as previously discussed the applicant has aimed to design and create a ‗lifetime community‘ in which people‘s changing needs throughout their lives are met by a common set of universal and enduring qualities such as walkability, quality of the public realm, and local accessibility to amenities and public services; accepting that people may want to move or adapt their home as their needs change but should never need to move away. What Does The Evidence Base Show?

4.50

Housing quality is critically important to alleviating negative health impacts; unsafe structures built with toxic materials are detrimental to physical health. Forty per cent of all fatal accidents happen in the home and almost half of all accidents to children are associated with architectural features in and around the home 30. Households in disadvantaged circumstances are likely to be the worst affected by such accidents30.

4.51

Temporary accommodation tends to be ill-designed, ill-equipped and ill-maintained. Poor housing design – for instance, changes in floor levels at door thresholds – contributes to seemingly minor accidents in older people, which may have grave consequences30.

4.52

Smoke alarms are effective in reducing deaths from fire; however, those most at risk, for example, living in temporary accommodation, are least likely to have an alarm where they live30.

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4.53

Defensive or overtly secure architecture, such as solid encompassing boundary walls, spiked fences, and gated and entry phone restricted entrances, ‗insinuate violence and conjure imaginary dangers ‘, suggesting a much higher level of crime than may 31

actually be apparent, thus, ‗fear proves itself’31 and ‗the social perception of threat becomes a function of the security mobilization itself, not crime rates’ 31. Crime and notably, fear of crime can profoundly affect the quality of people's lives 30. Fear of crime can be a cause of mental distress and social exclusion; in particular, women and older people tend to worry more about becoming victims and this may prevent them from engaging in social activities30. Places that promote a sense of ownership, respect, territorial responsibility and community are also less likely to experience such crimes as anti-social behaviour . 32

4.54

Our view of health is changing to encompass a social as well as a medical model. The social model includes changes that can be made in society and in the lifestyles of individuals to make the population healthier. Illness is beginning to be defined from the point of view of the individual‘s functioning within society in addition to monitoring biological or physiological signs. In other words, good health is determined not simply by access to medical care, but by a range of factors, some of which are closely related to the quality of the physical environment . 33

4.55

The lived environment — urban settings, neighbourhoods, communities — are critical in that they can both promote or inhibit access to goods and services, social cohesion, physical and psychological wellbeing and the natural environment. Health related outcomes as diverse as obesity, depression and injury through violence or accident can all be linked to the way we live . 34

Who Will Be Affected? 

New residents of the proposed development;

Vulnerable groups in the population; and

Existing residents in Broadland and Norwich.

How Will These People Be Affected? New Residents of the Proposed Development 4.56

The individual design of the units is not the subject of the OPA and therefore, is somewhat premature in the consideration of this HIA. However, the intent of the applicant to retain a role and to ensure the implementation of design standards throughout the development‘s construction indicates that residents will benefit from well thought-out, good quality homes.

4.57

The proposed development is anticipated to initially increase levels of crime within the area. However, this is simply as a result of the introduction of one of the three

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necessary elements of the Confluence of Criminal Opportunity (CCO) that is currently largely absent from the application site, which is victims. 4.58

The introduction of residents to the area will inevitably attract criminal consideration as potential targets for crime. Importantly, how the proposed development addresses minimising an environment conducive to crime will heavily affect the on-going levels of crime and fear of crime experienced in the new community.

4.59

The proposed development seeks to embed an active and vibrant community that will be seen on the streets during the day as people visit businesses and shops, take their children to school and use the other community facilities provided. The development is not intended to become an empty sleeper settlement that only experiences activity first in the morning and last thing in the evening. In many circumstances, a reduction in crime is achieved simply by having more people in an area who can notice if something or someone looks suspicious.

4.60

This is recognised in architectural design through the incorporation of active street frontages, as this is a deterrent to a casual criminal seeking an opportunity in an area lacking natural surveillance. The inclusion of commercial elements at the ground floor of many of the neighbourhoods and centres enables active streets, connecting the new residential areas.

4.61

This is critical in ensuring the wider health benefits of the scheme as activity and natural surveillance will only be successful if people use the space.

4.62

In addition, the presence of a Safer Neighbourhoods Team on the site would also be a further deterrent to crime but also a strong element in lessening the fear of crime through the visible presence of officers on the street. Vulnerable Groups in the Population

4.63

It is considered that the vulnerable groups in the population will also benefit from the proposed developmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s design effects outlined above and that the availability of high quality, well designed affordable housing, will be health promoting for the vulnerable groups in society that require access to affordable housing. Existing Residents in the Norwich and Broadland

4.64

As stated above, the levels of crime on the site are likely to increase simply due to the presence

of potential victims as oppose to agricultural

fields. However, the

implementation of the many design elements and the presence of a Safer Neighbourhoods Team is likely to also establish a model for a more sustainable and cohesive community that should integrate well with the existing local residents in proximity to the boundaries of the application site.

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Conclusions 4.65

The design of the proposed development will be health promoting in a number of ways to both the physical and mental health of the new residents including those who are members of vulnerable groups. With regard to the local community, the architectural design is considered to be beneficial in that it does not foster a perceived threat of crime, but rather promotes social interaction and cohesion. The on-going commitment of the applicant in ensuring the design principles are adhered to throughout the construction of such a large scheme seeks to ensure that design quality will not be compromised. Consequently, overall it is considered that the proposed development will result in a major long-term positive health impact as a result of good design, safety and security considerations.

Energy Efficiency What Will Be Provided and In What Way? 4.66

Energy demand reductions will be achieved in the first instance through design measures incorporated into the layout, either at outline or detailed design stage, including: 

Plot layout and building design will be selected to facilitate air movement and enhance natural ventilation and address issues with uncontrolled shading from overshadowing buildings and green infrastructure;

Green infrastructure will be carefully allocated such that it supports energy demand reduction through providing summer shading or winter wind breaks; and

Provision for green open spaces and other urban greenery such as street trees and green walls has been incorporated into the Masterplan to provide shading during the day and evaporative cooling at night, reducing heat island effects;

4.67

The following passive design measures will also be incorporated and/or enhanced in the design of the buildings to reduce energy requirements in the future: 

Reducing the air permeability and thermal bridging coefficient of the building envelope;

Otimising the U-Values of the external fabric to enable a reduction in energy loss, e.g. through providing additional insulation;

Incorporating thermal mass to support ―free cooling‖ during summer months;

Enlarging window areas and installing skylights where appropriate to maximise the use of natural daylight;

Locating plant rooms away from the southern elevation to avoid excessive heat gain and to allow maximum plant efficiency; and

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 4.68

Providing passive shading to avoid overheating.

The above measures and the following active design measures will be considered as a during the detailed design process: 

High efficiency boilers;

Controls to optimise and compensate for heating variations;

Zonal control of heating to supply different parts of a building via a building management system;

Time and thermostat control of hot water;

Variable speed drives fitted to all pumps and fans that will benefit from speed control;

High efficiency lighting;

Installation of electricity check meters;

Smart metering & smart grids;

Inclusion of daylight and passive infra-red motion detection systems to lighting to common areas in order to ensure they are only operated when required; and

Ensuring

white goods, where supplied, are suitably rated.

Alternatively

information could be provided on selecting energy rated appliances. 4.69

The above list of measures is not exhaustive and a full range of installations will be considered in more detail based on the latest available technology as design of the development progresses. What Does The Evidence Base Show?

4.70

Unmodernised older properties have far higher heating costs than improved and modern homes30, and cold housing has been shown to lead directly to fuel poverty30.

4.71

There is a recorded relationship between Excess Winter Deaths (EWDs), low thermal efficiency of housing and low indoor temperature, with EWDs almost three times higher in the coldest quarter of housing than in the warmest quarter. Around 40% of EWDs are attributable to cardiovascular diseases and around 33% to respiratory diseases . 35

4.72

Cold housing also increases the level of minor illnesses such as colds and flu and exacerbates existing conditions such as arthritis and rheumatism35.

4.73

For children living in cold homes, it has been found that they are twice as likely to suffer from a variety of respiratory problems than children living in warm homes. There are also significant negative effects in terms of infants‘ weight gain, hospital admission rates, developmental status, and the severity and frequency of asthmatic symptoms for children in cold housing35.

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4.74

Mental health is negatively affected by fuel poverty and cold housing for any age group. More than 1 in 4 adolescents living in cold housing are at risk of multiple mental health problems compared to 1 in 20 adolescents who have always lived in warm housing35.

4.75

Indirect health impacts include: 

Cold housing affects children‘s educational attainment, emotional well-being and resilience;

Fuel poverty negatively affects dietary opportunities and choices;

Cold housing negatively affects dexterity and increases the risk of accidents and injuries in the home35.

4.76

Whilst the hazards of such poverty could be addressed by increasing the financial resources available to older people and others living on state benefits, a more direct approach is to improve the energy efficiency, insulation and heating systems of housing. Who Will Be Affected? 

New residents of the proposed development; and

Vulnerable groups in the population.

How Will These People Be Affected? New Residents of the Proposed Development and Vulnerable Groups 4.77

New residents and in particular vulnerable groups will benefit from homes that have been designed to be energy efficient through a combination of both passive and active measures.

4.78

In ensuring that homes may be heated as efficiently as possible the proposed development‘s design will release household income that would be spent on heating for other considerations such as better dietary choices.

4.79

In addition, homes will actively encourage the use of less energy through smart meters. This ensures that residents don‘t retain the behaviours that they had in potentially more drafty buildings in terms of heating them in the new units. This behavioural change aspect is important as it will ensure that the full benefit of the design can be realised and the energy use reductions and costs savings experienced by the households.

4.80

In addition, for those vulnerable groups such as children, and the elderly who are most vulnerable to both direct and indirect deleterious health effects from cold homes the benefits will be significant.

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4.81

It should also be noted that Norwich was identified to have a high incident rate of hospital admissions for self-harm and the evidence base shows that mental health is negatively affected by fuel poverty and cold housing for any age group. Therefore, there is a particular benefit for this element of new residents. Conclusions

4.82

In summary, improvement in energy efficiency in homes is likely to improve the health of occupants, both directly and indirectly through the release of their financial resources for other uses. It also has wider benefits in conserving energy. Therefore, the energy efficiency measures incorporated into the proposed development are considered to have a major positive health impact, particularly as they will most benefit vulnerable groups.

Environmental Considerations (Air Quality, Noise, & Climate Change) What Will Be Provided and In What Way? Noise 4.83

The predominant effect of the proposed development will be an increase in transport noise when compared to the background noise levels. However, this has been measured and calculated to be less than 3dB, which is considered inaudible.

4.84

The first principle in the design approach is the location of the dwellings away from the noisiest areas of the site, principally those close to the main transport corridors. Alternatively, the built form of the proposed development will be used to provide acoustic screening to garden areas to ensure access to amenity space below the 55 dB LAeq, 16 Hr target level and the Development Masterplan has shown how this can be achieved.

4.85

In relation to aircraft noise, no development is proposed inside the 57 dB 2015 contour. This will ensure noise levels in gardens from aircraft noise would be within World Health Organisation Guidelines. In respect of noise from ground operations at the airport, the noise surveys at the westernmost point of the proposed development have shown that such noise will not result in an adverse impact on the proposed dwellings. Night-time levels are slightly elevated above those that would be expected. This is not of concern, however, and would be addressed by the mitigation measures proposed.

4.86

For the remaining facades exposed to levels where faรงade noise control may be necessary, certain double-glazing arrangements will be implemented, in some case with additional acoustic protection, as follows.

4.87

Across the entire development, thermal double-glazing will be provided as a matter of course to meet the thermal requirements of the Building Regulations. Thermal double-

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glazing, with different pane thicknesses would provide sufficient acoustic protection. Extra acoustic protection will be incorporated into the thermal double-glazing system, through the fitting of acoustic hoods to the trickle ventilators. 4.88

For façades closest to the western edge of the proposed development (i.e. nearest to the airport), living rooms will be provided with the thermal double-glazing and acoustic ventilation specified above. For bedrooms in these areas, an intermediate weight acoustic glazing system will be provided.

4.89

For façades where the acoustic glazing is required, ventilation to habitable rooms will be provided by an acoustically treated mechanical or passive ventilation system, either on an individual room basis or via a whole building system.

4.90

With the implementation of the above measures on the design and parameters of the proposed development an acceptable environment can be achieved. Air Quality

4.91

Air quality impacts associated with the operation of the proposed development are anticipated from two potential sources: the energy centre and transport.

4.92

For the energy centre, as the size of the Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plant is not known a worse-case of an 8MW CHP has been assessed. It has been found that with a 15m stack NO2 concentrations are predicted to increase by 2 µg/m3 at a point within the redline boundary of the application site where residential units are proposed. An increase of this size is classed as ‗small‘ with a negligible impact. If the final plant specification is smaller the impacts on local air quality will be lower.

4.93

For transport related air quality impacts the following two pollutants have been considered: NO2 and PM10.

4.94

For

NO2

the

modelling

assessment

shows

that

predicted

annual

mean

NO2

3

concentrations are ‗well below‘ the annual mean objective of 40 µg/m at all receptors both existing and proposed under the 2011 and 2032 base scenarios, with the exception of one receptor, where an annual mean of 30.4 µg/m3 is predicted in 2032. 4.95

For PM10 the predicted annual mean concentrations are predicted to be ‗well below‘ the 40 µg/m3 objective at all receptors under all scenarios. Climate Change Water Management & Flood Risk

4.96

The application site has been identified as a Low Flood Risk – Zone 1 using the EA‘s Flood Maps. However, the proposed development will comprise large areas of impermeable hard standing and roof area with a resultant increase in the volume of surface water run-off. The proposed surface water drainage strategy will discharge the

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water to ground maintaining the existing drainage regime on the site. Therefore there will be no exacerbation of off-site flood risk as a result of the development. 4.97

The on-site drainage system will also include an allowance for a 30% increase in rainfall intensities to take account of climate change over the lifetime of the development. Water Efficiency

4.98

All units will achieve a Code for Sustainable Homes level 4 rating and as such, will include water efficiency measures to ensure that water use is no greater than 105l/person/day. In addition, a comprehensive rainwater harvesting strategy is proposed and facilities also enabled for reuse of waste water. Further details regarding this are provided within Section 5.0 addressing utilities. Heat Island Effects & Summer Shade

4.99

Plot layout and building design will be selected to facilitate air movement and enhance natural ventilation and address issues with uncontrolled shading from overshadowing buildings and green infrastructure.

4.100

Green infrastructure will be carefully allocated such that it supports energy demand reduction through providing summer shading or winter wind breaks.

4.101

Provision for green open spaces and other urban greenery such as street trees and green walls has been incorporated into the Masterplan to provide shading during the day and evaporative cooling at night, reducing heat island effects. Promote Biodiversity

4.102

Wildlife and ecology are important elements in the wider theme of continuous and abundant greening within the proposed development and the proposals aim to: 

Achieve net biodiversity gains by avoiding significant ecological impacts where possible, mitigating and compensating for unavoidable impacts and bringing about ecological

enhancements

wherever

possible

through

a

series

of

features

throughout the site; 

Create a network of high quality mosaic of bespoke ecological niches and habitats which reflect and embrace local species and habitat types;

Integrate strong green and ecological connections within the development and extending outwards to Norwich, Broadland and the countryside beyond; and

Enable local residents and visitors to re-connect with their natural environment through a combination of education and increased access to wildlife in both the urban environment and the countryside.

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What Does The Evidence Base Show? Noise 4.103

The health effects of noise are divisible into auditory and non-auditory. Auditory effects are a result of impairment of hearing and occur almost exclusively in industrial settings. Environmental noise levels do not produce these effects.

4.104

Environmental noise is a problem in the UK today and many people are concerned about its possible effects on health. In terms of well-being there is little doubt that a significant number of people are adversely affected by exposure to environmental noise and subsequently these people can be said to suffer damage to their health as a result of exposure to environmental noise. There is increasing evidence that environmental noise, from both aircraft and road traffic, is associated with raised blood pressure and with a small increase in the risk of coronary heart disease . 36

4.105

Other non-auditory effects include, most commonly, annoyance, sleep disturbance, interruption of speech and social interaction, disturbance of concentration (and hence of learning and long-term memory)36.

4.106

Exposure to noise has been shown to be associated with increased levels of stress hormones in the blood. These include the adrenal cortico-steroids and also adrenaline and noradrenaline which reflect activity of the sympathetic system. Whether such increases in concentrations are harmful is uncertain but some authors have linked such changes with the possibility of long-term effects on blood pressure and on cardiovascular disease36.

4.107

While it is often suggested, there is no real evidence that noise per se induces mental illness, though there is some to suggest that noise-sensitive people are more prone to mental illness and that the effects of noise may be more pronounced in mentally ill people36. Air Quality

4.108

At relatively high concentrations, NO2 acts as an irritant causing inflammation of the airways and, by affecting the immune cells in the lungs, can increase susceptibility to respiratory infections. However, concentrations in ambient air are generally much lower than those associated with such effects . 37

4.109

Evidence suggests that ambient (outdoor) concentrations of nitrogen dioxide can increase the sensitivity of asthmatics to allergens and therefore increase the likelihood of asthma attacks and longer term exposure to nitrogen dioxide can increase the likelihood of respiratory illnesses in children. But there is a lack of scientific agreement on the interpretation of the epidemiological studies of the health effects of ambient levels of NO2 as these studies have so far not been able to separate out the effects of NO2 from those of other pollutants. It is unclear whether NO 2 affects health in its own

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right, or whether the associations seen in epidemiological studies between ambient levels of NO2 and reported health effects (e.g. admissions to hospital due to respiratory/cardiovascular illnesses) are in fact due to other pollutants e.g. particulate matter, whose concentrations correlate with those of NO2 and which are emitted with it from combustion sources (i.e. traffic)37. 4.110

Most knowledge of the effects of particles on health comes from studies that relate to either short-term or long-term levels of PM10 and PM2.5 (gathered by the UK‘s network of monitors). The main effects of PM on population level health, include mortality (death), increased admissions to hospital of people suffering from cardiovascular (heart) disease and pulmonary (lung) disease e.g. lung cancer, chronic pulmonary obstructive disease, bronchitis and asthma37.

4.111

It appears that for susceptible people, particulate air pollution worsens their illnesses. For example, the 2009 COMEAP report Long-Term Exposure to Air Pollution: Effect on Mortality, found that as long term exposure to fine particles in air increases, the risk of death also increases (a 10 μg m-3 increase in fine particles was associated with a 6% increase in risk of death from all causes). Another COMEAP report Cardiovascular Disease and Air Pollution (2006), found clear associations between both daily and longterm average concentrations of particles and effects on the cardiovascular system, and proposes that fine particles play an important role in these effects37.

4.112

Smaller particles such as those represented by PM2.5 are thought to have greater effects on health as they can be carried deeper into the lungs where they can cause inflammation and worsen heart and lung diseases. However, it is still not clear which components of particles are responsible for their observed effects on health. Particles are made up of many different chemicals, including toxic metals and organic compounds, some of which generate free radicals and some researchers consider these to be involved in the toxicological effects of particles. Particles can have carcinogenic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons stuck to their surfaces, and so might carry these compounds into the lungs, suggesting that they might also be able to cause cancer37. Climate Change

4.113

Climate change affects us by: 

Increasing deaths and illnesses from heat stress as temperatures rise;

Increasing risk of injuries and illnesses due to extreme weather events, such as storms and floods;

Increasing respiratory and cardiovascular illness and deaths caused by smoke from heat-related and drought-related wildfires, as well as changes in air pollution, particularly ozone smog;

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Increasing cases of allergic disease brought about by elevated levels of pollens caused by more vigorous weed growth and longer pollen seasons;

Changing the rates and ranges of infectious diseases carried by insects or in food and water;

Threatening the safety and availability of food and water supplies; and

Inducing greater levels of mental and emotional stress in response to climate change and extreme weather-related emergencies . 38

Who Will Be Affected? 

New residents of the proposed development;

Vulnerable groups in the population; and

Existing residents in Broadland and Norwich.

How Will These People Be Affected? Existing residents in Broadland and Norwich 4.114

Noise: In relation to existing noise sensitive receptors adjacent to the road network, the increase in noise levels, as a result of the transport associated with the project, is less than 3 dB, which is considered potentially inaudible and therefore the effect is considered negligible.

4.115

Air Quality: No significant air quality impacts are anticipated on existing residents.

4.116

Climate Change: No off-site flood risk is predicted as a result of the proposed development. Water scarcity may increase as a result of climate change, however, the proposed development will include water efficiency measures that will help limit any impacts on existing residents. The climate change implications with regard to biodiversity are as for the new residents of the proposed development discussed below. Vulnerable groups in the population

4.117

Noise: The proposed development has sought to mitigate noise impacts as far as possible to prevent noise nuisance and its associated health effects from affecting new residents, including sensitive receptors within vulnerable groups such as schools. In particular careful consideration has been given to ensuring that the airport noise does not significantly intrude upon daily life for new residents.

4.118

Air Quality: It has been found that with a 15m stack NO 2 concentrations are predicted to increase by 2 µg/m3 at a point within the redline boundary of the application site where residential units are proposed. An increase of this size is classed as ‗small‘ and therefore, is considered to have a negligible health impact. For transport related air

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quality impacts both PM10 and NO2 predicted annual mean concentrations are below the annual mean objectives of 40 Âľg/m3 at all receptors. Therefore, there are not considered to be detrimental health effects as a result air pollution associated with the proposed development. 4.119

Climate Change: More vulnerable groups such as the elderly, children and pregnant women are more susceptible to effects such as potential for heat stress from climate related temperature increases. However, the proposed development has incorporated measures to prevent urban heat island effects that can exacerbate existing high average temperatures.

4.120

The application site is not within a high risk flood zone and surface water run-off is to be attenuated to prevent increases as a result of reduced permeability across the site and any increases in rainfall as a result of climate change. More vulnerable groups may also have reduced mobility and therefore, ensuring floods are unlikely as a result of extreme weather events reduces the risk of injuries and illnesses.

4.121

Promoting biodiversity helps species to have greater robustness against climate change effects. It can help to mitigate effects such as elevated pollen levels or increased ranges of disease vectors such as insects by ensuring that the web of biodiversity is not facing pre-existing stresses and so is best placed to adapt in balance with the changing climatic conditions.

4.122

Changes to biodiversity may also effect food security with the loss of traditional pollinators such as bees and water scarcity also effecting production. In addition to the biodiversity promotion measures to be brought forward on the development, water efficiency measures will also be present in all homes to limit water use. New residents of the proposed development

4.123

As it has been set out above how noise, air quality and climate change effects have been addressed with regard to the more vulnerable groups that may live within the new development. The same measures and assessments are considered applicable to the wider new residents of the proposed development and so have not been reiterated. Conclusions

4.124

The proposed development has taken into account the environmental effects of noise, air quality and the potential for numerous different effects as a result of climate change to ensure that both existing residents and new residents do not experience detrimental health impacts as a result of the proposed development. It is considered that with regard to noise and air quality the proposed development will have a neutral health impact on both new and existing residents. For climate change the proposed development is considered to have a moderate positive health impact as a result of the

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range of measures that are being implemented to help prevent significant health impacts associated with the effects of climate change.

Street Layout, Connectivity & Provision for Active Travel What Will Be Provided and In What Way? 4.125

As well as providing all-important access to the network, the three main radial roads that the application site is connected to also provide the proposed development with access to passing trade. They also connect the application site directly and efficiently to Norwich City Centre and the existing localities of Sprowston and Old Catton. The radial routes have been used within the proposed development to identify the best locations for nodes of mixed-use activity local centres.

4.126

The Northern Distributor Road (NDR) will be a faster strategic road for orbital traffic. To enable greater connection across the Broadland ‗growth triangle‘ between Norwich Airport Industrial Estate and Broadland Business Park, a second inner link has been identified as beneficial and will form a slower, more multi-modal and street-based route emphasizing walking, cycling and public transport. This east-west route is a direct primary or ‗high‘ street running through the development from Wroxham Road in the east to St Faith‘s Road in the east.

4.127

Further to the primary movement network establishing the spine of the scheme, development has then been laid out around an irregular grid of connected streets fronted by perimeter blocks of development. The street hierarchy is based on three typologies: primary, which are principal routes for public transport, and, through and local traffic; secondary, as distributors of local traffic but also accommodating public transport, and are primarily residential; and tertiary, which are local access streets with pedestrian priority, and are primarily or wholly residential.

4.128

A

central

principle

of

the

proposed

development‘s

layout

is

the

walkable

neighbourhood; an urban unit of 1,500-2,000 homes with a mixed-use centre which is accessible by most residents within a 400-metre or five-minute walk, putting everyday facilities and public transport within easy access. The distribution of development and centres has been designed to place the maximum number of homes within a direct 400m walkable catchment of one of three major mixed-use centres: at the Main Square, Wroxham Road Square or the existing district centre at Old Catton with most homes achieving this. In addition, there is also the potential for smaller mixed-use concentrations at Red Hall Farm, Old Catton and Church Lane South. 4.129

The proposed development‘s street network will be designed to be safe, legible and well connected, making walking and cycling the transport mode of choice at the local level. Short, fine-grained blocks will create a permeable layout that offers a choice of attractive routes for pedestrians and cyclists. Streets and other public spaces will have active frontages and be overlooked, this together with street trees, sensitive lighting,

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high quality materials and street furniture and other design measures will help to ensure they feel safe and are interesting to walk or cycle along. 4.130

Reflecting the user hierarchy measures to prioritise the needs of pedestrians and cyclists will include: 

Establishing a site wide 20mph speed limit to make it easier for pedestrians to cross streets at any point. Speeds will be kept low through design rather than enforcement, using features such as short lengths of street between junctions, narrow carriageways, on street parking, limiting forward visibility and the use of shared space on some tertiary streets;

Providing wide pavements that are kept free of clutter to create a pleasant walking environment and provide plenty of space for wheelchairs and pushchairs;

Providing dedicated cycle lanes on primary streets to create safe conditions for cycling despite higher traffic volumes on those streets. Cycle lanes will be a minimum of 2m wide (minimum 1.5m wide when on carriageway) to allow for easy overtaking and to accommodate cargo bikes;

Raising the carriageway to foot path and cycle lane level at side road junctions and giving pedestrians and cyclists clear priority at junctions;

Using a range of controlled and uncontrolled crossing points to provide regular opportunities for wheelchair users and the blind or visually impaired to cross;

Allowing less confident cyclists to avoid turning right with traffic when using the junction of the east-west route with North Walsham Road; and

Using modal filtering at appropriate locations on tertiary streets to restrict through movement of motor vehicles without compromising permeability for pedestrians and cyclists.

4.131

There are a number of Pedalways; cycle commuting routes to and from Norwich City Centre and orbital routes around the city. These are complemented by neighbourhood routes for local journeys giving significant potential for journeys to and from the proposed development to be made by bike. This in combination with the other design measures and the provision of a Travel Plan will provide the basis for a strategy to encourage residents and visitors of all ages and abilities to travel to and from the proposed development by bike or on foot.

4.132

The proposed development will also bring forward a number of new well-connected bus services that will also seek to lessen reliance upon cars for travel. In addition, due to the provision of commercial uses within the proposed development it is the applicant‘s aim to encourage people to both live and work on the development. Lessening the need for extensive travel to work and making more sustainable transport methods such as walking and cycling more favourable.

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4.133

Upon completion the proposed development has no significant adverse impacts on the local highway network for all road users in 2032 on the assumption that the NDR will be constructed after 2017.

4.134

The proposed new accesses onto the local highway network can accommodate the vehicles trips in and out of the development without any significant adverse impacts on the forecasted traffic on the radial routes. Therefore the needs of both the future residents, existing neighbours and future users of the highway network are addressed.

4.135

The only significant adverse traffic impact is a temporary impact on the North Walsham Road/A1042 roundabout before the NDR is constructed. The magnitude of the impact is reduced by the construction of the internal road link between North Walsham Road and Wroxham Road, but the residual traffic impact is still significant. It is unlikely that physical mitigation to improve highway capacity is possible at this location. However the implementation of a Framework Travel Plan; including Area Wide Travel Planning for adjacent communities that share the same radial routes as the development; and Work Place Travel Planning for the Airport Industrial Area may sufficiently mitigate the effects to reduce the residual traffic impacts at this location to an acceptable level. What Does The Evidence Base Show?

4.136

Active travel – walking and cycling – as physical activity has the capacity to diminish morbidity and mortality within the population for various diseases and conditions:

4.137

Coronary artery disease;

Stroke;

Systemic hypertension;

Obesity;

Emotional disorders;

Incapacity associated with ageing;

Osteoporosis;

Diabetes mellitus;

Colon cancer;

Chronic back disease; and

Athletic injuries40.

Physical exercise reduces the likelihood of developing or dying from, many of the diseases and conditions listed above and can improve the control of some such as hypertension and diabetes40. It can also improve the management of mild-to-moderate

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mental health problems such as depression and anxiety, although acute anxiety responds better to exercise than chronic anxiety40. 4.138

The World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends the creation of a dense network of footways to link all main activities and public transport facilities to ensure safety, directness and ease of use especially for people who are less mobile (e.g. older people and people who have a physical disability), and the provision of an attractive and secure pedestrian environment . The WHO also recommends the creation of a 39

comprehensive network of cycling routes, and the development of a safer cycling environment39. 4.139

Barton

and

Tsourou

recommend

that

in

healthy

neighbourhood

planning,

neighbourhoods should be seen as part of an urban continuum, in which one neighbourhood merges into another, with free cycling and pedestrian movement through them24. 4.140

Further, in a more aesthetically pleasing environment, people are more likely to walk or exercise for recreation , not only bringing the aforementioned health benefits 40

through increased physical activity, but also safety benefits because more people use the streets. An increase in the number of people on the streets and in the environment increases the potential for social contact and interaction, with a well-designed built environment helping to foster and reinforce a sense of community23. Neighbourhood aesthetic quality, including interesting features, may also be related to the experience of stress and the ability to recover after stressful events40. Who Will Be Affected? 

New residents of the proposed development;

Workers within the proposed development;

Visitors to the proposed development; and

Existing residents in Broadland and Norwich.

How Will These People Be Affected? New Residents of the Proposed Development 4.141

Overall the proposed development has been designed to encourage pedestrian and cyclist movements through careful consideration of the street hierarchy and the interconnectedness of the residential, commercial and community uses.

4.142

The provision of infrastructure for active travel, including new and improved cycle pathways and facilities for cyclists will give new residents of the proposed development the opportunity to benefit from physical exercise. In addition, the provision of a Travel Plan giving information on local public transport and the additional provision of new

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bus services may lead to a reduction in the use of private cars, which may enable additional benefits for the whole community through a reduction in noise and air pollution associated with greater car use and the associated health dis-benefits. Workers within the Proposed Development 4.143

The improved connectivity of the application site with public transport links and the existing cycle network will give employees the opportunity to travel to work sustainably, thereby potentially increasing their level of physical activity. This could decrease the number of trips to work by car, potentially improving air quality for the whole community. In addition, many residents may also work within the proposed development and this would further enable walking or cycling as preferential methods of transport. Visitors to the Proposed Development

4.144

As for workers, good public transport links and a good cycle network may encourage visitors to cycle rather than make trips by car; in addition the close proximity of several forms of public transport increases the possibility of limiting car travel. Thereby increasing the level of physical activity for the visitors, and improving air quality for the whole community. Existing residents in Broadland and Norwich

4.145

The proposed development will bring forward strong cycle and pedestrian travel eastwest routes with a view to enabling greater connectivity across the Growth Triangle as it is built out. This will benefit the existing residents in Broadland and Norwich through as these wider connections enable improved wider cyclist and pedestrian access. Due to the concerns regarding the temporary impact of traffic on the North Walsham Road/A1042 roundabout prior to the NDRâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s construction, a Framework Travel Plan; including Area Wide Travel Planning for adjacent communities that share the same radial routes as the development and Work Place Travel Planning for the Airport Industrial Area are recommended as mitigation measures. The implementation of sustainable travel plans across a wider area would benefit existing residents by promoting a more comprehensive uptake of cycling and walking as alternative forms of transport beyond just a Travel Plan implemented within the proposed development. Conclusions

4.146

The provision of infrastructure for active travel is considered to be beneficial to the health of groups in several communities; however, much of this benefit is dependent upon the uptake of the infrastructure and facilities provided. Therefore, the continued promotion of an active travel agenda within both the proposed development and the local community will ensure continued benefits. Overall, the proposed development is

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considered to have a major positive health impact on new residents, visitors and workers and a moderate positive health impact on existing residents. This reflects the fact that existing residents may experience some temporary traffic effects at the North Walsham Road/A1042 roundabout prior to the NDR‘s construction.

ACCESS TO EMPLOYMENT (CONSTRUCTION & OPERATIONAL) What Will Be Provided and In What Way? Construction Phase 4.147

Construction phase employment generation has been considered alongside operational employment generation due to the prolonged nature of the construction phase. A potentially 20 year build out programme would equate to a long and established career.

4.148

The proposed development will bring forward a total of 3,783 full time equivalent (FTE) construction employment opportunities. Of these, it has been assessed within Chapter 13.0: Socio-Economic of the ES that 2,695 would be direct opportunities to people within Broadland and Norwich. A further 1,348 employment opportunities are considered to be generated as a result of the creation of induced or indirect employment opportunities. For example, through a local timber merchants taking on additional staff due to the continued business provided by the proposed development‘s construction.

4.149

As previously stated, the applicant proposes to assume the role of ‗master developer‘ should the proposed development be permitted and in this role, would work with public bodies, local education and training centres, industry bodies, contractors and the wider supply chain to establish a Local Workforce and Skills Programme with the aim of maximising the amount of construction labour and skilled trades that can be recruited locally. The applicant proposes this to have a particular focus on young people, given the prolonged nature of the construction programme, and on developing the skills required to forge a career in the sustainable development industry including design, construction and management skills sets. Operational Phase

4.150

Through its provision of retail and business space the proposed development is considered to bring forward approximately 1,619.5 total FTE employment opportunities and 65.5 FTE employment opportunities within the community use proposals including the primary schools, library, health centre and nurseries.

4.151

Of these FTE employment opportunities it has been assessed within Chapter 13.0: Socio-Economic of the ES that 643 would be direct opportunities to people within Broadland and Norwich. A further 450 employment opportunities are considered to be

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generated as a result of the creation of induced or indirect employment opportunities. For example, through the employment of additional cleaning staff because a firm has won the contract to clean the primary schools within the proposed development. 4.152

The applicant seeks to strike a balance with the commercial element of the proposed development between the creation of a lasting business base rooted in the local economy and the rapid provision of volume jobs through the attraction of mobile investment. In addition, the applicant is seeking to bring forward an aspirational life style that would appeal to quite unique and high quality businesses, and investors on a potentially Europe-wide basis as the scheme matured.

4.153

The

applicantâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s

intention

in

creating

a

homeworking

environment

within

the

development and also in attracting like-minded residents and businesses seeking to live/work in a development that supports a sustainability ethos, is to potentially prompt a much greater level of residential self-containment than is typically seen. What Does The Evidence Base Show? 4.154

Neighbourhoods require local work opportunities to develop the bridging ties necessary to generate social capital and better health . The nature of the impact on health is 41

dependent upon key attributes of the job such as pay, job security, job control, worker involvement, support at work, reward-to-effort ratio, prestige, physical working conditions and equality opportunities â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the effects are positive for high grade jobs and negative for low grade ones23. Sociological studies emphasise that not only is employment a primary source of status in industrialised countries like Britain, but it is also significant in providing purpose, income, social support, structure to life and a means of participating in society30. In such a context, unemployment can potentially be a major risk to health for the working age population and their families. 4.155

For a small minority, unemployment appears to lead to an improvement in health. But for the majority it tends to have a significant adverse effect on both physical and mental health. Unemployed people are found to have lower levels of psychological well-being, ranging from symptoms of depression and anxiety to self-harm and suicide30. In relation to physical health, unemployment carries a higher risk of morbidity and premature mortality, for example, mortality from all major causes was consistently higher than average among unemployed men and among younger men, mortality from injuries and poisoning, including suicide, was particularly high30. Unemployed women had high mortality from coronary heart disease, injuries and poisonings, including suicide30. Even after taking account of the more disadvantaged circumstances of unemployed people, an excess risk of death of more than 20% remains30.

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4.156

Significantly, the Acheson ‗Independent Inquiry into Inequalities in Health‘, states: ‘We consider that increasing employment opportunities is crucial to reducing inequalities in health’. Who Will Be Affected? 

Vulnerable groups in the population;

New residents of the proposed development; and

Existing residents in Broadland and Norwich.

How Will These People Be Affected? Vulnerable groups in the population 4.157

Construction Phase: The applicant has stated their intent to provide on-going training opportunities over the duration of the construction phase with a particular focus on young people who are recognised as a vulnerable group. This commitment to train and employ young people during a period of time with high youth unemployment across the wider community is considered to have real health benefits, predominantly in terms of mental well-being, although there may be some minor health benefits experienced as a result of an increase in disposable income.

4.158

Operational Phase: The balanced mix of uses brought forward within the proposed development and the applicant‘s aspirations for a match between the sustainability aspirations of the proposed development and companies that located there is intended to have result in greater live/work linkages on the site. In addition, the majority of residences within the proposed development will be enabled to a greater or lesser extent for home working. As such, many of the commercial employment opportunities within the proposed development will be accessible to those with mobility problems.

4.159

In addition, as discussed subsequently within this HIA under Section 5.0, the provision of nursery and crèche facilities will enable more women and single parent families to return to work, which is also considered to be important in terms of mental well-being for many people. New residents of the proposed development

4.160

New residents of the proposed development are anticipated to benefit in much the same manner as those vulnerable groups have been identified to above. With access to both construction phase and operational phase employment opportunities due to the prolonged nature of the construction phase.

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Existing residents in Broadland and Norwich 4.161

Construction Phase: Existing residents in Broadland and Norwich are considered to benefit significantly during the construction phase due to the local recruitment policies that are intended. Consequently, many existing residents may benefit from the improved mental wellbeing associated with being in employment and some minor health benefits experienced as a result of an increase in disposable income.

4.162

Operational Phase: No specific benefits are considered as part of the operational phase for existing residents in Broadland and Norwich, unless they seek employment within the proposed development or benefit from the induced or indirect effects of the employment generation brought forward within development. Benefits would again be linked with mental well-being and some minor health benefits experienced as a result of an increase in disposable income. Conclusions

4.163

Existing local residents, particularly those within the identified vulnerable group of young people are likely to experience the greatest health benefit during the construction phase, due to the targeted employment and training policies that are to be implemented by the applicant. This is considered to be a major positive health benefit.

4.164

During the operational phase, new residents of the proposed development are likely to experience the greatest health benefit from the potential future employment opportunities. However, again this may be further focussed on mobility impaired vulnerable groups if they should locate to the proposed development due to the focus on enabling home working and the co-location of a mix of both residential and commercial uses with the proposed development. Therefore, during the operational phase the new residents are considered to experience a major positive health impact and existing residents in Broadland and Norwich are considered to experience minor to moderate positive health impacts as a result of indirect and induced job creation.

PROVISION OF BOTH FORMAL & INFORMAL OPEN SPACE What Will Be Provided and In What Way? 4.165

The proposed development will bring forward 82.51ha of formal and informal green space, including: 

Parks and Gardens/informal/amenity open space: 6ha;

Natural and semi-natural green space (including green corridors): 31.33ha;

Provision for children and young people (stand alone): 1.46ha

Outdoor sports facilities and ‗recreation grounds‘: 12.16ha;

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4.166

Allotment and community gardens: 3.04ha;

Additional Parks & Plantation and Distributed Green Spaces: 28.52ha;

The proposed development will far exceed the quantity of open space required by policy guidance standards, providing an additional 33.43ha.

4.167

The proposed development includes for up to 13 football equivalent pitches, up to 9 pairs of tennis courts, 9 bowling greens and 9 multi-use games areas (MUGAs), supported by up to 9 sets of changing facilities and associated parking.

4.168

Up to 34 Local Areas of Play (LAPs), 17 Local Equipped Areas of Play (LEAPs) and 3 Neighbourhood Equipped Areas of Play (NEAPs) are also to be provided.

4.169

There is to be a minimum of 1.84ha of allotments and community gardens distributed across the application site, with the specific provision of 1.2ha of additional land allocated to extend the existing allotments at Sprowston. What Does The Evidence Base Show?

4.170

Mood, emotion and psychological well-being are positively affected by participation in physical activity, sport and exercise, according to research33.

4.171

Access to open space can increase the level of exercise undertaken in a community, thereby making a contribution to reducing levels of obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and arthritis – this impact on levels of exercise is most likely to be experienced by children . It follows that the location in which activity takes place is 42

also going to have an effect. There are numerous examples of how access to nature can work as a stress reliever33. In particular, a reduction in stress related problems can be contributed to through access to open space increasing the level of social contact and interaction 4.172

42

.

Further, ‗a destruction of public space… derives from and reinforces a loss of publicspiritedness’31, and limits the ability of public landscapes and parks to act as social safety-valves, mixing classes and ethnicities in common recreations and enjoyments31.

4.173

People who can see trees or green space from their home report higher levels of health and well-being, and children who have access to, or sight of, the natural environment have higher levels of attention than those who do not 23. A Danish study found a correlation between the distance from home to green space and stress levels for all groups. For younger people, a similar correlation was observed between distance to green space and obesity33.

4.174

Access to nature can also have a marked effect on people recovering from illness. While there is not necessarily a correlation between one‘s well-being and being ‗cured‘, it is plain that how someone feels is important to his or her recovery. Interacting with nature and natural surroundings makes people feel better, according to a study in San

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Francisco of people actively using hospital gardens in their recovery process. This is a crucial consideration for our increasingly ageing population33. 4.175

However, it should also be noted that criminal, social or psychological aggression, drug abuse and conduct offences can take place in green spaces42, it is therefore important that there is an open and green space strategy that addresses these issues which carry a disbenefit or harm to health and well-being. The London Health Commission (LHC) advises that the health benefits of parks and open spaces outweigh the disbenefits if there are policies and management practices in place to overcome such barriers as fears about safety; and to maximise potential health benefits . 43

Who Will Be Affected? 

Vulnerable groups in the population;

New residents of the proposed development; and

Existing residents in Broadland and Norwich.

How Will These People Be Affected? Vulnerable groups in the population 4.176

The elderly, the young and those suffering from long-term illness are all likely to particularly benefit from the provision of green open space within the proposed development based on the evidence base.

4.177

Given the aging nature of Broadland‘s existing population and the location of two primary schools, crèche facilities and a health centre within the proposed development there is a likelihood that at least two of these vulnerable groups will be present. Such vulnerable groups are likely to experience improved mental well-being just from being within visual proximity of green space and improved physical fitness as a result of exercise and other activities undertaken within the green space. New Residents of the Proposed Development

4.178

New residents of the proposed development will experience further health and wellbeing impacts as a result of the provision of private amenity space in the form of balconies and gardens. This will ensure the psychological benefits that a view point of green space provides are experienced and additionally, provide an area for private recreation for the households living on the proposed development, which is considered to be health promoting, in addition to those health benefits already discussed in relation to vulnerable groups.

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Existing residents in Broadland and Norwich 4.179

Existing residents in Broadland and Norwich are also likely to benefit from the provision of green open space within the proposed development due to the large scale of the space provided. It is likely to attract people to use it from a catchment beyond that of the application site and as a result the physical and mental well-being benefits associated with the enjoyment of green space are likely to be experienced by existing residents also. Conclusions

4.180

The main beneficiaries in terms of health and well-being from the provision of formal and informal open space will be the new residents (including vulnerable groups within those residents), who are considered likely to experience a major positive health impact as a result of not just the communal and publicly accessible open space but who will also benefit from the provision of private amenity space which is considered health promoting both psychologically and physically. The existing local community will also experience the benefits that improved access to open space can provide with regards to exercise, social mixing, cohesiveness and sense of community and this is considered to be a moderate positive health impact.

PROVISION OF GOOD & SUITABLE FOOD ACCESS What Will Be Provided and In What Way? 4.181

With regard to the provision of good and suitable food access the proposed development will: 

Deliver a thriving food culture through an integrated system of production, processing, consumption, disposal and education;

Minimise loss of agricultural soil and land for food production;

Increase local food production by individuals, community groups and small businesses;

Enable local food businesses (growers, cafes, restaurants) within the proposed development to thrive;

Reduce household and commercial food waste and increase the level of composting.

4.182

The applicant has identified a number of specific proposals to facilitate this within the proposed development, with the intention to work with the community, local businesses and other partners over time and further develop this vision.

4.183

The key provisions for food production, processing, consumption, disposal and education within the proposed development are:

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Red Hall Farm: a centre for food and rural activity will be developed within the existing farmhouse and outbuildings at Red Hall Farm with the addition of a complex

of

small-scale

office,

workshop

and

retail

spaces.

Activities

accommodated within the complex could include a farm shop(s), small-scale food processing (e.g. microbrewery, preserving), equestrian activities, community garden centre, cafe and an interpretation and education centre. Additional space for agriculture will include an area of allotments plus potential for grazing in the parkland to the south, more intensive food production in glasshouses and demonstration plots showing residents and visitors what and how to grow seasonal produce; 

Allotments and community food growing areas: comprising 1.84ha of new allotments and community food growing areas and a 1.2ha extension to the existing allotment site at Sprowston. These formally designated growing spaces are distributed throughout the development to ensure that all new homes are within walking distance. A range of management regimes will be considered for all allotment sites, drawing inspiration from local best practice examples such as the Bluebell Allotments in Norwich;

Reuse of existing agricultural Grade 2 soil: Grade 2 agricultural topsoil currently covering a large proportion of the site will be moved for reuse in allotments, landscaped areas and gardens with appropriate soil handling procedures in place during construction;

Forest garden: building on the traditional idea of community orchards, the proposed development will provide areas of forest garden within the new planted buffer at Beeston Park and along Beeston Park Lane Park. These will combine fruit and nut trees with additional layers of vegetables, productive shrubs and herbs to provide a highly productive woodland area for all the community to enjoy;

Edible landscape: a network of fruit and nut trees and plants running through the development including on-street planting, street trees, forest garden and newly planted parkland areas. This can be linked to a programme of education around consumption of food, providing guidance on what, when and how to eat the produce on offer;

Small scale growing: food growing in gardens, on roofs and on balconies will be considered as part of the proposed development‘s Design Code and developed during detailed design, including a requirement to reuse of Grade 2 agricultural topsoil in gardens;

Irrigation: water for irrigation of crops in the communal areas will be collected by a rainwater harvesting ring; potential for individual rainwater harvesting units will be considered at detailed design; and

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Small food business opportunities: small-scale business spaces will be available throughout the development including the potential for smaller food businesses to operate around Red Hall Farm.

4.184

In addition to the specific measures allowed for, a range of other opportunities for food within the proposed development will also be explored at a more detailed level of design and planning, and over time: 

Local processing, distribution and consumption of local food: facilities at the proposed development will provide opportunity to develop a local market for the processing, distribution and consumption of food produced from within the development, Norwich and Norfolk through small businesses and community operations. These might be in the form of farmers markets, box schemes, farm shops or a microbrewery using excess heat from the site‘s energy centre;

Schools and community buildings: a strong component of education around the use of local, seasonal food could come from food production initiatives within school and community buildings and their grounds;

Public demonstration plots: temporary and permanent demonstration plots at Red Hall Farm and within key public spaces such as the Main Square would provide an opportunity for community education around food; neighbourhood spaces such as pocket parks may also be brought forward as food growing projects by the local community;

Rooftop food growing: in addition to food growing on individual roofs, larger scale or community initiatives may be embraced on commercial buildings within the proposed development, for example, associated with larger retail units in the Main Square;

Beeston Hall: the listed wall at Beeston Hall may provide the opportunity for a feature walled garden linking to other agricultural uses in Beeston Park such as grazing in the parkland area and forest garden around the edge.

4.185

The location of the proposed development on the urban fringe, close to both farming land and an urban population also provides the opportunity for a larger scale initiative on land outside of the application site, on the Beeston Estate. Such an initiative aiming to improve the sustainability and productivity of existing farmland and increase the opportunity value of the surrounding land – for biodiversity, leisure and education – would be well placed to link with the food and farming hub within the proposed development and make the most of the diverse range of marketplaces, opportunities for food chain collaboration and direct selling to consumers. What Does The Evidence Base Show?

4.186

Human diet and nutrition has long been known to influence health outcomes. The nutritional quality of dietary intake is strongly patterned socioeconomically. A range of

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nutritional deficits, judged by current national recommendations in the UK, are more commonly found among those in lower socioeconomic groups, as well as among the elderly, teenagers, young adults and men . 44

4.187

Many factors are known to contribute to dietary behaviour at a household or ‗family‘ level, including disposable income; gender; the knowledge and skills of those purchasing, preparing, storing and serving food; influences such as advertising; and practical constraints within the household such as the availability and adequacy of facilities for preparation, cooking, cold and dry storage, and the consumption of food 44.

4.188

The effects of poverty, and especially unemployment, have very different effects upon diet and obesity in poor as compared to affluent areas; and in poorer areas, time limitations upon households operate so as to worsen the diet of those in low-paid work. This implies that dietary improvement initiatives aimed at the less well-off should aim for a compromise between health and convenience; otherwise such initiatives will merely widen health inequalities . 45

4.189

A study of older people maintaining allotments in Northern England identified a sense of achievement, satisfaction and aesthetic pleasure gained from the gardening activity. Communal gardening on allotment sites was found to be beneficial as it creates inclusionary spaces in which people may benefit from gardening activity in a mutually supportive

environment

that

combats

social

isolation

and

contributes to

the

development of social networks. By enhancing the quality of life and emotional wellbeing of people, communal gardening sites offer one practical way in which it may be possible to develop a ‗therapeutic landscape‘ . 46

Who Will Be Affected? 

Vulnerable groups in the population;

New residents of the proposed development; and

Existing residents in Broadland and Norwich.

How Will These People Be Affected? Vulnerable groups in the population 4.190

As identified within the evidence base, communal gardening can act as a ‗therapeutic landscape‘ and can improve both the quality of life and emotional well-being of people, as well as having physical exercise benefits. Gardening as therapy is a well-recognised tool and the proposed development‘s plethora of communal gardening, allotments, roof gardens and forest gardens offer numerous opportunities for many vulnerable groups to benefit, from children and the elderly to those with learning disabilities, physical disabilities or mental health problems would all benefit from such provision.

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4.191

In addition, the local availability and good accessibility of fresh fruit and vegetables is also likely to have beneficial effects in terms of dietary improvements. Particularly when coupled with the educational aspects that are proposed. New residents of the proposed development

4.192

It is considered that new residents of the proposed development will experience the same benefits as identified in relation to vulnerable groups above. Existing residents in Broadland and Norwich

4.193

As the proposed development includes for the extension of an existing allotment at Sprowston by 1.2ha, it is considered that existing residents in this area will benefit significantly in health terms from the proposed development as the increased size of the allotments will allow more members of the existing community to participate.

4.194

In addition, the proposals to potentially provide at a later date facilities for the local processing, distribution and consumption of local food: across Norwich and Norfolk through small businesses and community operations, will also benefit the existing local residents through an extended supply of fresh local produce with associated dietary benefits. Conclusions

4.195

The proposed development will have significant health benefits including both physical and mental well-being associated with gardening, the sense of achievement of growing your own produce and the dietary benefits associated with a balanced diet incorporating appropriate proportions of fruit and vegetables. These impacts are considered to be a major positive health impact for new residents, particularly those within vulnerable groups. It is also considered that the existing residents will experience a moderate positive health impact as a result of the increased allotment provision at Sprowston and also the introduction of new food outlets providing fresh and local produce.

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5.0

IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTHY URBAN PLANNING

5.1

The influx of a new population within the proposed development will increase the demand for services, utilities and facilities. If increased demand is not met appropriately, then access to these services, facilities and utilities will be compromised for new residents and possibly for existing communities.

INCREASED DEMAND FOR SERVICES 5.2

Good local services are essential for quality of life and the willingness of people to stay and invest in an area – they are central to sustainable communities.

Health Services 5.3

High-quality local health and social services provide vital sources of support, treatment and preventative services for the community23. GP Surgeries

5.4

Chapter 13.0: Socio-Economic of the ES identified capacity for an additional 2,942 patients on the lists of the three local GP surgeries, when measured against the best practice ratio of 1,800 patients per GP.

5.5

Applying this ratio (1,800 patients per GP) to the proposed development‘s population (7,678 persons) identifies a final need for 5 GPs. However, due to the phasing of the development, the full five GPs are not needed until year 19 or approximately 2033. The proposed development will not fill the capacity of a full GP until Year 5 (2019) when the need would arise for a second GP. Therefore, as there is sufficient capacity in the local area to support 2,942 people, it is considered likely that GP facilities within the proposed development would not need to be brought forward until Year 5 of the development (2019), when the need will arise for a second GP. Up to this point, the existing capacity in the local area could support the proposed development‘s population. The proposed development includes proposals for a health centre, which would accord with the GNDP Local Investment Plan and Programme (LIPP) identified 47

requirement for a Primary Care Centre with 5 GPs. Dentists 5.6

Chapter 13.0: Socio-Economic of the ES identified that it is likely that there is limited existing capacity available in proximity to the application site and that this could not be relied upon.

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5.7

The GNIN Study22 sets out a capacity threshold for dentists at 2,000 patients per dentist. Applying this to the total population (7,678) of the proposed development identifies a need for 3.84 dentists, which would be rounded to 4.

5.8

After the initial need for a dentist in the first year of the development, an additional dentist isnâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;t required until Year 6 (2020), with subsequent demand warranting further dentists in Years 11 (2025), and 16 (2030).

5.9

The proposed development includes for the provision for a health centre including dental facilities with four dentists. Therefore, this would address the demand generated by the proposed development. Health Centre Timing

5.10

It is recommended that as demand for both GPs and dentists only increases to the provision of an additional two practitioners each in Year 5/Year 6 (2019/2020) that this would be the most suitable point for the health centre to be brought forward. This would enable the centre to gain critical mass to enable the facility to be occupied without staff being employed prior to the demand being there for their services.

5.11

However, as existing dentistry services are currently stretched, interim service cover may be necessary for the first phases of the proposed development prior to the health centre being brought forward, to prevent any detrimental impacts on access to existing dentistry services. Secondary & Acute Care

5.12

The GNIN Study22 sets out the current regional standards that should be maintained to ensure a continued appropriate level of secondary and acute care provision, these have been applied to the total final population of the proposed development (7,678) to identify the final total numbers of beds needed in Table 5.1 below. The only exception is the geriatric beds ratio which has been applied to the final populationâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s retirement age groups only (769 persons). Table 5.1 Secondary and Acute Care Provision â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Population to Available Beds Facility Type

Acute Hospital Beds

Proposed Development Beds Needed

664

11.6

Other Beds: Geriatric

361 (retirement age only)

2.1

Other Beds: Maternity

7,325

1.1

Other Beds: Mental Illness

2,150

3.6

12,397

0.6

Other Beds: Learning Disability

84

Regional Population to Bed Ratio

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5.13

Such provision would be addressed though the provision of a financial contribution to ensure that adequate provision of secondary care was secured for the new residents of the proposed development and so that existing residents in Broadland and Norwich were not affected by the development proposals.

Emergency Services 5.14

The emergency services are commonly referred to as the front-line in tackling health issues. Whether dealing with the mental anguish that crimes may cause, rescuing casualties trapped in road traffic accidents or providing first response care to heart attack victims, the emergency services represent a vital link in both prevention but also rapid response to health dis-benefits. As such, the emergency services are a vital consideration for any new development. Police

5.15

The Greater Norwich Infrastructure Needs & Funding Study

48

(GNIN) states that

Norfolk Constabularyâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s preferred approach for the expansion of policing within Norfolk is through the Safer Neighbourhood Teams, and there is unlikely to be a requirement for new police stations. 5.16

The

proposed

development

includes

for

the

potential

provision

of

a

Safer

Neighbourhoods Team co-located with the health centre. As such, the need for this service is considered adequately addressed. Fire & Ambulance 5.17

Demand for increased fire and ambulance services is most likely to arise from their need to meet their statutory response times.

5.18

There are six fire stations located within the GNDP area, all of which are well placed to serve the proposed housing growth at the strategic growth locations. Two are located within Norwich and one is strategically located close to the Sprowston/Rackheath development locations.

5.19

Fire service requirements are based on the existing population per fire appliances (both front line and reserve pumps) across Broadland, South Norfolk, and Norwich, which currently stands at 12,736 people per appliance.

5.20

The proposed developmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s final total population of 7,678 people would result in a need for 0.6 additional appliances solely based on the existing ratio.

5.21

The single ambulance depot is located in Broadland, towards the north of Norwich. However, there are a number of hospitals which are located close to the growth locations and may provide facilities for ambulance staff.

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5.22

Ambulance requirements are based on the East of England Ambulance Service NHS Trust standard of an additional emergency call‐out per 8 additional residents, which provides an indication of the potential impact on the local ambulance service.

5.23

The proposed development‘s final total population of 7,678 people would result in the potential creation of an additional 960 emergency call outs.

5.24

Due to the nature of fire and ambulance provision, which serves a wide area, requirements are calculated at the district level. The most appropriate method for bringing forward additional facilities will depend on how the fire and ambulance services evolve moving forward. For example, it is unlikely that there will be additional capacity requirements associated with the ambulance service, as the increased demand could potentially be met through the reorganisation of existing provision and the use of strategically located stand‐points or facilities at hospitals. Ambulances may be based at these with limited impact on capital expenditure. Such a means of expanding the service will however have impacts on revenue spending.

5.25

The provision of fire services is more complicated, as fire appliances must be based at stations for much of the time. The existing six fire stations across the GNDP area are well positioned and it may be possible to provide the necessary levels of service from these sites. However, the precise requirements would need to be based on a review of fire service provision across the Norfolk area, particularly the service‘s ability to meet its statutory targets for response times in light of the proposed housing developments.

5.26

Dependent on how the fire and ambulance services evolve, should a need arise for the identified service provision for the proposed development to be met through additional facilities as oppose to a restructuring of the existing services coverage then this would be addressed through an appropriate financial contribution. However, it is not considered likely that this will be required in the initial years of the proposed development as the population will be relatively low.

Education Services 5.27

The proposed development includes for the provision of up to five nurseries of crèches with a preferred capacity of up to 60 children per facility. Therefore, the proposed development will bring forward capacity for 300 early years children, which is considered to meet the early year‘s provision requirements generated by the proposed development upon its completion. However, prior to full occupation there may also be capacity for young children of existing residents in the local community.

5.28

The proposed development will also bring forward two new 2FE primary schools (840 places) that in addition to meeting the demand for primary provision from the proposed development will also have space to accommodate children from the existing local community. Over the short-term, prior to the construction of the new school

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facilities, the proposed development has been identified as having a negligible impact on local school‘s provision due to the existing available capacity within the ES. 5.29

Existing secondary school provision will experience a negligible impact over the shortterm as a result of the initial accommodation of secondary aged children from the proposed development. However, over the long-term as numbers increase, the proposed development is considered to have a minor negative impact on the local secondary schools, increasing to moderate negative by the end of the construction period when full occupation will have occurred and many of the first phases‘ children will have reached secondary age. This has been mitigated through the provision of a financial contribution to secure additional secondary school provision as part of the wider growth triangle proposals.

5.30

Therefore, it is considered that the proposed development will overall have a beneficial impact upon health through the provision of two new primary schools and nursery and crèche facilities.

INCREASED DEMAND FOR FACILITIES 5.31

The proposed development‘s population will generate an additional demand for community facilities as identified below:

5.32

1.44 Swimming Pool Lanes;

2.14 Sports Hall Courts;

468m2 Community Space; and

204m2 Library Space.

Due to the mainly agricultural nature of the application site coverage of by existing facilities provision is limited.

5.33

The proposed development will bring forward a library, internet and information centre to be located within a proposed ‗enterprise hub‘ on the Main Square.

5.34

In addition, further to the public consultation exercises undertaken a wider need was identified for better community hall spaces for existing residents, in addition, to the need

generated

by

the

proposed

development.

Consequently,

the

proposed

development includes for two new community hall facilities, one of which would be located on the Main Square and the second to be located at Church Lane South, to enable accessibility to existing residents in Sprowston. 5.35

The proposed development does not include for the provision of Sports Hall or Swimming Pool facilities. It has been identified in the Growth Triangle Framework Study15 that one sports hall and swimming pool will be co-located with the proposed secondary school identified for the Growth Triangle. Therefore, it is considered that this provision would be likely to address the need identified by the proposed

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development and the applicant would seek to secure such provision through a financial contribution towards the construction of such facilities.

INCREASED DEMAND FOR UTILITIES 5.36

Utilities – energy, water and sanitation (recognised as a primary need within societies) – reflect the provision of elements that are fundamental to survival and would rank at the bottom of Maslow‘s hierarchy of need. A lack of any of these elements in modern UK society is not generally encountered, however; when any of these elements is absent its effects are immediate – for example water shortages during periods of prolonged drought.

5.37

Long-term failure of any of these three utilities can also lead to chronic ill-health through various mechanisms. In the case of water and sanitation this can typically be found in system failures that enable pollutants or disease vectors to affect the human population or food chain. For energy, a long-term system failure would be akin to the circumstances that enable fuel poverty and this aspect has already been addressed within the HIA previously.

5.38

Increased demand for utilities can potentially lead to strain being placed on systems if there is insufficient existing capacity, which, in turn can potentially lead to long-term system failure. As described this can have significant health dis-benefits.

Sewerage & Drainage 5.39

To provide a compliant strategy at this outline stage, the sewerage strategy is based on a ‗business as usual‘ arrangement with Anglian Water, with foul water pumped from the site to a new collector sewer running around the eastern side of Norwich to discharge at the Whitlingham Waste Water Treatment Works (WWTW).

5.40

This is currently the published option preferred by Anglian Water, as set out in the GNDP Outline Water Cycle Study. The treatment works has the capacity and consent in place to receive new flows associated with the proposed development (estimated as 0.9Ml per day) along with the flows generated by the whole North East Norwich Growth Triangle.

5.41

The Whitlingham WWTW has approved discharge consent / environmental permit as well as capacity to ensure that this solution will have no impact on the Broads.

5.42

The topography of the site lends itself to a number of gravity foul water sewers following the natural flow route to avoid unnecessary pumping. There may be a need for small local pumping stations to enable discharge from all sewerage to a single outfall to the east of the development.

5.43

The sewerage network would be phased to suit the phasing of the development although some key collector sewers will be needed to ensure the principle of

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minimising the pumping requirement is maintained. The details of this will be finalised together with the phasing plans at the reserved matters stage. 5.44

This option will require a substantial investment in a new sewer, crossing a number of landholdings on a route of approximately 9km, which is yet to be determined, and a crossing of the River Wensum.

5.45

Initial costings for wastewater infrastructure and contributions have been obtained from Anglian Water and they are considered to be commercially viable.

5.46

While future water treatment and re-use options have not yet been finalised, the applicant is also committed to installing secondary plumbing within homes to allow for future installation of a non-potable supply of water in homes, as and when proposals for a more innovative system are finalised and consented.

5.47

Options for more aspirational wastewater treatment and re-use strategies aiming to work towards water neutrality over time have been explored and modelled in detail. In brief, studies have considered: 

A modular sewage treatment service at or near the existing Rackheath WWTW: this would require the applicant working with the EA to ensure satisfactory Environment Permits for discharge into the nearby water course. Proposals would likely include primary and secondary treatment units and the use of reed beds as tertiary treatment - with an associated beneficial biodiversity impact - to reuse / re-cycle water and reduce effluent discharge; and

Mixing of rainwater from the communal harvesting ring with treated wastewater to provide a low carbon ‗green‘ water supply for non-potable use in irrigation, toilet flushing and washing machines. This will require secondary plumbing within homes and a green water supply network.

5.48

Consequently, it is considered that the proposed development has made adequate provisions for a baseline disposal of waste water and sewage that underlie more aspirational proposals that the applicant remains committed to furthering and implementing during the detailed design process. Thus, it is considered that the potential for sewage failure and associate health dis-benefits is low.

Potable Water 5.49

Anglian Water‘s Water Resources Management Plan (2010) places the development site within Water Resources Zone 8 (WRZ8), which was forecast to have a surplus against target headroom for the period 2005 – 2010 but was forecast to develop a deficit will again during the period 2010 - 2015.

5.50

Anglian Water‘s preferred option for water supply in Norwich and the Broads area (WRZ8) is from groundwater sources as the current abstraction license is not fully utilised. The area relies on water storage within the Chalk aquifer to provide a reliable

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baseflow to the intakes on the River Wensum which are used to supply Norwich, as well as for direct abstraction from Chalk boreholes to supply the city and the rural area around it. The Chalk boreholes have considerable variation in yield and raw water quality. Some require treatment by chlorination only, while others have sophisticated treatment for high nitrate, pesticides, organic solvents or high levels of iron. 5.51

Provision of water supplies to the development under the ‗business as usual‘ strategy have also been agreed with Anglian Water. Once within the site, the effective use of water will be maximised through the investment in communal rainwater harvesting infrastructure.

5.52

The lower than average rainfall in the East Anglia region, compared to England as a whole, is the primary cause of concern for future water resources and has been highlighted in many of the studies already discussed.

5.53

The effects of climate change indicate a reduction of about 20-30% in summer rainfall and a similar increase in winter, i.e. drier summers and wetter winters. The overall quantity of rainfall may stay much the same but the seasonal difference will increase the volumes of storage required. Further analysis of the rainfall intensity will be considered in development of the proposed development‘s future Water Strategy, post application.

5.54

The combination of location and the impact of climate change gives the application site low rainfall characteristics now and in the future with implications for the introduction of on-site rainwater harvesting. Rainwater harvesting is a key part of the water strategy for the development and makes efficiency of water use on site particularly important. Demand modelling has taken into account the impact of low rainfall on this as a non-potable source. As a result, and in order to maximise efficacy and minimise space requirements, a communal harvesting system in a collection ring has been proposed servicing multiple properties.

5.55

Individual rainwater harvesting for each property will also be considered, balancing capital costs with quantity of water available from individual roofs, to satisfy constant daily non-potable household demand to achieve a sustainable solution.

5.56

90

The ‗business as usual‘ scenario will be procured by undertaking the following: 

Water demand: in-home water saving devices, clear water consumption displays;

Water supply: from Heigham Water Treatment Works (WTW);

Water treatment: to Whitlingham Waste Water Treatment Works (WWTW);

Water re-use: rainwater harvesting ring with water feature in Beeston Park;

Surface water: a wide variety of SuDS throughout the development;

Delivery: by Anglian Water.

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5.57

Therefore, it is considered that there will be sufficient potable water for the proposed development and further, that the proposed development will use such water efficiently, ensuring that health dis-benefits as a result of a lack of potable water are unlikely.

Energy 5.58

It is considered that the proposed development will be more energy efficient than a standard Building Regulations compliant scheme as a result of the measures listed in paragraphs 4.66 to 4.69. Further, the proposed development will implement a Smart Grid; an electrical distribution network that has the capacity to manage generation and distribution against demand more effectively.

5.59

Power demand, supply and generation are rarely harmoniously linked. There are, though, elements of smart grid that can be designed into the utility infrastructure from the outset to ensure that the proposed development‘s infrastructure is both ahead of its time in realising the benefits that a local smart grid can bring and resilient to future changes in technology.

5.60

Thus, the proposed development will not only be more efficient in its use of energy but also inherently more sustainable by offering value to the end user through rewarding responsible patters of energy use with lower bills and reducing the need for additional generating capacity.

5.61

In terms of electrical infrastructure, UK Power Networks (UKPN) has noted that there is currently 3MVA capacity within the local Sprowston Primary Substation that may be available to the initial growth of the proposed development. Further capacity would be made available in the strategic primary substation expansion planned at Hurricane Way, Norwich with connection to the application site coming from new 11kV electrical cables.

5.62

National Grid Gas (NGG) has noted that there is an existing Intermediate Pressure gas main running from North West of the application site to the South East. NGG have advised that there is sufficient supply in the intermediate pressure gas main to supply the development.

5.63

From these initial enquiries there appears to be appropriate infrastructure in place or planned for to supply energy from the local grid infrastructure.

5.64

Based on the application site‘s location and the details of the proposed development a suite of ‗effective solutions‘ for the delivery of low carbon energy have been identified. In each case, either community or bespoke application of these technologies or wide spread inclusion may be appropriate with the proposed development with further details to be developed as part of the detailed design. The solutions considered include:

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Photovoltaic (PV) technologies;

Ground source and air source heat pumps;

Air source heating, in particular air to hot water technologies;

Solar water heating (solar thermal) is viable for the majority of housing, with the exception of flats/apartment blocks due to the ratio of available roof space to flats;

Micro gas CHP systems that would replace conventional gas combi boilers;

Domestic biomass boilers to some or all of the properties with links to a local biomass fuel supply network;

Community CHP applications are also potentially viable for areas of high density (typically above 50units/ha or associated with particular building use class with higher heat demands (leisure centres, hotels etc). Bespoke applications of CHP (>1MW) will be considered at the site following further detailed design;

It is also possible to locate gas reciprocating engines within the application site to generate low carbon electricity from natural gas and align to developing smart grid infrastructure to balance generation, supply and demand more efficiently. Where possible low grade waste heat associated with the reciprocating engines would be utilised locally for commercial purposes.

Conclusions 5.65

It is therefore considered that there are sufficient; services, facilities and utilities provision for the proposed development and that such provision will not be at the expense of the local community or result in any health dis-benefits.

5.66

Further, the efficiency measures employed within the proposed development will ensure that the community that develops does so sustainably.

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6.0

POTENTIAL

HEALTH

IMPACTS

ASSOCIATED

WITH

CONSTRUCTION 6.1

There are several potential impacts on health and well-being associated with the construction of the proposed development, which may impact the existing local community and new residents that inhabit the proposed development prior to its full completion. The areas which are considered to potentially have an impact are as follows:

6.2

Transport;

Landscape and visual impact;

Noise and vibration;

Air quality; and

Contaminated land.

For each of the above areas, the associated construction impacts on health and wellbeing are listed below followed by any relevant mitigation measures that will be undertaken to minimise these impacts.

Transport Impact 6.3

In total, traffic increases over the construction phase would be less than 10% with the specific increase in HGV (heavy goods vehicle) traffic less than 30%.

6.4

Impacts of construction traffic on the A5011 Wroxham Road and A1042 Outer Ring Road are considered to be negligible and the sensitivity of the routes is low. Similarly construction impacts on the strategic road network after the completion of the NDR are not significant.

6.5

However, the use of HGVs to bring construction materials on site and demolition waste materials off site may cause some environmental noise and air quality disturbance that may affect health in the following ways: 

Annoyance and quality of life;

Sleep disturbance;

Cardiovascular disease; and

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Mitigation 6.6

Consequently, a Construction Traffic Management Plan (CTMP) will be implemented to manage and monitor the construction traffic to prevent any temporary spikes in construction traffic. The CTMP report details the schedule and phasing of construction, site access and route arrangements for construction materials and identifies further aspects that need to be provided by the contractor/contractors appointed to construct each phase of the development.

6.7

The CTMP will require the contractors to monitor and control the frequency and timing of HGV movements to and from the application site to ensure that deliveries are spread out over the day, and avoid the highway network traffic peaks.

Landscape & Visual Impact Impact 6.8

Key potential visual impacts during construction include: 

Cranes and scaffolding within the landscape/townscape, in particular during the later phases of construction;

The effect of site vehicles and construction traffic within the application site and in the surrounding areas;

Other components of construction, including stockpiles of materials;

Lighting of specific areas such as construction compounds; and

Through the construction phase, the change from an open area to an area of development.

Mitigation 6.9

Whilst the duration of the construction phase in total is understood to be between 15 to 20 years, the visual impacts identified will only occur different discrete locations around the application site as different phases are completed and ultimately, will be temporary in nature.

6.10

Any proposed lighting, will be restricted to the minimum required for construction works and for highway safety requirements, and controlled in order to reduce or prevent light spillage onto adjacent areas. It is also expected that times for on-plot luminance during the construction phase will be controlled to accommodate working hours.

6.11

Night-time lighting impacts will be mitigated by using best practice guidance to reduce light spill and pollution by using horizontally cut-off light fittings at appropriate

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mounting heights for exterior use. Time control lighting (where appropriate) will be specified so that it can be switched off during hours of darkness when it is not needed. 6.12

Thus, the impacts will be limited to amenity impacts that may influence psychological well-being in a minor way through the loss of amenity (paragraph 4.140). However, given full and successful implementation of the proposals the visual amenity will be improved significantly alleviating any temporary negative impacts.

Noise & Vibration Impact 6.13

For each phase, it is expected that demolition and construction will take place according to the following summary process:

6.14

Establishment of site office and safety and security measures;

Demolition of existing buildings and structures (where applicable);

Foundation construction and earthworks; and

Building construction.

The assumed fixed and mobile plant and equipment associated with the development include; excavators, breakers, crushers, dumpers, concrete crushing plant, mobile and tower cranes, compressors, piling rigs (if necessary), power tools and a variety of delivery vehicles.

6.15

General construction site operations would normally take place during the following hours:

6.16

Monday to Friday: 0800-1800 hours;

Saturdays: 0800-1300 hours; and

Sundays and bank holidays: No noisy working.

In day-to-day operations, it is assumed that no activity will be undertaken outside these hours which could be expected to give rise to noise noticeably above current prevailing background noise levels at nearby properties.

6.17

To allow for short- term noisy operations, any one hour period during the working day should not exceed 75dB LAeq,1hr on the redline boundary of the application site.

6.18

The nearest noise sensitive properties are in relatively close proximity to the boundaries of the application site, albeit the site is large and construction activity near to the boundaries will be limited in scope and duration. There are residential properties to the south in Sprowston and Old Catton and also on Buxton Road, North Walsham Road and Wroxham Road. These are residential receptors which are considered to be of medium sensitivity. The noise effects from demolition and construction activities could be at least 10 dB in excess of the guideline thresholds without mitigation, and

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this would have a Major Negative impact without proper controls in place to mitigate these effects, but would be temporary or short-term in duration. 6.19

Vibration may be detectable at nearby residences, especially during any piling operations. However, it is uncommon for the development of residential or mixed-use developments to be such that vibration levels are high enough to cause building damage in the surrounding area. The levels required to be generated before structural damage occurs are high, and are unlikely to be reached with the proposals to agree limits with the local authority and monitor levels. The effect, where vibration during piling is detectable, is therefore considered Moderate Negative.

6.20

Noise impacts are considered to affect health in the ways listed in paragraphs 4.103 to 4.107. Mitigation

6.21

Best practicable means of preventing, reducing and minimising noise will be adopted in agreement with the local authority. It is possible that this aspect of the works could be regulated by an agreement under Section 61 of the Control of Pollution Act 1974, or by planning conditions. This would enable agreement on construction equipment, construction methods, working hours, construction traffic routing etc. to be reached between the Contractor and the local authority in advance of any construction works commencing.

6.22

Good practice procedures will be followed in order to mitigate noise effects. Typical measures include: 

Use of hoarding around active construction areas of each phase to assist in the screening of noise;

Hydraulic demolition and construction to be used in preference to percussive techniques where practical (the assessment assumes a worst-case percussive technique);

All plant and equipment to be used for the works will be properly maintained, silenced where appropriate and operated to prevent excessive noise and switched off when not in use and where practicable;

Plant will be certified to meet relevant current legislation and Noise and Vibration Control on Construction and Open Sites (BS 5228) standards;

All trade contractors will be made familiar with current noise legislation and the guidance in BS 5228 (Parts 1 and 2) which will form a prerequisite of their appointment;

Loading and unloading of vehicles, dismantling of equipment such as scaffolding or moving equipment or materials around the site will be conducted in such a manner as to minimise noise generation;

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Deviation from approved method statements will be permitted only with prior approval from the Principle Contractor and other relevant parties. This will be facilitated by formal review before any deviation is undertaken;

Noise complaints or exceeding of action levels will be reported to the Contractor and immediately investigated; and

 6.23

Wherever possible, plant and equipment will be switched off when not in use.

Further, best practicable means of preventing, reducing and minimising vibration will be adopted in agreement with the local authority.

6.24

Further, the use of the Considerate Contractors Scheme (CCS) code of practice will be adhered to, which will help to mitigate construction phase noise though the application of best practice.

Air Quality Impact 6.25

Dust emissions during construction will depend on the scale of the works, method of construction, construction materials and duration of build.

6.26

Dust effects are anticipated as a result of the earthworks and construction phase of the proposed development, particularly on the southern boundary due to the close proximity of residential properties. A ‗High‘ risk of impacts is likely to occur during phases that are located close to the southern boundary of the site.

6.27

Due to the occupation of earlier phases prior to the completion of later phases, a number of these new properties will be close to subsequent development areas, and therefore, the risk of effects is considered to remain ‗High‘ even when construction moves away from the southern boundary.

6.28

Factors influencing the degree of trackout and associated magnitude of effect include vehicle size, vehicle speed, vehicle numbers, geology and duration.

6.29

As a general guide, significant trackout may occur up to 500m from large sites (as measured from the site exit) which , the application site is considered to be based on the number of vehicles involved and the size of the site. Therefore, trackout is likely to cause significant impact from dust emissions for up to 500m from the site entrances.

6.30

Consequently, given the close proximity of receptors to the adjacent road network there is considered to be a ‗High‘ risk of impacts as a result of trackout.

6.31

As previously stated, the COMEAP37 states that air pollution can: 

Have short- and long-term damaging effects on health;

Worsen the condition of people who already have respiratory or cardiovascular disease;

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6.32

Aggravate asthma; and

In the long-term, reduce average life expectancy.

Specifically, dust particles of the size usually generated during construction pose a small or negligible biological hazard, though the volume of particulate may still have a large impact on people‘s well-being; potentially causing stress through the increased dust entering homes and depositing on clothes40. Mitigation

6.33

It is recommended that the following 'best practice' measures be implemented, as appropriate during the construction phase: 

Ensure effective site planning locating layout machinery and dust causing activities away from sensitive receptors;

Erect solid screens or barriers around the redline boundary of the application site where possible, in particular along those boundaries running adjacent to existing residential properties i.e. the southern boundary of the site;

Ensure bulk cement and other fine powder materials are delivered in enclosed tankers and stored in silos with suitable emissions control systems;

Vehicles carrying loose aggregate and workings should be sheeted at all times;

All vehicles should switch of engines when not in use i.e. no idling vehicles should occur on-site;

All vehicles should be effectively washed or cleaned before leaving the application site;

Install a wheel washing system;

No site runoff of water or mud should be allowed;

Stockpiles should be kept for the shortest time possible and if necessary, the use of sprinklers and hoses for dampening of exposed soil and materials should be employed;

Observation of wind speed and direction prior to conducting dust-generating activities to determine the potential for dust nuisance to occur, avoiding potentially dust-generating activities during periods when wind direction may carry dust into sensitive areas and avoiding dust-generating operations during periods of high or gusty winds;

Stockpiles of soils and materials should be located as far as possible from sensitive properties, taking account of prevailing wind directions and seasonal variations in the prevailing wind;

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Completed earthworks should be covered or vegetated as soon as is practicable;

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Regular inspection and, if necessary, cleaning of local highways and site boundaries to check for dust deposits (and removal if necessary);

Visual inspection of site perimeter to check for dust deposition (evident as soiling and marking) on vegetation, cars and other objects and taking remedial measures if necessary;

Minimise surface areas of stockpiles (subject to health and safety and visual constraints regarding slope gradients and visual intrusion) to reduce area of surfaces exposed to wind pick-up;

Use of dust-suppressed tools for all operations;

Avoid dry sweeping of large areas;

Install hard surface haul routes through the application site, which are regularly damped down with fixed or mobile and regularly cleans;

Ensure low vehicle speeds across the site at all times;

Ensure that all construction plant and equipment is maintained in good working order; and

 6.34

No unauthorised burning of any material anywhere on-site.

Construction vehicles should be kept clean and sheeted when on public highways. Timing of large-scale vehicle movements to avoid peak hours on the local road network will also be beneficial.

6.35

It is recommended that liaison with the Local Authority be maintained throughout the construction process, and any incidents which lead to excessive elevation of dust deposition and/or PM10 concentrations at neighbouring sensitive receptors are reported to the Environmental Health Department. If complaints are received from local residents, these will be documented in a diary or log held on site by the Site Manager. A nominated member of the construction team (e.g. Site Manager) will also act as a point of contact for residents who may be concerned about elevated deposition of dust.

6.36

The overall significance of potential dust impacts is considered to be Negligible following the implementation of appropriate and best practice mitigation measures as detailed above.

Contaminated Land Impact Human Health 6.37

The proposed development and its surroundings represent a high sensitivity environment with respect to human health, due to the presence of residential properties and public open space.

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6.38

The construction activities will include significant disturbance of the ground during earthworks and installation of foundations, with associated dust generation. Although significant widespread contamination is unlikely to exist, the magnitude of the potential impact is estimated as moderate due to the uncertainty with regards to the level of the contamination in discrete areas, and without the benefit of any mitigation measures in place.

6.39

The overall significance of the effect on human health is estimated as Moderate Negative. Controlled Waters

6.40

The application site and it surroundings represent a high sensitivity environment with respect to controlled waters due to the presence of Secondary and Principal Aquifers beneath the site.

6.41

The foundation solution for the proposed development has not yet been confirmed, however, both foundations and earthworks have the potential to disturb and mobilise any potential contaminants and may increase a vertical migration due to generation of preferential pathways into perched groundwater. In addition, potential leakages or spillage of stored fuels and chemicals in the construction site during earthworks could lead to the release of contaminants that may migrate to controlled waters. Although it is anticipated that concentrations of contaminants in the soil are low, site-specific ground investigation is not currently present (although is planned as part of the mitigation strategy), and uncertainty exists with regards to the potential presence of contamination and its leachability in discrete areas and therefore the magnitude of the potential impact is estimated as minor.

6.42

The overall significance of the effect of construction works on contamination impact to controlled waters is estimated as Minor Negative.

6.43

In England contaminated land is defined as: â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;land which appears to the local authority in whose area it is situated to be in such a condition, by reason of substances in, on or under the land, that (a) significant harm is being caused or there is a significant possibility of such harm being caused; or (b) pollution of controlled waters is being, or is likely to be, caused.â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

6.44

50

Land contamination is primarily a legacy of our industrial heritage. Contamination occurs through the deliberate or accidental release of chemicals, or by historical adherence to standards which are no longer believed to be sufficient to protect human health. Although there is now a much greater understanding of the environmental impacts of industry, land is still becoming contaminated through the accidental release of chemicals and other human activities (anthropogenic sources). Therefore, it is

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important to acknowledge that this represents an on-going threat to human health, rather than just a legacy issue. Mitigation 6.45

A ground investigation will be undertaken to investigate the ground conditions at the site. A Ground Contamination Interpretative Report will be prepared, a subsequent risk management strategy will be developed, and a remediation method statement produced where required on completion of the ground investigation to address any pollutant linkages identified.

6.46

A Demolition/Refurbishment Asbestos Survey will be undertaken to identify the presence or absence of any Asbestos Containing Materials (ACMs) within existing site structures. Any ACMs will be removed by appropriate licensed specialist prior to any demolition and substructure construction.

6.47

The following measures detailing provisions for environmental protection will be included in the Construction Environmental Management Plan (CEMP) and followed during construction: 

Measures for the management of site drainage accidental spills and storage of materials

to

establishment

prevent of

pollution

emergency

of

surface

response

and

ground

procedures

in

water

accordance

(including with

EA

guidelines and provision and maintenance of spill containment equipment); 

Risk to construction workers to be dealt with by the Principal Contractor. The Contractor will be responsible for site health and safety and will manage the risk through control of suitable Health and Safety measures including provision of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), education of the workforce and inductions for all site staff and visitors;

Good site practice measures with regards to the on-site storage, handling and transfer of fuels, chemicals and waste material;

Adherence to EA Pollution Prevention Guidelines;

Regulation of Health and Safety Rules including provision welfare facilities;

A Material Management Plan will be put in place for managing all excavated soils prior to transfer to a treatment centre, disposal by a suitably licensed contractor or re-use on-site. All copies of the paper work and transfer notes will be retained on-site;

Verification testing will be carried out for landscape areas and imported materials; and

An environmental watching brief during site enabling works in key areas where contamination is suspected or known.

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7.0

CONCLUSIONS

7.1

It is considered that the proposed development will be health and well-being promoting in a number of ways for both the new residents and the existing local residents. It is also important to note that these benefits will be both physical and psychological and will often be of the greatest benefit to the most vulnerable groups.

7.2

Baseline conditions may improve within the local area as a result of the proposed development for example; deprivation may be alleviated as a result of the proposed developments affordable housing component, and the provision of secure open spaces and greater accessibility to open spaces for the wider community may also be considered to be health promoting in terms of both physical and psychological wellbeing.

7.3

However, it should be noted that health impacts are typically of a compound nature and no single impact should be addressed without reference to other impacts that may be attributable. Further, there is a danger of addressing symptoms rather than the root causes of health impacts. By seeking to undertake this health impact assessment prior to the construction of the proposed development, the Applicant has sought to identify, address and mitigate any root causes that may be generated from the proposed development, in addition to enhancing any positive impacts. Nevertheless, root causes already in existence within the local area should not be attributed to the proposed development and should be assessed and mitigated accordingly by the relevant bodies.

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8.0

ABBREVIATIONS ACM

Asbestos Containing Materials

AHS

Average Household Size

AQMA

Air Quality Management Area.

ASHE

Annual Survey Hours & Earnings

BAME

Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic

BDC

Broadland District Council

CCG

Clinical Commissioning Group

CCO

Confluence of Criminal Opportunity

CCS

Considerate Constructorâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s Scheme

CEMP

Construction Environmental Management Plan

CHP

Combined Heat and Power

COMEAP

Committee on the Medical Effects of Air Pollutants

CPDA

Crime Prevention Design Advisor

CTMP

Construction Transport Management Plan

EA

Environment Agency

EIA

Environmental Impact Assessment

ES

Environmental Statement

ESA

Employment and Support Allowance

EWD

Excess Winter Deaths

FE

Form of Entry

FSM

Free School Meals

FTE

Full Time Equivalent

GIA

Gross Internal Area

GNDP

Greater Norwich Development Partnership

GNHP

Greater Norwich Housing Partnership

GNIN Study

Greater Norwich Infrastructure Needs & Funding Study

GP

General Practitioner

Ha

Hectares

HGV

Heavy Goods Vehicle

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104

HIA

Health Impact Assessment

HPA

Health Protection Agency

IMD

Indices of Multiple Deprivation

JCS

Joint Core Strategy

JSNA

Joint Strategic Needs Assessment

LBII

Local Basket of Inequality Indicators

LAP

Local Area of Play

LEA

Local Education Authority

LEAP

Local Equipped Area of Play

LHC

London Health Commission

LSOA

Lower Layer Super Output Area

MSOA

Medium Layer Super Output Area

NCC

Norwich City Council

NDR

Northern Distributor Route

NEAP

Neighbourhood Equipped Area of Play

NHS

National Health Service

NHSCR

National Health Service Central Register

NIA

Net Internal Area

NINOs

New National Insurance Number Registrations

NO2

Nitrogen Dioxide

NPPF

National Planning Policy Framework

NS&OC

North Sprowston & Old Catton

OA

Output Area

ONS

Office of National Statistics

OPA

Outline Planning Application

PCT

Primary Care Trust

PM10

Particulate Matter

PPE

Personal Protective Equipment

PRDS

Patient Register Data Service

SMR

Standardised Mortality Rate

SNUB

Stop Norwich Urbanisation

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SPD

Supplementary Planning Document

STIs

Sexually Transmitted Infections

SuDS

Sustainable Drainage Systems

WHO

World Health Organisation

WWTW

Waste Water Treatment Works

– END –

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9.0

1

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50

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APPENDIX 1.0 HEALTH SUMMARY SPINE CHART

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