Page 1


Illustrated Building Pocket Book


For my parents with gratitude and love


Illustrated Building Pocket Book Second Edition

Roxanna McDonald

AMSTERDAM • BOSTON • HEIDELBERG • LONDON • OXFORD • NEW YORK • PARIS • SAN DIEGO • SAN FRANCISCO • SINGAPORE • SYDNEY • TOKYO

Butterworth-Heinemann is an imprint of Elsevier


Butterworth-Heinemann is an imprint of Elsevier Ltd Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP 30 Corporate Road, Burlington, MA 01803 First edition 1999 Reprinted 2000, 2001, 2003, 2004 Second edition 2007 Copyright Š 1999, 2007, Roxanna McDonald. Published by Elsevier Limited. All rights reserved The right of Roxanna McDonald to be identified as the author of this work has been asserted in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988 No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior written permission of the publisher Permission may be sought directly from Elsevier’s Science & Technology Rights Department in Oxford, UK: phone (+44) (0) 1865 843830; fax (+44) (0) 1865 853333; email: permissions@elsevier.com. Alternatively you can submit your request online by visiting the Elsevier web site at http://elsevier.com/locate/permissions, and selecting Obtaining permission to use Elsevier material

Notice No responsibility is assumed by the publisher for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any methods, products, instructions or ideas contained in the material herein. Because of rapid advances in the medical sciences, in particular, independent verification of diagnoses and drug dosages should be made British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISBN 13: 978-0-75-068015-8 ISBN 10: 0-75-068015-6

For information on all Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann publications visit our website at www.books.elsevier.com Typeset by Cepha Ltd Printed and bound in Great Britain 07 08 09 10 11

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


Contents Foreword Preface

xii xv

Acknowledgements

xvii

About the author

xix

I. GENERAL ARCHITECTURE Design Module proportions 3 Dimensional coordination 4 Drawing representation 5 Volumes and shapes 6

Drawing techniques Drawing practice – dimensions, grid lines 7 Drawing practice – scale and representation 8 Drawing equipment 9 Drawing instruments 10 Computer drawing 11

Building types Classical temple 16 The Classical orders 17 Classical ornament and enrichment 18 Mediaeval ornament 19 Mediaeval castle 20 Styles compared 21 Timber framed buildings 22 Typical parish church 23 Gothic cathedral 24 Traditional house 25


Mass-produced house 26 Residential buildings 27 Rural buildings 31 Traditional farm buildings 32

Elements Entrances 33 Outside/inside 36 Traditional windows 37

II. CONTROLS Legal aspects English land law 41 Sunlight and daylight 42

Administration Planning control 43 Planning approvals 44 Construction control 45 Building control in London 46

III. CONSTRUCTION PROCESS Financial aspects Development 49 Development funding methods 50 Estimating and cost control 51

Project execution Project design 52 Project construction 53 Building contracts 54


IV. THE BUILDING SITE General Setting out 57 Accurate survey 58 Survey equipment 59 Non-destructive survey: method 1 60 Non-destructive survey: method 2 61 Plant and equipment – cranes 62 Plant and equipment – excavation 63 Scaffolding – patent 64 Scaffolding – independent 65 Concrete plant 66 Power tools 67 Soldering 68 Tools 69

V. THE BUILDING FABRIC Foundations Strip foundations 73 Stepped foundations 74 Continuous column foundations 75 Piled foundations 76 Retaining walls 77 Steel column foundations 78 Shoring and underpinning 79

Superstructure – external walls Brick wall construction 80 Brickwork 81 Bonding of brickwork 82 Brick arcade 83 Brick types 84 Effects of damp 85 Stone 86 Stone façade 87 Stone walling 88


Ashlar 89 Cladding 90 Curtain wall cladding 91 GRC cladding 92

Superstructure – internal walls Partitions 93 Interior 96

Superstructure – roofs Construction: Pitched roof construction 97 Types of pitched roofs 98 Traditional timber roof types 99 Trusses 100 Bolt and connector trusses 102 Lean-to half truss 103 Truss rafter assembly 104 Carpentry joints 106 Cross timber joints 107 Traditional scarf joints 108 Timber mouldings 110 Flat roofs 111 Roof coverings: Roof covering types 112 Slate 113 Plain tiling 114 Pantiling 115 Thatch 116 Traditional timber shingles 117 Roof openings and weatherproofing: Roof openings 118 Dormer windows 119 Skylights 120 Chimneys 121 Weatherproofing – lead sheet 122 Weatherproofing – flashings and aprons 123 Lightning conductor 124 Rainwater pipes 125


Superstructure – stairs Types of staircases 126 Traditional timber staircases 127 Special stairs and escalators 128 Lifts 129

Superstructure – chimneys Fireplaces 130 Fireplace accessories 131

Superstructure – floors Timber floor construction 132 Timber floors – trimmed opening 133 Trimming to timber floors 134 Panel and angle joints 135 Concrete floors 136 Reinforced concrete floors 137 Ceilings – timber joists 138 Suspended ceilings 139 Space for services 140 Raised floors 141

Superstructure – openings in walls Doors 142 Traditional windows – sash 146 Traditional windows – casement 147 Ironmongery – knobs and latches 148 Ironmongery – bolts and handles 149 Ironmongery – locks 150 Ironmongery – hinges 151

Superstructure – fixings Metal fixings – ties 152 Metal fixings – joist hangers 153 Metal components – expanded steel mesh 154 Metal components – lintels 155


Nails and screws 156 Bolts and plugs 157

Finishes Plasterwork tools 158 Wattle and daub 159 Stucco 160 Decorative plasterwork 161 Interior walls – dry lining 162 Timber finishes 163 Panelling 164 Carpets 165

Glazing Stained glass 166 Flat glass 167 Glazing systems 168

Services – drainage and plumbing Drainage 169 Underground drainage 170 Plumbing, water supply and waste systems 171 Sanitary pipework 172 Lavatory pans and cisterns 173 Plumbing connections 174 Water heating 175

Services – electrical Electricity – supply and wiring 176 Electricity – accessories 177 Electricity – track wiring 178 Outdoor lighting 179 Electrical fitting 180 Electricity – lightbulbs 181


Services – heating Heating systems 182 Central heating – hot water 183 Radiators 184 Air conditioning 185

External works/landscaping Earthworks – kerbs 186 Irrigation and screening 187 Fencing 188 Trees 189 Grading, turf laying 190 Plant care, outbuildings 191

VI. THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS Global warming and the Greenhouse effect Global warming and the Greenhouse effect 195

Sustainable ‘Green’ buildings Sustainable ‘Green’ buildings 196 Bioclimatic design 197 Materials efficiency – waste management 198 Energy efficient design: alternative sources of energy 199

Building at risk: natural disasters Earthquake 201 Extreme weather: hurricanes, lightning 204 Mass movement: subsistence, landslides 207 Floods 212 Volcanoes 213

REFERENCES 215 INDEX 217


Foreword Since this book was published six years ago under its original title ‘An Illustrated Building Glossary’ changes in the priorities of approach to design and management have accelerated, and an understanding of the need for broadly-educated professionals with an understanding of their interdisciplinary responsibilities is increasingly accepted. The areas in which the book has been extended witness this change. Certainly, concern for the protection of the environment has been on the agenda of the specialist for twenty years but the public have finally accepted the seriousness of the situation we have made for ourselves from the profligate use of our natural inheritance. It is now recognised that only around a quarter to a third of the energy and resource expended in buildings with a fifty year life span is used in their construction. Consequently, the whole life cycle of a building becomes a critical consideration from the inception of a project. To achieve an environmentally sustainable building environment, every professional must have an understanding of the development process if they are to be able to contribute to it in a balanced way. The computer has presented a way not only of drawing our ideas but also of coordinating the process of design, of anticipating a building’s performance and monitoring the results. The computer is now a central tool in procurement as design is increasingly moved directly from the computer model to smart manufacture. In 1966, when I joined Arup Associates at No. 8, Fitzroy Street, London W1, a basement wall some twenty-five feet long was required to crunch the numbers, hour after hour, in Ove Arup and partners’ design of the Sydney Opera house shells; one is reminded of scenes in the epic silent film ‘Metropolis’. I now sit in front of a laptop with vastly more potential and, if I were clever enough, I could swallow the problem in one bite! This revolution now allows ideas to be shared and tested from their myriad facets and, from it, we are able to optimise solutions within a new four-dimensional freedom. But what further updates will be needed to the Illustrated Building Pocket Book in ten years time? Here optimism clashes with pessimism as we are in the hands of politicians who may well push in the contrary direction to the needs of ‘Everyman’. Maybe I can be permitted to speculate about changes to any future edition. An accelerating move away from a carbon-based economy towards sustainable sources will sharpen our need for renewables: This change will materialise in a number of ways but most dramatically, as the price tumbles, the use of photovoltaics will become universal and will require ingenious transformations to our designs. As the impact of a building’s life cycle permeates the professions, not only will elements within buildings be chosen to minimise maintenance but also, increasingly the house-buying public will start to judge a potential purchase in terms of the likely life-cycle running costs as well as the capital investment. Lastly, but sadly


decades away, when the penny finally drops, that endless economic growth will eventually lead to our demise rather than our redemption; there will be a massive change which will touch every part of our build environment and our means of achieving it. Back to the present content of the Pocket book: having been both a practitioner and a university teacher, I am acutely aware of the tendency to treat the young student and the practitioner as different beings. Of course, the student’s knowledge will be less rounded, but the act of learning is a continuing process, and to revisit words describing hard fact, presented in a new and illuminating way, is to be in a position not only to re-evaluate those facts but also to explore the ideas that stem from them. The range of knowledge and skill required to operate in architecture and construction is immense, and in studying one page of the new pocket book, this is all too obvious. Each word related to an item in an illustration is simply a flag marking the tip of an iceberg. Each carefully chosen word is filled with potential; it introduces one piece, one aspect, of one element of the process of building. In turn, the process of building is but the beginning of defining the place for a society to function; a place where the buildings gain a symbolic presence. So the volume you are holding is a book with many resonances. The new volume may have changed its title but it is still a glossary and a very unusual one. Here, refreshingly, the explanation is visual, and through the clarity and completeness of the ‘visual paragraph’, meaning is given and a context described, in a form normally thought to require words. Indeed, the only piece of written text by the author is her five hundred word preface: an admirable achievement. What of the presentation of this book? The structure and presentation themselves are worth study as a piece of design. A large quantity of material has been explored, digested and synthesised to present a core of information clearly without becoming simplistic. Each illustration is from the same hand and must have taken hours to draw, never mind the weeks of research, assimilation and evaluation involved. Anyone who has tussled with a small design problem and who has attempted to present a solution in a simple line drawing is all too aware of the time taken in graphical study before undertaking the drawing itself. A book of this kind is only useful if it presents the possibility of relating a term to a subject area and referring from there to an in-depth bibliography. The author’s bibliography is short but all the reference books are in common use, and from those, further channels can be explored. In summary, the value of such a book for the experienced professional or crafts person is that it has much good straightforward information about the processes themselves, communicated in an attractive way. It contains much for the student to


learn; and for the experienced, it contains much that we once knew and are ashamed to admit we have forgotten!

Richard Frewer Director of Arup Associates 1977-2001 Chair Professor of Architecture, University of Bath 1991-2000 Chair Professor of Architecture, University of Hong Kong 2000-2005


Preface It is not the intention of this book to provide an exhaustive list of building terms or to attempt a comprehensive teaching of building technology. There are many specialist encyclopedias, dictionaries and construction manuals which supply ample information in this respect. The book sets out to be primarily a communication tool using the visual reference as vocabulary. The creation of a building is the result of a complex process of interaction between people of different professions, views, even nationalities, with varying technical knowledge and motivation. Architects, who at the centre of it all, often find themselves as ‘interpreters’ between the participants, use image as the safest interface. The language we each use grows from our own personal experience and, sometimes, the same word can mean different things to different people depending on the circumstances in which they have learnt it. The same can apply to building terms. Images on the other hand leave little room for ambiguity, and many a time a site query or dispute has been sorted out with the aid of a sketch scribbled on a wall! Words express ideas we have of tangible objects and can be classified into a system such as an alphabetical dictionary or be placed in context as in a thesaurus. The same can apply to images – they can be attached to words arranged in alphabetical order or they can be placed in the context to which they are relevant. It is the later system this book has adopted, attempting to present the terms in the context in which they are likely to apply. The main building terms that form the language of construction are set out to follow the logical sequence of the building process. If one can’t remember the right word or wants to know what a specific part is called, it should be simple enough to locate it on the sketch in the relevant section. Similarly, by placing something visually in context it should be much easier to learn terms rather than to memorize their abstract definition. At the same time, the index permits the reverse to take place making it possible to find the context of a given word.


The drawings are simple line sketches concerned mostly with descriptive clarity rather than comprehensive accuracy. The diagrams are intended to identify the sequence and relationships as well as particular terminology. Compiled primarily as a visual checklist for students and early stages of practice building professionals, the book is also meant to help communication with the other participants to the building industry. Its spirit, I hope, echoes the intentions of a much older introduction from which I quote below as it is as valid today as it was when it was first written.

From the introduction to:


Acknowledgements I am grateful to the following people and organisations for their supportive help during the preparation of the first edition of this book: Rob Dark, Architect, UK B. Goilav, Structural Engineer, France Dan S. Hanganu, Architect, Montreal, Canada Claude and Anca Lemaire, Architects, France Biblioteque Centre Pompidou, Paris, France The RIBA Library, London, UK Veronique Thierry, Isabelle Mathieu, Monique Beranger, Architects, Paris, France Beatrice Jubien, France Special thanks to Jane Fawcett whose generous advice and personal example were an inspiration. My further thanks for help in preparing this edition to: Dominic Hailey (CAD director) of WORK OR PLAY for his advice on the computer drawing chapter. A London based multi-disciplinary organisation, WORK OR PLAY (www.workorplay.org) specialise in CAD data management systems for the construction industry advising and training architects in the UK and Europe. Jason Dunn DSc (Hons) MB Eng Tech RICS MAIBS – for his help in updating the Construction Control and Building Control in London chapters. Finally, my most grateful thanks to my editor Alex Hollingsworth for his help, advice and staunch support in completing this new edition.


This page intentionally left blank


About the Author Roxanna McDonald is a practising architect. She works in the UK, France and Eastern Europe advising on a wide range of professional issues ranging from the conservation of historic buildings to the re-building of infrastructure damaged by natural and man-made disasters and building-related environmental issues. Other books written by Roxanna McDonald:

The Fireplace Book - Architectural Press 1984 Illustrated Building Glossary - Butterworth Heineman 1999 Introduction to Natural and Man Made Disasters and their effects on Buildings - Architectural Press 2003


This page intentionally left blank


I . General Architecture Design

3

Drawing techniques

7

Building types

16

Elements

33


This page intentionally left blank


Module proportions

3


Dimensional coordination

4


Drawing representation

5


Volumes and shapes

6


Drawing practice - dimensions, grid lines

7


Drawing practice – scale and representation

8


Drawing equipment

9


Drawing instruments

10


C. A. D. Computer aided design (Computer based tools for design)

CAD system

Hardware (Tangeable objects)

Software (Ideas, Concept–nontangeable) Enables

Computer

Hard disk

Monitor

Mouse

Plotter

Light pen

View design from any angle

Keep track of design dependencies

Graphic format

Manipulating vector objects to create models that can be displayed at different scales. Vector objects defined by point co-ordinates in virtual space.

Autocad

Archicad microstation

Rhino

11

Cartesian co-ordinates – numbers

Image processing software manipulating pixel based objects using a combination of red, green & black dots on screen

Vector works

Photoshop

Flash

Illustrator

Colour

Paintshop

Computer drawing

Graphic designers

Architects


Computer drawing

Monitor Computer

Speaker

Mouse

Key board

Plotter

Printer

Electronic beam Light pen

Amplifier Control button Photo electric cell Lens

12


AUTOCAD

VECTOR WORKS

Graphic attributes

Active layer (active class) Tool palettes

Paper space tabs

Model (design layer)

Layout 2

Layout (sheet layer)

Design layer

Paper space

Sheet layer

Layer

Class Working group reference

X ref UCS

Origin

Block

Symbol

13

Point

Locus

Properties palette

Object info palette

Design centre

Resource browser

Computer drawing

Model space


Computer drawing

14 Cad Design

Plan

Elevation

Section

Detail Project

View

Level (Floor I number)

Content (Element classification)


Drawing production from cad data Consultant CAD data

Sheet files

I:I Scale model files

Referenced CAD data displayed at scale

Live CAD data

Plotter

Coordinated CAD data

15

Computer drawing

Drawing issue


Classical temple

16


The Classical orders

17


Classical ornament and enrichment

18


Mediaeval ornament

19


Mediaeval castle

20


Styles compared

21


Timber framed buildings

Cruck framed bam

Timber framed hall house

Jetty Jetty detail

22


Typical parish church

23


Gothic cathedral

24


Traditional house

25


Mass-produced house

26


Residential buildings

27


Residential buildings

28


Residential buildings

29


Residential buildings

30


Rural buildings

31


Traditional farm buildings

32


Entrances

33


Entrances

34


Entrances

35


Outside/inside

36


Traditional windows

37


This page intentionally left blank


II. Controls Legal aspects

41

Administration 43


This page intentionally left blank


English land law

English land and law Conveyancing

41


Sunlight and daylight

42


Planning control

Planning control

43


Planning approvals

Use classes

A

B

Excluded from A use class

Theatre

Shop and A1 internet cafes

B1

Business

A2 Office

B2 to B7

General industrial

Food and drink A3 consumption on premises

B8

Storage distribution

Amusement arcade or fun fair

Launderette

Drinking A4 establishments A5

Hot food takeaways

Sale of fuel and vehicles

Sale or display of motor vehicles

Taxi or hire of motor vehicles

Night club and retail warehouse

44


Construction control

Construction regulation Building Act 1984 Building Regulations 2000 (as amended)

Control by local authority building control Approved inspectors

14 approved documents Schedule 1 – requirements

Part A – Structure

Part H – Drainage and waste disposal

Part B – Fire safety

Part J – Combustion appliances and fuel storage systems

Part C – Site preparation resistance to contaminates and moisture

Part K – Protection from falling, collision and imapct

L1a – in new dwellings

Part D – Toxic substances

Part L – Conservation of fuel and power

L1b – in existing dwellings

Part E – Resistance to passing of sound

Part M – Access to and use of buildings

Part F – Ventilation

Part N – Glazing safety in relation to impact, opening and cleaning

Part G – Hygiene

Part P – Electrical safety

L2a – in new Buildings other than dwellings L2b – in existing Buildings other than dwellings

45


Building control in London

Building control in Inner London

14 District Surveyors (Chief Building Regs. Officers)

Notice of Irregularity

City + 12 boroughs

Since 6 Jan. 1986 The Building (Inner London) Regualations 1985 and 1987 Large buildings over 7100 m3

High buildings >30 m high or >25 m if >930 m2

Other special controls

The planning (listed buildings and conservation areas) Act 1990

The town & country planning Act 1990; the planning and compensation Act 1997 The fire precautions Act 1971

Other controllinng legislation

The party wall Act 1996

The fire precautions (workplace regulations) 1997

The regulatory reform (fire safety) order from Oct 2006

The clean air Act 1993

The highway Act 1980

46

Party structures (Part VI – 1993 Act)

The housing Act 1985

The work place (Health safety and welfare) regulations 1992

The licensing Act 2003

Disability discrimination Act 1995 (DDA)

The building (Approved inspectors) Regulations 2000

Traffic management Act 2004

Building line (Beyond which a building may not project)


III. Construction Process Financial aspects

49

Project execution

52


This page intentionally left blank


Development

49


Development funding methods

50


Estimating and cost control

51


Project design

52


Project construction

53


Building contracts

54


IV. The Building Site General

57


This page intentionally left blank


Setting out

57


Accurate survey

58


Survey equipment

59


Non-destructive survey: method 1

60


Non-destructive survey: method 2

61


Plant and equipment – cranes

62


Plant and equipment – excavation

63


Scaffolding – patent

64


Scaffolding – independent

65


Concrete plant

66


Power tools

Rammer

Pick

67


Soldering

68


Tools

Adjustable square

69


Tools

70


V . The Building Fabric Foundations

73

Superstructure – external walls 80

internal walls

891 93 6

roofs 97

stairs 126

chimneys 130

floors

opening in walls

132

142

fixings 152

Finishes

158


Glazing 166

Services – drainage and plumbing 169

electrical 176

heating 182

External works/ landscaping

186


Strip foundations

73


Stepped foundations

74


Continuous column foundations

(for columns closely spaced)

Concrete strip

Raft foundations

75


Piled foundations

76


Retaining walls

77


Steel column foundations

78


Shoring and underpinning

Wall plate

Shoring and underpinning

Cleat Multiple raking shore

Needle

Rider

Asymmetrical flying shore Wall plate Cleat

Binding

Needle

Top raking shore

Top raking shore

Binding

Middle raking shore

Middle raking shore Folding wedge

Bottom raking shore Folding end wedges

Horizontal shore Wall plate

Sole plate

Underpinning Existing wall Existing, unsupported foundation, cut back

Dry pinning Concrete backfill

Underpinning wall

Brickwork of each section 'loothed' for bonding

New foundation dowel bars between sections Underpinning sections or 'legs'

79


Brick wall construction

Brick footings Solid brick wall

Inner leaf of concrete blocks Cavity wall

80


Brickwork

Quoin Racking back Perpends Quoin headers

Queen closers

Channelled

Rusticated joints

81


Bonding of brickwork

82


Brick arcade

83


Brick types

84


Effects of damp

85


Stone

86


Stone faรงade

87


Stone walling

88


Ashlar

89


Cladding

90


Curtain wall cladding

91


GRC cladding

92


Partitions

93


Partitions

94


Partitions

95


Interior

96


Pitched roof construction

Ridge beam Rafters

Collar Purlin

Hip rafter

Strut Valley rafter Battens

Tie beam Principal rafter

Jack rafter Lathing Wall plate Stay

Diagonal tie

97


Types of pitched roofs

98


Traditional timber roof types

Aisle

99


Trusses

100


Trusses

101


Bolt and connector trusses

102


Lean-to half truss

103


Truss rafter assembly

Details

104


Truss rafter assembly

105


Carpentry joints

Bolt and connector sandwich joint

Birdsmouth joint

106

Oblique tenon

Counter – sallied cross

Finger joint


Cross timber joints

Mortice and tenon

Double-shouldered tenon

Bare-faced tenon

Half-face housing joint

Square housed joint

Bevelled housed joint

Dovetailed lap

Dovetailed housing

Splay-shouldered lap

Open (or slot) mortice and tenon

Twin-slot mortice and tenon

Mitred mortice and tenon

107


Traditional scarf joints

108


Traditional scarf joints

109


Timber mouldings

110


Flat roofs

111


Roof covering types

112


Slate

113


Plain tiling

114


Pantiling

115


Thatch

116


Traditional timber shingles

Felt shingle m Cera

les ranu ic g

Bitumen Impreonated fibre

Bitumen binder

117


Roof openings

118


Dormer windows

119


Skylights

120


Chimneys

121


Weatherproofing – lead sheet

122


Weatherproofing – flashings and aprons

123


Lightning conductor

124


Rainwater pipes

125


Types of staircases

126


Traditional timber staircases

127


Special stairs and escalators

128


Lifts

Hydraulic pipe Motor pump room Point loadings

Hydraulic lift well

129


Fireplaces

130


Fireplace accessories

131


Timber floor construction

132


Timber floors – trimmed openings

Trimmed joist Bridging joists

Trimming joist Stratting

Trimmer

Single joisted floor plan

133


Trimming to timber floors

134


Panel and angle joints

Dowelled butt joint

Butt joint on bearers

Rebated joint

Tonove and grooved (T and G)

Double T and G

T and G with loose tongue

Square housing

Common dovetail

Dowelled

Stopped or lapped dovetail

Dowlled mitred

Lapped and tongue joint

135


Concrete floors

Concrete finish Grout

Precast floor

136

Channel beams


Reinforced concrete floors

137


Ceilings – timber joists

138


Suspended ceilings

139


Space for services

140


Raised floors

Deep void platform floor supports

141


Doors

142


Doors

143


Doors

144


Doors

145


Traditional windows – sash

146


Traditional windows – casement

147


Ironmongery – knobs and latches

148


Ironmongery – bolts and handles

149


Ironmongery – locks

150


Ironmongery – hinges

151


Metal fixings – ties

152


Metal fixings – joist hangers

153


Metal components – expanded steel mesh

154


Metal components – lintels

155


Nails and screws

156


Bolts and plugs

157


Plasterwork tools

158


Wattle and daub

159


Stucco

160


Decorative plasterwork

161


Interior walls – dry lining

162


Timber finishes

163


Panelling

164


Carpets

165


Stained glass

166


Flat glass

167


Glazing systems

168


Drainage

169


Underground drainage

170


Plumbing, water supply and waste systems

171


Sanitary pipework

172


Lavatory pans and cisterns

173


Plumbing connections

174


Water heating

175


Electricity – supply and wiring

176


Electricity – accessories

177


Electricity – track wiring

178


Outdoor lighting

179


Electrical fitting

180


Electricity – lightbulbs

181


Heating systems

182


Central heating – hot water

183


Radiators

184


Air conditioning

185


Earthworks – kerbs

186


Irrigation and screening

187


Fencing

188


Trees

189


Grading, turf laying

190


Plant care, outbuildings

191


This page intentionally left blank


VI. The Environmental Conditions Global warming and the greenhouse effect

195

Sustainable ‘Green’ buildings 196 16

Building at risk: natural disasters

201


This page intentionally left blank


Global warming and greenhouse effect

GLOBAL WARMING Solar radiation

Green house gases (50% – Carbon dioxide–Co2 19% – Methane 5% – CFC)

Green house effect: Heat radiation trapped

Global warming reduction

Less Co2

Less transport

Fewer inefficient buildings (50% of UK energy consuption is DN buildings) More sustainable 'Green' buildings

195


Sustainable 'Green' Buildings Designed, built & operated in an ecological and resource efficient manner

Bioclimatic design maximises natural heating, light and ventilation

Appropriate siting

Materials efficiency

Energy efficient design

Prevent heat loss / gain

Suitable form + layout

Fora long life building

Waste management alternative service

Good insulation

Low embodie energy/ preference to timber over brick or concrete

Good maintenance

Recycle

Minimise waste

Dual plumbing

Meter

Encourage energy efficient technology alternative / renewable sources

Sustainable materials Recycled environnmentally friendly

Efficient light system

Water efficiency

Photovoltaics

Solar

Wind

Fuel cells

Wave

Occupant health + safety Reduce toxic emission good ventilation use of microbial growth resistant materials


Bioclimatic design

TRADITIONAL BUILDING

(a) Daytime absorbtion

(b) Night time cooling MODERN BUILDING Minimum surface area faces the sun

Self shading south elevation

Maximum sunlight

Natural perimeter ventilation

Chamber due north to maximize transparency

Fresh air

Heat exchanger Greywater tank

Thermal store Bore hole cooling

City hall, London

197


Materials efficiency – waste management

Sludge Rain water Sewage Humus tank Septic tank

Sewage system

Materials efficiency-waste management

Treatment

Natural upgrading of treatment system

Pump

New sample point

Willows and trenches

Horizontal flow reed bed

Sewage treatment systems Vodose zone monitoring well Compacted clay cap

Monitoring well

Compacted clay liner Solid waste Sand Layer

Water table

Ground water flow

Land fill

198


Energy efficient design

Energy efficient design: alternative sources of energy Solar power Photovoltaic panels

Mounting structure

Change controller

Inverter charger

DC disconnect

Circuit panel Generator

Batteries

Hybrid power system Sun

Photovoltaic modules Generator

AC or DC Wind

Load

Wind turbine Battery bank

199


Energy efficient design

Energy efficient design: alternative sources of energy

100 ft

100 ft

Magnetic shaft

Electric coil secured to heaving buoy Permanent linear generator buoy Detail

Wave energy Air out

Turbine Generator

Wave direction Operating principle

200


Earthquake Epicentre

Characteristics

Surface fault

90째

Fault Focus (hypocenter)

Vibration modes

First mode

Second mode

Third mode

Structural tilting due to liquefaction

Water table

Water pressure

201


Earthquake

Buildings E

Pancaking

Overturning

P Ground motion

Filing cabinet

Drift Drift

Normal

Over-stress

Soft storey

Torsion effect Centre of resistance Center of mass Wall

(b) Unbalanced resistance (a) Balanced resistance

Mass and resistance centres coincide

202

Torsion Eccentricity


Earthquake

Shear failure

Seismic shear

a ≤ 10–15am

1

1 2

2

φ12–14mm

(a) (b) Seismic shear

(c) Section 1–1

(d) Section 2–2

203


Extreme weather: hurricanes, lightning

Extreme Weather: principles, hurricanes Hot water circulation principle

Tap valve

High pressure Hot liquid Low pressure

Cool liquid

Heat source

High pressure

Sea breeze principle

Cooler air Low pressure

Rising air from warm land Land Sea

Hurricane development

Direction of rotation

Storm clouds

Hurricane winds

204

Vertical flow


Extreme weather: hurricanes, lightning

Extreme Weather: hurricanes, wind effect Wind effect on buildings

Suction

Pressure Wind

Wind effect to roof shape

Flat roof

30 pitch

20 pitch

45 pitch

205


Extreme weather: hurricanes, lightning

Extreme Weather: lightning

Positive ions of air molecules Stepleader

Positive streamers

206


Mass movement: subsistence, landslides

Mass movement

Rate of movement

Material moving

Heave

Imperceptible

Earth or rock

Flow

Slow to rapid

Rock creep

Water

Talus creep Soil creep Slip

Slow to rapid

Slump Debris slide

Land slide

Soil fluction

Debris avalanche

Very rapid Debris fall

207


Mass movement: subsistence, landslides

Slide Original position

Moving back

Creep Tilted structures Partially covered road

208

Layered bed rock bending down slope


Mass movement: subsistence, landslides

Original position

Falling rock

Fall

Waves

Flow Original position

Moving mass

209


Mass movement: subsistence, landslides

Original position

Slumped mass

Slump

Topple

210


Mass movement: subsistence, landslides

Heave effect

Heave of surface

Slip plane

Instability of uneven ground effect on buildings

Typical structural damage due to ground effects

211


Floods

212 Flood

Flood plain Flood fringe

Flood way

Flood fringe

Flood level

Fill

Normal water level


Volcanoes

Volcano eruption Prevailing wind

Tephra plume

Tephra fall

Eruption column Ballistic debris

Tephra deposite

Magma

213


This page intentionally left blank


References Architect’s Data, Ernst Neufert, Crosby Lockwood Staples (1970). Architect’s Legal Handbook, Anthony Speaight and Gregory Stone, Architectural Press (1998). Building Construction Vols I,II,III and IV, W.B. McKay, Longmans (1995). The Building Design Easy Brief, Henry Haverstock, Morgan Grampain (1987). Building Construction Handbook, R. Chudley, Laxton’s (1988). The Care and Conservation of Georgian Houses, Architectural Press with Edinburgh New Town Conservation Committee, Paul Harris Publishing (1978). Architectural Press (1980). Dicobat – Editions Arcature (1990). Dictionaire – Librarie Larousse (1981). Drawing Office Practice for British Standard 1192, Architects and Builders (1953). Ecohouse a design guide – Sue Roaf, Architectural Press (2002). English Historic Carpentry, Cecil A. Hewett, Phillimore (1980). Farms in England, Peter Fowler, Royal Commission on Historic Monuments, HMSO (1983). Handbook of Urban Landscape, Cliff Tandy, Architectural Press (1975). History of the English House, Nathaniel Lloyd, Architectural Press (1975). Mitchell’s Building Series,

Structure and Fabric 1, Jack Stroud Foster (1973). Structure and Fabric 2, Jack Stroud Foster and Raymond Harrington (1976). Components, Harold King (1983) Batsford Academic and Education.

Modern Practical Masonry, E.G. Warland, Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons Ltd., 2nd edn (1953). Modulor Le Corbusier, Faber & Faber (1951). New Metric Handbook, Edited by P. Tutt and D. Adler, Architectural Press (1979). The Parish Churches of England, Charles Cox, B.T. Batsford (1954). The Penguin Dictionary of Building, John S. Scott, Penguin (1982). Repair Manual Reader’s Digest (1976). Sewage solutions – Nick Grant, Mark Moodie, Chriss Weedon – Centre for Alternative Technology Publications (2000).

215


References Specification 1 – 6 Architectural Press (1987). Sustainable Architecture – Brian Edwards, Architectural Press (1999). Traditional Farm Buildings Richard Harris, Arts Council Exhibition Catalogue (1982).

216


Index

Abutment, 77 Account (final), 45 Accuracy, 52 Accurate survey, 52 Acroterion, 11 Acts, 40 Adaptor, 175 Air brush, 10 Air conditioning plant, 179 Air handling unit, 134 Aisle (church), 18, 19 Aisle (cattle), 26 Altar, 19 Alternative sources of energy, 199 Ambulatory, 30 Angle, 119 Angle bead, 104 Angle cleat, 149 Angle joint, 129 Angle of obstruction, 36 Angle of acceptance, 36 Angle poise lamp, 9 Appraisal (development), 43 Appraisal (financial), 46 Approved documents (building regulations), 39 Approximate (quantities estimating), 44 Apron flashing, 117 Apse, 19 Arcade (brick), 77 Arch (flat), 83 Arch (semicircular), 83 Arch (Gothic), 19 Arch braced roof, 93 Architect, 46, 47 Architrave, 11, 104 Arris, 78 Ashlar, 81, 83 “A� sizes, 7 Assembly truss, 98 Assembly rafter, 99 Astragal, 13 Automatic pencil, 10 Axonometric projection, 5

Baffle, 92 Baluster, 127 Balustrade, 25 Ballast, 62 Balleting, 88 Ball valve, 173 Bar (reinforcement), 137 Bar (pressure), 145 Barbican, 20 Bark, 157 Barn shapes, 31, 32 Barn (cruck framed), 22 Barn (threshing), 27 Barrel bolt, 149 Bartizan, 20 Base, 83 Base bed, 86 Base line, 57 Basement (dry area), 77 Basic module, 7 Bat, 84 Battens, 97 Batter, 88 Bay (cart), 32 Bayonet cap, 181 Bay open front, 32 Bay window, 37 Beam compass, 10 Beam (threshing), 32 Beam (interior), 96 Beam (vault), 24 Bellows, 131 Bench mark, 4 Bevelled (bat closer), 84 Bevelled housed joint, 107, 134 Billet, 19 Bills of quantity, 51 Binder, 101 Binding, 79 Bioclimatic design, 197 Birds mouth joint, 106 Bitumen, 117 Blade (scalpel), 10 217


Index Blinding, 74, 75 Blockboard, 163 Blocking course, 87 Block of fIats, 30 Boards (blockboard laminboard), 163 Boarding, 26 Boaste finish, 86 Boiler, 171, 183 Bole, 163 Bolster, 70 Bolt (panic), 145 Bolts, 157 Bolt and connector truss, 102, 106 Bond (brick), 82 (English, Flemish, rat trap, reverse, half bond, quarter bond, third bond, broken bond) Boom, 63, 101 Bore hole cooling, 197 Bossed lead roll, 122 Boundary line, 41 Bow window, 37 Box spanner, 69 Brace, 69, 142 Braced roof, 100 Bracing: chevron, 100 diagonal, 100 longitudinal, 100 Bracket (gutter), 125 Bradawl, 70 Branch piece, 125 Brattice, 20 Braye, 20 Break line, 8 Brick: arcade, 83 bonding, 82 footing, 80 joints, 81 types, 84 wall, 80 Brickwork bonding, 82 Brief, 52 Broached finish, 86 Building contracts, 54 Building fabric, 71 218

Building line, 35, 40 Building regulations, 45 Building site, 55 Building types: detached, 27, 30 high rise, 30 large, high 46 residential, 27, 28, 29, 30 rural, 31 semi-detached, 27 terraced, 27 traditional farm, 32 Bulbs (light), 180, 181 Bulldozer, 63 Bull nose (double), 84 Bundles (thatch), 116 Bungalow, 30 Burl, 163 Burlap (wrapping), 189 Burner, 183 Burr, 163 Busbar system, 141 Bush and follower, 150 Butt end, 117 Butterfly roof, 98 Butt joint, 135 Byre, 31, 32

Cabin hook, 149 Cable, 19 Cable (mains electric), 176 Cable looped, 178 Camera (metric), 58 Candle bulb, 181 Canopy (hipped, with cheeks), 31 Cap, 83 Capital, 16 Car, 129 Carpentry joints, 106 Carpet (pile, fibre, yarns), 165 Carriage, 9 Cart bay, 32 Casement window, 147 Cast iron fittings (knuckle joint, swept bent, tee), 170


Index Castle (mediaeval), 20, 29 Cavetto, 18 Cavity wall, 26, 80,114,136,162 Ceiling (level), 4 Ceiling (interior), 96 Ceiling (lath and plaster), 159 Ceiling (timber), 138 Ceiling (suspended), 139 Ceiling (liner), 138 Ceiling (rose), 180 Cellar, 25 Cellular core, 93 Central heating (hot water), 183 Centre line, 8 Certificate (making good defects, practical completion, final), 52 Cesspool, 168 Chamber, 23 Chancel, 23 Change of use (material), 43 Channelled joint, 80 Channels, 81, 162 Chantry, 23 Chapel, 20,23 Chateau, 29 Cheek, 117 Chevet, 24 Chevron, 19 Chimney breast, 96, 130 Chimney crane, 131 Chimney piece, 130 Chimney pot, 121 Chimney stack, 25, 121, 129 Chimneys, 121 Chippings (solar reflective), 111 Chisel, 70 Choir, 24 Church (parish), 23 CiII (stone), 87, 89 City of London Corporation, 43 Cistern (low/high level, slim), 173 Cladding types, 90, 91 Cladding fixing, 152 Clamp, 69 Classical orders, 3, 17 Classical ornament, 18 Classical style, 21

Classical temple, 16 Claw hammer, 63 Claytiles, 112 Cleat, 101 Clerestory, 23 Clerk of Works, 53 Client, 52, 53 Clip (lead), 122 Clip (truss), 153 Cloche, 185 Closed string, 127 Closer (brick), 84 Coal scuttle, 131 Coat (backing, render, setting), 158, 159 Coffer, 96 Collar beam (root), 93 Collateral warranty, 54 Collective car control (lift), 129 Column, 16 Column base, 3, 16 Compartment floor, 138 Component (working size), 4 Composite order, 17 Compression gasket, 92 Compressor, 67 Concrete floors (suspended, preonst, solid), 136 Concrete slab, 137 Concrete mixer, 66 Condensation, 84 Cone (truncated), 6 Connections (plumbing — valves, traps), 174 Connector (fixing), 138 Connector (electrical), 177 Conservatory, 185 Construction process, 47 Construction regulations (building acts), 45 Consultants, 52 Continuous foundation, 75 Contract, 51, 53 Contractor, 52 Controlling dimension, 4 Controls: admin, 43 construction, 45 cost, 51 219


Index Controls (Continued) legal, 41 planning, 43 Convector (natural, fan), 182 Convention (line), 8 Conveyancing, 41 Coordination (dimensional), 4 Coordinatograph, 58 Coping, 83, 86, 89, 115 Corbel, 20 Core (honeycomb), 95 Corinthian order, 12 Corner tower, 20 Corn hole, 32 Cornice, 11,83,104 Cornice ornamentation, 161 Cornice (running in situ), 161 Corona, 18 Corner locking joint, 106 Cost (study, planning, check, monitoring, information), 51 Cottage, 27 Council (district, county, borough), 43 Countersallied cross joint, 106 Courses (lacing), 88 Covenant (restrictive), 41 Cover meter, 60 Cover strip, 92 Cramp (fixing), 143 Crane, 62 Cranked hinge, 95 Crenel, 20 Cross timber joints, 107 Crown (brick arch), 83 Crown post roof, 99 Cruck: frame, 22 roof, 99 Cube, 6 Cubicle (proprietary), 95 Cupboard (built-in), 96 Curtain (castle), 20 Curtain wall (cladding), 91 Curve (French, flexible), 10 Cylinder (truncated), 6 Cylinder locks (rim, latch), 150, 148 220

Cyma, 18 Cyma reversa, 18

Dado, 16, 96, 110 Damp (effects of), 85 Daylight, 42 Daytime absorbtion, 197 Deadmen (timber), 189 Debt financing, 50 Deck (timber for roof, metal, concrete), 111 Deep void floor, 141 Defects, 53 Defects liability period, 53 Demountable partitions, 95 Dentils, 161 Detached (building), 27 Developer, 50 Development: appraisal, 49 funding, 50 permitted, 43, Diameter (column base), 3 Dichroic reflector, 181 Dig and fill, 189 Dimension (controlling), 4 Dimension (ratio of antiquity), 3 Dimensional coordination, 4, 7 Dimmer switch, 177 Dipper arm, 63 District surveyor, 52 Dog-leg (brick), 84 Dog-leg (stair), 126 Door: bell, 144 buffer, 149 case, 33 closers, 143, 145 hood, 33 knob, 144 lining, 96 selector, 145 spring, 145 stop, 149 Door types, 142,143,144,145 ledged and braced, 142


Index Door types (Continued) interior flush, 142 panelled, 142, 144 selfclosing, 145 Doorway, 33 Doric order, 17 Dormer, 25 Dormer windows (external, internal, gabled, partial, polygonal, piended, bowed, rectangular, lead roofed), 112, 119 Double bull nose, 84 Double cone, 19 Double hammer beam, 99 Double lap sandwich truss, 101 Dovetail: housing, 134 joint, 106 lap, 107 Dowel, 79, 87, 107 Dowelled mitred joint, 135 Downpipe, 25,125,171 Downstand, 75 D.P.C. (damp proof course), 80, 132 D.P.M. (damp proof membrane), 136 Drainage (land), 190 Drainage, 25, 169 Drainage underground, 170 (fittings — UPVC, cast iron, vitrified clay, spigot and socket, polypropylene) Drainpipe, 171 Draughting machine, 9 Drawbridge, 20 Drawing board (sizes, types), 8, 9 equipment, 9 instruments, 10 pen, 9 practice, 7 representation, 5 Drill (rawtool power), 70 Drive cable, 9 Druidical style, 21 Drum (mixing), 66 Dry lining, 162 Duct wiring, 178 Dumper (highway), 63, 66

Earthquake, 201-203 Earth works (graphic presentation), 186 Easement, 40 Eaves, 97 Eaves gutter, 125 Efflorescence, 85 Egg and dart, 161 Electricity accessories, 177 fittings, 180 light bulbs, 181 supply and wiring, 177 track wiring, 178 Elevation, 5 Elliptic, 6 Embattled, 19 Engaged (columns), 21 English bond (brick), 82 English land law, 41 Energy efficient design, 199-200 Enrichment (classical), 18 Entablature, 16 Entrance, 33, 34, 35 Equipment (site), 61 Equity (shared), 50 Escutcheon, 149 Escalator (types), 128 Espagnolette bolt, 149 Estimate (approximate, comparative), 51 Estimating, 51 Excavation plant, 63 Excavator, 63 Expansion tank, 183 Express grant, 41 External works, 169 Extrados, 8 Extreme weather, 204-206

Façade (stone), 81 Face (brick), 83 Facing stone, 87 Facings, 84 Farm building (traditional), 32 Farm house, 31 Farm yard, 31 Fascia (board), 97 221


Index Feasibility, 52 Feathered end, 117 Fees: letting, 49 professional, 49 sale, 49 Felt (upstand), 111, 112 Fencing types, 188 (bar (vertical/horizontal), cleftchestnut, closeboarded, chainlink, palisade, woven wire/wood) Fender, 131 Fibre, 165 Field house, 32 Final account, 51, 53 Final certificate, 53 Financial appraisal, 52 Financial aspects, 49 Finial, 23 Finger joint, 105 Finishes: plasterwork, 158 timber, 162 Fire back, 96, 130 Fire bed, 183 Fire dogs, 130 Fireplace accessories, 130 Fireplace recess, 127 Fireplaces,133 Fireproofing, 154 Fire surround, 96, 130 FFL (finished floor level), 4 Fixings (metal), 152, 153 Flanking tower, 20 Flashing (metal cover), 111,121,123 Flat arch, 89 Flat roof, 98 Flat roofs, 111 concrete, 111 green, 111 metal deck 111 on timber deck, 111 refurbished, 111 Flaunching, 121 Flemish bond, 76 Flex (two/three core),177 Flex (lampholder), 179 222

Flexible curve, 10 Flint, (split, knapped), 88 Float (metal, wood), 158 Floating mark, 58 Floods, 212 Floodlight projector, 179 Floor boards, 132, 133 Floor drain, 169 Floor board sawing, 163 Floors: ground, 25 RC/concrete, 136, 137 raised, 140 timber, 132,133,134 upper, 25 Flooring (mitred herringbone parquet wood strip), 96 Flue, 130 Flue terminal, 183 Fluorescent (tube, compact bulb), 181 Flush joint, 81 Flying buttress, 23 Flying shore, 79 Footing (concrete), 73 (brick), 80 Foundation, 26, 67 Foundation: continuous, 75 isolated pad, 74 raft, 75 stepped, 74 strip, 73 trench fill, 73 wall pier, 73 Frame and panel (partition system), 95 Franklin point, 124 French curve, 10 French windows, 25 Frieze, 16, 87, 96 Front door, 25 Frog, 84 Functional (tolerance, space), 4 Funder (development), 50 Funding methods, 50 Furring channels, 162 Furrowed finish, 86


Index Gable, 25 Gabled (barn, porch), 31 Gantry mast, 62 Gargoyle, 23 Gaskets, 91, 168 Gasket fir cone, 92 compression, 92 Gate house, 28 Gate (postern), 15 Gateway, 33 Gather, 130 Gauge (marking), 69 Gauge (tiling), 113 Gazebo, 185 G.D.V. (gross development value), 49 G.E.A. (gross external area), 49 Generator set, 67 Georgian wire glass, 167 G.I.A. (gross internal area), 49 Gland (adjusting screw), 184 Glass (bullet proof, flat, float, laminated, patterned, plate, rough cast, solar control, sound control, toughened, wired), 167 Glazing, 168 Glazing panel, 91 Glazing systems (bead, gasket, patent), 168 Global warming and greenhouse effect, 195 Going, 127 Golden number, 3 Golden section, 3 Gooseneck, 171 Gothic arch, 24 Gothic cathedral, 24 Grading, 190 Graduation markings (metric, imperial), 7 Granary, 32 Granules (ceramic), 117 Grant (express, implied), 41 Grating, 125 Gravel (path), 186 Greenhouse, 185 Greenhouse staging, 185 Green house gases, 195 Green roof, 111 Grid (structural, planned), 4 Grid (dimensionally coordinate), 78 Grid (setting out), 57

Grid lines, 7 Groove, 89 Ground, 25 Ground beam, 76 Ground floor, 25 Guiloche, 161 Gulley (trapped), 171 Gusset (plywood), 101 Gutter, 25, 87

Hacksaw, 70 Half bat, 84 Half bonding, 82 Half hipped barn, 31 Half face housing joint, 107 Half grid ceiling, 128 Halt lap joint, 106 Hall house (timber framed), 22 Handrail, 127 Hanger: joist, 142 steel, 131 timber, 101 Hanging (of windows), 146 Haunch, 82 Hayloft, 26, 32 Header, 84 Heading course, 79 Heart (timber), 163 Hearth, 96 Hearth (front, back), 130 Heat exchanger, 197 Heat exchange pipe, 183 Heat radiation, trapped, 195 Heating systems, 182 Herringbone strutting, 132 Herringbone mitred timber flooring, 96 High rise building, 31 Highway (central line), 41 Hinges (T-hinge, hook and band, butt, helical spring, loose pin, lift-off, cranked, parliament, offset), 137, 151 Hinged partition, 94 Hip, 113 Hip rafter, 97 223


Index Hipped (barn, porch, canopy), 31 Hipped roof, 98, 113 Hob grate, 130 Hog back ridge tile, 113 Hoist (block, rope), 62 Hollow brick, 84 Honeycomb core, 95 Hook (slate fixing), 113 Hopper, 183 Hopper head, 125 House: detached, 30 (field), 32 mass produced, 26 stately, 29 traditional, 25 Hot water (supply, cylinder), 171 Hot water circulation principle, 204 Human dimensions (Le Corbusier), 3 Hurricane development, 204 Hybrid power system, 199 Hydraulic (lift), 128 Hyperbolic, 6

Imbrex, 115 Immersion heater, 175 Immersion heater circuit, 176 Imperial (scale), 8 Impost, 83 Indented, 19 Indicator bolt, 149 Infil panel, 91 Inlet, 183 Inspection chamber (drainage), 170 Instructions (architect’s), 53 Integral boss connector, 170 Integrated ceilings, 140 Interceptor, 169 Interim certificates, 53 Interior, 95 Interstitial condensation, 85 Ionic order, 17 lonizing point, 118 Ironmongery, 148–151 hinges, 150 224

Ironmongery (Continued) knobs and latches, 148 locks, 148 Irregularity (notice of), 40 Irrigation system, 187 Isometric projection, 5

Jack (stabilising), 62 Jamb, 96, 110 Jetty, 22 Joggled flat arch, 89 Joints: bed, vertical, struck, recessed, projecting, flush, keyed, tuck rusticated, vee, channelled, 81 carpentry, 106 cross timber, 107 joggle, 87 panel, angle, lapped and tongued, 129 stepped, angle, open drained baffle sealant filled, 92 traditional scarf, 108, 109 J.C.T, (joint contracts tribunal) forms of contract, 48 Joist, 96,132,133 Joist hanger, 153

Keep, 20 Kerb (built-up timber), 111 Kerb (earthworks — precast, timber), 187 Keyed joint, 81 Keystone (crown), 24, 89 King closer, 84 King post, 103 King post roof, 99, 104, 105 Knapped flint, 88 Knob (door), 144 (ironmongery), 148, 149 Knuckle joint fitting, 170

Lacing courses, 88 Lags, 163


Index Lamp holder (pendant, cover, flex), 180 Lancet, 24 Land chain, 7 Land drainage, 190 Land law, 41 Lap, 81, 82, 113, 117 Lath, 154, 158 Lathing, 97 Latches: cylinder, rim, 148 lever, 149 Lattice frame, 62 Lead (flat, round), 166 Leadburned saddle, 122 Lead cutting knife, 166 Lead sheet, 122 Leaf and dart, 161 Lean-to roof, 98 Lean-to half truss, 103 Lease back guarantee, 50 Le Corbusier, 3 Ledger (scaffold), 64, 65 Levelling staff, 59 Lever latch, 149 Lever springs, 150 Lierne, 24 Light fitting, 180 Lighting (outdoor), 179 Light track, 177 Lightening conductor, 124 Line (centre, break, section), 8 L.V.D.T. (linear variable differential transducers), 61 Lines (axial), 4 Lime (in lime and cement stucco) 160 Lintels (steel), 155 Loan (repay, service), 50 Local authority, 42 (officers), 39 Lock (spring loaded, blocking pins), 150 (horizontal mortice), 148 Loft, 25 Log, 162 Loggia, 36 Long term interest, 50 Loop (carpet — plain, cut, sculptured), 165

Loop hole, 20 Loose box, 32 Lorry, 62 Lozenge, 19 Luffing (arms, rope), 62 Lynch gate, 36

Machicolations, 20 Magnetic field, 60 Magnetometry, 60 Mains (supply water), 171 Maintenance manual, 53 Mallet, 69 Manhole (brickcover), 171 Mansarded roof, 98 Mantle, 130 Marking gauge, 69 Masking tape, 10 Mass movement Creep, 208 Effect on buildings, 211 Fall, 209 Flow, 209 Heave effect, 211 Slide, 208 Structural damage, 211 Topple, 210 Materials efficiency – waste management, 198 Measuring tape, 59, 69 Mediaeval castle, 20 Mediaeval ornament, 19, Meetings (progress), 52 Merlon, 20 Mesh reinforcement, 136 Mesh (expanded steel), 154 Metal: components, 154, 155 fixings, 153 lath, 154 ties, 151 Meter (cover), 60 Meter (transducer), 61 Metope, 16 Metric scale, 8 225


Index Microwave analysis, 60 Mitred closer, 84 Mitred slates, 113 Modilion and patera, 155 Module, 3 Module (basic), 7 Modulor, 3 Monopitched roof, 98 Mortice and tenon joint, 98 (twin slot, open, mitred), 106 Motor pump room, 129 Mouldings (timber), 110 Mulch (peat), 189 Mullion, 91 Multiple ownership, 50 Multi point lock, 150 Muntin, 142

Nails, 156 Nave, 23, 24 N.l.A. (net internal area), 49 Newel, 121 Nib (tile), 108 Nondestructive survey methods, 60, 61 Non-metropolitan (county council), 42 Nosing, 127 Notice of irregularity, 40 Nozzle piece, 125

Oblique projection, 5 Offset bend, 125 Ogee, 110 Ogive (arch), 24 Openings: roof, 118 walls, 136 Oriel window, 37 Ornament (classical), 18 Ornament (mediaeval), 19 Orthographic projection, 5 OS (ordinance survey), 57 Outdoor lighting (fittings), 179 Outlet (rainwater), 125 226

Outside/Inside, 36 Overage, 49 Overdoor panel, 96 Overflow outlet, 170, 173 Owner occupier, 50 Oxyacetilene set, 68

Pad foundation, 68 Padlock, 148 Pan (lavatory), 173 Panel: (glazing infil), 91 (joint), 135 (moulding), 110 (overdoor), 96 Panelled door, 144 Panelling 164 Pantile, 112, 115 Parabolic, 6 Parallelepiped, 6 Parallel motion, 9 Parish church, 23 Parquet floor, 96 Partitions: demountable, sliding/folding hinged, frame and panel, 95 internal non-load bearing, timber/metal stud, 94 laminated, lightweight, 93 Party fence, 41 Party structure, 46 Party waIl, 41 Patch of sky, 42 Patent scaffolding, 64 Paving: concrete, 186 pattern, 83 Pedestal, 16 Pediment, 16, 144 Peg, 57, 190 Pendant (lamp holder), 180 Permitted development, 43 Perpends, 81 Perspective (view), 5 Photogrammetry, 58


Index Photographic measurement, 58 Pick, 67 Picked panel finish, 86 Picture rail, 96, 110 Pier, 83 Pile (carpet) types of construction, 165 Piled foundations, 76 Piles (shortbored, percussion, flush bored), 76 Pillar, 24 Pincers, 69 Pinfitting (electrical), 181 Pinning (dry), 79 Pipe (flush), 173 Pipes: expansion, 171 rainwater, 125 soil, 171, 173 Pipework (sanitary), 172 Pitch, 98 Pitched roof (construction), 97 Pitched roof (types), 98 Pitching hole (barn), 31 Pivot, 146 Plan, 5 Planning: approvals, 44 control, 43 permission, 43, 44 Plane, 69 Plant, 62, 66 Plant care, 185 Plaster (levelling, scoring), 158 Plasterboard, 93, 94, 138, 139, 162 Plaster stop, 154 Plasterwork (tools), 158 Plate, (wall, head, sole, stay), 65, 79, 105 Plate (pin, top, bearing, cover), 144 Plate (switch), 177 Pliers, 69 Plinth, 16, 83, 89, 110 Plot ratio, 49 Plug: electric, safety, 177, 178 partition, 92 Plugs (fixings), nylonframe anchor, fibre, nailable, 157 Plunger, (disc, hook), 173

Plungers, 180 Pointed arch, 24 Pointed style, 21 Pointing (tuck), 81 Poker, 131 Poles (ranging), 59 Porch, 24, 25, 34 Porch and chamber, 23 Portal, 33 Porte-cochere, 35 Portico, 35 Post, 102, 103 Postern gate, 20 Pot hook, 131 Power socket, 177 Power tools, 67 Power track, 178 Practical completion, 53 Precast cladding (panel fixing), 155 Prescription, 41 Pressed brick, 84 Priority yield, 50 Prism, 6 Profit erosion, 50 Project: design, 52 management, 50 Projecting joint, 81 Projection (axonometric, isometric, oblique, orthographic), 5 Projector (floodlight), 179 Proportions (module), 3 Proprietary cubicles, 95 Protactor, 9 P-trap, 173 Pulley wheel, 9 Punch, 70 Punched finish, 86 Purlin, 97, 101, 102 Pyramid (truncated), 6

Quadrant moulding, 110 Quaripartite (vault), 23 Quality indicator, 51 Quantities (approximate), 51 227


Index Quarry: bottom, limestone, 86 glass, 166 Quarterbonding, 82 Quarter circle, 19 Queen closer, 81, 82, 84 Quoin: brick, 88 headers, 81 picked pane), 80

Rabbet, 160 Radiators (panel, column, oil filled, storage, heater), 182, 184 Radiography, 60 Radius, 83 Raft foundation, 75 Rafter, 97, 102, 103, 104, 105 Rail (door, lock, frieze), 142, 143 Rail (picture), 96 Raised floors, 141 Raking shore, 79 Ram, 62, 63 Rammer, 67 Random coursed, 88 Rat-trap bond, 81 Ready-mix concrete (truck), 67 Rainwater pipes, 125 Rebate (glazing), 168 Recessed joint, 81 Reflector bulb, 181 Reinforcement (bar, mesh), 137 Relief, (decorative), 20 Rent, 50 Rental income, 50 Rental growth, 49 Representation (drawing), 8 Reservation, 41 Retaining walls, (small, medium, basement), 77 Retention, 53 Reticulated finish, 86 Reverse bond, 82 Rib: lightweight precast, 92 228

Rib: (Continued) longitudinal/transverse, 136 ridge, 23 tierceron, 24 Ridge (beam), 97, 98, 102, 103 Rights of: way, light, support, 41 Rings (arch), 83 Rise, 83 Riser, 127 Rivet, 157 Roach, 86 Rod, 101 Rodding eye, 169 Roll (lead), 121 Roman tiles, 112, 115 Roof: cover, structure, 25 covering types, 112 pitched construction, 97 run, span, rise, 98 Root, system, bare, balled, 189 Rose window, 24 Rubble: backing, 87 bottom, 86 random, coursed, square, 88 work, 88 Rusticated joints, 80

Saddle bar, 166 Safety plug, 178 Sanctuary, 24 Sandwich joint, 104 Sanitary pipework, 172 Sap (log), 163 Sash: movable, 120 window, 145 Saw, 70 Sawing (rift, tangential), 163 Scaffolding: board, 65 independent, 65 patent, 64 tower, 64


Index Scale (metric, imperial), 8 Scale rule, 9 Scalpel, 10 Scarf joints (traditional timber), 108, 109 Scissor (beam roof), 99 Scoring nails, 158 Scotia, 18 Scratcher, 158 Screening (landscape), 186 Screw cap, 181 Screwdriver, 70 Screws (thread cutting, self drilling, head types), 157 Scull cap, 86 Sea breeze principle, 204 Seasoning (timber), 163 Semidetached (building), 27 Septic tank, 169 Set-square (adjustable), 9 Setting out grid, 57 Shaft (column), 16 Shallow void floor, 141 Shapes, 6 Shared equity, 50 Shed (open fronted), 32 Shelter shed, 32 Shelter (wind), 187 Shingle, 86 Shingles (roof covering): felt, edge grained, flat sawn, 117 traditional timber, 117 Shoe, 125, 145 Shoring, 79 Shoulder, 106 Side hung window, 145 Sill, 142, 146 Simplified planning zone, 43 Siphonage, 172 Site (building), 55 Site visits, 53 Skirt, 180 Skirting, 92, 96, 132 Skirting types, 110 Sky, angle, factor, 42 Skylights (proprietary) 120 Slat, 86 Slate, 112,113

Sleeper wall, 132 Sleeve, 125 Slewing rig, 62 Sliding/folding partition, 95 Sliding sash, 146 Smoke detector, 140 Snib, 149 Soakaway, 190 Socket: circuit, double, 176 cover, 181 outlet, 178 Soffit, 83, 97 Soffit cleat, 139 Soil fittings (UPVC), 170 Soil and vent stack, 172 Solar power, 199 Solar radiation, 195 Soldering (iron), 68 Sole plate anchor, 153 Space for services, 140 Span, 83 Spandril, 83 Spanish tiling, 115 Spanner, (box), 69 Spar, 115, 116 Sphere (segment), 6 Spigot and socket soil fitting, 170 Spike, 97 Spindle: locks, 144 plumbing, 173 Wilk’s, Duce’s, patented, slotted, floating, Pitt’s candle, 148 Spire, 23, 24 Spirit level, 70 Splay: door, 96 header, stretcher, 84 Splayed and rounded skirting, 110 Splayed roof, 98 Splayed shouldered lap joint, 107 Split end tie, 152 Split hazle, 116 Spot (low wattage), 178 Spotlight, 178 Springing line, 82 229


Index Sprinkler, 140 Sprocketted roof, 98 Square (adjustable), 68 Square housed joint, 107 Staircases: special (samba, cat, ladder, retractable, Ioft),128 timber, 127 types (straight, flight, dog-leg, open well, spiral, bifurcated, quarter turn), 126 Stable, 31, 32 Stable, (lofted), 31 Stack (chimney), 25 Staff, 58, 59 Stained glass, 165 Stake, 189 Stanchion, 78 Stand (drawing board), 9 Stanley knife, 69 Star, 19 Starter, 181 Statutory (undertakers), 46 Stave, 159 Stave socket, 159 Steel: beams, 78 column foundation, 78 grillage foundation, 78 wedge, 78 Stencil, 10 Stepped foundations, 74 Steps, 25 Stereo plotter, 58 Stile (door), 144 Stone, 86 Stone facing, 87 Stone surface finish, 86 Stone tiles, 112 Stone walling, 88 Stool, 89 Stop cock, 170 Stop end, 125 Stop valve, 165 Storage heater, 171 Storage tank, 171, 174, 183 Storm clouds, 204 Straightening rule, 158 230

Strainer flow control, 187 Stretcher, 84 String course, 87, 89 Strip foundation, 73 Struck joint, 81 Structural grid, 4 Strut, 97, 101, 102, 105 Strutting (herringbone), 132 Stucco, 160 Stud partition, 93 Stump (tree), 163 Styles compared, 21 Stylobate, 16 Sub-structure, 25 Sun light, 42 Sun light indicator, 42 Sun light spacing criteria, 42 Sun shades, 140 Survey (accurate), 58 Sustainable ‘Green’ buildings, 196 Swan neck, 125 Switch (electric — dimmer, one-way), 177 Swivel coupler, 64 Swivel handle, 7

Tally, 7 Tamping board (vibrator), 66 Tank: cold water, 174 expansion, 182 Tape measure, 69 Tee square, 9 Tegula, 115 Template, 10 Temple (classical), 16 Temporary bench mark, 58 Tender documents, 52 Tender stage, 51, 53 Tenon, 134 bare faced, 107 double shouldered, 107 oblique, 106 Tenement (Scottish), 28 Terraced building, 27 Tetrahedron, 6


Index Thatch, 112, 116 Theodolite, 57, 59 Third bonding, 82 Three cell (plan type), 23 Threshing barn, 32 Throating, 89 Tie: beam, 97, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105 diagonal, 97 metal — stainless steel, bow, 152 Tierceron rib, 24 Tiling (roof plain), 114 Timber: batten, 93 conversion, 163 deadmen, 189 door frame, 142 floor construction, 132 framed buildings, 22 roof construction, 97 seasoning, 163 stud, 93 Tolerance (functional), 4 T&G (tongue and groove) joint, 135 Tools, 69, 70 Tools (plasterwork), 158 Tooth, 19 Toothing, 81 Top cap, 86 rubble 86 soil, 86, 190 Torus, 18,110 Tower (flanking, corner, watch), 20 Tower (church), 23 Track (wiring, power), 178 Traditional: scarf joints, 108, 109 timber roofs, 99 Transept, 24 Transom, 90, 147 Transducer monitoring, 61 Trap outlets (U, bottle, P, S), 172, 173, 174 Tree: forms, 189 guying, 189 nursery, 187 Tread, 127

Trellis, 185 Trench-fill foundation, 73 Triforium, 23 Triglyph, 16 Trimmed openings, 133 Trimmer, 118, 120, 121, 133 Trimming of floors, 134 Trivet, 121 Truncated (pyramid, prism, cylinder, cone), 6 Truss (bolt and connector), 102 Truss (lean-to half), 103 Truss (nailed timber), 101 Trusses, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105 Truss clip, 153 Truss-out scaffold, 65 Trussed rafter, 100 Trussed purlin roof, 101 Trysquare, 70 Tungsten halogen bulb, 181 Turf (laying of), 190 Turnbuckle 189 Turret, 20 Tuscan order, 17 Tusk, 134 Typanum, 16

U.D.P. (unitary development plan), 43 Underpinning (legs, wall), 79 Unitisation, 50 Urban development area, 43 Use classes, 43, 44

Valley, 97 Valley (rounded), 113,123 Valve: control, stop, drain, 183 diaphragm, 174 Portsmouth, Croydon, sequencing, 187 thermostatic (radiator), 182 Vapour barrier, 110 231


Index Vault: quadripartite, 23 ribbed, 23 Vee joint, 81 Verge board, 97 Vermiculated finish, 86 Vertical plane, 5 V groove, 86 Vibrator tamping, 66 View direction, 5 Vitrified clay (drainage fittings), 170 Vitruvius, 3 Volcano eruption, 213 Volumes, 6 Voussoir, 83, 89

Wall: cavity, 26, 80 interior, 162 plate, 65, 79, 97, 102 pier foundation retaining, 77 Waste systems, 171 Water heating (electric storage/instant, gas instant, indirect, immersion), 175 Water: leaf, 161 main, 171 supply (hot and cold, plumbing), 171 tank, 174 Warranty (collateral), 54 Watch tower, 20 Wattle and daub, 158 Wave energy, 200 Weather bar, 142 Weathering, 89 Weather proofing, 122 Weep holes, 80 Weights (sash), 146

232

Welt, 122 Welted strip, 187 Wheelbarrow, 66 Whitbed, 86 Wind effect on buildings, 205 Wind effect on roof shape, 205 Winders, 126 Window board, 147 bay, bow, 37 casement, 147 cill, 89 dormer, 118,119 frame, 146, 147 French, 25 leaded, 166 oriel, 37 rose, 24 sash, 147 traditional, 37, 146, 147 Wire-cut brick, 84 Wire hanger, 139 Woodblock, 96 Wood strip flooring, 96 Work (removed or hidden), 8 Working size (component), 4

X-ray source, 60

Yarn types (carpet), 165

Zinc: flashing, 122 sheet liner soaker, 122 Zone, 4

Illustrated.Building.Pocket.Book  

Illustrated.Building.Pocket.Book

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you