Issuu on Google+

Tartalomjegyzék 1. GRAMMAR REVIEW..................................................................................................................................5 2. ME AND MY FAMILY............................................................................................................................. 20 3. HOUSES AND FLATS............................................................................................................................ 28 4. SCHOOL..................................................................................................................................................... 34 5. DAILY ROUTINE.................................................................................................................................... 39 6. MEALS, SHOPPING............................................................................................................................... 48 7. THE POST OFFICE................................................................................................................................. 57 8. WEATHER AND CLOTHING............................................................................................................... 65 9. AT THE DOCTOR.................................................................................................................................... 70 10. TRANSPORT............................................................................................................................................76 VOCABULARY 1-10. .............................................................................................................................. 83 11. INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................................................. 98 12. THE PROCESS OF BUILDING INVESTMENT, PREAMBLE WORK.......................................106 13. FOUNDATION, SOIL MECHANICS,INSULATION................................................................. 112 14. MASONRY WORKS, SLABS, LINTEL............................................................................................120 15. SCAFFOLDING.....................................................................................................................................129 16. FORMWORKS........................................................................................................................................134 17. STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING: CONCRETE, REINFORCED CONCRETE, STEEL............139 18. STAIRS...................................................................................................................................................146 19. CARPENTRY WORK..............................................................................................................................149 20. PLASTER WORK, THERMO INSULATION.................................................................................162 21. DOORS AND WINDOWS..................................................................................................................169 22.A.) COVERS............................................................................................................................................. 174 22.B.) SOFT COVERS.................................................................................................................................183 23. PAINTING AND WALLPAPERING.................................................................................................186 24. PLASTERBOARD STRUCTURES..................................................................................................... 202 25. GARDEN ARCHITECTURE............................................................................................................... 207 26. BUILDING FAULTS, KNOWLEDGE OF DEMOLITION...........................................................210 VOCABULARY 11-26. ..........................................................................................................................215


1. chapter

grammar review

Az angol főnevek többes száma A főneveket az angol nyelvben megszámlálhatók és megszámlálhatatlanok. A megszámlálható főnevek csoportjába azok tartoznak, amiket meg lehet számolni. Ilyen pl. car, room, worker. Többes számba csak a megszámlálható főnevek tehetők, a szó végéhez illesztett s, vagy es végződéssel. Így kapjuk a cars, rooms, workers szavakat. Az f és fe jelű főnevek egy részénél az f v-vé válik és felveszi az s jelet. car cars glass glasses house houses knife knives leaf leaves wife wives Kivételek: néhány főnév többes száma megegyezik az egyes számmal. További kivételt jelentenek azok a főnevek, amelyeknél csak magánhangzóváltozás mutatja a többes számot. fish fish foot feet man men goose geese sheep sheep tooth teeth mouse mice woman women A megszámlálhatatlan főnevek a megszámlálhatók ellentétei, ilyenek: a) Elvont főnevek: anger, behaviour, chaos, courage, fun, happiness, health, knowledge, luck, safety, etc. b) Cselekvések: building, cooking, dancing, shopping, training, writing etc. c) Időjárás szavai: rain, snow, sunshine, thunder, weather, wind etc. d) Folyadékok, porok és gázok nevei: air, dirt, sand, smoke, water etc. e) Ételek és italok: food, fruit, milk, pasta, rice etc. f) Nyelvek: English, French etc. g) Anyagok: gold, oil, plastic, silver, wood etc. h) Betegségek: flu, measles, backache, earache, toothache (a kivételek: cold, headache, sore throat) j) Egyéb (ide tartoznak azok a szavak, amelyek látszólag megszámlálhatóak, valójában mégsem): accommodation, advice, assistance, cash, equipment, evidence, help, information, money, music, news, permission, progress, research, traffic, transport, travel, stuff, work etc.

A birtokos szerkezetek A birtokos szerkezet elején a birtokos, utána pedig a birtok áll birtokos esetben. Magyarul: egy gyerek labdája – birtokos birtok Angolul: a child’s ball – birtokos birtok Whose ball is this? Kinek a labdája ez?

– This is the child’s ball. – Ez a gyerek labdája.

Az of-os birtokos szerkezet elején a birtok, utána pedig egy of-os szerkezettel a birtokos áll. Magyarul: a ház egy ablaka – birtokos birtok Angolul: windows of a house – birtok birtokos

Határozatlan névmások 1. Megszámlálható és megszámlálhatatlan dolgok a) Először is, az egyszerűség kedvéért jegyezzük meg azokat, amelyek mindkettővel állhatnak. Ilyen az a lot of, lots of, plenty of (jelentésük sok) valamint a some (jelentése néhány/ valamennyi). A megszámlálhatóak többes számban, a megszámlálhatatlanok egyes számú igével állnak. Például: There was a lot of money in the box. – Sok pénz volt a dobozban.

There were a lot of names on the list. – Sok név volt a listán.

We had some problems and needed some time to think. – Volt néhány problémánk, és szükségünk volt némi időre, hogy gondolkodni tudjunk. 7


2. ME AND MY family Read the text. – Olvassa el a szöveget! My name is Peter Smith. I was born in London, on 16th March, 1986, so I’m 17 years old. I come from London, and I live in London at 4 Wright Street. I’m a student, I go to a technical school in London. I’m in the 11th class, I’m studying to be a carpenter.

1. Complete the sentences with your personal data. Egészítse ki a mondatokat a saját adataival! My name is/I am ................................................... I come from ................................................... I live in ......................................, at .......... ........................................ street/square. I was born in ..................., on ................... I’m ................... years old. I’m learning to be a/an ...................................................

2. Complete the dialogue with the missing information, then act it out. Egészítse ki a párbeszédet a hiányzó adatokkal, majd játssza el!

a) Mark Johnson

b) Kate Williams

United Kingdom

United States of America

Manchaster

Washington

15 years old

17 years old

Mark:

Good morning. My name is................... What is your name?

Kate:

I am ................... Where do you come from?

Mark:

I come from ................... And you?

Kate:

I am from ................... Where do you live?

Mark:

I live in ................... And you?

Kate:

I live in ................... How old are you?

Mark:

I am ................... years old. And you?

Kate:

I am ...................

Jobs/Professions – Foglalkozások

20

employee – alkalmazott

journalist – újságíró

carpenter – ács

architect – építész

waiter/waitress – pincer/nő

tiler – épületburkoló

doctor – orvos

nursery–school teacher – óvónő

technician – technikus

clerk – hivatalnok

nurse – ápolónő

bricklayer – kőműves

electrician – villanyszerelő

teacher – tanár

painter – szobafestő és mázoló paperhanger – tapétázó

driver – sofőr

repairman/mechanic – szerelő

fireman – tűzoltó

policeman – rendőr

building sculptor – ép. szobrász

hairdresser – fodrász

secretary – titkárnő

cast stone maker – műköves

engineer – mérnök

shop-assistant – eladó


SCHOOL

4. chapter

7. Read the dialogue and act it out. – Olvassa el a párbeszédet és játssza el! • Hello Suzy. ◦ Hello Jane. How are you? • Not so good. Tomorrow we are going to have a maths test and I don’t understand anything. I think I’ll skip tomorrow. ◦ Do you really want to skip school? • Yes, because I don’t want to fail. ◦ I think we could study together instead. I’m sure I can help you. I’m free this afternoon. • Thank you. It’s very nice of you. ◦ See you. • See you.

8. Connect the expressions in the left coloumn to the words in the right. Keresse meg a párokat!

to do well at an exam

parent’s meeting

can’t pass the exam

a hidden paper with notes

beeing absent breaks

not going to school

to pass

parents visit at school

cheat-sheet

time between lessons

to fail

9. Read the sentences and decide if they are said by the teacher or the student. Write T or S in the space provided. Olvassa el a mondatokat és jelölje T betűvel, amelyeket a tanár és S betűvel, amelyeket a diák mond!

T = teacher

....... Open your books/workbooks/exercise books.

....... I don’t understand the exercise.

....... I haven’t done my homework.

....... Stand up please.

....... Tomorrow you are going to write an essay.

....... I (don’t) know the answer.

....... Repeat the question, please.

....... Sit down, please.

....... I didn’t study for today.

....... Where can I find it in my book?

....... I would like to check the homework.

....... Let us check the homework please.

....... Who is missing?

....... Have you checked the essays?

36

S = student


5. DAILY routine 1. Read the text and answer the questions. Olvassa el a szöveget és válaszoljon a kérdésekre! Joe usually gets up at 6 o’clock. First he goes to the bathroom, washes himself and combs his hair. Then he gets dressed and goes to the kitchen to have breakfast. He doesn’t eat much, only a sandwich with a cup of white coffee or tea. After breakfast he brushes his teeth and packs his bag. He leaves at 6.30 AM, because the bus leaves at 6.45. It takes him half an hour to get to school. The lessons start at 8 a.m. and finish at 2 PM. After the lessons Joe goes home, and has lunch there. His mother cooks every day. After lunch he does his homework and studies. He has free time in the afternoons so he meets his friends. They go to play football or ride bikes. After dinner he watches TV. At about 9.30 he has a bath and then he goes to bed. What time does Joe get up?........................................................................................................................... Where does he wash?.................................................................................................................................... What does he have for breakfast?................................................................................................................. How does he go to school?............................................................................................................................ What does he do in the afternoon?............................................................................................................... What does he do in the evening?.................................................................................................................. When does he go to bed?..............................................................................................................................

2. Read the text and decide if the sentences on the next page are true or false. Write T or F in the space provided. Olvassa el a szöveget és döntse el, hogy a következő oldalon található mondatok igazak vagy hamisak! Írjon T és F betűket a kihagyott helyre! Barbara’s weekend On Saturday Barbara sleeps till 9 AM, because she doesn’t have to go to work. She has breakfast while reading a newspaper. She cleans her small flat and does the shopping. She has lunch with her friend in a pizzeria. After lunch she walks in the park with her dog. In the afternoon she stays at home, listens to music, reads or watches TV. At 7 her boyfriend comes and they go to the cinema. After the film they go to a disco and they dance a lot. On Sunday Barbara doesn’t get up early. She eats something light for lunch. In the afternoon she goes to a museum or visits an exhibition. In the evening she meets her friends. Sometimes she doesn’t feel like going out so she stays at home. 39


6. chapter

MEALS, SHOPPING

AT THE GROCERY Shop-assistant: Good morning. Can I help you? Ms. Smith:

I would like one kilo of bread.

Shop-assistant: Here you are. Anything else? Ms. Smith:

Yes, I would like 10 eggs and 2 litres of milk.

Shop-assistant: Is that all? Ms. Smith:

No, I also need 200 grams of cheese.

Shop-assistant: Do you need anything else? Ms. Smith:

No, thank you. That’s all.

AT THE MARKET Shop-assistant: Good morning. What would you like? Ms Smith:

I would like one kilo of tomato.

Shop-assistant: Here you are. Anything else? Ms Smith:

Yes, I would like some fruits. Are the bananas fresh?

Shop-assistant: Yes, of course. Ms Smith:

Then could you give me a kilo of them, please.

4. Complete the expressions with the words in italics. Egészítse ki a kifejezéseket a dőlt betűs szavakkal! a pound of, a kilo of, a bar of, a litre of, a tube of, pairs of, a glass of, a packet of, a grams of, a bottle of ………… milk, ………… wine, ………… rice,

100 ………… cheese, ………… cigarette, ………… beer, ………… chocolate, three ………… sausage, ………… toothpaste,

two ………… potato,

5. Find synonym to the underlined expressions or sentences. Keressen szinonímát az aláhúzott szavakra vagy mondatokra! The bread is not fresh. . .................................................................................................................................. I’ll have a kilo of oranges. . ............................................................................................................................ How much does it cost? ................................................................................................................................. What would you like? ....................................................................................................................................

6. Put the expressions in the correct list. – Csoportosítsa az alábbi kifejezéseket! friendly atmosphere, cameras, fresh goods, everything in one place, parking facilities, self-service, serving from the shop assistant, reduced price, cheap goods, a great variety of goods, long opening hours, the salesman knows us Supermarket:................................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................................................... Small shop:...................................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................................................... 49


TRANSPORT

10. chapter

5. Match the phrases to their definitions. Párosítsa össze a kifejezéseket a meghatározásokkal! not to catch the bus

to ask

to travel without a ticket

to go by car

to inquire

to miss

to reserve a seat

not to pay the fare

to travel by car

to book a seat

CAR 6. What is what? – Mi micsoda? 1. steering wheel, 2. brake, 3. passenger compartment, 4. wheel, 5. windscreen, 6. dashboard, 7. seat/safety belt, 8. rear-view mirror, 9. boot, 10. bonnet, 11. headlight

7. Answer the questions. – Válaszoljon a kérdésekre! At what age is it possible to get a driving licence? Do you have a driving licence? When did you learn to drive a car? Why is it important to use a seat belt? Is there an airbag in your car? What’s the speed limit on the motorways? Have you ever had an accident? How many kilometers have you driven so far?

8. Match the following words to their definitions. Írja az alábbi szavakat a megfelelő definíciókhoz! ignition, pedal, speedometer, steering wheel, glove-compartment, fuel measurer It indicates the speed of the car: It shows the amount of the fuel in the tank: You can start the engine with it: You can steer the car with this: You can activate the brake with it: 78


11. chapter

introduction

Peter:

I have the same problem; my office is far away from here. I have to leave now, working hours are beginning. See you in the evening.

John:

Bye.

4. Write on the stripes the given types of real estates. Írja be a vonalakra a megadott ingatlan típusokat! (Family) house, semi-detached house, terraced house, owner-occupied block, weekend house, industrial shed, office building ............................... It is a real estate in the inner city, which is used in working hours. ............................... It is one building on a site, where two families can live next to each other. ............................... It is a multi-storey building, generally with many flats in it. ............................... It is a building on an independent site. It is generally one or two-storey. ............................... A real estate made for industrial production. They are usually situated in the suburbs, it is within easy reach. ............................... Many bigger flats, built next to each other. ............................... This is used for having rest; it is usually a small building, often without heating.

5. Write on the ground-plan the numbers of the premises. – Írja be az alaprajzba a megadott helyiségek számát! 1. entrance hall 2. corridor 3. living room 4. kitchen 5. pantry 6. bedroom 7. bathroom 8. toilet 9. staircase 10. garage 11. balcony

99


12. chapter

The process of building investment, preamble work

Reading – Olvasmány Before building, partners contract with each other. In case of a later debate the facts included in the contract are competent. Every detail in connection with building is put in writing in the contract. The facts are the following: • Contractants • Task • Materials • Quantities • Price • Paying conditions • Default interest • Legal consequences All contractant gets an own copy from the contract, which he has to preserve. Any changes which appears during the project, has to be written down in another contract.

7. Give the contractants and the tasks. Adja meg a szerződő feleket és a szerződés tárgyát! designer contract:............................................................................................................................................ ......................................................................................................................................................................... building contract:............................................................................................................................................ ......................................................................................................................................................................... technology contract:........................................................................................................................................ ......................................................................................................................................................................... subcontract:..................................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................................................... contract of carriage:........................................................................................................................................ .........................................................................................................................................................................

Reading – Olvasmány After the announcement of the results, BM building Ltd. contracted with the investor. The site in point is situated in the outskirts, in the garden suburb. Public services and roads are already built up, the site is easily accessible. The first step is to fence in the building site. For this the geodesist determines the corner points. After setting-out the fence, the holes, that are necessary for the fence stakes will be dug out. On the stakes wire mesh is fixed, not the final fence. After securing the site three barracks are placed. They can be heated, and they are supplied with basin and toilette. One barrack is for the building engineer and clerk of works. They lead the process and decide on the arisen questions. They keep an eye on documents and valuable objects as well. The other two barracks are for workmen; they can dress and keep their valuables here.

109


Foundation, soil mechanics, insulation

13. chapter

6. Make groups of the following types of foundations. Csoportosítsa a következő alapozási módokat! cylinder, cutoff -wall foundation, base, piling, strip foundation, tie beam, foundation slab, box caisson Shallow foundation

Deep foundation

7. For foundations different materials can be used. What features do these materials have? Az alapokhoz sokféle anyagot használhatunk fel. Mely tulajdonságok jellemzőek ezekre az anyagokra? • Moulders at the border of dry and humid parts • It is labour- and time consuming to build it • Rubblestone and concrete are also needed • Corrodes in case of spoiled ground water • Its weight-bearing capacity can be planned • Enlarges like steps • Can be mixed on the spot Materials: timber, steel, concrete, reinforced concrete, mortar, brick, rubblestone, floating concrete 114


14. chapter

Masonry work, slabs, lintel

........................................................

........................................................

........................................................

........................................................

........................................................

........................................................

3. According to the layout of load-bearing structures different types of building can be built. Match the descriptions and the expressions. A teherhordó szerkezetek elrendezése szerint többféle épület alakítható ki. Párosítsa össze a kifejezéseket és a leírásokat! 1. Main walls give load-bearing features, thermo and acoustic insulation, inner closure. 2. Piers and columns are loadbearing walls. a) Skeleton and infill brickwork b) Solid wall

121


15. chapter

Scaffolding

6. What are the advantages of tubular scaffolding? What are the structural parts of it? (brackets, bottom of tubes, clamps) Melyek a csőállvány használatának előnyei? Sorolja fel a speciális szerkezeti részeket! (bilincsek, csőtalpak, rögzítőelemek) ......................................................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................................................................

7. Match the types of scaffoldings with their definition. Illessze össze az állványok típusait az alábbi definíciókkal! rolling scaffolding, protective scaffolding, extension scaffolding, placing scaffolding, bracket platform, hanging scaffolding Scaffolding which bears on cantilever beam, and reaches in front of the elevation. Used for repairing elevation, or receiving materials around openings. ...................................... We use this, when the place of scaffolding has to be changed very often. For example at painting, preparing fittings, repairing, cleaning. ...................................... It will be fixed to reinforced concrete structure with preconcreted hooks. If its weigh is large it will be placed with crane. ...................................... It’s a suspended scaffold on a load bearable building structure. It is used mainly for frontal works (e.g.: cleaning). ...................................... It is placed under the working level. It protects workers. ...................................... We build such a scaffold when we have to place precast reinforced concrete structures (e.g.: ceramic slab). ...................................... 131


16. Formworks Reading – Formworks / Olvasmány – Zsaluzatok Formworks are necessary when we build concrete and reinforced concrete structures. It ensures strutting until concrete solidifies. The structure gets its final shape and size as well. Formworks are temporary structures, because they are pulled down after the solidification of concrete. Previously they were made of wood, nowadays we use these only for non-series structures because they are time-consuming and don’t provide a lot of waste. For modern monolithic reinforced concrete structures we use shutterboards. A lot of additional and switching elements belong to it. The joints of shutterboards are dissolvable.

1. Why are wooden formworks put into the background? Use the given expressions. Miért szorultak háttérbe a fa zsaluzatok? Használja a következő kifejezéseket! lack of, variability, load-bearing, lifetime, connecting facilities, size, costs ......................................................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................................................................

2. Match the following expressions and definitions. Párosítsa a következő kifejezéseket és definíciókat! 1. strut

2. steel shutter/shuttering board

a) Gives shape, size and surface quality of the structure. b) They transmit vertical force affecting formwork toward ground. c) They take up lateral thrust, ensure the place of shuttering boards. d) Ensure that deviation in deformation can not happen. 1

134

2

3

dimension 4

and

3. shuttering

4. anchorage parts


Carpentry work

19. chapter

Reading – Machines / Olvasmány – Gépek Traditional carpenter work, which is usually done with hand tools, can be made easier by using machines. The result is more precise and professional. These machines can be fixed or mobile. They can work with electricity or their own combustion engine.

6. Write under the photos the name of tools. Írja a fotók alá a szerszámok nevét! circular saw, chain-saw, keyhole saw, drilling machine, milling machine, planning machine, abrasive belt, compressed-air sander, grinding wheels

.....................................

.....................................

.....................................

.....................................

.....................................

.....................................

.....................................

.....................................

.....................................

7. Sum up the most important rules of prevention of accidents working with machines. Fogalmazza meg a gépek használatával kapcsolatos legfontosabb balesetvédelmi szabályokat! tight, in their surround, knots, knuckle sheave, covering blanket, gloves, effort, incident resource, moving part, repairing, extractor, swing back 152


21. chapter

Doors and windows

4. Which is the left-hand and which is the right-hand door opening? Melyik a balos és melyik a jobbos nyitási irány? ................... If you stand in front of the door; the door hinge is on your left. ................... If you stand in front of the door; the door hinge is on your right.

5. Here are some rules about opening direction of single doors. Write the proper words on lines. Az oldalt nyíló ajtók nyitási irányáról ismertetünk néhány szabályt. Írja a vonalakra a megfelelő szót! Use the following words: near to each other, narrow, deeper than 140 cm, open outwards, axle-base 1. Doors of busy spaces ………………………… 2. The doors of ………………………… corridors usually open into bigger premises. 3. The ……………………… of doors have to be planned, that radiators and furniture could have room. 4. Toilet’s door can open inward if the premise is ………………………… 5. Wooden doors ………………………… can not open to the other.

6. Timber doors can have different frames. Write down the features of the following types. A fa ajtók tokja különböző típusú lehet. Jellemezze a megadott típusokat! bead, meeting stiles, batten, partition wall, consol frame:................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................... lining:................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................... jamb:.................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................... architrave:.......................................................................................... ........................................................................................................... ...........................................................................................................

171


Angol építőipari szakmai nyelvkönyv