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What’s in your energy drink — and how safe is it? SUPPLIED BY THE DEPARTMENT FOR NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL

Alcohol content of energy drinks Mega Power: 0.090 grams of alcohol per 100 millilitres (0.010 per cent alcohol/volume). Stacker 2: 0.020g per 100ml (0.020 per cent). Bedroom Bully: 0.020g per 100ml (0.030 per cent). Tiger Bone: 0.064g per 100ml (0.081 per cent). Secret Stallion: 0.077g per 100ml (0.097 per cent). Fever: 0.110g per 100ml (0.150 per cent). Baba Roots: 3.020g per 100ml (3 per cent). Zion: 4.910g per 100ml (6 per cent). Roots Man: 7.050g per 100ml (8.94 per cent). Magnum: 13.390g per 100ml (16 per cent).

Energy drinks are popular among today’s youth, but just how safe are they? These drinks have a caffeine content between 50-505 mg (milligrams) per can/bottle, and include such brands as Red Bull and Monster. They are also popular as mixers in alcoholic drinks. Research has shown that individuals who have a high frequency of energy drink consumption are at more risk of engaging in heavy drinking and developing a dependence on alcohol. Research has also highlighted the dangers of combining energy drinks with alcohol.

‘Equally worrisome is the fact that these drinks are not regulated and the consumer has hardly any labelling information about their contents.’

Deaths And there have been deaths linked to their consumption. Before the 2011 National School Survey there was no research on energy drink consumption patterns among Bermuda students. The National School Survey, commissioned by the Department for National Drug Control, found that two-thirds (65.5 per cent) of all students taking part in the survey reported using energy drinks at some point in their lifetime. About a third (31.7 per cent) of the students consumed energy drinks during the 30 days prior to the survey. Most students said they used the drinks ‘before or after sporting events’,

■ ISTOCK PHOTO

UNKNOWN QUANTITY: There have been deaths in North America and Europe linked to highly-caffeinated drinks such as Monster and Red Bull, pictured above. ‘while hanging out’ and ‘while studying’. In terms of frequency, most lifetime and current users of energy drinks said they used the drinks ‘once per month’ and were responsible for purchasing the drinks themselves, or were sometimes given them by a sibling. Of the 3,182 students who took the survey, 10.2 per cent consumed a combina-

tion of energy drinks and alcoholic beverages. So, what’s the big deal? There have been deaths in the US and Canada linked to the consumption of energy drinks by young people. In some countries such as Canada, there has been a move to regulate energy drinks, including restriction on marketing and sales to children; especially after

recent deaths related to consumption of the energy drink Monster. Meanwhile, the Swedish National Food Administration is investigating the popular energy drink Red Bull and has advised that, in the interim, it should not be drunk with alcohol or after exercise. In addition, the US Food and Drug Administration has received reports of 13

deaths over the last four years that cited the possible involvement of 5-Hour ENERGY, a highly-caffeinated energy shot. Unknown to the consumer, there are some energy drinks that contain alcohol. In a comparative analysis conducted by the Department of Health at the Central Government Laboratory in Bermuda, all the energy drinks that were tested contained various quantities of alcohol (see Infobox). Although testing for alcoholic content has not yet been conducted on the more recent popular

brands on the market, there is no doubt that these brands are highly-caffeinated. Equally worrisome is the fact that these drinks are not regulated and the consumer has hardly any labelling information about their contents. Why then would anyone drink anything without knowing what’s inside? ■

THIS RESEARCH was undertaken by the Department for National Drug Control. See www. dndc.gov.bm for more information.

Fatalities linked to products could prompt FDA action JAYNE O’DONNELL USA Today (MCT)

Reports of five deaths and a heart attack linked to Monster Energy Drinks should bolster efforts to get the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to regulate caffeinated energy drinks, say health and safety advocates. The FDA says it has received five ‘adverse

event’ reports of death and one report of a heart attack ‘associated’ with Monster Energy Drinks. FDA spokeswoman Shelly Burgess said the agency takes all incident reports seriously, and “we ... investigate each report diligently”. Monster Beverage Corporation said “neither the science nor the facts support the allegations that

‘These tragedies put a face and voice to a very severe danger.’ SENATOR RICHARD BLUMENTHAL Connecticut

have been made”. “Monster reiterates that

its products are and have always been safe.”

The FDA reports were obtained under the Freedom of Information Act by Wendy Crossland of Hagerstown, Maryland. Ms Crossland said in a lawsuit against Monster Beverage that her 14-yearold daughter, Anais Fournier, died in December 2011 after drinking Monster Energy for two days in a row. Ms Crossland “wanted to

do everything in her power to make sure young people don’t drink energy drinks” said her attorney, Kevin Goldberg. Monster said in its statement that it “does not believe that its products are in any way responsible for the death of Ms Fournier”. Still, some say the deaths could lead to FDA action See REGULATION, page 29


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■ MCT GRAPHICS

EFFECTS: The above graphic shows the physiological effects of caffeine on the body and neurotransmitters, that carry nerve signals. Right, are energy drinks beneficial or detrimental?

REGULATION: Should there be more investigation into energy drinks? Continued from page 27 on energy drinks, something US Senators Richard Durbin (Illinois) and Richard Blumenthal (Connecticut) have been urging since last year. “Sometimes, tragedy prompts action, even from entrenched bureaucratic sceptics,” said Sen. Blumenthal.

Warning labels “These tragedies put a face and voice to a very severe danger.” Jim Shepherd of Toronto became an outspoken opponent of energy drinks after his 15-year-old son, Brian, died of a heart arrhythmia in 2008 after drinking a Red Bull free sample at a paintball tournament.

Red Bull said it sympathizes with Mr Shepherd but is not responsible for his son’s death. Mr Shepherd said despite an “information gap relating to the amount of harm being done” by energy drinks, the federal agency Health Canada agreed to regulate energy drinks as ‘food’ rather than ‘natural health products’. It may require the beverage industry to add mandatory warning labels, meet caffeine limits and limit marketing and advertising to children. The FDA does not regulate caffeine in energy drinks, which can be marketed as dietary supplements. Sen. Blumenthal said he is concerned about natural

‘Amelia Arria, a University of Maryland public health epidemiologist, who has written several energy drink studies, said there are several... which show energy drinks “mask the effects of alcohol”. People drink more because they are highly stimulated.’

ingredients that also act as stimulants in the drinks. This combination can be risky for people with undiagnosed heart conditions. Emergency room visits involving energy drinks increased tenfold between 2005 and 2009, according to a federal report in 2011.

Half involved the drinks when mixed with alcohol or drugs. Alcohol-laced energy drinks were banned in 2010 after reports of deaths and illnesses. While energy drink companies can’t legally sell versions with liquor now,

some appear to condone it. On its website, Red Bull says “there is no scientifically substantiated reason why Red Bull Energy Drink should not, like any other drink, be mixed with alcohol”. Amelia Arria, a University of Maryland public

health epidemiologist, who has written several energy drink studies, said there are several that are peerreviewed and which show energy drinks “mask the effects of alcohol”. People drink more because they are highly stimulated. ■


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■ HEALTHY EATING

How to introduce your child to solids, at the right time BY CYMONE HOLLIS Bermuda Dietitians Association

‘Never offer honey to infants under one years of age as it can contain deadly botulism spores.’

Introducing solids to infants can be an exciting adventure for babies but an overwhelming experience for parents. Parents may feel overwhelmed in deciding what to provide in the appropriate foods, and when, at the right developmental stages. Feeding infants from birth to six months of age involves exclusive breastfeeding or infant formula feeding without the addition of solids. Inappropriate substitution includes regular cow, rice, soy, almond or evaporated milk. Breast milk or infant formulas are the best source of energy and nutrition during the first year. At six months of age complementary solids can be added to the current feeding regime.

Cues There are cues an infant will demonstrate when they are developmentally ready for the introduction of solid foods. These include: ■ Sitting up without support; ■ Holding their head up without support; ■ Moving food from the front of the mouth to the back of the throat. If your baby thrusts their tongue forward, spitting out food, then this is a sign that baby is not ready for solids;

■ MCT PHOTO

STAGES: Chewing, swallowing and eating are a learning process, to be taught with a bowl and spoon. ■ Grabbing items; ■ Chewing motions.

When you identify these cues, begin to proceed with solids. Introduce individual foods and watch for allergies or other reactions. To identify an allergen wait a couple of days before introducing a new food. Do not put solids in a

baby bottle or sip cup. Chewing, swallowing and eating are a learning process and must be taught utilizing a ‘bowl and spoon’.

Timeline A basic guideline for introducing new foods follows: ■ At six months, intro-

duce iron-fortified single grain infant cereal. Start with 1 tsp of rice cereal, mixing the cereal with breast milk or infant formula. Do not put any cereal in the bottle as this can cause baby to choke, over-eat or develop dental caries. ■ At seven months introduce yellow and orange

vegetables first, then proceed to green vegetables such as peas and green beans. Start with strained pureed vegetables and slowly progress to mash per infant capability. Offer one new vegetable per week. The introduction of salt, butter or margarine is not required. ■ At eight months, offer a sip cup. Introduce strained or mashed soft fruit, offering one fruit at a time, allowing three-four days before trying a new fruit. Limit the amount of juice to ¼ cup per day, diluted with water. ■ At nine months, introduce meat, poultry, fish or beans strained, pureed or ground. As teeth erupt and chewing begins, offer coarsely chopped soft foods. A ¼ tsp egg yolk can be offered only and watch for allergic reactions. Soft dairy products that are easily digested are cheeses, cottage cheese and yogurt. Allow baby to explore with finger foods. ■ At 10 months, as infants

begin to manipulate food better and hand-feed themselves, offer chopped, ground foods instead of purees. ■ At 11 months, introduce ¼ tsp of egg white and watch for allergic reactions. ■ At 12 months a variety of foods can be offered for meals from the five food groups so that they are able to partake in family meals. Note that boiled water should always be provided for formula-fed babies. Never offer honey to infants under one years of age as it can contain deadly botulism spores. Avoid foods that are possible choking hazards such as grapes, hot dogs, hard vegetables, nuts, popcorn or large pieces of food. ■

CYMONE HOLLIS is an RD (Registered Dietitian) and public health nutritionist for the Bermuda Hospitals Board/Bermuda Dietitians Association. For more information on a healthy diet, see www.eatwellbermuda. org

■ JUST FOR DADS

The power of a father’s love can accomplish anything BY PETE SAUNDERS Razors & Diapers

Who can deny that there is power in love? Unfortunately, some doubt the power of a father’s love, despite the widelyheld belief that it is the power of God’s (The Father’s) love that SAUNDERS gives humanity hope and keeps us alive (John 3:16). Luckily, denial of something is not proof that that thing does not exist.

Misconception Hardly anyone will deny that there is power in a mother’s love. Why is that? I believe it is partly due to the misconception that love is expressed through the qualities and characteristics mostly endowed in mothers. Of course, fathers demonstrate their love differently from mothers, but it is still love. Fathers and their children enjoy roughhousing together, which is an expression of his love and has been identified as

‘Fathers have to do much more than just show up. They also have to engage, delight and teach their children, in love.’ crucial for a child’s early development. Fathers teach their children how to build and fix things and how to play sports. They do a great job at teaching their children how to deal with frustration, and are most often the one to encourage children to work out problems and address challenges on their own. Some researchers have discovered that a father’s rejection of his child, or something about his child, has a greater impact than a mother’s acceptance. The story of Rick and

■ ISTOCK PHOTO

AFFECTION: When fathers demonstrate love, their children are happier, more confident and focused. They also have a better academic performance. Dick Hoyt, although a little unusual, epitomizes how a father’s love, and acceptance of his child, will impact that child’s future and outlook on life. Dick Hoyt’s son, Rick, was born without the ability to walk, talk, or barely move. Despite Rick’s less than

ideal circumstances, his father embraced his role and created an amazing life of adventures and accomplishments for his son. Together, the father and son team conquers marathons, triathlons, Iron Man tournaments, and much more. All this, Dick did for his

son simply because he asked him to. There are many great fathers in Bermuda as well. I have met a number of these men, who demonstrate their love and commitment to their children, despite the many obstacles they face. You can see the differ-

ence their love makes in their children’s life. Their children are happier, more confident, focused. They demonstrate strong academic performance, social intelligence and healthier habits. Obviously, being present as a father is not enough. Fathers have to do much more than just show up. They also have to engage, delight and teach their children, in love. The famous Beatles song All You Need is Love claims that anything can be accomplished, if we have love. It’s true that showering your children with love rather than things is probably the best thing we can do to help them reach their full potential in life. Children need to see, feel, and experience their father’s love. The sooner a child knows that he or she has his or her father’s love, the sooner they will develop the confidence to accomplish greatness. ■

PETE SAUNDERS runs the website www.razorsanddiapers.com which is dedicated to helping Bermuda’s fathers with their children. It offers information on fatherhood issues, resources and parenting products.


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Cutting

THEME:

”Together We Can Protect Bermuda’s Environment & the Planet”

2013 EARTH HOUR

Creativity

COMPETITION

New York NANCI HELLMICH USA Today (MCT)

Teens, take note: Two studies out have taken a look at how drinking sugary beverages impacts your weight. One study shows that heavy adolescents who stopped guzzling sugarsweetened drinks for a year — not too surprisingly — gained four fewer pounds than their peers who continued to drink them. The other documents show how both soda and sports drinks impact weight gain. “We regularly see children and teens who are consuming hundreds of calories a day in sugary beverages, not just soda but energy and sports drinks, which are also loaded with calories,” says David Ludwig, senior author of the new study, and director of the New Balance Foundation Obesity Prevention Center at Boston Children’s Hospital. In fact, a recent government analysis showed that teens who drink soda, energy drinks and other sugary beverages are guzzling about 327 calories a day from them, which is equal to about two and a half cans of cola.

Blood pressure

BELCO, in cooperation with Greenrock, is proud to invite students to enter ONE of the following CREATIVE Categories of the 2013 Earth Hour Creativity Competition. Entries will be judged on content, quality, originality and creativity, as well as relevance to the theme.

STUDENT AGE CATEGORIES CREATIVE CATEGORY Ages 9-11 □ Essay

□ Poem /Song*

□ Drawing/Painting

□ Diorama

□ Poem /Song*

□ Drawing/Painting

□ Dance*/Performance*

□ Poem /Song*

□ Drawing/Painting

□ Dance*Performance*

Ages 12-14 □ Essay Ages 15-18 □ Essay

Join us at Hamilton City Hall

*must submit a video as entry. Winners will be given the option to perform live at Earth Hour

on Saturday, 23 March, 2013

PRIZES One WINNER will be selected in each AGE Category and each CREATIVE Category. Total of 12 WINNERS (judges have discretion not to award a prize in any creative category, if they do cannot find a suitable entry). Each WINNER will receive:

for our special Earth Hour event filled with

$100 (or $200 to share if two or more students collaborate on an entry)

entertainment and green products.

$100 for their school to use for an environmental project

Opportunity to showcase their entry at Greenrock’s 2013 Earth Hour Celebration

Winner’s Certificate

Acknowledgement in the media and on Greenrock website

SUBMIT E NTRIES TO: Mrs. Susan McGrath-Smith, Bermuda Electric Light Company Limited (BELCO)

VISIT

Mail: P.O. Box HM 1026, Hamilton HM DX or E-mail: smsmith@ascendant.bm

www.belco.bm

Drop-off location: BELCO, 27 Serpentine Road, Pembroke

FOR FURTHER

Please direct questions to 298-6126 or smsmith@ascendant.bm

DETAILS & THE

Note: All entries become the property of BELCO and Greenrock.

RULES OF E NTRY

Deadline for submitting entries is Friday, 1 March

A diet high in added sugars is linked to many poor health conditions, including obesity, high blood pressure and other risk factors for heart disease and stroke. About a third of kids in the US are overweight or obese. To look into the impact of cutting back on liquid calories, Dr Ludwig and colleagues recruited 224 overweight and obese adolescents, who were drinking a minimum of 12 ounces of sugar-sweetened beverages or 100 per cent fruit juice a day. Half were assigned to an intervention group. They were told to stop drinking sugary drinks. Non-caloric beverages (water, diet beverages) were delivered to their home for a year. They also had checkin visits with research staff and received written messages of encouragement to stick with the programme. Their parents got motivational calls to encourage the teens’ adherence. Participants in the control group were given no advice on what to drink. Everyone was tracked for a second year after the oneyear intervention. Among the findings, published online in the New England Journal of Medicine and presented at the annual meeting of the Obesity Society in San Antonio: ■ Teens in the intervention group drank almost no sugary beverages during the year-long study; those in the control group continued to drink sugary beverSee SODAS, page 33


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out sugary drinks cuts weight gain among teenagers City to introduce 16-ounce cap on sweetened bottled drinks and fountain beverages SODAS Continued from page 32 ages, but their consumption went down moderately, possibly because of public health measures that cut down sugary drinks in Massachusetts’ schools. ■ Overall, the teens who stopped drinking sugary beverages gained four fewer pounds in a year than teens who continued to drink them. ■ Hispanic adolescents who stopped drinking sugary drinks gained 14 fewer pounds than those who continued to drink them. ■ At the two year followup, there was no difference in the weight gain between the intervention and control groups. “Soft drink consumption began to increase after the intervention was discontinued, and the difference in body weight diminished,” Dr Ludwig says. “This indicates that long-term changes in body weight will require permanent changes in sugary drink consumption. “Reduction in sugary beverages can affect body weight quite quickly as a single behavioural change, probably more so than any other class of food products,” he says.

Ban Adolescents will readily reduce the consumption of sugary beverages if other products are conveniently available, he says. Measures to decrease sugary beverage consumption among children may have major public health benefits, he says. In another study, presented at the Obesity Society meeting, researchers found that some teens gain a significant amount of extra weight from both sports drinks and sodas. Alison Field, an associate professor of pediatrics at Harvard Medical School, and her colleagues examined data on almost 11,000 kids aged nine to 15, and tracked their weight gain over time.

Findings Teens gained almost two additional pounds over two years for each bottle or can of soda they drank per day. If they drank two sodas a day, they gained four extra pounds during that period. The adolescents put on an extra three-and-a-half pounds for each bottle of sports drinks a day that they consumed. “It really adds up,” Dr Field says. “This is on top of what they would be gaining as part of their natural development and growth.” Sports drinks, although marketed as having 50 calories per serving, are commonly sold in 20-ounce bottles (130 calories) and 32-ounce bottles (200 calories). Individual containers and cups of soda are sold in 12-ounce cans (roughly 140 calories), 20-ounce bottles (240 calories) or even larger

sizes. “Our results suggest that adolescents drink the entire container of sports drinks and get multiple servings in that single container,” says Dr Field. Although sugar-sweetened soda is still the most popular of these sugary drinks, sports drinks, energy drinks and iced teas are gaining popularity, she says. “Sports drinks also impact weight gain and should be limited. Parents often don’t think of them as sugary beverages, but they

should. “The fact that they don’t get any additional nutrition from these is why they are good area to target to control weight.” The American Beverage Association said in a statement: “We know, and science supports, that obesity is not uniquely caused by any single food or beverage. “Thus, studies and opinion pieces that focus solely on sugar-sweetened beverages, or any other single source of calories, do nothing meaningful to help

address this serious issue.” The new studies come on the heels of news that New York City is putting a 16-ounce cap on sweetened bottled drinks and fountain beverages sold at city restaurants, delis, movie theatres, sports venues and street carts. The beverage ban, which goes into effect March 12, applies to drinks that have more than 25 calories per eight ounces. It does not include 100 per cent juice drinks or beverages with more than 50 per cent milk. ■

‘Sports drinks also impact weight gain and should be limited. Parents often don’t think of them as sugary beverages, but they should.’ DR ALISON FIELD

Associate professor of pediatrics, Harvard Medical School


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Teenagers — when are they too old for ‘bedtime’? achieve more of it. Remind her to keep an eye on caffeine intake. “Girls often are drinking many, many caffeinated beverages throughout the day and into the evening.” Take away tech. “Say, ‘At 9:30 or 10, that’s downtime. No more computer. No more video. No more phone.’ “Take the screens away. Technology is highly addictive and the light is activating chemicals that increase wakefulness.” Encourage reading or listening to relaxing music. “Often they get in bed and can’t turn off their brains. ‘Did I do everything? Did I do everything well enough?’”

BY HEIDI STEVENS Chicago Tribune (MCT)

Your 15-year-old would stay up all night if you let her. Is she too old for a bedtime?

Parental advice Ellen Warren: “Sleep cycles are as individual and unique as every human being. “Enforce a few rules — a time to go to her room, no games, Internet, TV, loud music — then let her figure out when she needs to go to sleep to function the next day. “Even without your rules or permission, she will.” Michael Zajakowski: “Making sure your children eat and sleep right is still your job, even though the scale of responsibility tips more in their direction as they get older. “Your sense of their internal clock could be a guide. “Notice how it affects them in the morning. Are they dragging, or are they rested? “Teens are testing the limits of their bodies, and staying up is a way of testing their adulthood. “Try to accommodate them by agreeing to a reasonable time, based on how much sleep you think they need every night, and make sure they understand that the later hours are ‘quiet time’. “Other than that, my main concern would be what they’re doing with that time. “I would put conditions on what they do with the

Schedule

■ MCT PHOTO

DISTRACTIONS: At night, set down rules to cut the tech. Light from screens activates chemicals to increase wakefulness. extra time. I’d make a rule of little or no screen time, and point them toward productive — and tiring — activities.”

Expert advice She is realistically too old for a strictly-imposed bedtime, but not too old for some firmly-enforced nighttime parameters. “You can’t say, ‘You must be asleep by 10:15’,” says

clinical psychologist Roni Cohen-Sandler, author of Stressed-Out Girls: Helping Them Thrive in the Age of Pressure (Penguin Books). “You can say, ‘Look, just as everything else in this house, we have guidelines for good health, and I’m not going to allow you to stay up all night’.” Research on sleep and teens shows they need about 10 to 12 hours per

night, says Cohen-Sandler. And they’re often getting six or seven. “The effects on their mental and physical health are profound,” she says. “During sleep is when the brain repairs itself and a lot of memory consolidation occurs. “Not to mention the immune system becomes shot when they deprive themselves of sleep.

“Just as parents have an obligation to protect kids’ health in terms of good eating habits, we have an obligation to help them establish good sleeping habits,” she says. “At 15, a child is generally not in a position to make good judgments.” She suggests educating her about the importance of sleep and putting boundaries in place to help her

Help her schedule the waking hours. “Often they’re so busy and stressed that they’re staying up late to do things they haven’t had time to do during the day. “Or they’re staying up to do even more work.” Don’t assume, at 15, that your child knows what’s best for her brain and body. “The frontal lobes of a teenage brain are simply not fully developed,” says Dr Cohen-Sandler. “A 15-year-old is not capable of laying in bed and thinking, ‘I really want to check Facebook, but I have two tests tomorrow and sleep is more important.’ “They’re just not able to delay gratification and think about long-term consequences like that.” Thankfully, you are. ■

Bullying eases for LGB girls after school, but not the boys heterosexuals. But only about half of that disparity could be attributed to bullying, says Dr Robinson. He says that suggests “broader issues of school and societal messages” also need to be addressed. Although the data was collected from youngsters in England, “we don’t think the results would be very different if done on US populations,” he says. The situation there “mirrors what we’re seeing here,” he says.

BY MICHELLE HEALY USA Today (MCT)

High school students who identify as lesbian, gay and bisexual tend to face higher rates of bullying in school than their heterosexual peers. But a new study suggests that things get better for these young people, with harassment declining as they get older and leave school. The improvements, however, are relative for gay and bisexual boys, who face a greater likelihood of being victimized than heterosexual peers.

Call to action

Distress Overall, the amount of bullying (name calling, threats of physical violence and actual acts of violence) experienced in adolescence declines for all students as they get older, regardless of gender or sexual identity, finds a study in Pediatrics. Researchers analyzed data collected from 4,135 teens and young adults in England over seven years. At ages 18-20, about five per cent self-identified as lesbian, gay or bisexual. Researchers looked back at their responses at earlier ages and found 57 per cent of lesbian and bisexual girls said they were bullied at ages 13-14, vs six per cent

■ MCT PHOTO

PRIDE: Anthony Smith, 18, left, and Jeremy Day, 17, of St Louis, Missouri, met ‘Growing American Youth’, a support group for gay teens. But many youngsters still face bullying and victimisation even after leaving high school. at 18-20. And 52 per cent of gay and bisexual boys were bullied at 13-14, vs nine per cent at 18-20. Among those who selfidentified as heterosexual, 40 percent of girls said they were bullied at 13-14, vs five

percent at 18-20. And 38 per cent of boys reported being bullied at 13-14, vs two per cent at 18-20. “It gets better for lesbian and bisexual females, relatively, but for gay and bisexual males, relative to

their straight male peers, it gets worse after high school,” says study author Joseph Robinson, assistant professor of educational psychology at the University of Illinois, UrbanaChampaign.

“Their rates of being bullied are not dropping as quickly.” The study also found that LGB youth showed more emotional distress — unhappiness, depression, low self-esteem — than

This study “helps quantify some of the concerns that mental health professionals have had for some time now, that stress related to LGB-identify does have long-term impacts on the health and experience of people over time,” says Justin Sitron, an assistant professor at Widener University’s Center for Human Sexuality Studies in Chester, Pennsylvania. He was not involved in the study. “It calls to action school professionals and our culture to really think about the effects that negative messages about LGB-identified folks have on young people and the course of their lives,” he says. ■


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Parents' Notes  

Energy drink safety, how to introduce your child to solids a...