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OH BABY! 2013


FEBRUARY 22, 2013


Inside this supplement The importance of being a Dad, by Gary Foster Skelton Page 2 Red Cross Babysitter’s Training Course Pages 3 and 5 How do leap year babies celebrate their birthdays? Page 4 How new moms should look after themselves Page 5 The La Leche League of Bermuda on breastfeeding Pages 6 and 7 Does sole breastfeeding to six months raise the risk of developing food allergies? By Dr Peter Perinchief Pages 8, 9 and 10 Developing their social-emotional skills, by Lovette Lovell of Government’s Child Development Programme Page 10 Daisy & Mac’s Baby Registry can help expectant parents Page 11 The Bermuda Dietitians Association on introducing solid foods to your child Page 12 Our contestants — The Oh Baby! 2013 baby contest Pages 14-24


MY GIRL: Emily, Gary Foster Skelton’s five-month-old daughter, is one of your youngest readers. Gary, the Bermuda Sun’s photo and video editor, tells of how becoming a father changed his life, inside.

The impact of fatherhood BY AMANDA DALE

Being a loving father is vitally important to a child’s development, but how does becoming a father for the first time change your outlook on life? Inside this edition of Oh Baby!, Bermuda Sun employees Gary Foster Skelton and Ephraim Divine tell us of their experiences and the importance of being a Dad. You will enjoy looking at all the photos of this year’s Oh Baby! contest entrants, and inside we also offer you advice and help on bringing up baby. Gywneth Rawlins of The Argus Group provides tips on how new moms should look after themselves — not

just baby — with healthy meals and regular exercise. The La Leche League of Bermuda tells us why it is so important to breastfeed, and the effects of contraceptives on lactation. For expectant parents, Daisy & Mac has a Baby Registry whereby you can ask your family and friends for gifts of all the essential items you will need postarrival.

Food for thought For parents, we also have an article on the Bermuda Red Cross’s Babysitter’s Training Course. The qualifications — which include CPR and first aid — can provide peace of mind when you are leaving your loved one with a babysitter. Have you ever wondered

how leap year babies celebrate their birthdays? The parents of Quinton Iymuni Hall and Lucas Amaral tell us how they are going to mark their sons’ first ‘birthdays’ this year. In this supplement we also look at nutrition in the first few months of a child’s life. Paediatrician Dr Peter Perinchief advises introducing solid foods from four months, suggesting this could reduce the risks of developing food allergies later on. Cymone Hollis of the Bermuda Dietitians Association however, advocates introducing solids from six months of age. Whatever your preference, we hope this year’s supplement will provide food for thought. ■

Bermuda Sun 19 Elliott Street, Hamilton, Bermuda HM 10 Tel 295-3902 Fax 292-5597 E-mail This special supplement is produced and published by Bermuda Sun Limited and printed in Bermuda by Island Press Limited.

Publisher Randy French President Lisa Beauchamp Editorial Amanda Dale Layout Amanda Dale Advertising Sales Carlita Burgess (Deputy Advertising Manager) Olga French, Diane Gilbert, Claire James Creative Services Christina White, Colby Medeiros, Bakari Smith Circulation & Distribution Nick Tavares

The Bermuda Sun publishes twice weekly and is a subsidiary of MediaHouse Limited. We are members of the Inland Press Association, International Newspaper Marketing Association and the Newspaper Association of America. We are located at: 19 Elliott Street, Hamilton HM 10; P.O. Box HM 1241, Hamilton HM FX Tel: 295-3902 Fax: 292-5597. Visit our website:



FEBRUARY 22, 2013



Fathers — do not sacrifice your family for a job A father-of-two says time, not money, should be your greatest investment BY GARY FOSTER SKELTON

When I was a jobbing professional actor, doing tours, working late and sleeping late, I saw many fathers with families which they rarely saw for large portions of time. I even personally knew fathers who had missed the birth of their child because they were due on stage.

Late nights You can see this in other careers too. Regular late nights, and working on the weekend. Some employers seem to expect a ‘beyond-thecall-of-duty’ attitude every week, or day. And some men, and women, expect this of themselves. They identify themselves so much with their careers that they don’t know who

they are when they are not working. Don’t get me wrong. As an employee, I believe in giving more than the minimum in hours and always try to give the maximum in effort. I work in news media, so there are occasions when I have to stay late to help cover important stories. But fathers, do not sacrifice family for a job. More than any money you can earn, your greatest investment in your family is your time. I know fathers who have invested their lives in theatre companies, businesses and musical careers. They are praised as masters of their chosen profession. People, other than their families, will talk about how these individuals ‘touched’ their lives. Songs are sung about John Lennon and a host of other

‘Fathers, fight for your families. Stay together, against all odds. It is the most worthy cause, and the greatest prize.’


CALL-OF-DUTY: Some men may end up neglecting their families due to career pressure. ‘life-touchers’. But fathers, we have greater power and potential than any of these. We will not necessarily

have songs sung about us — we will instead be inside the voices that sing. We won’t just ‘touch’ lives, we will hold them,

mould them, build them. Our names will be forgotten, but our true name and character will be planted inside our children, and through them to their children, and so on… In fact, our greatest achievements will be totally unacknowledged, and will be in the good character our children show, without even knowing that it came from us. Fathers, fight for your families. Stay together, against all odds. It is the most worthy cause, and

the greatest prize. I may question many things in my life; my career choice or the country I choose to live in. However, I have no doubt that not only am I meant to be a husband and father, but I am meant to be husband to the wife I have, and father to the children I have. I am so much more than happy with my lot. ■

GARY FOSTER SKELTON is the photo and video editor for the Bermuda Sun.

The amazing experience of childbirth — by a father in Spanish Point, but the emergency services needed to be guided to our house! I’m afraid that, at that time, I could not focus on anything other my wife and about-to-arrive child. Time was up. We were on our own and our baby was coming.


Cigars and ‘wetting’ the baby’s head — there are a few rituals by which men celebrate the birth of a child. But the focus is usually, and rightly, upon the new mother and child. That does not, however, mean that a father’s story is not worth telling, and I enjoy reflecting upon two of the biggest moments in my life, Nathan’s and Emily’s births.

The arrival

Nathan When my son Nathan was born, I did not have the rush of intense emotion that I expected. I imagined something would well up inside me and I would struggle to keep it together. What I actually felt was nervous awe and bewilderment. I spent a great deal of time just looking at my son, trying to figure out what this feeling was. After a few days, I understood. I had fallen in love. This person had arrived in my life, but it felt like he had always been there. He was a part of me and completed me somehow. There was a valve in my heart that I never knew existed through which love suddenly started flowing, and it was reserved just for Nathan. I didn’t have to share out the love, and therefore give less to my wife Jennie (who, after a day-and-ahalf’s labour, was now doubly amazing in my eyes); I instead had a whole new well to draw from. I still feel like this today.

Emily Our second birth experience was certainly more emotionally intense…


NEW ARRIVAL: Gary Foster Skelton, right, cradles his daughter Emily, in the hospital with wife Jennie and son Nathan. When we thought my wife Jennie was almost ready to give birth to our second child, Emily, we made our way to the hospital. However, we were told that she was not in active labour. It was after visiting hours on a Sunday night, so they wanted to keep Jennie in but send me home — an option neither of us were happy with. As our son Nathan had been a long labour two-anda-half years previously, we reckoned we could sign out of the hospital, go home, finish the tidying up we

had been doing that day, and then head to Jennie’s parents’ house. Jennie’s dad is a doctor and they live close to the hospital, and Nathan, who was already at their house, would be asleep by the time we got there. Good plan, we thought. Jennie’s contractions started to become more intense from the journey home onwards, although they never became consistently regular. We therefore kept in touch with the hospital and Jennie’s dad over the following hour, and were

told to keep track of things and to come in if the pain became too much. Eventually Jennie decided that she wanted to head back to the hospital. As I was about to call the nurses, Jennie’s voice from the adjacent room was suddenly more urgent with a thread of fear: “Call 911!” Jennie could feel her body trying to push. I looked, and having seen Nathan born, I could tell that our baby was coming. With the phone lodged between my ear and shoulder, I called the emergency services while doing what

I could to attend to my wife in labour. Jennie remained incredibly focused but then things got a little ridiculous. The woman on the other end of the phone had the standard advice — turn on your outside light, get some towels, etc., whilst we waited for the ambulance to arrive. We waited… and waited. I was kneeling at my wife’s feet, wondering why they were taking so long. “Can you give us directions?,” said a voice on the phone. This was unbelievable! They had our address

The top of a head appeared, covered with black, matted hair. Then a wrinkled forehead, and eyes, tightly shut. A nose, then a mouth, then a chin. My hands gently but firmly supported baby’s head. Then the shoulders, and then smoothly and sloppily, out came our baby into my hands. Covered in… stuff. I could see we had a little girl, and I held her close to my chest. Nobody told me (and I didn’t read) that a baby does not necessarily breathe the second they are born. For what seemed like forever, I gently patted her back, praying and asking my precious daughter to take a breath. Finally, she began to cough up fluids, and a few moments later she cried her first cry. I passed her to Jennie, my amazing wife who was calm and in control. I was still very focused, but I have to say that I was totally shellshocked. The ambulance still could not find us. It was at least ten minutes later when they arrived, to taxi Jennie to the hospital. This was only after Jennie’s cousin, who lives nearby, spotted it driving around the area and guided them to us. There wasn’t much left for them to do. Oh yes, they cut the cord. I figured I’d let them do that… ■



FEBRUARY 22, 2013



Red Cross babysitting course gives peace of mind BY AMANDA DALE

Red Cross Babysitter’s Training course

Your children are your most precious possessions, so when you need a babysitter you want to make sure you can trust that person to take care of them properly. If you are looking for peace of mind, it makes sense to hire someone who has completed the Red Cross Babysitter’s Training course. Organized by the American Red Cross and run through the Bermuda Red Cross here on the island, the four-day course trains young people in babysitting skills, CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) and in First Aid. The courses are open to 12-16-year-old boys and girls and have been running in Bermuda for more than 10 years.

Open to girls and boys aged 12-16, the Red Cross Babysitter’s Training Course certifies in Adult, Infant and Child CPR and Basic First Aid. The course aims to provide “the knowledge and skills necessary to safely and responsibly give care for children and infantsâ€?. It takes place over four days, from 8:45am-1pm, at the Bermuda Red Cross, 9 Berry Hill Road, Paget. Cost: $100. The course consists of several components: â– You’re the Boss: A Guide to Leadership. This provides basic leadership skills, such as role modeling, respect, communication, decision making and taking action. â–  The Business of Babysitting. This focuses on assessing babysitting skills, finding work, creating a resume, how much to charge, interviewing, and professional behaviour. â–  Safe & Sound on the Job. This discusses safety issues related to babysitting, including safe play. â–  Understanding Kids from 0-10. This discusses childhood development and behaviour, including information on how to: Select developmentally-appropriate activities; guide children in safe and effective play; encourage positive behaviour; and handle common behavioural challenges. â–  From Feeding to Bedtime: Caring for Kids. This discusses all the essentials of basic childcare, such as safe techniques for holding, carrying, feeding, diapering and dressing. â–  It’s an Emergency‌ Now What? This covers CPR and First Aid skills, such as dealing with bee stings, allergic reactions, asthma, and burns. It teaches how to do a consciousness check on children and infants; an unconscious check; conscious choking; rescue breathing; and controlling external bleeding. On completion, the course issues the following certificates: Babysitters’ Training; Adult, Infant & Child CPR (valid for two years); and Basic First Aid (valid for two years). â– 

Trust Scheduled during the school holidays, the next one is due to run during the first two weeks of April. Mikeisha Butterfield, Bermuda Red Cross health and safety coordinator, said: “There is a need for it because parents can have busy schedules at work or with appointments, and they may not want to put their children in a holiday camp. “So, for parents who are not able to be with their child all the time, with this certification they can rely on someone who can cover the basics. “You want to have that trust when someone else is looking after your child. “Parents can contact us to find out about the course, and they may also want to contact the potential babysitter’s school to do a background check on what kind of person they are.� Miss Butterfield said the course also prepares the babysitter in operating a service, and the kind of

To enrol on the course, contact Mikeisha Butterfield on 2368253, extension 222, or e-mail


PREPARED: Mikeisha Butterfield, Bermuda Red Cross health and safety coordinator, with the babysitter course manual and one of the dolls used for training. questions they are likely to expect from parents. “When we run the course we also explain about the different religious beliefs people may have, and how you may not be able to behave in a certain way in someone else’s home. “Babysitting is not just about money and sitting around while the parents

are out. You’ve got to interact with the children, and if they’ve got homework to do you may have to help them with that. There may also be cooking or cleaning tasks involved. “This training course helps young people to grow. It helps teenagers to take on more responsibility and to be more independent.�

The babysitting students practice skills such as feeding, dressing and diapering on a doll, as well as CPR and First Aid, using a mannequin. Miss Butterfield said: “The course is not just about the basics of babysitting but also certifies the young person in Adult, Infant & Child CPR and in

First Aid.� First Aid training includes treating burns, seizures, poisoning, bleeding, strokes, choking, and spinal, head and neck injuries. The Bermuda Red Cross promotes the course in the island’s schools and via word of mouth. The first two days focus on babysitting basics and guidelines. “We guide them through leadership, the business of babysitting, being safe on the job, what you need to look out for, and what the children can and can’t do,� said Miss Butterfield. “It’s also about giving

children positive role model actions of how to behave, and understanding that children aged underone to up to 10 won’t want to do the same thing. “We teach students appropriate play activities for each age group, the appropriate time for bedtime, and encouraging positive behaviour from the child. “We teach them basic childcare techniques, such as holding, carrying, feeding, diapering and dressing.� She added: “But the babysitters also need to talk to See BABYSITTING, page 5


Classes / Workshops This 6 week workshop, I offer support, evidence based research, practical skills and holistic resources for your pregnancy, labor, birth and parenting. Cost $475 per couple ( Includes Materials) WE ALSO OFFER s0RENATAL9OGAFOR/PTIMAL&ETAL0OSITIONINGPERCLASS s6"!#7ORKSHOPn6AGINAL"IRTH!FTER#ASAREANPERCOUPLE s)NTERESTEDIN(OME7ATER"IRTH s%XPERT-IDWIFE!SSISTANT$OULA3ERVICES #LINICAL3TUDIESPROVENTHATA DOULASPRESENCES REDUCESTHEMOTHERSREQUESTFORPAINMEDICATIONSANDOR epidurals by 60%


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FEBRUARY 22, 2013



Why our son only has a birthday every four years Miss Hall, 26, of Devonshire. “I begged the hospital staff to change it, but that If your baby is born on wasn’t going to happen.” a leap year how exactly do Miss Hall, a manager at you celebrate their birthSpecialty Cinema, had her day? twin sons Nasojay That’s the chaland Nasojah delivlenge facing Alexis ered by Caesarean Hall and Quinton section 10 years ago. Burchall, whose son She said: Quinton Iymuni “Iymuni’s due date Hall was born on was supposed to February 29 last be February 27. year. If I didn’t go into As he turns one IYMUNI labour by then this month — or the medical staff next month — his couldn’t wait any longer for parents have reached a a natural birth. practical compromise on “But now I think it makes marking the occasion. Iymuni more special, to be born on a leap year. “We decided to have “On March 1 this year we his birthday on March 1 will have a family party for because Iymuni was born him. after 2pm on February 29,” “My concern is, how will said Miss Hall. I explain to Iymuni when “As his time of his birth he’s older why he doesn’t was closer to March 1 than have a birthday each year? February 28, we decided to That’s going to be the hard celebrate it then.” part. She said the birth date “The twins are already was unexpected but there asking, ‘What are we going was no alternative availto do — it’s only every four able for the medical treatyears?’. ment she needed at King “We’ve decided that on Edward VII Memorial his real birthday every four Hospital. years we will give him a big “I was called for a Caesar- birthday party.” ■ ean section on February 29 because he was late,” said BY AMANDA DALE



DELIVERY: Quinton Iymuni Hall was born on February 29 last year, making him a leap year baby.

‘Being born on a leap year makes him even more special’ BY AMANDA DALE

Lucas Amaral will officially only have a birthday every four years but his parents intend to celebrate every year.

Patricia and Carlos Amaral have opted for February 28 as their son’s annual ‘birthday’, but say they will let Lucas choose a date when he is older. Lucas was born on February 29 last year, making

him a leap year baby. Mrs Amaral, of Devonshire, said: “I was due to give birth on March 5 so he was a little early. “I had never really given leap years much thought until he was born, but then

I saw how much of a fuss everyone made over him. “Now, I think being born on a leap year makes him even more special.” Mrs Amaral, an accountant, and her husband, a farmer, are planning a quiet first birthday party this year, with family and friends at home.

‘I had never really given leap years much thought until he was born, but then I saw how much of a fuss everyone made over him.’ PATRICIA AMARAL

Celebration “We’ve decided to go with February 28 as his birthday, as February is his month,” said Mrs Amaral. “But every four years we will definitely have a party, and as he gets older he can probably choose which day

Mother to Lucas

to celebrate on.” The couple also have a six-year-old daughter,

Sofia, and a four-year-old boy, Mateus. ■


ALMOST ONE: Patricia and Carlos Amaral with their son, leap year baby Lucas.



FEBRUARY 22, 2013


How to look after yourself and your newborn baby BY GWYNETH RAWLINS The Argus Group

As a new mother with a baby to care for, it’s easy to forget about looking after yourself, but your own wellness will help you to be the best parent you can be. If you are stressed, RAWLINS hungry or unhappy, your baby will sense this and feel unsettled and insecure. This can also affect their sleeping habits. Then you may find yourself in a vicious circle where you are left feeling even more tired and worn-out. Finding a balance is vital to your own health and your baby’s.

Breakfast Good nutrition is especially important when you have a newborn, to keep your energy up, even though you may be sleepdeprived. Breakfast remains the most important meal of the day because it kick-starts your metabolism and sets you up for the busy day ahead. Porridge with berries or muesli, and yoghurt, are excellent options to help you avoid ‘baby brain’ (how motherhood can affect your mental ability and memory). Limiting the amount of sugar and caffeine you consume during the day will help you to wind down at bedtime, and therefore maintain a regular sleep

BABYSITTING Continued from page 3 their parents to discuss what they may be capable of dealing with themselves, appropriate to their own age. For example, could you look after a newborn compared with a two-yearold or an older child? Could you handle looking after more than one child? “An older babysitter aged 16 may be able to handle a few children, compared with a 12-year-old, who may only be capable of handling one.

Certification “The days of the week can also make a difference, as children may act differently on the weekend, compared with a weekday. “The last two days of the course, we cover emergency CPR and First Aid,” said Miss Butterfield. “We cover the three C’s — Check, Call and Care, and the ABC’s, which stands for Airway, Breathing and Circulation. We take the student through looking after an unconscious casualty until help arrives.” The $100 Babysitter’s Training course fee includes certification in Adult, Infant & Child CPR and Basic First Aid (both renewable after two years),

‘Make sure you find time to exercise... it will help you to feel revitalised and will restore balance in your life.’ pattern. Make sure you include lots of vitamin C, iron, zinc and antioxidant rich foods in your diet, such as citrus fruits, fresh and lean red meat and chicken, fish, eggs, nuts, seeds and green vegetables. Also ensure you drinks lots of water to stay hydrated. Ensuring adequate rest and recuperation will help you to maintain your coping mechanisms. Lots of women feel the pressure to be constantly responding to their baby’s needs and then neglect their own, so make it a priority to have some relaxation time for yourself. Taking a nap when your baby sleeps will help restore your energy. Do not overlook the importance of putting in place a support system to get you through the tough times. Sometimes new mothers find it difficult to accept help as they feel like they are failing their babies by


KEEP FIT: Yoga or pilates classes will help to ease tension and will restore your flexibility, through stretching. not doing everything themselves. Taking and even asking for help when you need it is central to maintaining your well-being. Let your partner do occasional night feeds, and look to your friends and family for support with the housework. Connect with other new mothers in your community so you can help each other out. The Meet-A-Mum Association ( is a good place to start. Make sure you find time to exercise too, as it will help you to feel revitalised and will restore balance in your life.

Be careful not to overdo it though. Don’t give yourself the added stress of trying to squeeze back into your skinny jeans at breakneck speed. Start small and strong, with a 20-minute walk with your baby, and pelvic lifts in your home.

Relaxation Your baby now dictates your time so fitness DVDs are a great way to fit in a workout when you unexpectedly get some time in your schedule. If you can get out of the house for an hour or so alone, try yoga or pilates classes. These combine exercise with relaxation

techniques and you can set your own pace. Many of the poses are designed to ease tension from your body and will help you to regain flexibility, through stretching. If not, then don’t panic; many gyms and leisure centres provide childminding facilities. For example, Bermuda Salsa offers tango classes with childcare. See for more information. Don’t underestimate the power of a few deep breaths, a splash of cold water on your face, or a blast of your favourite music to make you feel normal again. Having a baby can create

a lot of change in your life, not just your hormones, and it’s natural to feel overwhelmed at times. Take it day by day and talk through your challenges with those around you — after all, a problem shared is a problem halved. ■

GWYNETH RAWLINS is a customer relations specialist at the Argus Group. She has worked in the insurance industry for more than 18 years, both locally and overseas. She is knowledgeable in medical and financial underwriting and has a wealth of experience in customer service and staff training. See www.argus. bm

‘The course is not just about the basics of babysitting but also certifies the young person in Adult, Infant & Child CPR and First Aid.’ MIKEISHA BUTTERFIELD

Bermuda Red Cross

a manual, CD-Rom, a knapsack containing a basic First Aid kit, and certification cards. They can refresh their skills every two years for $100. ■

BERMUDA RED CROSS, Charleswood, 9 Berry Hill Road, Paget. See or call 236-8253. For more information on the American Red Cross Babysitter’s Training course, see www.redcross. org


RESPONSIBILITY: The babysitter course also helps teenagers to grow and to become more independent.


FEBRUARY 22, 2013




Is breast best — why should I breastfeed my baby? SUPPLIED BY LA LECHE LEAGUE OF BERMUDA


HEALTH BENEFITS: Breastfeeding was a natural choice for Rovonne Roberts on the birth of her son Kai Sampson.

Human milk, the best food for babies, contains the right amount of nutrients, in the right proportions, for a growing infant. A living biological fluid, it includes many unique components. As a result, breastfed babies have less digestive and respiratory illness and fewer ear infections. In addition, breastmilk promotes optimal growth and development in newborns. The World Health Organization (WHO), along with the British, Canadian and American Pediatric Associations, recommends babies be exclusively breastfed for the first six months of life and that breastfeeding continue at least through the first year. WHO also recommends mothers keep nursing during the second year of life because extended breastfeeding continues to provide important health benefits to both baby and mother. Mother’s milk positively impacts cognitive development in infants. In addition, babies who are nursed have lower incidences of SIDS (Sudden infant death syndrome), meningitis, respiratory illness, ear infections, gastrointestinal disease, urinary tract infections and allergies. Babies who are breastfed according to WHO guidelines do better throughout childhood and into adulthood. They have lower rates of Type II diabetes, Crohn’s

‘Breastfeeding not only contributes to healthy growth and development, it offers all the protection your baby needs.’ disease and colitis, obesity and cardiac disease. Babies who are nursed avoid cow’s milk allergies and intolerance, and develop better teeth and jaw alignment. Moms benefit too from breastfeeding. Women who nurse have lower rates of ovarian and breast cancer and a lower risk of osteoporosis and endrometrial carcinoma. They also lose ‘baby’ weight faster. Breastfeeding also has a positive impact on the environment and is costeffective.

Immune system Mothers can successfully breastfeed through hurricanes. Water shortages, power failures, and long waits at airports do not affect a mother’s ability to nourish her baby. All of these things can and do affect women who formula feed. Massive advertising campaigns are one reason mothers may not breastfeed for more than a few weeks. Makers of artificial baby food add ingredients to their products, which they tout as ‘being similar’ to breast milk. Yet scientists are always discovering elements in

breast milk that promote optimal growth and development in infants, while protecting them against illness. These ingredients cannot be duplicated in a laboratory. Mother’s milk actively helps newborns avoid disease in a variety of ways. Breastfed infants gain extra protection from antibodies, proteins and immune cells in human milk. This is especially important during the first few months of life, when an infant’s immune system is less effective against foreign organisms. Parents buy the safest car seat for their infants and childproof their homes. Mothers want to do the very best for their babies and provide their newborns with the healthiest start in life. Breastfeeding not only contributes to healthy growth and development, it offers all the protection your baby needs. ■

FOR BREASTFEEDING help and advice, contact LLL at 236-1120, e-mail islandgirl@ or see La Leche League of Bermuda on Facebook.

Lactation and contraceptives SUPPLIED BY LA LECHE LEAGUE OF BERMUDA Breastfeeding mothers should know about two areas of concern when taking birth control pills: Effects on milk production; and the possible effect of hormones on the baby.

Effects of oral contraceptives Some oral contraceptives contain both estrogen and progestin, others progestin only. Estrogen-containing birth control pills are not considered compatible with breastfeeding since estrogens suppress milk production. The progestin-only pill (also called the mini-Pill), has not been reported to affect milk production.

Effects of hormones on your baby A small amount of the synthetic hormones in these contraceptives does enter the milk, but there is no evidence that this is a danger to the baby. Follow-up studies have

revealed no long-term problems in babies and children who continue to breastfeed while their mothers use hormonal contraceptives, with or without estrogen. Some physicians, however, do question the use of hormonal contraception in lactating mothers because of possible unknown effects on their children’s longterm sexual or reproductive development.

Contraception options Because of concerns about estrogen-containing contraceptives affecting the milk supply, most doctors and mothers prefer progestin-only oral contraceptives or progestin-only implants (for example, Norplant ) during lactation. However, the progestinonly pill is slightly less effective in suppressing ovulation than the combined estrogen/progestin pill, so it has to be taken absolutely as prescribed. You cannot occasionally ‘miss a pill’ and still expect to be protected against pregnancy. Doctors recommend you delay the use of oral contraceptives until at least six weeks postpartum.

There are two reasons for this: Your milk supply and breastfeeding pattern should be well-established by that time; and an older baby is better able to metabolize any hormones that may appear in the milk. If you do decide to use the combined estrogen/ progestin pill, you should wait until six months postpartum, when other foods in baby’s diet can make up for any drop in your milk supply. Different brands of oral contraceptive affect different women in different ways. One kind may affect a particular woman’s milk supply, while another may not. Prescriptions for oral contraceptives should be individualized, based on how your body reacts.

Alternatives If your milk supply is affected by taking the pill (or if you don’t even want to test this out), consider other forms of contraception. Breastfeeding itself can suppress ovulation and can See THE PILL, page 7



FEBRUARY 22, 2013



Becoming a Dad gave me a sense of purpose BY EPHRAIM DIVINE

‘I have learnt and still continue to learn that fatherhood is not a job, it is a lifestyle — and a very fun one.’

I will always remember October 17, 2009. This was the day my son Aeziah E’Mari Divine came into the world at 12:33 am in Halifax, Nova Scotia. In the midst of the nurses rushing around, machines blinking and beeping, I experienced a new emotion which it took me until recently to articulate into words. This was a sense of purpose. I am fortunate enough to be a part of a family where both parents are still together and who have been involved throughout the lives of myself, my brother and sister. Others are not that lucky. So I am grateful. My father’s drive for being the world’s best Dad to us was based on the absence of both of his parents.

sold our car. It all seems like a blur now because it happened so fast but I just remember being powered by the thought of being a proper family again.


Commitment I recently joined him on a journey across two continents to piece together his family. As painful as this was to watch, I was amazed to discover his commitment to keep going until he was content with his results. Well, he outdid himself and picked up a brother, sisters and several nieces and nephews along the way. Most of them then came to Bermuda for my wedding on September 7, 2012, at Fourways Inn. My girlfriend Kristin Loving and I were young parents, and we were still in university and maturing ourselves. I was 23 at the time and Kristin was 21. I admired Kristin’s drive as she never stopped school and achieved her Bachelor’s degree in Child and Youth Studies on time, with a baby boy in hand. I, on the other hand, limited school to part-time, worked at a telecommuni-

THE PILL Continued from page 6 be nearly as effective as oral contraceptives (98 per cent effective), at least for the first six months, if all of the below practices are closely followed: ■ Breastfeed frequently. In order for the level of milk-making hormones to stay high enough to suppress fertility hormones, frequent, unrestricted breastfeeding is necessary. This usually means breastfeeding at least every two to three hours during the day, or as often as your baby needs. ■ Nurse during the night-time. Since fertility hormones tend to be highest during the sleeping hours, it’s also important to keep the milk-making hormones that suppress ovulation high at night. Since co-sleeping babies usually breastfeed more frequently during the night, having your nursing baby nestle right next to you is one of the most effective ways to delay fertility. Once your baby starts


LOVE: Ephraim Divine with his son Aeziah, at four months old. Ephraim says you can balance work and life at home. cations company full-time and also ran a photography business. Many of my events were celebrity concerts and big promoted events with famous DJs in the hip-hop and reggae circles. Several late nights were involved. It was not ideal but we worked it and were very happy. We had our home and our family life, and it was amazing. On December 2, 2010, whilst putting up our Christmas tree, the most devastating news came through the phone. Kristin’s mum, Jackie Loving — Nana — was diagnosed with brain cancer. Everything stopped. This is still painful. She was such a big part of

sleeping through the night, the fertility hormones take over and breastfeeding is no longer likely to lead to natural child spacing. ■ Avoid supplemental bottles and pacifiers. To keep the milk-making hormones high enough to suppress ovulation, it’s important that all of your baby’s sucking be at the breast. ■ Delay introduction of solid foods. Wait until your baby is at least six months’ old to introduce solid foods, and then make them an addition to, not a substitute for, breastfeeding. If you notice your baby is decreasing the number of nursings after you start introducing solid foods, back off a bit on the solids. ■

IF YOU HAVE ANY QUESTIONS about the use of contraceptives while breastfeeding, or using breastfeeding as a form of birth control, contact La Leche League of Bermuda at islandgirl@ or 236-1120. Visit us on Facebook at La Leche League of Bermuda.

everyone’s lives that she belonged to. Within an hour I remember waving goodbye to Aeziah and my honey as they flew to Boston. I later joined them for Christmas and then drove from Canada to Boston again in February. Little did I know this would be the last time I would see her. Sadly, Mommy Loving passed away on April 26, 2011. Life was different after she died for obvious reasons, but also because I was now in Canada in our empty family home while Kriss and Zi were in Bermuda. I truly experienced emptiness. His footballs, teddy bears and random

scribbles on the wall kept him at the forefront of my mind. Blackberry voicemails made my day. However, it didn’t matter how many times I flew to Bermuda and back, it just did not feel the same. It was hard on Kriss. What about Aeziah? Well now at three-yearsold he is still fascinated by airplanes, simply because he was always on one and he knew that I would always come back. If I wasn’t there I would be on the plane. I held onto this innocent observation by him and turned it into my mission to move to Bermuda and get our stability back. Technology was great to me in the meanwhile.

Skype and Facebook enabled me to still be involved. I noticed that I was not the only one in this position and empathized immediately with all families who are separated by distance for whatever reason. During the summer of 2011 I put a beautiful ring on Kristin’s finger at our favourite dock across Harrington Sound Primary School. After this point I knew that it was time to prepare to move to Bermuda for good, as it was the best decision for my family. By February 2012, I sold almost all of my photography equipment, ended the lease at our apartment and

Last year was an incredible year for us. We were married on September 7 and welcomed our baby girl, Aria Skye Divine, to the world the same month. This time around it feels easier. Ironically, we are the busiest we have ever been. We both work, have two children and an energetic dog, but we are the most happiest and successful we have been in our five-year relationship. Times have changed and parenthood wears many faces. There is still not a step-by-step guide to being a good parent, or in my case a good father. However, I have learnt and still continue to learn that fatherhood is not a job, it is a lifestyle — and a very fun one. If you are lucky like I am, you could be living your dreams amongst your family. It is possible to win at work and at home! No trade-off needed. ■

EPHRAIM DIVINE is the online sales & marketing executive for the Bermuda Sun.



FEBRUARY 22, 2013



Does sole breastfeeding lead to more food allergies? Paediatrician advocates introducing solid foods two months’ earlier, at four months BY DR PETER PERINCHIEF There is currently a lot of conflicting information about the nutrition of children during their first six months of age, and in particular, the timing of the introduction of ‘complementary’ PERINCHIEF (solid) foods. This has had the disagreeable effect of creating a substantial degree of maternal anxiety, uncertainty, and at times, heated debate in the community about infants’ nutritional needs. Some years ago (2001), the World Health Organization (WHO) advocated exclusive breastfeeding during the initial six month period post-birth, followed by the introduction of solid foods.

Aggressive The WHO also suggested breastfeeding on demand be prolonged until the second birthday. Everyone supported Vitamin D supplements to breast-fed infants from the first week or so of life. There are insufficient quantities in breast milk and medical experts disavowed the use of oral Vitamin K — as opposed to administration by injection, which was advocated. The La Leche League (LLL) currently supports the ‘six month’ approach, and the international LLLI website appears to disavow earlier supplemental feeding before six months. Conversly, the American Academy of Pediatrics admitted in a 2005 policy statement a flexible proviso that supplemental foods might be introduced when

‘Current research literature on infant nutrition is extensive, and some of it contradictory, but the general drift is that a delay in introduction until six months or beyond is associated with a greater chance of an allergic response to foods when they are introduced.’ the infant was four months of age — if circumstances warranted it. However they recently reversed this stance, and advocated a full six-month exclusive breast milk diet . The WHO pursued their agenda aggressively and it was directed in particular towards developing countries, which represent about 75 per cent of the Earth’s population. In developing countries, breastfeeding guarantees a profound reduction in viral, parasitic, protozoal and bacterial diseases (such as cholera) — all of which are guaranteed to kill children. Most of these diseases are spread by water and food contamination. The use of powdered infant formula in these environments virtually guaranteed a substantial morbidity and mortality, as there was never any certainty that the water used to mix the powder was not harbouring all manner of nasty microbes, as was usually the case. The developed world followed suit, not so much for the prevention of serious, potentially-fatal

diseases, but because breast milk has proven biological and protective benefits that no formula can match. It also reduces the rate of pneumonia, the severity of bronchiolitis attacks, frequency of ear infections, attacks of gastroenteritis, serious ‘colds’ and throat infections, SIDS (Sudden infant death syndrome), and possibly produces higher intelligence and less obesity in the adolescent years. Mothers also benefit as there is a reduced rate of postpartum depression, rheumatoid arthritis, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and breast cancer. There were statements made that said the feeding of supplemental nutrition was unnecessary, and a waste of time and money. In the last decade, a great deal of medical research also addressed the issue that early supplemental feeds before six months of age might lead to obesity, deficiencies in essential nutrients, earlier cessation of breastfeeding, and a variety of allergic reactions to various food types, such as


TIMING: Breastfeeding provides all of a baby’s nutrients in the right quantities, but when is the best time to start introducing ‘complementary’ (solid) foods? asthma, eczema and celiac disease, and other gastrointestinal complaints. Allergies to peanuts and eggs was especially noted, owing to reports of lifethreatening anaphylactic reactions to these foods. Food-associated allergies have been increasing over the last three decades and have doubled in the last 15 years, but the causes of this ‘allergy’ epidemic remain obscure. Interestingly, during a good portion of the last century — certainly in the 1940’s to 1970’s when breastfeeding was not encouraged — allergic responses to foods seem to have been a rare event. The epidemic we now see appears to coincide with the resurgence of breastfeeding. During and after the Second World War it was standard practice to feed infants ‘pablum’ (either rice or wheat/oat/barleybased cereal) within the first few weeks of life. I recall my younger sister and neighbour’s children being fed in this way. During the entire span of my Bermudian primary and secondary schooling, I was aware of only one fellow student who suffered from asthma, and there was not a single case of peanut allergy, or allergies in general. We all consumed peanut butter and jelly sandwiches on a regular basis. There was also a lot of food-trading at lunchtimes with no apparent ill effects.

One of the chief rationales of the advocates of exclusive breastfeeding to six months is the concern that early supplementation feeds will lead to earlier abandonment of breastfeeding altogether. Studies in the US show only 13 per cent of mothers breastfeed to the sixth month, despite all the efforts of workers in the medical field, and advocacy groups such as LLL. Current research literature on infant nutrition is extensive, and some of it contradictory, but the general drift is that a delay in introduction until six months or beyond is associated with a greater chance of an allergic response to foods when they are introduced.

Risk Studies from disparate locales such as Belarus, Finland and Australia have found no differences in the allergic reactions of infants fed supplements at four months versus those at six months and later. In Honduras there was an increased chance of diarrhoeal diseases in infants exclusively breastfed for six months, compared with those supplemented from four months. A 2006 study showed that an early exposure to wheat, oats, barley and rye (before six months) appeared to protect against the emergence of a wheat allergy, in that there was a fourfold less chance of allergy at the age of four.

Implicit in the findings was that delay would increase the risk. Adding to the confusion we all face was the additional finding that breastfeeding did not protect against allergic responses (when they did occur), unless there was a strong family history of allergic issues. Another 2006 study implied that early solid feeding might increase the risk of childhood eczema, but there was little evidence of an association between early solid food introduction and other allergic conditions. Nearly a quarter century of research has failed to establish a connection between eczema and early supplemental feeding, however there is supportive evidence that late introduction of egg and milk products does increase the risk of eczema. Studies on highlyallergenic foods such as peanuts, eggs and fish, indicate that there is no protective effect by delaying their introduction to six months or beyond. In 2008, there was a study of the peanut sensitivity of native Israelis and the Jewish community in London (same gene pool, different locale). In Israel the infants were fed peanut butter as early as three to four months. In London they avoided it until they were three-yearsold. See NUTRITION, page 9



FEBRUARY 22, 2013

NUTRITION Continued from page 8 The Israelis had 10 to 20 times less incidence of peanut allergies. A 2011 study in Australia found that cooked egg exposure at four to six months reduced allergic responses to eggs, but exposure after 10 months produced an increased risk. The duration of breastfeeding had no influence on the outcome. In 2011 the Finns found that late introduction of potatoes, oats, rye, wheat (most particularly wheat), fish and eggs was associated with increased allergic sensitization if introduced after six months. The Italians in 2012 pointed to a critical period between four and six months when solids should be introduced together with continued breastfeeding. This resulted in less sensitization. A US report (Pediatrics 2011) found no association with wheezing or eczema at four years of age in infants who were given cow’s milk, eggs, tree nuts, soy or gluten before their sixth month.

Science and anthropology The moot point is this — should infants be fed an exclusive diet of breast milk only for six months, with no room for flexibility, or should supplemental foods be introduced at four months? In our practice we encourage breastfeeding for as long as a mother is able to provide it, but we have always adhered to supplemental feeds starting at four months. We continually modify our advice as new research is published. We are not convinced that avoidance of supplemental feeds at four months is biologically sound and have based this decision on basic science research, the studies outlined above, and anthropological considerations. Studies on intestinal activity in newborn mammals show that the intestinal wall absorbs very large molecules and these are absorbed intact — not broken down to their elemental parts which had always been thought to be the case. This is probably how immunoglobulins in human maternal milk are absorbed. All biologically-active molecules, particularly


EVOLUTION: As humans evolved, supplemental feeding and protein became essential to the survival of infants. large ones like the immunoglobulins, depend on their physical shape and structure in order to function. If the ingested breast milk immunoglobulins were broken down they would be useless in providing immune defence to a newborn. Obviously we cannot perform such experiments on humans but since the studies are done on mammals we can reasonably infer the same thing is going on inside us. The entire intestinal tract from top to bottom is encircled by the immune system. Everything that crosses the intestinal wall encounters the immune barrier first. The function of the immune system is to scan for what is safe and what is not, or more importantly, what is ‘self’ or ‘not-self’. The ‘not-self’ molecules are attacked and destroyed

by several different mechanisms that have evolved over the last half-billion years in almost all multicellular animal life on the planet. Besides absorbing immunoglobulin molecules, it is likely that large food molecules that have not been entirely broken down by digestion through the infant’s immature digestive processes are also being transported across the intestinal wall. These molecules have the potential to elicit an immune response because they are foreign’ (unlike the maternal immunoglobulins which share the same genetic origin as the infant). The immune system functions on a ‘timetable’ during development of the fetus — and infant — where there are periods when potential ‘allergy producing molecules’ (‘self’ versus ‘not-self’) are processed by


ALLERGIES: Can earlier introduction to certain foods result in greater allergic protection?

immune cells, and thereafter ‘accepted’ as ‘self’ and will not induce an allergic reaction. I suspect that as humans

evolved, supplemental feeding (both plant or animal) in addition to breast milk became essential to the survival of infants.


This would have had the additional benefit of lessening the energy cost of caloric intake and output on the nursing mother. The caloric expense of chasing and killing whatever member of the Pleistocene Megafauna the particular tribal group took a fancy to was probably borne by everyone else not engaged in nursing a dependent infant. The protein from such a kill would, after being chewed into mush by an adult, be put in the infant’s mouth for consumption — there being no food blenders at the time! It would appear from contemporary data on infant feeding in indigenous cultures (preIndustrial), that mankind has probably been putting all manner of foods other than breast milk into the mouths of three and four-month-old babies, or younger. This has been going on for millennia and the human immune system has adapted accordingly to process and to accept the ‘Big Allergen’ molecules during a ‘window of opportunity’ that would seem to lie between three and six to seven months. Once the window ‘closed’ the propensity to react to the allergens in solid foods would increase accordingly. Our office has conducted an informal survey of our mothers who are from both West and East Africa, and South America. These locations are of particular interest owing to the surprising lack of food allergies observed in the infants and children living in these locales. See NUTRITION, page 10



FEBRUARY 22, 2013



Why you should comfort children when they cry BY LOVETTE LOVELL

Ministry of Education

‘A child’s socialemotional skills are just as critical, if not the most important area, of development. When children have healthy social-emotional skills they are better able to form close relationships.’

Parenting is one of the most rewarding and important jobs in life. The Government of Bermuda’s Child Development Programme follows the parenting recommendations in 1,2,3,4 Parents! (Active Parenting Publishers and Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta, US). This states the importance of teaching our children to not only survive but to thrive in an everchanging world. This cannot be overemphasized in today’s Bermuda, which is everchanging. It is important to talk about how we as parents, grandparents, aunts, uncles and godparents protect our children. In 1,2,3,4 Parents! the authors (Drs Michael H. Popkin, Betsy Gard and Marilyn Montgomery) discuss five important areas.

Focus areas ■ Awareness of age appropriate development and behaviour. ■ A ‘just right parenting style’. ■ Being equipped with preventative and intervention strategies to understand and manage typical and atypical childhood behaviours. ■ Spending time building the relationship with your child. ■ Taking care of you. In order to have positive interactions with a child we must consider ageappropriate development. Parents are too often concerned about their child’s language and motor development. Parents also put lot of emphasis on their child saying their alphabet and knowing their colours; however a child’s socialemotional skills are just as critical, if not the most important area, of development. When children have healthy social-emotional


EARLY YEARS: Physical touch helps to nurture your child’s development, in language, motor, and social-emotional skills. skills they are better able to form close relationships. They are also more equipped to express and manage emotions and will initiate exploring new environments. Children who are not socially-emotionally skilled may have difficulty forming friendships and adjusting to school. This may manifest itself in an inability to express their feelings, resulting in hitting, biting and screaming.

In the article Social– Emotional Health and School Readiness — A Guide for Parents With Children, Birth to Age Five (Early Childhood Investment Corporation, Michigan, US), the authors list several ways parents and other adults can support a child’s social–emotional health. Examples include holding and cuddling, which facilitates the parent–child bond. Physical touch gener-

ates brain connections that support all areas of development (ie. language, motor and social–emotional). Comfort your infant when they cry. Contrary to popular belief; responding to your child’s cry does not spoil them. Studies suggest that children whose cries are responded to quickly during the first year of life cry less. Parents — learn to interpret your child’s cry. Are they hungry, do they need

their diaper changed or want to be held? Respond to their efforts to communicate, coo back when they coo, make eyecontact when talking. Pick them up when they lift their arms and indicate your joy at holding them. This encourages your child to develop their communication skills. Follow your child’s lead; join in their floor-time play and talk about their activities whenever possible. This makes them feel safe


In the early 21st century we have a tendency to forget from whence we came. Our species is not long out of the African Savannah, and evolutionary adaptations that shaped us then are very much with us today.

Continued from page 9 Our mothers report there is a consistent tendency for supplemental foods — particularly mixed grains — to be introduced at three to four months of age, and this appears to span ethnic, tribal and trans-continental consideration. Indigenous tribes in Guiana provide newborn infants with a banana/ breast milk slurry within days after birth. In order to get a broader idea of consensus on this issue, my associate Dr Sylvanus Nawab and myself contacted pediatric gastroenterology specialists in Boston, California and Nebraska, to get their opinions on supplemental feeding at four months. The opinions were consistent. They supported earlier exposure in order to reduce the likelihood of allergic responses.

Brutish As an example, human metabolism has been shaped by survival in what was a life described as nasty, brutish and short. We were designed to store every calorie that was not needed for immediate use in fight or flight (or pursuit of food on the hoof) and this is the root cause of the current obesity epidemic. We rarely engage in any of the activities just listed but our metabolism has not changed. Infants were, and are, probably designed to consume supplemental nutrition before six months

and encourages them to explore their environment. It also enhances their language and motor skills. Gently guide your child through social situations, which enables them to make friends and get along with others. Most of all, enjoy your journey as a parent and know that the quality of the interaction you have with your child affects the way their brain is wired. The early years matter. Children cultivate 85 per cent of their intellect, personality and skills by age five. Remember also that there are numerous resources in Bermuda to support you; just because we care. ■

LOVETTE LOVELL is a family coordinator and supervisor with the Child Development Programme, Ministry of Education, Government of Bermuda. Contact 295-0746. of age. The current fuss over whether to introduce supplemental feeding at four months as opposed to waiting until the sixth month (or longer) is probably counter-productive. No one — and that includes our pediatric practice — disputes the absolute inviolability of breastfeeding for as long as feasible. Biological systems have by their very nature a high degree of indeterminability — that is, they tend to behave in unpredictable ways. A dogmatic approach to such systems is always inadvisable, and maintaining a flexible approach allows for accommodation as new information becomes available. ■

DR PETER PERINCHIEF is a consultant pediatrician at Edgewood Pediatrics, Woodbourne Hall, 1, Gorham Road, Hamilton. Contact 295-8000.



FEBRUARY 22, 2013


Baby Registry will provide everything you need Daisy & Mac can help expectant parents with all the essential gifts for a newborn SUPPLIED BY DAISY & MAC Are you expecting a new arrival? As you prepare to take those exciting first steps with your little bundle of joy, start the right way with the Daisy & Mac Baby Registry. Our goal is to provide you with the best possible experience by giving you honest, knowledgeable advice, and the friendliest customer service. After all, expectant moms have more important things to worry about than their gift registries — so let Daisy & Mac take some of the pressure off. When you register with Daisy & Mac, our sales staff will be there every step of the way to help you create the ideal baby registry with all the gifts your precious new arrival(s) will need. We can offer direct and practical advice on what products a newborn really needs, from the basic essentials like nursing products, bottles, bibs and pacifiers, to bathing accessories like tubs and soft towels. We’ll carefully guide you through the Registry process answering any questions you may have, and will recommend simple things such as the products you may need, and when you may need them.

With a focus on trusted name brands and unique specialty products, the Daisy & Mac Baby Registry is the perfect way to give your little one the headstart they deserve. We have a selection of clothes in the age range you need, from 0-6 months. Bedtime is covered, with everything from cribs, bedding and accessories, to comfort items like nightlights and crib mobiles. We also have a variety of safety products such as baby monitors and movement sensors to give you that added peace of mind.

Necessities Our range of health and sanitary products includes medicine dispensers, hand sanitizers, first aid kits, diaper bags and changing table organizers — all popular necessities. Make travel a convenience rather than a chore, with items like portable high chairs, booster seats and travel changing kits — perfect for when you and baby are on the go. Of course at Daisy & Mac we also carry the best interactive and developmental toys for three-months-old and up, all from the most popular and trusted manufacturers.

We even have fun (and functional) novelty items ideal for friends and relatives to give, making events like baby showers all the more memorable. Our assortment of infant and newborn products features top manufacturers such as Munchkin, Sassy, Jack & Lily, Fisher Price, Medela, Aden & Anais , MAM, and Summer Infant. Daisy & Mac is where you can find the best possible service and the quality goods mom and dad trust and which baby will love. When you register with us you can rest assured you’ll be receiving perfect gifts from friends and family, making it easy and enjoyable for them to share in this special time. Start a Daisy & Mac Baby Registry before August 31 2013 and we will include a complimentary Gift Card to the value of $25. For every $100 spent by family and friends on your Registry gifts, we’ll add another $5 to the Gift Card. Congratulations Momand-Dad-to-be, and happy shopping from Daisy & Mac! ■

DAISY & MAC, 27 Queen Street, Hamilton. Contact 295-7477 or visit


TRAVEL: A ‘peanut’ carrier can help to make travel convenient rather than a chore.


How to introduce your child to solids, at the right time BY CYMONE HOLLIS Bermuda Dietitians Association

‘Never offer honey to infants under one years of age as it can contain deadly botulism spores.’

Introducing solids to infants can be an exciting adventure for babies but an overwhelming experience for parents. Parents may feel overwhelmed in deciding what to provide in the appropriate foods, and when, at the right developmental stages. Feeding infants from birth to six months of age involves exclusive breastfeeding or infant formula feeding without the addition of solids. Inappropriate substitution includes regular cow, rice, soy, almond or evaporated milk. Breast milk or infant formulas are the best source of energy and nutrition during the first year. At six months of age complementary solids can be added to the current feeding regime.

Cues There are cues an infant will demonstrate when they are developmentally ready for the introduction of solid foods. These include: ■ Sitting up without support; ■ Holding their head up without support; ■ Moving food from the front of the mouth to the back of the throat. If your baby thrusts their tongue forward, spitting out food, then this is a sign that baby is not ready for solids;


STAGES: Chewing, swallowing and eating are a learning process, to be taught with a bowl and spoon. ■ Grabbing items; ■ Chewing motions.

When you identify these cues, begin to proceed with solids. Introduce individual foods and watch for allergies or other reactions. To identify an allergen wait a couple of days before introducing a new food. Do not put solids in a

baby bottle or sip cup. Chewing, swallowing and eating are a learning process and must be taught utilizing a ‘bowl and spoon’.

Timeline A basic guideline for introducing new foods follows: ■ At six months, intro-

duce iron-fortified single grain infant cereal. Start with 1 tsp of rice cereal, mixing the cereal with breast milk or infant formula. Do not put any cereal in the bottle as this can cause baby to choke, over-eat or develop dental caries. ■ At seven months introduce yellow and orange

vegetables first, then proceed to green vegetables such as peas and green beans. Start with strained pureed vegetables and slowly progress to mash per infant capability. Offer one new vegetable per week. The introduction of salt, butter or margarine is not required. ■ At eight months, offer a sip cup. Introduce strained or mashed soft fruit, offering one fruit at a time, allowing three-four days before trying a new fruit. Limit the amount of juice to ¼ cup per day, diluted with water. ■ At nine months, introduce meat, poultry, fish or beans strained, pureed or ground. As teeth erupt and chewing begins, offer coarsely chopped soft foods. A ¼ tsp egg yolk can be offered only and watch for allergic reactions. Soft dairy products that are easily digested are cheeses, cottage cheese and yogurt. Allow baby to explore with finger foods. ■ At 10 months, as infants

begin to manipulate food better and hand-feed themselves, offer chopped, ground foods instead of purees. ■ At 11 months, introduce ¼ tsp of egg white and watch for allergic reactions. ■ At 12 months a variety of foods can be offered for meals from the five food groups so that they are able to partake in family meals. Note that boiled water should always be provided for formula-fed babies. Never offer honey to infants under one years of age as it can contain deadly botulism spores. Avoid foods that are possible choking hazards such as grapes, hot dogs, hard vegetables, nuts, popcorn or large pieces of food. ■

CYMONE HOLLIS is an RD (Registered Dietitian) and public health nutritionist for the Bermuda Hospitals Board/Bermuda Dietitians Association. For more information on a healthy diet, see www.eatwellbermuda. org


FEBRUARY 22, 2013




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Zakaria Mackenzie Marie Abrahams Born March 19, 2012 to Craig & Regina Abrahams

Bria Dami Aguiar-Swan Born September 14, 2012 to Brittany Aguiar & Damon Swan

Lucas Amaral Born February 29, 2012 to Carlos & Patricia Amaral

Jaiden LeVaughn Joseph Anderson Born October 16, 2012 to Troy & Olga Anderson

Kemani Aquil Born May 11, 2012 to Kim Dean

Aric Oliver Argent Born July 30, 2012 to Karolyn Emily Lack & Simon Christian Argent

Adam Barritt Born April 3,2012 to Justin & Jessica Barritt

Zara-Malae Dorlenda Bascome Born November 18, 2012 to Colette Bascome & Maxwell Riley

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Zaynah Benjamin Born August 8, 2012 to Kenisha & Javon Benjamin

Chantori Inari Leslie Marie Berkeley Born September 26, 2012

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Nicolas Bowker Born April 4, 2012 to Guy Bowker & Beatriz Serna

Emma Khue Brown Born January 1, 2012 to David & Lysa Brown

Olivia Beverley-Lynn Brown Born July 28, 2012 to Cory & Ayesha Brown

Zaiden Arani Brown Born July 31, 2012 to Katina Dowling & Malachi Brown

Aliana Isabel Burchall Born July 23, 2012 to Sonia & Russell Burchall

Anya Elise Burns Born September 7, 2012 to Derricka & Kenneth Burns

Aviyah Burrows Born June 25, 2012 to Dhwanna Denwiddie Burrows & Raymond Burrows Jr.

Jemma Burrows Born March 26, 2012 to Derek Burrows & Julie Williams

Sheiyah Caines-Douglas Born December 8, 2012 to Shellvina Caines & Jeron Douglas

Nathan Rylan Campbell Born October 11, 2012 to Alton & Laura Campbell

Axel Cardell-Naranjo Born January 30, 2012 to Stalin Naranjo & Gina Cardell-Naranjo

Keely Jae Carter Born October 14, 2012 to Jana Marie & Kevin Carter

Aubrey Carvalho Born September 10, 2012 to Mark & Rebecca Carvalho

Isla Carvalho Born September 10, 2012 to Mark & Rebecca Carvalho

Isabelle Elizabeth Chambers Hamza Born November 29, 2012 to Mohamed Hamza & Elma Chambers

Zaiden Clarke-Lee Born December 1, 2012 to Jameka Lee & Okuffo Clarke



22, 2013



Kessi S.F. Clarke Born July 1, 2012 to Olivia Joell & Kejaun Clarke

Alexa Correia Born April 22, 2012 to Nicole & Philip Correia

Chase Hamilton Coursen Born July 16, 2012 to Jordan & Steven Coursen

Finlay Currie Born May 27, 2012 to Ian & Jen Currie

Ariana Kristina Daley Born September 12, 2012 to Oral & Alanda Daley

Jesse Damani Born February 27, 2012 to Nkosi & Joanna Damani

Masyn Daniels Born June 27, 2012 to Alvina Daniels

Zimai Davis Born October 10, 2012 to Enworth & Zimai Davis

Chamilla DeCosta-Bovell Born November 7, 2012 to Charmaine Robinson & Gilbert Bovell

Benjamin DeCouto Born November 10, 2012 to Rebecca Pitman & Douglas DeCouto

Elyse Kay DeCouto Born April 24, 2012 to Kevin & Ashlee DeCouto

Ishmael Dill Born November 3, 2012 to Patrika Dill & Omar Wilson

Aria Divine Born September 20, 2012 to Ephraim & Kristin Divine

Mason Matteo DiVuolo Born September 11, 2012 to Fabio & Kelly DiVuolo

Mason Myland Amani Durrant Born July 5, 2012 to Aaron Albuoy & Amanda Durrant

Miyah Amani Jazmyn Eve Born May 27, 2012 to Earlston Roberts & Veleka Eve



FEBRUARY 22, 2013Q16

Kacie Faith Fassler Born October 13, 2012 to Kourtney & Joe Fassler

Emily Elizabeth Foster Skelton Born August 26, 2012 to Gary & Jennie Foster Skelton

Paz Francis Born June 1, 2012 to Deanne Lightbourn & Paulos Francis

Austin Frank Born October 1, 2012 to Justin & Victoria Frank

Capri Joelle Fuhrtz Born February 22, 2012 to Rachel Fuhrtz & Shaine Benevides

Styles Randall Furbert III Born September 27, 2012 to Alex Furbert & Styles Furbert

Sophie Anne Gauntlett Born June 6, 2012 to Melanie Henderson & Christopher Gauntlett

Laila German Born December 10, 2012 to Me-Chel Butterfield & George German

Ayden Je’Kari Gibbons Born September 11, 2012 to Jermaine Gibbons & Jodi Gibbons

Zori Nylah Gibbons Born August 24, 2012 to David & Kara Gibbons

Crizori Goater Born April 27, 2012 to Crystal Goater & Shannon Dill

Thais Mytae Gomes Born December 2, 2012 to Shirmelle & Gladstone Gomes

Zahra R. Goodchild Born November 5, 2012 to Tammy Goodchild & Jamaine Darrell

Maya Grant Born July 6, 2012 to Heidi & Coefield Grant

Ashton Groves Born July 30, 2012 to Lenia & Simon Groves

Quinton Iymuni Hall Born Febuary 29, 2012 to Quinton Burchall & Alexis Hall



22, 2013



Kayden Harvey Born July 7, 2012 to Keisha Harvey

Imani Mary Ann Hodgson Born November 19, 2012 to Raffine Whaley & Odinga Hodgson

Kypton-Ache’un Hollinsid Born January 22, 2012 to Takira Hollinsid & Steven Burchall

Briana Hunt Born June 22, 2012 to Calvina Douglas & Brendan Hunt

Salem Tucker Jackson-Smith Born May 26, 2012 to Tyrone Smith & Joanna Jackson-Smith

Jarai James-King Born December 13, 2012 to LaVonne James-King

Eden James Born February 27, 2012 to Danae James & Akil Jones

Miniyah Sarai Elizabeth James Born February 7, 2012 to Marissa Nanud & Shawn James

Kse Jennings Born April 13, 2012 to Erinn Smith & Keith Jennings

Sukanya Jobson Born August 27, 2012 to Kendy & Roger Jobson

Elaine Jones Born June 5, 2012 to Colin & Sylvia Jones

Jamieson Jones Born June 28, 2012 to Terrence & Jennifer Jones

Colton Kearns Born January 5, 2012 to Todd & Jennifer Kearns

Aria Koren Born April 23, 2012 to Charlotte Koren & Stefen Durrant

Layla Lambert Born September 16, 2012 to Kalea Lambert & Lubin Sousa

Shakei’yae Lambert Born August 21, 2012 to Shatequa Trott & Keino Lambert



FEBRUARY 22, 2013Q18

Taiz Amere Lathan Born October 8, 2012 to TyRay Lathan & Sheena Swan

Xiumei Lynn Leader Born June 20, 2012 to Anthony & Sabrina Leader

Ellise Isabela Leamey Born November 1, 2012 to Ionela Leamey

Sophia E. Lewter Born May 8, 2012 to Sara & Robert Lewter

Myah Lima Born October 24, 2012 to Cody Lima & Sarah Brum

Ryu Christian Lima Born July 4, 2012 to Christopher & Elaine Lima

Azaniah Mosi Magba-Kamara Born January 18, 2012 to Mohamed & LeAnnette Magba-Kamara

Winston Mahabir Born December 4, 2012 to Anthony & Melissa Mahabir

Vashon Martin Born January 11, 2012 to Vaniek & Vashon Martin

Nylah Soleil Matthews Born February 10, 2012 to Jamal & Ronelle Matthews

Arianna L. Medeiros Born March 21, 2012 to Jose Medeiros & Patricia Pacheco

Shilo Sky Mello Born May 24, 2012 to Jamel & Aisha Mello

Ella Genevieve Metschnabel Born December 28, 2012 to Laura Fortunato & Stefan Metschnabel

Imani Michel Born July 9, 2012 to Joanis & Simone Michel

Kingsley Ming Born May 23, 2012 to Marie Ming

Katherine Molineux Born January 16, 2012 to Susan & Timothy Molineux



22, 2013

Zy’aree Moniz Born August 23, 2012 to Shernelle Moniz


Dage Morgan Born February 28, 2012 to Kelvon Butterfield & Doya Morgan


Ahzahrai Morris Born February 6, 2012 to Deondre & Hazel Morris

Madison Mwaura Born July 11, 2012 to Andrew Mwaura Kago & Wanda Mwaura

Isabella Sophia Neururer Born September 21, 2012 to Bettina Strobel & Florian Neururer

Megan Claire Oliveira Born December 20, 2012 to José & Jian Oliveira

Milayah Marie Oughton Born July 2, 2012 to Stephen & Leanne Oughton

Isla Outerbridge Born April 13, 2012 to David & Jenna Outerbridge

Jediah Kennan Outerbridge Born March 23, 2012 to Tiffany & Arya Outerbridge

Jaxon Pachai Born November 5, 2012 to Rajesh Pachai & Clesia Realejo

Louis Panchaud Born October 21, 2012 to Clare & Steven Panchaud

Aiden Parson Born September 29, 2012 to Janeal Parson

George Peniston Born October 14, 2012 to Vanessa & James Peniston

Christian Mateo Phillips-Steede Born March 29, 2012 to Rebecca Phillips & Matthew Steede

Dasha Réal Phillips Born August 3, 2012 to Earl Phillips & Maleila Smith

Gladwin Jaheim Phillips Born August 17, 2012 to Rebekah Cabrall & Gladwin Tyrone Phillips



FEBRUARY 22, 2013Q20

Daniela Pimentel Born April 12, 2012 to Elsa & Rui Pimentel

D’Ani Roseann Marie Pitcher Born February 17, 2012 to Daishawnai Richardson & OJ Pitcher

Jalen Raj Prevendido Smith Born August 15, 2012 to Jason Smith & Rhea Prevendido

Emma Pucci Born June 23, 2012 to Daniele & Jessica Pucci

Tyler Jacob Rance Born July 18, 2012 to Rachael & Terrence Rance

Emma Jayne Raposo Born July 13, 2012 to Mark & Joanne Raposo

Leydi Makenzi Raynor Born July 19, 2012 to Mark & Yeni Raynor

Xyla Raynor Born December 13, 2012 to Stasha Raynor & Travone Saltus

Jasmine Reid-Rubaine Born October 17, 2012 to Melissa & Warren Reid-Rubaine

Ashley Richold Born February 14, 2012 to Michael & Lisa Richold

Owen Roberts-Pitcher Born July 23, 2012 to Natalie Roberts & Robert Pitcher

Mari Kimber Rosing Romaine Born August 7, 2012 to Simone Romaine & Renauld Chinapoo

TiWaughn Roper Born May 10, 2012 to Colin & Lorris Roper

Hunter Roy Born August 8, 2012 to Scott Roy & Karynne Hutchinson

Rikki-lee Athena Pitcher Born March 14, 2012 to Tricha Cross & Rickilee Pitcher

Chinyere Place-Somner Born September 22, 2012 to Wolde Place & Rache Somner



22, 2013


Troyan Reginald Raheem Scott Born July 1, 2012 to Coreen Scott & Troyan Smith

Nika Shaw Born November 9th, 2012 to Marina & Andrew Shaw

Isla Katharine Smith Born July 9, 2012 to Andrew & Lisa Smith

Kai Smith Born October 2, 2012 to Katrina Whitecross & Trovaughn Smith

Mezziah Smith Born February 27, 2012 to Naadira Muhammad & Shawn Smith

Starr Kay’lynn Smith Born May 14, 2012 to Janelle Parson & Jamal Smith

Elizabeth Wendy Soares Born March 9, 2012 to Veronique & William Soares

Zyorra A. J. Spencer Born December 17, 2012 to T’Deana Spencer & G. Lamont Hollis

Roman Carlyle Simmons Born August 22, 2012 to Julian & Julita Simmons


Amori J. P. Simons Born December 11, 2012 to Paul Simons & Ann-Marie Jarrett

Keiazha Smith Born June 30, 2012 to Sheena Packwood & Keith Smith

Kevin Smith Born June 26, 2012 to Sharon Smith & Kevin Simmons

Xiajé Smith Born June 26, 2012 to Andréa Smith & Dennis Russell

Yahri J’Nae Sailah Smith Born September 14, 2012 to Jermaine Smith & Yahnee’ Smith

Aaliyah Marley Sanai Steede Born November 23, 2012 to Anthanay Steede

Mathis Stevens Born April 4, 2012 to Alex Amat & Michael Stevens



Allison Ivy Steynor Born June 29, 2012 to Darryl & Abigail Steynor

Roman Amarii Stovell Born July 1, 2012 to Rebekah Darrell & Ari Stovell

Taylor Noah Tankard Born July 7, 2012 to Maegan Frith Ratteray & Bernalle Tankard

Capri Luna Costa Tavares Born May 24, 2012 to Gareth Tavares & Christine Da Costa

Jahkeri Zahky Trott Born January 25, 2012 to Georgina Liburd & Abednego Trott

Zandi Verne Havana Trott Born August 6, 2012 to Octina Emmanuel -Trott & Vernon Trott

Jonathan Duane Trott Born February 11, 2012 to Marsha Anderson & Kingsley Aaron Trott

Kayden Turini, Born July 2, 2012 to Chelsea Longworth & Neil Turini

Zhen Swan-Knight Born June 29, 2012 to Shaun Swan & Khyrriah Knight

NeVaeh-Grace Keinae Thomas Born October 5, 2012 to Chelsey Thomas

Mcaiz Trott Born January 19, 2012 to Moneca Darrell & Mical Trott

Jaazari Van-Lowe Born September 2, 2012 to Jamesha Van-Lowe

FEBRUARY 22, 2013Q22

Chase Swan Born May 11, 2012 to Alec & Savannah Swan

Jacob Thorne Born March 1, 2012 to Eileen & Philip Thorne

Sari’ Stef-Ann Patrice Trott Born September 28, 2012 to Sherica Trott & Kevin Carter

A’nahre Wade Born September 20, 2012 to Leroy Wade & Dannisha Zuill



22, 2013

Gia Chance Wales Born September 26, 2012 to Wayne Wales & Gina Liburd

Dante Watson Born September 19, 2012 to Eugene & Selessia Watson

Adam Whitecross Born June 18, 2012 to Marcia & Jason Whitecross

Bram Holden Wiseman Born March 20, 2012 to Wendy & Chris Wiseman



Xao Amor Wall Tucker Born November 13, 2012 to Ashley Wall & Arthur Tucker

Jack Walsh Born July 8, 2012 to Jamie & Kevin Walsh

Caleb Watson Born Feb 10, 2012 to Karen Godwin & Leroy Watson

Nyla Zara Raquel Wellman Born September 9, 2012 to Toi & Michael Wellman

Holden Philip West Born June 29, 2012 to Nicholas West & Robyn Bardgett

Zev’I Okez Jairzeiko White Born August 20, 2012 to Shahzaade Wareen & Zeko White

Keira Whitecross Born June 22, 2012 to Steven & Rachael Whitecross

Ryunn & Ryundae Wong Born July 3, 2012 to Ryan Wong & Esther Trott

Cailyn Gabrielle Williams Born May 15, 2012 to Curtis Williams & Shaina Kelly Williams

Phoenix Williams Born October 10, 2012 to Donovan & Anna Williams

Nassar Woods Born April 9, 2012 to Almaze Richardson & Noel Woods

Freddie Jones Born October 10, 2012 to Simon & Emily Jones



THANKS to the sponsors and participants for this year’s OH BABY! CONTEST OUR SPONSORS: The Mall Studio, Rosewood Tuckers Point, Bermuda School of Music - Kindermusik, Daisy & Mac, Gorhams, BGA Wholesale Distributor - Pampers, Johnson & Johnson & Gerber, Butterfield & Vallis - Huggies, Phoenix Kidz, and Lindo’s,

THANK YOU to our readers for submitting pictures and taking part in the contest.

Every baby is a winner... It was a huge challenge judging all 176 entries, but we appreciate your participation.

Apologies to those submissions which weren’t included due to poor photo quality or insufficient information due to email difficulties.

FEBRUARY 22, 2013Q24

The Lysol速 Mission for Health includes Healthy Habit Lesson Plans for school. To learn more, visit

Oh Baby! 2013  

The cutest babies of the year, featured in the Bermuda Sun's special supplement.

Oh Baby! 2013  

The cutest babies of the year, featured in the Bermuda Sun's special supplement.