On the Cover We wanted to show a mock up of the inside of a fighter jet, incorporating elements of the consoles with the articles inside. Some of the displays are a combination of different radars and other indicators mixed together to show them all in one space. Since a majority of the people interviewed in this issue are from the Air Force, we thought it would be fitting for a cover design. The cockpit concept was Melanie’s, but the pin-up was Ethan’s. Pin-up was made very popular with the military in WWII, and particularly in the Air Force. Some planes and jets had pin-up girls painted onto the nose as a personal touch. Military and technology go together like ham and eggs, or for you vegans, hummus and crackers. This issue’s table of contents is interactive. For quick navigation, click on the topic of choice in the close-up image of the cover! If you have a print version, this interactive feature will be unavailable until you acquire that robot butler to turn the pages for you. Issue 10 | Fall 2014 © 2012-2014 Origins Scientific Research Society, founded by Melanie E Magdalena Copyright: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 Unported License. Permission of the authors is required for derivative works, compilations, and translations. Disclaimer: The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the position or views of Origins. The publisher, editor, contributors, and related parties assume no responsibility for loss, injury or inconvenience of any person, organization, or party that uses the information or resources provided within this publication, website, or related products.
From the Editor Why are we publishing in November?! What happened to the equinox?! I am certain some of you have asked. Well, this issue is a special issue. This issue evolved out of an idea to dive into our technological past and present. This issue transformed into an exploration of military moments in history which have shaped the technology many of us depend on or simply desire to use on a daily basis. Did you know computing today on our Windows or Macintosh computers was made possible due to software development in World War II? How about that astronaut trainings emerged from aircraft technology in the Cold War? This issue takes a look at technology from the military. We donâ€™t just explore the United States, but the entire collaboration (be it knowingly or unknowingly) of the world to create gadgets and software all around us at this very moment. Our long-time contributor, researcher, and word architect, Morgan Courage has interviewed people of diverse backgrounds to bring you their stories from World War II, the Cold War, and the 21st Century. It almost sounds like we tried to make a movie. (Would anyone like us to make a movie, or short film on something?) Join us in this issue from land, sky, water, and space on this interactive journey in military technology. From fellow Veterans, to civilian contractors, data scientists, entrepreneurs, and marine mammals, everyone has played a part in our societyâ€™s evolution to this 11th of Novermber of 2014. Happy Veteransâ€™ Day! From Origins, we thank you all for your contributions to our lives. Melanie E Magdalena Editor-in-Chief firstname.lastname@example.org
DID YOU KNOW? US Navy officer Robert Ballard was given the mission of finding and investigating two wrecked nuclear submarines, Thresher and Scorpion. After this mission was successful and completed early, they spent time looking for the Titanic and found it.
editor and creative director
Melanie E Magdalena copy editor
Margaret Smith graphic design
Ethan Kellogg marketing & public relations
Alex Vosburgh donor relations
interviews & research
Morgan V Courage interviewees
Roderick O Clarke Daniel Courage Stacia Martin David Swain Willard Teel Rod Young letters to the editor
World War II cost more money, destroyed more property, and killed more military and civilian people than any other conflict or war in Earth’s history with a total loss of life from civilian and military at around 78,371,200. An additional death toll of 24 million Russians was from Joseph Stalin’s Great Terror of 1920 to 1953. Germany, under Adolph Hitler, believed in a new order of a perfect race and started a mass genocide of Jews, gypsies, handicapped, and other “undesirable” people. His part of the war accounted for about 50 million total casualties. Japan entered the war with the idea of racial supremacy which ended in a death total of about 25 million before the use of an atomic weapon was used. Japan did not surrender after the uranium bomb “Little Boy” destroyed Hiroshima, but until after a second strike with “Fat Man” destroyed Nagasaki. Japan, Germany, and the United States all had various stages and knowledge of nuclear fission, but due to Hitler’s genocide, scientists helped the United States develop the atom bomb first. The Cold War started when Russia used the atomic spy ring to steal secrets behind nuclear weapons and mass produce them.
After World War II, or what Russians call the Great Patriotic War, two great allies turned to a seemingly perpetual state of distrust, intrigue, fear and hostile rivalry. They were the sole survivors. As the only two superpowers that commanded powerful military forces, they fueled support for global ideologies with their will to impose them. Both started equally by polarizing the rest of the world and starting an intense race called the Cold War. Both countries, the United States and Russia, competed to reach space first, build up nuclear warheads, make the best fighter jets, and influence the rest of world governments to convert to capitalism or socialism (respectively). The Soviet Union, despite suffering the highest loss of life during World War II with a devastated economy, engulfed Poland, Bulgaria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Albania, and East Germany as satellite states. The strategic island Sakhalin was also annexed. The United States executed the Marshall Plan as a response: $13 billion in aid to rebuild Western Europe. Both countries developed a nuclear triad: strategic bombers, intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs), and submarine launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs). The triad increased each nationâ€™s nuclear deterrence by significantly reducing the possibility that all forces could be destroyed with a first attack and ensuring a second attack threat. Treaties were signed as each country continued a sphere of influence throughout the world. John Van Neumann, a Cold War strategist, inventor of Game Theory, and Chairman of the ICBM Committee, created a doctrine of military strategy where a full-scale use of weapons of mass destruction by opposing sides would cause the complete annihilation of both. Neumann created the acronym MAD for Mutually Assured Destruction: either side, once armed, has no incentive to initiate a conflict or disarm.
8 | ORIGINS
DIVIDES & UNIONS Europe was not the only part of the world to split between the two superpowers. In Asia, Korea divided in half with a northern communist regime and southern republic. North Korea wanted reconciliation under a communist government sparking the following war (1950-1953). The United States sent 90% of military troops to defend South Korea with a cost of 67 billion, 33,739 soldiers killed in battle, and 103,284 wounded in action. The total loss of all life during the Korean War is estimated at 2,800,000. Today, South Korea remains a strong capitalist country. Vietnam divided into capitalist rebel South Vietnam and communist North Vietnam. The Soviet Union sent military supplies and advisors. The United States sent troops to defend South Vietnam with a cost of $200 billion, 47,438 soldiers killed in battle, and 153,303 wounded in action. The Soviet Union sent about 3,000 military experts to Vietnam who fought alongside North Vietnamese soldiers and helped inflict heavy damage on American planes. They remained forgotten soldiers until 1991. The total loss of life during the war is estimated at 3,100,000. Today, Vietnam is a communist state. Espionage and military intelligence was the focus of both countries. Massachusetts Institute of Technologyâ€™s (MIT) Summer Study Group wrote a detailed analysis (1952) of the United States and Canadaâ€™s vulnerability to air attack. Their recommendation was to build an early warning system across the arctic as soon as possible. The system would give the United States and Canada an early warning of foreign aircrafts approaching the polar regions with time to initiate a defense. The United States built the Distant Early Warning System, known as the DEW Line, across Alaska, Canada, and Greenland. The 3,000 mile chain was composed of more than 50 radar and communication stations across the Northeast shore of Alaska to the eastern shore of Baffin Island, near Greenland. Prototype sites were first built in Alaska and were active until the 1980s. www.knowyourorigins.org
The DEW Line project name
Distant Early Warning System
long, dark, sub-zero blizzard filled winters
materials moved what was built
dog sleds, snowmobiles, aircrafts 460,000 tonnes from United States & Canada
buildings, airstrips, hangars
electricity, heat, water
dismantling & moving 2,000 Collosus of Rhodes 1,788 miles & rebuilding them along the 3,000 mile span of the Arctic Circle in darkness & extreme cold in less than 3 years
U.S. Air Force from 1957 - 1992 North Warning System 1993 - Present
COLD WAR | 9
map of the dew line
| us airforce tech. sgt. donald l. wetterman | pd
Origins Scientific Research Society
10 | ORIGINS
Stations station name
Oliktok Point, Alaska
1987 February TSGT Donald L Wetterman
in the media
POW-2 ended up in the news in 1993 after a polar bear came to a window of a common room, was swatted at by people with a magazine causing it to jump through a window and attack a man. Another man shot the bear and was fired for having a firearm in his room against regulations.
The United States and Canada continued into Greenland in 1958. After negotiations with Denmark, four DYE sites were set up as annexes of the Sondrestrom joint Danish American Defense Area. The DEW Line was fully operational and served its mission without interruption. The radar used tropospheric scatter and ionospheric scatter that depends on minute amounts of ultra-high frequency electrical energy. The antennae were mammoth reflectors about 60 feet high–with an appearance similar to a theater screen or circular dishes– and 30 feet across to capture the bits of energy in the signal. This type of radar system is the most reliable, impervious to magnetic storms. In the late 1980s, the Soviet Union began to collapse and the DYE sites were gradually shut down. The last site was abandoned in September of 1991. Interestingly, as aggressive as Soviet thought was, an attempt to do serious damage and harm with military strikes never took place, although many people died under covert operations and wars to prevent the spread of communism to other countries. During Vietnam, the Department of Defense was fully concentrated in Southeast Asia, unlike the Soviet Union. Daniel Courage, an Air Force Vietnam veteran says, “Fear and the unknown kept the Cold War cold.” In addition to the DEW Line, underground command posts were built and an airborne command post, known as Looking Glass, flew without incident 24 hours every day from February 3, 1961 to July 24, 1990. Squadrons of strategic reconnaissance planes collected information, surveillance was kept by tactical aircrafts, and Electronic Security Command kept vigilance.
EXPERIENCE 1958 TELEVISION
The Arctic: desolate, savage, remote. A wilderness of unending barren vistas. Through most of the year, locked in a bitter cold and almost endless darkness. In the short summers, a swamp-like molasses. Not too bad for caribou or polar bears, but no place for human beings. Yet this roof of the world holds a stark menace to our country, to our very existence. The menace lies in the new fact of our time, that no two nations on Earth are any longer cut off from each other by geography. We all live at the edge of the same ocean: the air ocean which envelops the globe. And in the Air Age, geography has new meaning for the safety of the American and Canadian people. What was once the impassible Arctic now provides the quickest routes for attack from a wide sector of Europe and Asia.
Watch this Public Service Announcement from 1958 from the National Archives
12 | ORIGINS
DAN COURAGE Dan Courage received a Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering from MIT’s Lowell Institute of Technology. For 30 years he’s owned a successful construction company. In his spare time he’s an inventor.
Why did you join the Air Force?
September 2014 location
Austin, Texas interviewed by
WATCH OR READ!
Morgan V Courage
I was in college. I was in my fourth year of college. While I was in my fourth year of college in May, I got a notice that my draft deferment was cancelled. Not paying attention to the news because I was in college, I went to my draft board to ask questions. When I got to my draft board it was full of people all with the same questions: college students who didn’t know what was going on. While they were all talking, I looked on the little card table that was in this office at the draft board and I noticed my name on a draft notice because I had a little number. I forgot what number it was, but my number was little. So I quietly walked out and walked down the street and walked into an Air Force recruiter and joined the Air Force that day. What about school? Did you continue your education? Or was it only military training? And so...and so from there I didn’t finish college but it didn’t matter I needed, I needed to go another year anyway because my grades were so low I couldn’t graduate. So I went into the service on June first I think. I went to basic training. Halfway through basic training, I think it was in July, it was announced in the news that they were suspending the lottery system so my heart kind
COLD WAR | 13
HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY/NPS
How did you get assigned to the DEW Line project?
of sank thinking, “Oh no, I joined the service and I didn’t have to.” I joined the Air Force because my brother John was in Vietnam for three tours. He was in the Army and he told me his only advice to me was, “Don’t go into the Army, they are a bunch of animals.” So that’s why I went to the Air Force. And then I naively went in to the Air Force thinking that I was still going to be an engineer in the Air Force because I had all this training. So I was sort of told that you take these tests. They were called Bypass Tests, and that you would be able to get what you wanted. Not knowing fully what the service was like, that you don’t get what you want and they get what they want you to have, I went through basic training. At the end of basic training, I had a choice. They gave me a choice of three things because I scored very high on the tests. The highest score you needed was to be an accountant. The next thing was a plane loader, a person who loads planes. I forgot what they called it. And the third thing was communications. And so I put them in that order because I thought, “Okay, if that is what you need the higher score for, I guess being an accountant would be okay. Otherwise I couldn’t see myself as an accountant.” So it came back that I was accepted to communications. So I thought, “Well, I’m in the service.”
Before I went in the service, when I was in college and in a company called Scott’s Contractors. They were all seminary students, most of them from Canada. And they tried to convince me to go to Canada, because that’s what a lot of people are doing right now. And they thought I could be a conscientious objector. So I probably spent a couple days thinking about it and I decided that if my family was threatened I could probably kill somebody so I couldn’t be a conscientious objector. And I wasn’t going to go to Canada since it was my duty as an American citizen to go into the service, so I did. But, being in the service, I did want to avoid going to Vietnam. Actually most Air Force people went to Thailand and Cambodia, I think. So, they gave me communications. What that involved was being in a communications center, but I had to have a Top Secret Crypto Clearance, which evidently is very high up in security. When I filled out all my forms, I got calls from the people I had names down for. One guy way up in Maine, up in the boondocks of Maine, said, “Hey, the FBI came around asking all kinds of questions about you.” So, I know they investigated me. I got my clearance. They gave us the list of where we wanted to go. They called it a wishlist but we all know that’s really not what it was. So I put down, of course, England, Europe, and everything as far away from Vietnam as possible. So somebody had a sense of humor and they gave me Greenland. So I ended up going to Greenland. Can you describe what Greenland was like? I went to a place called Sondrestrom, which in Danish means “Southern Fjord.” It was right on the Arctic Circle. It turned out to be the major airport of Greenland. The mission was that they supported the DYE Sites across Greenland and the North Atlantic and Northern Canada. It was also called the DEW Line, which I forgot what it stood for “defense early warning system.” I think that’s what it meant. Our base was actually a supply depot for these DYE Sites on the ice cap. Origins Scientific Research Society
14 | ORIGINS Well also it turns out that the place I was stationed at was considered “remote isolated.” This meant there was probably only 300 personnel there. There was actually 600 total, but 300 of them were Danish people who lived in Greenland. So it was remote isolated which meant no women. It was isolated. As a matter of fact, there were actually no roads in Greenland. The longest road in Greenland was on our base, which went from the base down to the fjord. When the ships came in during the summertime, they’d resupply us. It also turned out that on this base, it was an ICO (which stands for “International Civil Organization”). Their job was to transfer all the flight plans for all the airplanes that flew over the North Atlantic. This was every plane that flew to Europe through the North Atlantic because that’s how they get there in the shortest way. But you weren’t flying in cargo. What did you have to do? I was the man from ICO, which meant I stood in a room about 20 feet by 20 feet, probably 400 square feet that had about 20 teletype machines. Every teletype machine was tied to a certain air space area in the United States and in Europe. My job was to take flight plans leaving the United States or Europe on teletape tape, take it from one machine, and go over and feed it into the machine where the plane was going. So that, back then, was how they transferred the flight plans and patterns of planes flying across the ocean. I took them from one teletype machine and put it in the next correct teletype machine. An example would be like leaving New York Kennedy in the United States and flying to Heathro, London in England. And I would have to do that. All airplane traffic came through that room for the whole northern part of the world really. www.knowyourorigins.org
DADEROT/NATIONAL ELECTRONICS MUSEUM | CC0 1.0
Did this ever cause difficulties? Every once and a while a plane was lost. They couldn’t find a plane. For that, we had an air rescue operation. Unfortunately, because of my work schedule, I was never able to go on it. You could volunteer to go on these rescue missions to find out where these planes went. A lot of times it was just that the information got lost, because, you know, it was just teletype machines. I also had to type things on these ticket tapes. Sometimes, the flight plans would come over the teletype but wouldn’t come out as a hard copy and I would have to retype it to send it on. Of course I could already type pretty fast, but I ended up able to type probably 140 to 160 words per minute on a teletype machine. Because that’s all I did all day; that’s all I did for my 8 hour shift. What did you do when you weren’t typing or moving teletapes? So I was in Greenland, I actually liked it there. I was out of the 600 total personnel on base there was only six of us that did not drink. Everybody else was inebriated the whole year tour there. So there was only six of us who also happened to be the six in the chapel program, which I ended up getting an award for from the Air Force. I got a special award for being in Greenland and being in the chapel, probably because I wasn’t drunk.
COLD WAR | 15 What is one of your most memorable experiences from Greenland? I was in Greenland up until one day I thought I died. I had this wicked fever. There was no hospital, only the dispensary. I walked into the dispensary the next morning after a horrible, horrendous night where I really thought I had died because of whatever I had. It turns out as soon as they saw me, for some reason they knew the symptoms but it’s the only recorded case that they know of arrecipolis in Greenland. The very next day, I was on a plane to Chelsea Naval Hospital in Boston. Because of being a remote isolate back during the Vietnam War, when you left you were had the option of choosing where you wanted to go. That was kind of their sympathy for you because you were remote iso-
lated. So they asked me where I wanted to go in the United States and since I had a youth group that I helped in Everett, Massachusetts, which is next door to Chelsea, I chose Chelsea Naval Hospital in Boston. That’s where they sent me. They packed me up. I didn’t even have a chance to go back to my room. I didn’t have anything. They loaded me on a plane. The first thing they had to do was they had to give me penicillin, the kind they give to horses I think. It was so thick that after they inject it into you, they have to physically knead it and break it up underneath your skin. So, this arrecipolis, I didn’t know what it was but when they got to Chelsea Naval Hospital every morning I woke up there was at least four or five doctors standing around the bed looking at this rare case of arrecipolis. It turns out it’s a viral leukemia.
Air Force Academy Chapel Built in 1956-1962 by architect Walter Netsch with Skidmore, Owings and Merrill in expersionist modern style. Located in Colorado Springs, CO. Origins Scientific Research Society
16 | ORIGINS They don’t know how I got it. Also they didn’t tell me this at the time, but I could have died. I was at Chelsea Naval Hospital, and it turns out that one of my kids from my youth group had joined one of the services. I had just happened to meet him and he gave me the ins-and-outs of how I could stay at the Chelsea Naval Hospital the rest of my tour in the service. He had it all figured out because during the Vietnam War the hospitals were so, so crowded. The doctors were so busy that if they didn’t see you physically they didn’t know you were there. They had roll call. You had to be there every night. But in the morning, you usually had one little job to do like run the paper from here to there. He would actually hide under his bed after roll call in the morning and then around ten o’clock in the morning he would just go home because he lived right next door to the hospital. He would come back in the evening, have roll call, and repeat. As long as the doctor didn’t see you to process you out, you could stay there. He was firefighter. And so, what happened was, I was there. I thought, this is fine with me, you know, because it was nice. The Air Force was just like a job, it wasn’t like the Army. When did you leave the hospital? And how did you end up in Texas? So, what happened was they had received orders from Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Ohio. I had won this award in Greenland and I had to be at the award ceremony for the chapel in the Air Force at Wright-Patterson on a certain day. I ended up going to get my award. I forgot the name of it. Then while I was there I got my orders for State-side and I was assigned to Dyess Air Force Base in Abilene, Texas, which was a sack base at that time. Back then you had a technical command and a strategic command. The strategic command was kind of the frontline: bombers, fighters, and spy planes. It was very secure. I still needed to have my Top Secret Crypto Clearance. So that’s where I ended up, which I did not like. I liked Greenland better than I like Abilene, Texas because there was no trees, there was really nothing there. www.knowyourorigins.org
So Greenland was wide open during Vietnam. The Soviets could have come in, they could have wiped out the whole North Atlantic communication, they could have taken out the DEW Line, they could have done serious damage to the United States. Why do you think they didn’t? They didn’t do it because they didn’t know what kind of technology we had. They didn’t know how well we could see them. They just didn’t know. They didn’t know. It really was a pretty good system. They knew when anything was flying up or coming out Russia. That’s why it was all across northern Canada and Greenland because we could see over into northern Russia. Without sight, it wouldn’t give us enough time. That’s when they had all the strategic bombers constantly flying. There was always a nuclear strategic bomber in the air at that time. And I think that Russians just didn’t know. They were kind of, in a sense, afraid not knowing what the Americans knew and how well we could see them, real-
STIG NYGAARD | CC BY 2.0
COLD WAR | 17
ly. And that’s why the DEW Line was so important to maintain. Although, the ice cap was always 50 degrees below zero. So, when I was in Greenland, you could go outside and it would be 50 or 60 degrees out. It’d be really nice. You go to the BX. Come out of the BX, it could be 50 to 70 below zero. In one hour it changed 100 degrees one day. And it’s only because the wind would change. If the wind blew off the ice cap it was always 50 below zero. It just kind of never changed. And then, in the summertime, the wind blew up from the United States and it could be up to 70 degrees. So it was pretty dangerous. They told us that if we didn’t have a buddy and we fell down that within three and a half minutes we’d be frozen solid. And they’d never shut off any vehicles. So, like the MP trucks and other stuff just constantly ran. They never shut off unless they drove them into a garage.
Today, some DYE sites are empty relics, some have decayed and been removed to the concrete slab, and some are repurposed for scientific research. While names have changed, even with a focus shift to the Middle East since 1990 preoccupying global events, a desire from Russia has emerged to recapture the super power status of the past. The days of Soviet missiles pointed at a hot dog stand by the Pentagon, $15 million failed Operation Kitty by the CIA to surgically place surveillance bugs in cats, and CIA-sponsored mislabeled prophylactics to disperse among Russian women may be a funnier side to an end of an era. What remains for the future as Russia and the United States collide over the Middle East? ◊ Origins Scientific Research Society
The Union Army Balloon Corps started in 1861 after a demonstration of the methane filled balloon Enterprise to President Abraham Lincoln by Professor Thaddeus Lowe. Seven balloons were built and put into service to help make maps, artillery spotting, and aerial reconnaissance of the enemy: Eagle, Constitution, Washington, Union, Intrepid, Excelsior, and United States. The balloons were deployed with a telegraph and used at the battles of Bull Run, Yorktown, Fair Oaks, and Vicksburg. The Confederate Army, unable to secure the same materials as the Union Army, made an effective balloon, the Gazelle, from womens’ dress silk. After Gazelle was shot down by Union troops, the balloon was given to Professor Lowe. Captain Cyrus Comstock, under General Joseph Hooker, was assigned to oversee the balloon corps. He cut the funding rendering it ineffective and reduced the pay of Professor Lowe after an accusation of financial impropriety. The balloon corps disbanded in July 1863 after Lowe’s resignation. Military interest in aeronautics surfaced again almost four years after the Wright Brothers’ first flight with Kitty Hawk. Interested in balloons and dirigibles, the United States Army Signal Corps created an Aeronautical Division in 1907. After the first airplane was delivered in 1909 from the Wright Brothers, the first Aero Squadron was formed in December 1913. During World War I, America was lagging far behind Europe’s superior aviation industries. World War II and the attack on Hawaii changed the Army Air Force into a strength of 80,000 aircrafts and 2.4 million personnel that dominated the skies before the end of the war. September 1947 birthed the United States Air Force as a separate military unit. The Cold War defined the world air superiority of the Air Force in strategy, reconnaissance, tactical, transportation and space.
20 | ORIGINS
WILLARD TEEL Willard Teel is a pilot of 44 years, a patriot, a former US Air Force Interceptor Pilot and Training Instructor, humanitarian and a really good role model.
Why did you join the Air Force?
October 2014 location
Austin, Texas interviewed by
Morgan V Courage currently
Willard Teel is currently a pilot with Continental Airlines. The inspiration to become a pilot as a career started with his second dad, who was a pilot for Texas International.
I was a junior in college when I became interested in aviation. I got a private license between my junior and senior year in 1971 and it was expensive. I always felt that we owe something to give back and life shouldnâ€™t just be a free ride. I went in the Air Force to be a pilot and pay off my license. I graduated college in 1972 and was accepted into Officer Training School (OTS) that summer. I started pilot training in January 1973. It was very competitive for airplanes. Only the top 10% of the class got a choice, Air Training Command took the pilots they wanted, and then the plane selection went by seniority of class rank. I was number 5 in my class and told I was an instructor for Air Training Command. What was your role in the Air Force? I taught the Foreign Training Squadron for two years. These men were from Vietnam, Chile, El Salvador, Saudi Arabia and other places in the world. What is universal is all pilots are officers. The customs, language skills, and appointments were different. Some received a pilot slot based on relatives or royalty and not always on ability. I had a great deal of respect for the Vietnamese pilots who dropped out and returned home in a war zone to protect their families. I never went to Vietnam, but I thought I would. Only one pilot
LEE LILLY | CC BY-ND 2.0
TAKING FLIGHT | 21
from my class received orders and en route was brought back. No one from my class ever went.
and practiced with Air Force and Navy The F-106 (pictured left) is an all- weather, day or B-52s, KC-135, etc. night fighter. It uses an Every three to four encrypted data link with months, we had full a computer-controlled blown exercises. radar fire control system Most were fun, such to find, track, lock-on as a single pilot one and destroy any adverengine (very fast) sary aircraft or missiles. jet that carried four It still holds the record as missiles, 2 infrared the fastest single-engine (IR) and 2 radar, and fighter in the world flying a nuclear rocket or at 1525 miles an hour or a 20mm Galton gun more with the ability to like the A-10. The IR climb over 65,000 feet was best from be- with high maneuverabilhind, it tracks heat ity. The special supersonsource. The radar ic tanks gave it a comwas best from the bat radius of 700 miles without refueling. The side or in front. cockpit’s heavy workload The normal routine make it one of the most film the interceptor challenging fighters to recorded was used master. to go over training missions. The film records information received on the plane and not the pilot; it tracks missile to intercept point.
I was assigned to the Air Force Inspection and Safety Center at Norton Air Force Base (AFB) and after graduation from the training program, I received orders to Peterson AFB, Northern American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD). I became chief of flying I was also a part of Colsafety for the wing. We lege Dart Trindle Air were responsible for The Korean and Vietnam Wars Force Base F-106 primasharing safety. I was able distinctly changed the views ry training against othto be staff and an instrucand treatment of the military by er squadrons, such as tor pilot in the squadron the American people in general F-106, Navy F-14 or F-4. to give pilots check rides We’d fly different scenarand check maintenance and tested our air power while ios against them, which for planes. I then atwe served continual vigilance were watchable in 3D. tended F-106 training at towards the Soviet Union. Every F-106 sat on alert Castle AFB, the Northern at home base and anothAir Defense Command er. Mine was at George located in Northern CaliAir Force Base in Victorville. The squadron out of fornia. The F-106 is a high altitude supersonic jet Michigan sat on alert for an entire week. designed to engage Russian bombers or ICBMs. Can you tell us about one of your missions? Our mission was to defend the coastline of the US in the late 70s. We would sit alert, but had to be airborne in five minutes after the claxon went off. We would fly in all weather conditions
You haven’t mentioned any female pilots. Were there any? There were no women pilots until 1981 at Del Rio. There are strong women who are highly capable and some men were wimpy and probably Origins Scientific Research Society
22 | ORIGINS not good pilots and soldiers. Being a good pilot depends on a person’s ability. Fighter pilots know geography or air space and stay within boundaries, with radar to guide them. World War II pilots were not restricted to men, the first women pilots were assigned to the Women’s Air Force Service Pilots (WASP) and flew non-combat missions such as ferrying and towing targets in gunnery schools. They were instructors and did aerial mapping. Congress did not declare the women who served as a WASP a military pilot and veteran of WW II until 1977. Women military pilots did receive wings again until 1974 and could not fly combat planes until 1991. How do types of pilots differ? A fighter pilot works with other pilots in formation b,ut has to be on their own. A pilot with a crew flies with the same crew and knows who is strong and weak. Crew concept is different. Navigators were always part of a flight crew until planes were refitted with GPS units. Navigation is an older technology, the ground based system made them few and far between. Before updates and modifications, planes used to have flight engineers. What do you do now that you’ve left the service? I left in 1982, after 10 years at age 32, but I didn’t want to retire at age 42 with 20 years without knowing I could still fly. I left the Air Force to fly as a career. I loved the Air Force and I knew I wanted to fly for a lifetime. I ended up flying a night freight plane for a small company. It was good experience but I hated it. I had a five-night-week, all night for 15 months. I used my GI bill to pay for the DC-9 typewriting qualification. I then applied at Continental Airlines and was hired in 1983. In 1985, I was a DC-9 Captain and in 1987 I taught and gave flight checks. In 2001, I qualified to pilot a 757/767; I still fly this plane. The primary difference is size and range. The DC-9 is a domestic plane. The 757 range is short international flights such as West Coast to Hawaii or from the East Coast to Scotland, England or Ireland. A 767 is all international flying. I am forced to retire from flying passenger craft when I am 65 years old, at which time I’ll have over forty-five years of flying experience. ◊ www.knowyourorigins.org
TAKING FLIGHT | 23
PILOT TRAINING The planes used in pilot training are the Cessna 172 for six weeks, the T-37 for four and a half months and then the T-38 for six months.
CESSNA 172 The Cessna 172, the most successful aircraft in history, is a single engine piston based fixed wing plane that is popular with both the Air Force and flight schools for instrument training. The Air Force bought an inventory of 172s and renamed them the T-41 Mescelero.
T-37 The T-37 is a Cessna sub-sonic trainer for instrumentation, aircraft handling, formation and night flying that works on thought process. This plane can only fly in two craft formations. Known as the “Tweety Bird” from the high-pitched whine sound the static thrust engines produce, it was the first military jet designed as a trainer. Cessna entered the winning design into a contest in 1952. The prototype XT-37 made its first flight from the Wichita Municipal Airport on 12 October 1954. In 1989, a contract was awarded for the T-37B Structural Life Extension Program. Today only 507 remain in Air Force inventory. Side-by-side seating in the T-37 made it easy for the instructor to observe and communicate with the student. Its flying characteristics helped student pilots prepare to transition to the larger, faster T-38 Talon used later in the pilot training program. The Foreign Training Squadron trained with the Cessna 172 and T-37. It was rare for a foreign country to pay for T-38 training and it was not to the USA.
T-38 The Northrup T-38 Talon’s first prototype was designed in 1959 with production starting in 1961 and ending in 1972 with a total 1,287 trainers built. It is a more advanced, super-sonic trainer with advanced instruments and ability to fly higher altitudes with four or more planes in formation. The jet specifically engages student pilots to master supersonic techniques, aerobatics, cross-country navigation, formation, and night flying. The Pacer Program and ongoing upgrades and modifications are expected to prolong the life to 2020. Today, about 587 remain in inventory. These are also used by NASA for astronaut training. STEFG74, CC BY 2.0 | MASHLEYMORGAN, CC BY-SA 2.0 | NASA/GSFC/REBECCA ROTH CC BY 2.0
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24 | ORIGINS
F-106 ORDNANCE AIM-4F Radar Missile Radar missiles use a radar transceiver and electronics to find and track its target. The NATO brevity code is Fox Three. AIM-4G Infrared Missile IR Missiles are guided by infrared. This missile uses the emission of electromagnetic radiation in the infrared spectrum of a target to track and follow until the target is hit and destroyed. This type of missile is known as a “heat seeker’ and the NATO brevity code for air to air missiles in Fox Two.
MELANIE E MAGDALENA | CC BY 4.0
AIR-2A Genie Nuclear Rocket
Designed to be fired into adversary bomber formations, this was the world’s first nuclear-armed air to air missile deployed by the Air Force. The rocket design included flip out wings for flight stability. These rockets were removed from inventory in the early 1980s. M61 20mm Cannon Gatling guns are rapid fire rotary cannons with multiple barrels in a rotating cluster that sustains a rate of fire. The M61 is a six barrel 20mm cannon that can fire up to 6,600 rounds per minute.
TAKING FLIGHT | 25
E X P L O R E
How Missile Defense Works By the U.S. Department of Defense
meet the f106 delta dart the m61 in action air to air missile launch test today Origins Scientific Research Society
In The 21st
The United States Department of Defense, as of 2012, is the largest employer in the world with a workforce of about 3.2 million. The DOD is the oldest government agency with military roots, previously named the Department of War, dating to pre-Revolutionary times. The agency rapidly expanded when war broke out in Europe during the onset of World War II. President Roosevelt authorized the building of the Pentagon in Arlington County, Virginia. Over the course of sixteen months, $83 million (or $1.3 billion in today’s US Dollar) brought a pentagon-shaped building to life. Reinforced concrete and concrete ramps with minimal steel, covered with a limestone façade, resulted from dredging about 680,000 tons of sand from the Potomac River. The final building stands five floors above ground and an additional two floors underground, spanning about 6.5 million square feet. With five sides and five ring corridors per floor, the design allows any person to walk between any two points in less than seven minutes. The United States Post Office established six zip codes for the Pentagon: Secretary of Defense, Joint Chiefs of Staff, Marines, Army, Navy, and Air Force. Behind the numerous agencies and offices that comprise the DOD, many civilian contractors, defense manufacturers, and organizations receive competitive and lucrative contracts to support the tools necessary for defense and war. First coined in the 20th Century, Military Industrial Complex was made famous by President Eisenhower’s January 17, 1961 farewell address to the nation. He warned the people to not let military industry dictate actions go unchecked as it would usurp the freedom of our country. But unpopular wars, terrorism and a recent popularity of soldiers have not altered the relationships of companies, contracts, and a check and balance.
28 | ORIGINS
HOW BIG IS THE PENTAGON? The Pentagon is 1414 ft (431 m) wide. Compare this to (from top to bottom): RMS Queen Mary 2 (1132 ft/345m), USS Enterprise (1122 ft/342m), Hindenburg (804 ft/245 m), Yamato (863 ft/263 m), Empire State Building (1453 ft/443 m), and Knock Nevis tanker (1503 ft/458 m). Thatâ€™s a pretty big five-sided building!
A free enterprise system does give business, small or large, an opportunity to compete and play a part in defense. Perhaps the size of the DOD has created a secure relationship with contractors to provide everything it needs ranging from office supplies, transportation, communication, and building construction to clearance-level high technology used in weapons, espionage, and satellites. These companies are known as a MICI (Military Industrial Complex Inc.) by some contractors and vary in size. The largest ubiquitous companies are Raytheon, Lockheed Martin, BAE Systems, Boeing, General Dynamics, Booz Hamilton, Northrup Gruman, and others. But, small business ventures are also wanted and awarded contracts. For example, the United States Air Force is offering contracts to HUB, Veteran owned, Women owned, small disadvantaged, and Indian incentive program business to help meet its needs to put innovation, efficiency and agility to support the Air Force mission. Most every industry in America is able to bid on a contract opportunity. The trucking industry is used for about 70,000 loads a year by the DOD. Strict standards for security and safety must be met before a carrier can become a contractor.
DEFENSE TODAY | 29
The Pentagon As seen while taking off at Reagan National Airport, photographed from the northeast by David B. Gleason in 2008. Pentagon City, Arlington, Virginia. cc by-sa 2.0
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30 | ORIGINS
STACIA MARTIN Stacia Martin was a truck driver for a U.S. Department of Defense contracted company for a Military Industrial Complex Inc. or MICI.
How can a trucking company be a MICI? Trucking companies of high value freight had the security issues of DOD contract freight. A driver can be recruited for DOD driving contracts. The driver must pass a security secret clearance and a special clearance from Homeland Security to haul general hazardous material as a result of Timothy McVeigh. Trucks have a monitoring system linked to the DOD tracking system. I was a driver with both clearances. date
October 2014 location
Austin, Texas interviewed by
Morgan V Courage currently
Stacia Martin is working on her Doctorate of Psychology and immigrating to Canada for two years to finish her clinical training and receive a license to practice. She is then moving to Israel to be a minister and psychologist. www.knowyourorigins.org
What did transporting entail? We get an offer across onboard computer screens in expedite freight. A team is already waiting and there may be designated stops but basically it is only stopping for fuel. If a driver needed to rest overnight, the driver needed to stay on a military base. A driver waits for a DOD load and takes the call. Once we accept the load, we have to go to the customer, the MICI. All directions and specific instructions are sent to the truckâ€™s computer and again on the cell phone. We, myself and a co-driver, were given a nondescript assignment, just crates and it would be loaded for us. We get there and log into the system, pull up to a gate to be buzzed in with cameras at every angle, and then go to a second gate to buzz in before driving to the loading
DEFENSE TODAY | 31
DAVID GUO | CC BY 2.0
Can you tell us what you transported?
dock. We go to receiving and get buzzed in that door and a guy says “Oh, you’re here for the secret crates.” We sign paperwork and receive the global bill of laden after the truck is loaded. We log into DOD to start tracking via satellite as we drive out of the complex.
RESTRICTEDDATA | CC BY 2.0
We drove about 600 miles to another MICI. We have to go through a big gate and drive down a really long driveway and another gate is opened and then we back into that dock. “So you brought our secret gates. Would you like to know what’s in them?” I told him, “I don’t ask questions, I just do what I am told.” He says, “Good, I would kill you if you saw what’s in them.” Grinning, he proceeds to pop the lid of one of the crates and they were empty wooden crates stamped with “SECRET” in black ink. They were just being recycled and were truly secret crates.
I used to haul military explosives. Military explosives hazard sticker is orange. Every time I pulled into refueling, all the truckers would move away from me as far as possible. Firearms were broken up in pieces so a truck would not haul an entire weapon system. On occasion, I drove to missile sites. On one time, I saw fire trucks at the gate and wondered. Someone got sick, but I asked at the gate if I would go quick or if I would suffer. He said not to worry, the whole state would go. What would you do if there was an emergency or a situation? We had a panic button in our truck. If we didn’t answer the phone, a black helicopter landed on the freeway by the truck. So when a driver signs the line that they can be shot off the road, they meant it. I thought it was lore and people over inflating, but the DOD takes it very serious. Aside from missiles and explosives, what did you learn or get to do as a MICI contractor? I took a brand new Freightliner truck and turned it into a business. I was a top 2% producer in the fleet. I learned excellent customer service and took initiative. I learned the many cultures in the United States, from county to county and state to state. I learned a lot about myself. I always drove as a team, never alone. Most DOD have to drive in a team to make sure the shipment goes to its destination without any hindrance. Once in a while, we went to a camper. Our trucks had a plug that worked like a camper. I took three days off and rented a space at Malibu across the street from the beach. The diversity and bidding process for goods and service to the DOD offer many an opportunity to support the United States and her protection. The responsibility falls on the CEO and other executive staff, Board of Directors, and stakeholders to keep a check and balance with military and government actions. Taking heed of President Eisenhower’s speech, the people who vote, work, and run companies are equally responsible for freedom and supporting those who defend us. ◊ Origins Scientific Research Society
32 | ORIGINS
MILITARY MARINE MAMMALS
MILITARY MARINE MAMMALS | 33 During the anti-Communist war in Vietnam, human soldiers were not the only ones on the battlefront. In 1959, out of California, the U.S. Navy began the Marine Mammal Program. Dolphins were deployed to Vietnam in 1970 to patrol nearby warships and end underwater sabotage in Cam Ranh Bay. By 2003, dolphins were used to mark active mines for deactivation in Iraqi waters near Umm Qasr. During the Cold War, the U.S. Navy, as well as Russia, used dolphins to detect mines out of reach for human divers. Dolphins and sea lions are used today since both are physically ideal for deep sea diving. Compared to a human diver, dolphins can stay under water longer and dive much deeper. Also, dolphins do not have to resurface as slowly as deep divers for decompression. The deepest dive record is held by Tuffy, a U.S. Navy trained bottlenose dolphin, at 300 meters (900 feet). The U.S. Navy Marine Mammal Program (NMMP) has five systems called marks, MK for short: MK4, MK5, MK6, MK7, and MK8. NMMP uses bottlenose dolphins and California sea lions. These teams can be deployed within 72 hours and rapidly transported around the world. MK4: (Dolphins) Detect and mark the location of mines tethered to the sea floor. MK5: (Sea lions) “QuickFind” system of recovery for hardware on the sea floor as well as people, such as victims of a plane crash.
MARION DOSS | CC BY-SA 2.0
MK6: (Dolphins and sea lions) Trained for locating intruders in the water and detect threats. MK7: (Dolphins) Detect and mark the location of mines sitting on, or buried under, the sea floor. MK8: (Dolphins) Human/dolphin teams identify safe corridors for taking troops to shore. Typically operate in very shallow water. The program is an accredited member of the Alliance of Marine Mammal Parks and Aquariums, an international organization committed to the care and conservation of marine mammals. ◊ Origins Scientific Research Society
34 | ORIGINS
R.O. CLARKE Roderick O Clarke is an immigrant from Jamaica, an honor student, a retired Marine, an author of three published books, an entrepreneur, a father, a minister and a humanitarian running for political office.
What brought you to the United States and into the Marines? Before I left Jamaica, it was fun. We didnâ€™t have a lot of money but we had a lot of love. That was great, a very tight family and community. We have a mango walk, we collect mangos or gannets. We sled downhill on coconut bark, we cooked fish at walk, we climbed trees, we collected oranges. We enjoyed fresh air and each other. We experienced life, no video games. date
October 2014 location
San Antonio, Texas interviewed by
Morgan V Courage author of
Black Reign Loose but Bound Manifest
I think we developed social skills better because we walked the mango groves together and built relationships. The history in Jamaica was very important. Every child knows where they came from, the lineage, the struggle. Coming to America was disappointing and full history of black history was lacking. I believe black Americans suffer from lack of identity. Immigrants know where they come from and lineage. How do you know how to treasure life when you donâ€™t know your origins? For me, I left Jamaica at 17 and immigrated to America, because my dad wanted more opportunity. My siblings and I went to live in Florida and did a few months of high school, made honor roll and merited scholarships.
JAMAICA TO OKINAWA | 35
JAMAICA, a mountainous
3.26 | CC BY-SA 2.0
island about the size of Connecticut located within the Caribbean archipelago, is home to a very diverse population with about 90% African ancestry.
I met recruiters to see world. The Navy talked about subs, but I am not a fan of water for a few months at a time. The Marines talked about reputation and travel. I joined in September 1991. I was 18 in October and celebrated my birthday in boot camp. The Marines and Army have aggressive recruiters. I really wanted Marines, longest boot camp with more intangibles. After boot camp, I was then assigned a MOS and went to Squadron school for infantryman-everyone in Marine does infantry regardless of MOS. I became a warehouse administrative clerk from anything from tents to tanks. I went to Albany, Georgia for that
WHAT IS MOS? Military Occupational Specialty code is a nine character code used in the United States Army and United States Marines to identify a specific job. In the United States Air Force, Air Force Specialty Codes (AFSC) are used. In the United States Navy, a system of naval ratings and designators is used along with the Navy Enlisted Classification (NEC) system.
Columbus claimed the island for Spain in 1492. Within a few decades, the original population became extinct from European disease, kidnapping, enslavement, and genocide. By the early 1660s, Jamaica was sparsely populated by Spaniards controlling the island as a weigh station until the Treaty of Madrid. England assumed control and cultivated the land with vast sugar plantations and African slaves. By 1730, Jamaica produced 15,500 tons of sugar, placing it as Britainâ€™s most prized colony. When the slave trade was abolished in 1807, Jamaica produced 78,000 tons of sugar and housed 324,000 African slaves. Racism, exploitation, and anti-slavery campaigns continued until The Slavery Abolition Act of 1833 passed parliament and finally ended slavery in the British Empire. Jamaica, slowly and gradually, attained full independence from Britain (1962) by joining the Commonwealth of Nations. The United States recruited 90,000 Jamaicans to work on the Panama Canal from 1881 to World War I. During both world wars, Jamaican men were recruited for service on many American bases in the region. The 1965 Harte-Celler Immigration Reform Act changed the immigration policy and opened the door for a surge of people moving into America. By 2009, 3.5 million people came from the Caribbean, roughly about 21 percent were from Jamaica. Roderick left Jamaica to finish his last year of high school in Greenacres, Florida and started a lifelong career as inspiration to many around him. Origins Scientific Research Society
DVIDSHUB | CC BY 2.0
36 | ORIGINS
school and then North Carolina for two years for that job. As a marine, where were you stationed? I wanted to go overseas and I put down Hawaii and Japan and got none of those but went to South Carolina. After two years at Camp Lejeune, named after General Lejeune, I put down Hawaii and Japan and got orders to Okinawa from the summer of ‘94 to ‘97.
to Staff Sergeant and a Marine Meritorious Honor medal, a NAM medal, and scholarships. I was one of top recruiters for 5 years. After my first year I recruited over 100 people in military and in top tier, I was awarded the Centurion award. I was awarded above all branches.
WHAT IS NAM?
Okinawa welcomed Marines. I learned to speak Japanese almost fluently and taught English to students that were there. The military get along really well with Japanese. We are all Americans overseas and almost no racism. We come together as one. All holidays, all cultures come together and celebrate, go to church together, play sports.
A Navy and Marine Corps medal is the second highest non-combat decoration awarded for heroism, established in 1942 by Congress. The medal is considered an equivalent to the United States Amry’s Soldier’s medal, United States Air Force’s Airman’s Medal, and the Coast Guard Medal.
Then I was assigned Maryland next from ‘98 to 2001 and became a Marine corp recruiter. I was a Sergeant and my MOS allowed promotion, so I took recruiter over Training Instructor (TI). I love to teach and instruct young people. I spent 8 weeks in San Diego and graduated at top of my class for recruiter communication skills. I was asked where to be assigned-I went to Maryland and ended up working in Virginia and DC. I went to the White House for a weekend and met President Clinton. I received a meritorious promotion
What was your experience in Okinawa during 9-11? I went back to Okinawa, Japan the weekend of 9-11 and asked to go on duty to be staff non-comissioned officer northernmost base in Okinawa that weekend. No one knew it was real, we thought it was an action movie when the planes hit the towers. A Marine Corp General, the Commander in Chief at Camp Smedley D. Butler, called and asked me my assessment of attack and advice.
I said to General â€˜Sir, we are obviously under attack and ready battalions to attack and pursue and destroy.â€™ I recalled all back to base and briefed all Marines we are under attack and definitely going to war against whomever the threat was. My thoughts were to assess the matter and act accordingly. The U.S. was in upheaval, no one knew what was going on. The military was responsible for calming nation and go where sent. All training became real. I was reassigned to all bases to help train and protect bases. I first went to Navy to protect that base, then an Army base for a couple months training to protect base and retaliate if hit. All training came to par at that time. I was an engineer specialist when invasion and war started in Iraq, I was training Marines on how to contain oil threat of environment and life.
What did you do during your retirement? I went to Europe to retire. We went to UK. I was a training instructor in UK. For two years I worked with civilians to spot bombs on or under school buses and any attacks on civilian buses; no trains, just civilian buses and local schools, protecting kids and future. I stayed in a couple years in Europe and published a couple of books. I also started a retail business in the UK selling things that people needed, particularly to immigrants coming to UK: flashlights, vests, CPR training. We gave recommendations on discounted stores, food guides, introductions to UK culture, and helped out with immigration of those coming to UK with trainings to get jobs. It was really good using skills from Jamaica and USA. I heard Texas was a good place to retire and took care of Vets so I came to San Antonio. I really wanted to stay in UK, but I trusted God.
US MARINE CORPS | CC BY-NC 2.0
I was a trainer and did not go to war. I did evacuations for injured Marines and brought them back to California or nearest neutral base at time. I worked with security forces and made sure laws of war was working. I reduced threat and life to America as best as can. I did training from 2001 to 2004. Operation Freedom, invade and safeguard Iraq and restore order in Kuwait.
JAMAICA TO OKINAWA | 37 In 2004, intelligence indicated they existed and moved but did not know where mass destruction weapons were. I was told to stay back and keep order in Iraq. I did more training for my environmental specialist job in 2004, mainly protecting environment. I trained with Special Purpose and Military Police to safeguard bases. I was still in Okinawa for two years until 2007.
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DVIDSHUB | CC BY 2.0
38 | ORIGINS
Youâ€™ve published many books since you retired. What are they about? I started writing at age 12, but I published after I retired from the Marines. I wrote plays for my church when I was a teenager. My first book called Black Reign is a collection of poems and won awards at Cambridge University. I wrote Loose but Bound, a book about avoiding sin and temptation. I encourage people who are married to stay course and as long as partners are one accord, they can conquer anything and can fight against anything. I spoke to Matt Damon about my book and he got a copy. You never know where God will put you to witness. I trained cast members on how to wear uniform, salute, and look like real military for two movies. I did some acting. I also wrote Manifest, a book about the state of young men in todayâ€™s society that choose a more convenient lifestyle as opposed to previous generations relying on hard work. What are your thoughts on Military Intelligence? At the time I joined the Marines, I was not an American Citizen and could not be eligible for intelligence. When 9-11 came I was asked many intel questions as acting company NCOIC gathering intel information. My experience in 2001 helped in 2004 for intel work. I may have been inaccurate for weapons were there, but at time, area was hot zone, still is. Intelligence much better since 2004. Collecting better, more passive during 9-11 time. We knew Osama was a threat but did not enact on it. We get more intel and act on more. The military gets more proactive. ISIS needs vigilance and prowww.knowyourorigins.org
JAMAICA TO OKINAWA | 39
activity. Cold War ended, so intel lapsed and for many years Soviets were a big threat. After the wall came down, and no more threats. We became lax and then 9-11 hit so the intelligence for mass weapons was not as good as it used to be. When the government was downsizing, I think it was a wrong move to pull out of the area. Needed to leave a battalion or presence or buffer to watch over hot zone. Pulling out was not right thing and now we have ISIS. It is slap in face to Veterans that survived and those who died in Iraq. We need to be aggressive and offensive with ISIS and take battle to them. We cannot wait for another 9-11. Is America worth fighting for? America is worth fighting and dying for. It has helped so many people find purpose, achieve goals, liberty. Place for people to find freedom. We as Americans need to do it together. In WWII started we did it together. In Iraq was one force and made us victorious. We need to do it together. We need God in our purpose. I disagree with Air Force taking God out of the oath. Is there a transition from being Jamaican with a history of slavery to delivering people from spiritual slavery in America? We came to Jamaica as slaves by Spanish and eventually Britain gave us freedom. We see our
islands as free with less restrictions than America. We had goats, pigs, chickens and a garden in our backyard and we never felt lack. We thought we were rich. I didn’t see any transition problems immigrating to America. The British education system is more advanced. We have a better education in math and science than American children. We have one of the best education systems in World because of the British. I have always been interested in ministry. I was baptized at age 12. It is not just preaching and teaching and I’ve always known I would be in ministry. The biggest challenge as a minister in America is ego, edging out God. There are so many broken churches because of ego. The biggest problem is we are all going to heaven so why do we judge other churches instead of working together? ◊ Origins Scientific Research Society
40 | ORIGINS
01010110 01101001 01110011 011010 01110111 01110111 00101110 01101011 01101111 01110101 01110010 01101 01101001 01101110 01110011 0010 00100000 01110100 01101111 01100 01100110 01101111 01110010 00100 01100101 00100000 01100001 0 01101101 01100101 01101110 01100 The very first computer to solve differential equations, called a Water Integrator, emerged in 1936 from the Soviet Union. Vladimir Lukyanov wanted to solve the problem of concrete cracking. This involved calculating the material properties of the concrete, the curing process, and possible environmental conditions. Using a series of interconnected water-filled glass tubes, level markers provided numeric answers. Adjusting the taps and plugs changed variables. The results were considered more accurate than solving the mathematical equations by hand. The Water Integrator was used until 1980s to solve large scale modeling and other problems in geology, metallurgy, rocket science, and thermal physics. Also during 1936, Konrad Zuse, a German construction engineer, invented a device to aide in lengthy calculations. His device, the binary machine named Z1, used three elements: a control, a memory, and a calculator for arithmetic. The prototype was used to develop floating-point arithmetic, high capacity memory, and yes/no command relays. In 1941, the Z3 launched from www.knowyourorigins.org
donated recycled materials as the first electronic, fully programmable digital computer based on a binary-point number and switching system. Old movie film was used to store the programs and data due to paper shortage. A formal presentation in 1946 was made before scientists of the Deutsche Versuchsanstalt f端r Luftfahrt (German Laboratory for Aviation), in Berlin. In 1946, the high level programming language Plankaik端l, literally formal system for planning, evolved out of the old movie film, which included arrays, subroutines, conditional statements, iteration, floating point arithmetic, hierarchical record structures, assertions, exception handling, and records used in a style of assignment. An assignment stores the value of an expression as a variable. The Nazi government believed victory was at hand and ceased support for further research. The language was not published until a paper was published in 1948 Archiv der Mathematik. Receiving little interest from the publication, Plankalk端l was not reintroduced until 1972 with
WWII COMPUTING TODAY | 41
001 01110100 00100000 01110111 1 01101110 01101111 01110111 01111001 1111 01110010 01101001 01100111 01110 01101111 01110010 01100111 0100 01100001 01111001 00100000 ST 0000 01101101 01101111 01110010 01110111 01100101 01110011 01101111 0101 01110011 01110011 00100001
FROM WWII: COMPUTING FOR THE 21 CENTURY
the first compiler for it created until 1998. Zuse fled to Switzerland after his company and the early models, Z1 to Z3, were destroyed during the Second World War. Zuse finished his work on the Z4 at the Federal Polytechnical Institute of Lausanne, Switzerland, where it was used until 1955. In 1939, Hewlett-Packard was founded in a Palo Alto garage. The HP 200A Audio Oscillator was used by engineers as test equipment. The HP200B was sold to Walt Disney Studios, who bought eight to use for the film Fantasia. During WWII, the Navy approached MIT Project Whirlwind: a flight simulator to train bomber pilots. The first model was inaccurate and led MIT to develop the first digital computer. The project was not complete until 1951, switching to Air Force support after the Navy lost interest. The Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) was completed in 1946, comprised of plug boards and switches, using cards, lights, switches, and plugs as input/output at a speed of 5,000 operations per second. The IBM
1401, introduced in 1959, certified the company as a computer maker. The famous UNIVAC I was delivered to the US Census Bureau in 1951. Remington Rand sold 46 machines at $750,000 each and high speed printers for $185,000 each. The computer era began with new components and designs each year. In 1969, XEROX bought Scientific Data Systems for nearly $1 billion and logged more sales than Digital Equipment Corporation until the division was closed in 1975 and XDS computer manufacturing ceased. Following Hewlett-Packard, many ubiquitous inventions created by entrepreneurs birthed from garages, restaurants, subways or the English countryside. In 1976, Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak built 50 computers out of a garage and sold them for $500 each. Bill Gates created a basic programming language called MITTS in a motel room at the Sundowner off Route 66. In 1984, Michael Dell upgraded PCs in his University of Texas dorm room. His first month in business earned him $180,000. Jeff Bazos started Amazon by selling books out of his garage. Google was created when Stanford students Larry Page and Origins Scientific Research Society
42 | ORIGINS Sergey Brin paid Susan Wojcicki $1,700 a month to work out of her garage. Twitter originated by Jack Dorsey sharing the idea with his friends Evan Williams and Biz Stone in a San Francisco park. PayPal was funded with $4.5 million using a Palm Pilot and the new PayPal technology in a Woodside, California restaurant. Dennis Crowley and Naveen Selvadurai created FourSquare in two New York City coffee shops. Recent MIT graduate Drew Houston created DropBox on a bus ride from Boston to New York City. Paul Wright and Geoff Smith started Blyth Computers Ltd in 1979 as the first Apple dealership in Westhaston, England. Three years later, Blyth Software was created with a database application tool for the Apple 2 called “OMNIS” using Apple’s Pascal. The company grew and incorporated in San Mateo, California in 1984. After the release of the Apple Macintosh in 1984, the UK headquarters moved into Mitford House located in Suffolk. The company was renamed OMNIS Software in 1997 and eventually became TigerLogic in 2008, maintaining its role as a leader in developing and deploying component engineering software. OMNIS software is a Rapid Application Development (RAD) tool. The RAD concept is a rigid paced schedule that defers improvements to the next version by reusing software components, prototyping with early reiterative user testing of designs, and gathering requirements from focus groups or workshops leaving out much of the formality of reviews and communication. OMNIS Studio versions have successfully added more features with new powerful capabilities, increasingly simpler to use. It is the only RAD tool that offers the integrated ability to deploy on many platforms with seamless interface of external components. The OMNIS application has a set of web tools that allow it to operate without modification using a standard browser as the interface. David Swain, OMNIS Technical Account Manager, says, “It is impossible to misspell. Type a character to retrieve code objects, never write the code. OMNIS is a token incorporated language. www.knowyourorigins.org
“ Wine has been a part
of civilized life for some 7,000 years. It is the only beverage that
feeds the body, soul and spirit of man and at
the same time stimulates the mind... ”
- Robert Mondavi It reads tokens that represent various code. OMNIS command objects 2 to 4 bytes in size, almost like precompiled. This is very fast, incredibly accurate and the only concern for the programmer is the logic of the code. Because the structure is sophisticated, it is less likely to be hacked.” David Swain has written numerous articles on OMNIS to help developers and programmers save time and alleviate frustration. Rod Young has been very successful in Shaklee sales for over 30 years. He started his success with a rolodex. When he bought his Macintosh in 1984, he learned OMNIS. His rolodex was replicated and he, with the aide of MIT programmers and David Swain, created a program after an in-depth market analysis of the optimal time to
WWII COMPUTING TODAY | 43 Many times the problem could not be corrected because the structure of the language did not allow for any change in logic. Unlike IBM code, OMNIS is very structured, can go back to change anything you wanted to change and finding the code was easy. This was the best business partnership I ever had. Basically, you go in and tell business owners what to do and they pay you for it.” Rod Young recalls, “There were live conferences with the company at an English mansion [Mitford House] and I would see them walking around in this room drinking wine and talking about OMNIS. Their intellect was quite remarkable and periodically I needed a lower level explanation.” Young continues to use OMNIS to create campaign lists of voters and continue to run his thriving Shaklee business.
RPAVICH | CC BY 2.0
Today, computerized technology runs autopilot tractors, biotechnology, cars, household appliances, LCD fish finders, livestock collars, medicine, micro-computer hair conditioning, and smartphone irrigation.
contact customers. This original program is still in use today because the language is a library of code for everything you design, the only update is the engine. The engine makes everything run on a platform, but the program written years ago still runs without any tweaks. The success of the program and business results created a consulting firm between Daniel Courage and Rod Young. Daniel Courage recalls, “It was like an unstructured association of programming geeks and business entrepreneurs. We immediately saw the advantage of using the Macintosh with OMNIS to help companies having problems with their burdensome IBM coded machines. Any change in the business would require scheduling a programmer to come in.
The wine industry, led by Spanish and Swedish engineers from the Polytechnic University of Valencia and University of Galve respectively, is using a desktop apparatus connected to a computer to sense pears from apples by esters. Fruit is placed in a chamber with air flow to allow metal oxide semiconductors to detect odorous compounds. Software gathers and analyzes the data to present the results in a 3D graph. The technology may eventually distinguish the type of grape and recognize a wine’s vintage. This prototype will be used to develop multisensor systems to differentiate more complex mixtures of wine. While other computerized technology sorts and scans grapes by identifying color variations and tanks are tuned and pumped automatically, tasting and smelling a wine to determine if it is delicious may not be the best use of technology. Perhaps only man should smell wine, but how many computer systems, software or businesses are created or learned by drinking wine? ◊ Origins Scientific Research Society
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REFERENCES & FURTHER READING Origins Scientific Research Society