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FEATURES

Methods and Tools for Surgical Assessment in the Simulation World “As opposed to the traditional model, in simulation training ‘permission to fail’ can be built into the learning process without jeopardizing patient safety. Other major advantages include risk-free practice on complex and rare case scenarios, constructive feedback, individualized training, and objective assessment.” By Constantinos Loukas

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Simulation-based education is a training and feedback method in which learners practice a task repeatedly on a simulated model until reaching a predefined competency level. Training is performed in a lifelike environment with feedback obtained either from external observers (experts), or the simulation system itself based on validated assessment metrics. In minimally invasive surgery, the instruments and training models with which the user interacts may be real (physical reality simulation) or virtual (Virtual Reality simulation). As opposed to the traditional model, in simulation training “permission to fail” can be built into the learning process without jeopardizing patient safety. Other major advantages include risk-free practice on complex and rare case scenarios, constructive feedback, individualized training, and objective assessment. Despite the significant assets of reality simulation, a major issue is the assessment process where the traditional model requires careful review of the recorded video. This clearly leads to a lengthy process that is also prone to errors due to fatigue of the reviewer, provided that most tasks require several trials to master. Recently, there has

been an influx of computational tools enabling automated performance analysis and assessment. Hand motion analysis systems constitute the majority of these tools, whereby specialized sensors are attached either on the surgeon's hand or instrument handle (see Fig. 1). A Figure 1: Surgical training with a laparoscopy VR simulator. Senwell-established as- sors attached to the instrument handles transmit kinematic data sessment metric is to a portable computer for additional processing and visualization. the hand motion reflected) by the sensors is acquired by trajectory. This is usually obtained by a receiver placed at a fixed position means of a motion analysis system

Visual tracking of objects of interest in the surgical simulation space provides a great range of opportunities for the development of hybrid training methods such as Augmented Reality Simulation, whereby physical and virtual objects are mixed, allowing users to interact with virtual models using real surgical instruments.”

equipped with electromechanical or infrared sensors. The signal emitted (or

nearby the system, thus providing kinematic measurements of the instru-

T h e O ff ic i a l Vo ice o f t h e I n te rn a t i o n a l Association

CyberTherapy & Rehabilitation, Issue 4 (4), Winter 2011.  
CyberTherapy & Rehabilitation, Issue 4 (4), Winter 2011.  

CyberTherapy & Rehabilitation Magazine (C&R), the official voice of the International Association of CyberPsychology, Training & Rehabilitat...

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