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PLYMOUTH UNIVERSITY GRAPHIC COMMUNICATION WITH TYPOGRAPHY

DISSERTATION GCOM 320

HAS GRAPHIC DESIGN HELPED OR HINDERED THE GROWTH OF THE OLYMPIC GAMES? AN INVESTIGATION INTO ADVERTISING IN SPORT.

BEN THEOBALD-MORGAN 10301594

This essay has been composed entirely by myself, and is my own original work.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Much appreciation must be given to a number of people in regards to the production and completion of this dissertation.

Steven Bond, Main Tutor, for his great advice and constant encouragement in each and every tutorial;

Barnaby (Barney) Storey and Robert Hewson, Primary Research, for an incite into the sporting world along with their own personal views and opinions;

Last but by no means least, Family and Friends, for the constant support and encouragement throughout the entire writing process.

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CONTENTS

ABBREVIATIONS/GLOSSARY OF TERMS 4

INTRODUCTION 5

CHAPTER 1

HISTORY AND SPORT 9

CHAPTER 2

TECHNOLOGY AND SPORT 17

CHAPTER 3

THE OLYMPIC GAMES 22

CONCLUSION 41

BIBLIOGRAPHY 44 IMAGE REFERENCES 48

APPENDIX 51

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ABBREVIATIONS

AIGA - American professional organisation for Design

UK – United Kingdom

BBC – British Broadcasting Corporation

BA – BRITISH AIRWAYS

GB – GREAT BRITAIN

ISBA - The International Standards Board of Advertising

LOCOG - London Organising Committee for the Olympic Games

GLOSSARY OF TERMS TWEET – A TERM USED WHEN REFERING TO A POST OR UPDATE ON SOCIAL MEDIA SITE, TWITTER

TWITTER - A SOCIAL MEDIA PLATFORM PROPAGANDA – INFORMATION THAT IS OF A BIASED OR MISLEADING NATURE, USED TO PROMOTE A PARTICULAR POLITICAL OPINION

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INTRODUCTION Graphic Design is a title widely used when describing a creative process or relationship, involving a client and Designer. The term ‘graphic design’ has been defined in many ways with one of the most accurate definitions being that of the American professional organisation for design (AIGA). It reads: graphic design is, ‘a creative process that combines art and technology to communicate ideas’.1 The term ‘Graphic Designer’ can also make reference to a number of different professional disciplines that centre on visual presentation and communication. This process includes various methods that are used to create visual messages through the combination of text and/or image.

One of the most common examples of the use of Graphic Design for communication purposes is through advertising. The Oxford English Dictionary defines advertising as ‘The business of trying to persuade people to buy products or services’.2 Graphic Design also has a significant role in the way advertising is executed.

It could be argued that the sporting industry is one of the largest clients and users of advertising. This is because all products and services they produce relying heavily on the use of advertising as they’re main source of promotion. These can range from exhibiting the most recent pieces of sporting equipment, to posters or flyers informing the public of upcoming sports functions. Any sporting event from around the world can exhibit examples of this practice and showcase advertising’s use on a global scale.

A topic that is commonly seen to go hand in hand with advertising is sponsorship. The word ‘sponsorship’ commonly means ‘to support a person, organisation or activity by giving money, encouragement or other help’.3 The reason for the close relationship between the two different terms is that by sponsoring a person, organisation or activity, a company gains another avenue for advertising as they are branding this 1

Design Council “ An Introduction to Graphic Design” http://www.Designcouncil.org.uk/about-Design/types-of-

Design/Graphic-Design/an-introduction-to-Graphic-Design/ [Accessed 20/03/2012] 2

Oxford Dictionaries, Oxford English Dictionary, OUP Oxford, 10/05/2012

3

Oxford Dictionaries, Oxford English Dictionary, OUP Oxford, 10/05/2012

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group with their identity. This forms a bond/link between the individual or group and their sponsor.

The connotations from this can be hugely positive. This can be explained by comparing the number of product sales before and after a company has sponsored a well known athlete. This comes from the linking of the reputation of the sponsor company to the success of the individual or group receiving the sponsor.4 Having a world renowned athlete sporting a branded product can have major affects on that product’s sales and indeed other products that the company produces. On the other hand, it can also have a negative affect on the sales of the company. For example if a company sponsors an athlete who is not performing at the top of his/her game, they are seen to not be a ‘leading brand’, thus again generating a negative connection between sponsor and product.

An example of this would be the annual Wimbledon Tennis tournament, sponsored by the watch manufacture, Rolex. By linking the brand to a competition that showcases athletes at their highest level, the company is seen to be a leader in their chosen field and their products are seen to be of the highest quality. This has a very positive affect on their sales and makes their products appear as luxury items.

[FIG 1 – ROLEX AT WIMBLEDON]

When beginning the task of researching into whether Graphic Design is seen to have helped or hindered the growth the Olympic Games, there is much to consider. This dissertation will look into positives and negatives surrounding the role of Design in sport and the many avenues that it can take. It will also look into the world that has developed around advertising as a whole, taking into consideration its history, its growth and the part it plays in modern day society.

4

McDaniel, S. “An investigation of match-up effects in sport sponsorship advertising: The implications of consumer advertising

schemas” [Online PDF] http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/store/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6793(199903)16:2%3C163::AIDMAR6%3E3.0.CO;2-Y/asset/6_ftp.pdf?v=1&t=hfay9545&s=3301c26601b1c3a268d0bd82fd27bcb8c3307147 [Accessed 22/12/2012] p. 163-184

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The Olympic Games will form a large part of this dissertation, as an example of the coupling of advertising and sport within Graphic Design. This will look further into whether Design has affected certain sports in a positive light, or if it has been detrimental. For this, research will be made into Olympic Games pre and post the introduction of television and the results compared. An educated conclusion will then be formed as to whether technology has played an active role in sports evolution. A study into unveiling of the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games logo will also be looked at in detail. Consideration towards the views of Designers, athletes and the general public in relation to the design of the logo will be given and a general comment made. The meaning and construction of the logo will also be investigated and whether the knowledge of this was conveyed in the correct manner and understood by all.

Research will include face to face and email interviews with participants from the sporting world past and present. A greater understanding on whether the answer to the proposed argument is biased could depend on who is asked, or whether there is a conclusive answer that is agreed on by any party.

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FIG 1 – ROLEX AT WIMBLEDON

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CHAPTER 1 – HISTORY AND SPORT

Graphic design has been a tool used in a variety of different ways for many years and there are a number of examples throughout history that show the links between advertising and sport. These include; high speed motor racing, athletics and darts. Each sport uses different forms of advertising in multiple ways. These can take the form of product promotion, the depiction of a sponsor’s logo (linking them with athletes and teams) and also the promotion of competitions within sport.

The early part of the nineteenth century saw the use of advertising rise. At this time many different methods of advertising were being created, one of the most popular being the broadside. The broadside was a single sheet, covered with print that could be applied to buildings, walls, fences, etc. Each featured large black type commonly printed onto plain stock (in this instance being paper).5 The type was made large and set in black as this made it eye catching and memorable to the viewer. Also very little illustration was used in their early days as type was thought to gain the attention of the viewer in the most effective manner. The broadside was used to advertise an array of different products and services ranging from property to products and even sporting events.6

[FIG 2 – BASEBALL AD]

The broadside was additionally a device Designed to create great impact on the viewer in a short space of time, being that they were intended to be disposable and temporary. Though not Designed to bare any kind of cultural history, the broadside acts as a device that gives us the opportunity to examine what the culture was like around its time of creation.7

5

Tennessee Virtual Archive “Throwaway History – The Broadside in American Culture” [Online]

www.teva.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/landingpage/collection/broadsides [Accessed 03/03/2013] 6

Tennessee Virtual Archive “Throwaway History – The Broadside in American Culture” [Online]

www.teva.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/landingpage/collection/broadsides [Accessed 03/03/2013] 7

Tennessee Virtual Archive “Throwaway History – The Broadside in American Culture” [Online]

www.teva.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/landingpage/collection/broadsides [Accessed 03/03/2013]

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The broadside is still used today but in a slightly developed and refined form, this being the flyer. When introduced to sport, flyers were an ideal medium for advertising; specifically informing the public, participants and spectators on times of events, where they would be held and other relevant information.8 An example of this is motorsport. Robert Hewson (ex motor cross rider) expresses that when flyers were first introduced, they were hugely beneficial to the sport. There were many ways of using the flyer for advertising purposes; these ranged from handing them out to members of the public, to placing them under car windscreens wipers. Due to the current Data Protection Act this is now prohibited which, in turn, has had a detrimental affect on the general awareness of the sport as this formed a major part of their promotion.9

It is said that Adi Dassler, establisher of Adidas in Germany 1949, sewed cut leather strips onto the sides of his sports shoes to act as stabilisers. These strips (known in Germany as “Die. Drei, Streiten”) became recognised worldwide as part of the Adidas brand, in particular forming part of the logo. These strips became an integral part of the brand, resulting in appearances in various ad campaigns that featured elements of the strips.10

[FIG 3 - ADIDAS SWIM]

In the 1950’s the tobacco company Marlboro, originally a company targeting the female market began rebranding themselves towards a more masculine audience.11 This was achieved in many ways; focusing on the use of strong, powerful male figures, a redesign of the packaging (the addition of what is now globally renowned as the ‘red top’12) and strong links to the world of motor sport, in particular Formula 1.

[FIG 4 - MARLBORO & FERRARI]

8

Robert Hewson. Personal Interview. 3rd January 2013

9

Robert Hewson. Personal Interview. 3rd January 2013

10

S. Pincas and M. Loiseau, A History of Advertising, 2nd Edition, China, Taschen GmbH, 2008 p. 262 - 263

11

S. Pincas and M. Loiseau, 2008 p. 108 - 111

12

S. Pincas and M. Loiseau, 2008 p. 108 -111

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The first recorded piece of advertising at a race was Gold Leaf on the side of a Lotus (Gold Leaf being the main sponsor for the Honda team). With Marlboros’ coupling with the Ferrari team in the mid 1980’s, many other tobacco companies also followed suit. These tobacco companies realised that the amount of business to be gained by advertising at such a high level of sport was large. But in August of 2005, the United Kingdom brought in a ban on advertising tobacco and alcohol on any branded goods or clothes. This brought devastating affects to the tobacco industry.13 The sport had been highly reliant on the tobacco sponsors for a major percentage of their income, with it being recorded that companies paid their teams as much as $50 million per year14 (approximately £32,500,00). When the ban was suggested, companies knew they would be taking a hit and that it would create problems within the sports.

After the ban, many tobacco sponsors were cut from the sport, and their places filled with car manufacturers and wealthy companies. Many felt the same as Chief Executive, Nick Fry of the Honda team, taking the opinion that even though tobacco companies had sponsored the sport for almost four decades, they no longer wanted to be associated with them and their products.15 This was largely due to the new health warnings associated with smoking, and the detrimental affects it could cause. After 2007, Ferrari were the only team to have kept their tobacco sponsor, with the branding that featured Marlboro on cars and clothing only appearing when racing in a country that did not enforce the ban.

A good instance of the sponsorship change is that of the Honda race team. They left the previous sponsor Gold Leaf, and replaced it with the car manufacturers, Lotus (already the makers of their racing car). Honda took a complete ‘U’ turn with their branding shortly after its coupling with Designer Simon Fuller. The new advertising used an image of a car, completely unbranded, with the earth as its backdrop. This 13

BBC News “Law ends UK tobacco sponsorship” [Online Article] http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/4732047.stm [Accessed

28/03/2013] 14

Brad Spurgeon “The End of Tobacco Sponsorship Led to the Beginning of Other Sponsors in F1” [Online Article]

http://formula1.about.com/od/historyofsponsorship/a/The-End-Of-Tobacco-Sponsorship-Led-To-The-Beginning-Of-OtherSponsors-In-F1.htm [Accessed on 28/03/2013] 15

BBC News “Law ends UK tobacco sponsorship” [Online Article] http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/4732047.stm [Accessed

28/03/2013]

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gave a powerful new message of saving the environment. This was achieved by no longer being associated with tobacco companies and also the suggestion to do more for the environment. Honda’s UK Environment Manager, John Kingston, expressed that the company were not trying to say that the sport of F1 was green, but that its fans could be. John gave an example that if 1% of the spectators were to change a single bulb in their home to one that saved energy, it would stop an extra 38, 000 tonnes of carbon dioxide from being released into the atmosphere, the equivalent produced by the Honda team over three seasons.16

[FIG 5 – HONDA ADVERT]

Shortly after the ban on tobacco advertising, it was recorded that there was a 2.5% drop in the number of deaths caused by smoking, resulting in around 3000 UK lives being saved.17

Sports equipment is another area with a history fused with advertising. By the late 20th century, sports manufacturers no longer referred to certain products as ‘sports’ shoes. This was due to the products becoming one of the main items of fashion on the global high street, taking influence from areas such as films and video games.

A good example of a sports retailer and the way in which they advertise their products is Reebok. 1997 saw the release of Reebok’s ‘Pump Fury’, a shoe endorsed by the famous movie star, Jackie Chan (brought out to rival Nikes’ ‘Air Force One’).18 The advertisement for the shoe featured a foot kicking through what appears to be a concrete wall, with the trainer in full view. This gave the impression that the trainer was durable, strong and good enough for Jackie Chan. Having the celebrity endorsement meant that the public already had a view, in their mind’s eye, of what the shoe may be capable of. Saatchi & Saatchi were the Design agency responsible for 16

Wired Blogs “Honda F1 Ditches Ads for the Planet” [Online Blog Entry] www.wired.com/autopia/2007/02/honda_f1_ditche/

[Accessed 03/03/2013] 17

BBC News “Law ends UK tobacco sponsorship” [Online Article] http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/4732047.stm [Accessed

28/03/2013] 18

S. Pincas and M. Loiseau, A History of Advertising, 2nd Edition, China, Taschen GmbH, 2008 p. 264 - 265

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heading the advertising of Reebok’s ‘Night Time’ shoe. One such Design featured the form of an owl, made from two of the shoes placed back-to-back, using luminescent colours.

[FIG 6 – REEBOK ADVERT]

These adverts were part of an optical illusion series, featuring a variety of different creatures, including a tiger and butterfly. All were photographed and manipulated to create individual outcomes that would work in a series. This pushed the brand towards a new image that they felt represented the company in a better light, linking with the ‘rhythm and style’ of the fashionable ‘street life’ culture.19

19

S. Pincas and M. Loiseau, A History of Advertising, 2nd Edition, China, Taschen GmbH, 2008 p. 264 - 265

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FIG 2 – BASEBALL BROADSIDE

FIG 3 – ADIDAS SWIM

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FIG 4 – MARLBORO & FERRARI

FIG 5 – HONDA ‘GREEN’

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FIG 6 – REEBOK ‘NIGHT TIME’

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CHAPTER 2 - TECHNOLOGY AND SPORT

Technology has often been linked with sport in a very obvious way, with many leaning towards the opinion that it is largely to be held accountable for sports growth and development.

The first piece of technology shown to have broadcast a major sporting event was Radio, broadcasting the 1928 Olympic Games in Amsterdam and the 1932 Games in Los Angeles. The 1932 Olympic Games were also the first to create an Olympic village (only for male competitors, as the females stayed in a large hotel).20

It wasn’t until the 1936 Games in Berlin, that Telefunken and Fernseh first televised the Olympic Games (both German television firms). This marked the first live televising of any international sporting event, and brought in a total of 162,000 viewers and was shown for a total of 138 hours.

The 1936 Olympic Games saw many firsts when it came to technology and its links with sports. As well as being the first Games to be televised, twenty five television viewing rooms were installed in the centre of Greater Berlin. This allowed the local population to watch and follow the Games free of charge. The Games also witnessed the introduction of the Olympic Torch relay which took the torch from Olympia, Greece across seven different countries (Greece, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Austria and Germany) and finally to the current hosting nation.21

1936 also saw the production and airing of the film ‘Olympia’, produced and directed by Leni Riefenstahl. The film, to this day, is seen as one of the greatest Olympic documentaries of all time.22 There were many reasons supporting this statement, one

20

IOC (International Olympic Committee) “Los Angeles 1932” www.olympic.org/los-angeles-1932-summer-olympics [Accessed

03/03/2013] 21

IOC (International Olympic Committee) “Berlin 1936” www.olympic.org/berlin-1936-summer-olympics [Accessed

03/03/2013] 22

R. Schnieder & W. Steir “Leni Riefenstahl’s “Olympia”: Brilliant Cinematography or Nazi Propaganda?” [Online Article]

www.thesportjournal.org/articlr/leni-riefenstahls-olympic-brilliant-cinematography-or-nazi-propaganda [Accessed 03/03/2013]

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being that the film caused so much commotion as it was hugely different from anything else being produced at the time.23 It took the focus of showing the aesthetics of the human form, captured from every angle, and coupled this with previously unexplored techniques. These techniques included editing and sound. Sound was used to create mood setting background music and also narration. As great as the documentary was seen to be, it is also argued to have been a product of Nazi propaganda, promoting ‘positive aspects’ of National Socialism.

[FIG 7 – OLYMPIA FILM]

Much of this controversy came from Leni’s association with the Nazi party, her ease of generating a personal meeting with Hitler and her vast political skills. This meant the film could not be dismissed as having the potential of being a piece of Nazi propaganda, or at least containing elements that fused links with the party. Much of this could be due to the fact that Paul Joseph Goebbels, Nazi Minister of Propaganda, financed the entire film. On the other hand it can be argued that Leni was not working for the Nazi party at all, as some of the elements shown in the documentary, for example Jesse Owens, an African-American, winning a gold medal, were presented in a way that bares no resemblance to ideals and morals from the Nazi Party. Even though this is argued, there is no real evidence to back up the claim that it is a piece of propaganda.

The introduction of television is arguably a key element in the growth of the sporting world. Some are of the opinion that ‘Television has benefitted sport hugely’24 and that ‘Television rights and the money put into sport from these rights is colossal’.25 An example of this would be football. With the introduction of television, sports have been able to grow and develop. This is largely due to younger participants being able

23

R. Schnieder & W. Steir “Leni Riefenstahl’s “Olympia”: Brilliant Cinematography or Nazi Propaganda?” [Online Article]

www.thesportjournal.org/articlr/leni-riefenstahls-olympic-brilliant-cinematography-or-nazi-propaganda [Accessed 03/03/2013] 24

Storey, B. (barneystorey@talktalk.net) Student Inquiry. Email to Ben Theobald-Morgan (bentheobaldmorgan@gmail.com) 21

Dec 2012 25

Storey, B. (barneystorey@talktalk.net) Student Inquiry. Email to Ben Theobald-Morgan (bentheobaldmorgan@gmail.com) 21

Dec 2012

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to readily follow their chosen sporting team and allowing them to emulate what they see on screen as opposed to travelling to a venue. Many sporting individuals would agree this is the case, for example (in regards to the connection of television and sport) Barney Storey (London 2012 Paralympic cycling gold medallist) is recorded to have said:

“Football is probably the biggest beneficiary, however, other sports benefit from exposure and people wanting to emulate what they see on television. Television helps sport develop, with younger enthusiasts able to follow their chosen sport far easier than always going to the venue.”26

From this, it is apparent that individuals, as well as sports people, feel that television has had a positive effect on sport and it can be seen as a contributing factor into the constant increase in participation levels.

The 1948 London Olympic Games is known as the first publicly televised Games and was headed by the BBC’s Director of Outside Broadcasts, Seymour Joly de Lotbiniere. This Olympic Games was set to become a prominent point in Lotbiniere’s career and is seen to be the point in which the BBC first began merging with major governing bodies in sport. Not only were the Games seen as being a turning point in broadcasting history (for Lotbiniere and the sporting industry), they were also key in the rekindling of interest in the BBC after its’ suspension between 1939 to 1948 (largely due to Joseph Goebbels other financial campaigns across Europe). After the War, the course of broadcasting had changed, going from being a service geared to show ‘improvement’ to one that was seen to show entertainment and information. This had a positive effect on viewers, giving them ‘...a new sense of freedom.’27, by creating choice between content without ‘...sacrificing the old Rethian seriousness of

26

Storey, B. (barneystorey@talktalk.net) Student Inquiry. Email to Ben Theobald-Morgan (bentheobaldmorgan@gmail.com) 21

Dec 2012 27

BBC “The International Journal of the History of Sport, Vol. 27, No. 6” [PDF]

https://dspace.stir.ac.uk/bitstream/1893/2420/1/1948%20Games.pdf [Accessed 22/12/2012]

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purpose’.28 Asa Briggs (a celebrated historian) has been recorded to say that the new direction of the broadcasting from the BBC created a ‘reassuring impression of normality’.29 Before the introduction of television, in particular broadcasting, radio was the only way of ‘transporting the listener to the front line of the War’ 30 and was explained by Scannell and Cardiff as ‘giving the individual an unprecedented sense of himself as part of the larger community’.31 Television greatly changed this in two positive ways, firstly by giving the user the option to pick and choose what information they desired and secondly by coupling the spoken information with image, communicating the shown information in a format that was easier for the general public to understand.

There have also been many other pieces of technology that have used Graphic Design to influence sport in a variety of different ways. A strong example of a Design process used in sport is the process of abrasive blasting. Abrasive blasting is a simple technique that is used when applying relief Graphics to the surface of such materials as metal and glass.32 This is often used in sport when creating medals for competitions, such as the medals for each Olympic and Paralympic Games.

[FIG 8 – OLYMPIC MEDALS]

28

R. Haynes “The BBC, Austerity and Broadcasting the 1948 Olympic Games” The International Journal of the History of Sport.

27. 6. [April 2010] p. 3 29

R. Haynes “The BBC, Austerity and Broadcasting the 1948 Olympic Games” The International Journal of the History of Sport. 27.

6. [April 2010] p. 4 30

R. Haynes, [April 2010] p. 4

31

Briggs, A. A History of Broadcasting in the United Kingdom: Sound and Vision, 1st Edition, OUP Oxford, 01/02/1978

32

R. Thompson, Graphics and packaging production, 1st Edition, London, Thames & Hudson Ltd, 2012

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FIG 7 – OLYMPIA FILM

FIG 8 – OLYMPIC MEDALS

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CHAPTER 3 - THE OLYMPIC GAMES

Spanning a period of over 2000 years, the Olympic Games are one of the longest running sporting fixtures in history, showcasing talent from all over the globe and regarded as one of the greatest ever sporting events.

Before the televised Olympics that we have today, the Games were a different competition only allowing athletes that practiced at an amateur level. ‘Athletes who accepted money for their performances might as well have been lepers...’33 was the statement given by Bob Greene (CNN Contributor). This gave other competitors the chance at gaining glory from the Games and also acted as a device for showcasing new up and coming talent without being overshadowed by the professionals. This stage of the Games reflected the world’s ‘love of sport, not love of money’.34 This was all changed with the introduction of television, first seen in the 1936 Olympic Games.

As many people are aware, each Olympic Games is represented by a series of key items, outlining the country, the year and the date. These were first shown as a collective in 1912 accompanying the Stockholm Olympics and can be seen as the first example of advertising being used as a promotional tool. Stockholm was the first of the modernised Games to realise the potential of an ‘Official Olympic Poster’, recognising that advertising could have a dramatic effect on viewing. The use of these official posters carried on playing a major role in the advertising of the Games even through both World Wars when interest in the Games was at a low.

[FIG 9 – STOCKHOLM OLYMPIC POSTER 1912]

The second part of the 20th century saw Graphic Design on the rise. This made it apparent that Design was becoming the main tool when creating a visual identity, which covered all aspects of the modern Games and the ways in which each identity 33

Bob Greene, “What changed the Olympics forever” [Online] http://www.cnn.co.uk/2012/07/22/opinion/greene-olympics-

amateurs/index.html [21/12/2012] 34

Bob Greene, “What changed the Olympics forever” [Online] http://www.cnn.co.uk/2012/07/22/opinion/greene-olympics-

amateurs/index.html [21/12/2012]

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was presented. This form of Graphic Design is still used today and plays an important role when forming an identity for an Olympic event. It enables the Designer to leave out such information as dates and locations, and focus on representing visual messages that surround the Games, such as the values and ideals of the host nation.

Olympic posters are a clear record of how throughout history links between different disciplines have formed. For example the links between politics & culture and sport & art can be investigated through the chosen imagery captured in these ‘snapshots through time’.35 The posters are also a great example of how Graphic iconography has altered and developed alongside the Games, showing clear examples of national pride, identity and Olympic symbolism. At the start of the twentieth century, it was not uncommon for the host nation to produce one or two official posters advertising the Games, but at the start of the 1960’s the number of officially produced posters began to rise rapidly in numbers. This is still the case and remains traditional for a series of posters to fall under the title ‘The Official Posters of the ... Games’. The job of naming these posters falls to the individual organising committee.36 Previous official posters for the Games have been known to depict the style and characteristics of the current Art movement of the time.

[FIG 10 – MUNICH 1972 ‘POP ART’ STYLE POSTER]

ADVERTISING LONDON 2012

At the beginning of 2012, a new advertising campaign was presented to the world. The campaign, under the title GREAT, was created by the British government in order to attract an increasing number of tourists to Britain. The campaign was used to

35

Timmers, M. A Century of Olympic Posters, London, V&A Publishing, 25/09/2012

36

Xinhua “Official Olympic Posters for London 2012 Unveiled” [Online]

nhttp://english.cri.cn/8046/2011/11/05/2941s665940.htm [Accessed 04/03/2013]

23


draw in an expected 4.6 million visitors to the UK and to create an extra £2.3 billion in spending across the country.37

The campaign was comprised of many different elements, targeting 14 cities on a global scale.38 Postcards were produced depicting iconic landmarks in Britain. These included elements of culture, scenery and history coupled with images of education, innovation and natural beauty. Large advertising ‘wraps’, depicted similar scenes and were applied to certain New York subway trains, the Paris Metro and a selection of New Delhi taxis. Jeremy Hunt, the Cultural Secretary at the time, is noted to have said:

“We are taking the fight for the tourist pound right to our competitors’ doorsteps, with a sales assault on the 14 biggest and most lucrative tourism markets around the world.” 39

This was used to advertise a number of events taking places across 2012, including the Olympic and Paralympic Games and the Queen’s Diamond Jubilee. By marketing across some of the world’s busiest cities, the British government could advertise to the maximum amount of people in the most efficient way.40

[FIG 11 – GREAT AD]

37

Telegraph Staff “Government's worldwide advertising campaign to boost London 2012 Olympics tourism rolled out” [Online

Article] http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/olympics/9073752/Governments-worldwide-advertising-campaign-to-boost-London2012-Olympics-tourism-rolled-out.html [Accessed 24/03/2013] 38

Telegraph Staff (10.15AM Feb 2012) “Government's worldwide advertising campaign to boost London 2012 Olympics tourism

rolled out” [Online Article - Accessed 24/03/2013] 39

Telegraph Staff (10.15AM Feb 2012) “Government's worldwide advertising campaign to boost London 2012 Olympics

tourism rolled out” [Online Article - Accessed 24/03/2013] 40

Telegraph Staff “Government's worldwide advertising campaign to boost London 2012 Olympics tourism rolled out” [Online

Article] http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/olympics/9073752/Governments-worldwide-advertising-campaign-to-boost-London2012-Olympics-tourism-rolled-out.html [Accessed 24/03/2013]

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SPONSORSHIP

Advertising can take many different forms, one of which being the promotional activity of sponsorship. This is usually where the ‘sponsor’ is given space for advertisements in which to gain publicity.41 An example of this in practise is the Olympic and Paralympic Games held every four years.

When looking at the list of sponsors for any Olympic Games, there needs to be notes of the different types of sponsor a Games may have. These can include: Worldwide, Partners, Supporters and Providers & Suppliers. The London 2012 Olympics was no exception. The Games saw a number of different sponsors (including official and unofficial), applying a variety of different techniques and approaches to various ways of advertising the Games. The major worldwide sponsors included the likes of CocaCola, McDonalds and Visa. The partners included some well-known companies such as BMW, Adidas and British Airways.42 All sponsors contributed to the Games in a variety of different ways, using a wide range of different media types to promote Britain’s athletes as well as the Games. This involved using different types of technology including the use of social media sites and computer games which both encouraged the interaction of the general public.

Visa is a suitable illustration of the use of a viral campaign that encouraged the backing and support of a nation’s athletes. Pre games, Visa created a series of four viral adverts that all depicted a famous athlete from various cities around the world, emphasising the amount of work and effort required to achieve such a high level of skill. This created empathy with the general public and strengthened the bond between athlete and spectator. The viral adverts created an image of perfection, emphasising the need for celebration of this achievement. Visa portrayed the message of ‘Join our global

41

Jim Riley “Promotion – Sponsorship” [Online] www.tutor2u.net/business/marketing/promotion_sponsorship.asp [Accessed

03/03/2013] 42

S. Rogers “London 2012 Olympic sponsors list: who are they and what have they paid?”

http://www.guardian.co.uk/sport/datablog/2012/jul/19/london-2012-olympic-sponsors-list [Accessed 27/03/2013]

25


cheers’ through these adverts and used the illustrious voice of Morgan Freeman (world renowned actor) as endorsement.43

[FIG 12 – VISA ADVERT OPENING FRAME]

Coca-Cola is another instance of viral advertising used around the time of the Games. In the adverts, Coke utilised all the positive comments generated by supporters and used them to create emotive messages for athletes and other supporters. This showed the global backing and recognition that surrounded the Games. This support came in the form of video messages and tweets.44

Another example of a device used by sponsors was the ad campaign employed by British Airways. BA used the notion that the Games should bring the country together, including people from all backgrounds and walks of life. They did this by simply encouraging British people not to fly whilst the Games were on. This could be viewed as a negative for the company. But even though BA encouraged Brits not to fly, it subliminally suggested that people from all over the world come to the Games and see why Britain was being advised not to travel.45 The campaign combined the ‘no fly’ notion with a piece of iconic British music, “London Calling” by The Clash, giving the impression that London was beaconing the rest of the world into the Games.

[FIG 13 – BA ADVERT]

Two of the main partners for the Games, Adidas and John Lewis, merged sections of advertising in order to utilise a greater area of the market, which in turn, appealed to a wider audience. The two produced an asymmetric union jack flag. This acted as a building wrap, displaying Olympic themed products that were available for purchase from either vendor, but with John Lewis still being the official department store vendor for the Games. The two corporations also produced installations depicting

43

Visa Brand (2012) Visa Olympics London 2012: David Boudia Team Visa Athlete Commercial [YouTube video]

44

cocacola (2012) Coca-Cola presents... Move to the Beat of the London 2012 Olympic Torch Relay [YouTube video]

45

FlyBritishAirways (2012) British Airways _ London 2012 Ad (UK) [YouTube video]

26


large images of various competitors of Team GB. This was a very similar concept introduced during the 2010 Vancouver Winter Olympic Games (Canada), where Sears’ stores were wrapped in what seemed to be the colours of the Canadian flag (red and white).

Coca Cola additionally linked themselves with a slightly different part of the Games than its competitors. Coke had decided that in order to reach a larger market, they would need another source of advertisement. For this they chose to pair themselves with the running of the Olympic Torch Relay. This meant that even before the Games had begun, Coke had married themselves and their products with the Games. This was not a new ploy used by Coke as they had formed this bond with the relay since the Barcelona Olympics in 1992.46

Fig 14 [Coke 2012 Olympic Relay]

The International Standards Board of Advertising (ISBA) were recorded saying:

“Our concerns in discussion with the Department for Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS), the Mayor and in briefing MPs and Peers has been to ensure that sponsors' rights are not breeched whilst non sponsors are not unnecessarily excluded from the national celebrations.” 47

This was put in place to deter companies and organisations, which were not official sponsors, from attempting to advertise alongside the Games. This meant that conflicting messages would not link with the chosen ones that were already in place.

Even with the regulations implemented by the ISBA, a handful of companies, not being official sponsors of the Games, decided to release campaigns. This is also known

46

IOC “Coca-Cola gets London moving to the beat for the arrival of the Olympic Flame” [Online Article]

http://www.olympic.org/news/media-resources?articlenewsgroup=-1&articleid=168850 [Accessed 20/12/2012] 47

ISBA “Advertising and London 2012” [Online] http://www.isba.org.uk/issues/olympics [Accessed 19/03/2013

27


as ‘ambush marketing’,48 which refers to capitalising on the large number of spectators and athletes immersing themselves within the events. One example of this is a billboard advertising campaign employed by Paddy Power, an online betting organisation. Paddy Power produced a campaign around the opening of the Olympics, claiming to be the ‘Official Sponsor of the largest Athletics event in London this year’.

[FIG 15 - PADDY POWER BILLBOARD]

Underneath this bold statement it read: ‘There you go, we said it’, followed by ‘(Ahem, London France that is)’. The ad related back to an egg and spoon race, sponsored by the company that was to be held in Burgundy, France town of London on the 1st of August 2012. The initial statement implied links to the upcoming Games, tricking viewers into connecting Paddy Power with the event. This was incorrect, as Paddy Power had not paid a sponsorship fee that allowed them the rights to couple themselves with the games. Resultantly, they also shouldn’t have been able to reap the benefits associated with being an Olympic Marketing Partner.

Another example of a company unfairly and unjustly linking themselves with the Games is Nike. Nike, like Paddy Power, had not paid a sponsorship fee to the London Organising Committee for the Olympic Games (LOCOG), allowing them advertising rights and connecting themselves with the Games. However, Nike employed a similar tactic to the one used by Paddy Power in the form of an advertising campaign. The campaign encouraged athletes, of any level, to find their greatness.49 The advert depicted athletes from all walks of life, varying levels of skill and physical ability. It showed them in different ‘Londons’ around the world, London Canada, London Nigeria and London Ohio are but to name a few. The ad gave the impression that greatness could be achieved wherever you were, not just at an Olympic Games. It also gave off a slightly negative feel, as it was not promoting the Games but saying to people that Britain’s London was no more special than any other. It did not give the 48

J. Smith “Olympic Hurdles For Advertisers: The Games' Unique Rules And Restrictions” [Online Article]

http://www.forbes.com/sites/jacquelynsmith/2012/07/24/olympic-hurdles-for-advertisers-the-Games-unique-rules-and-restrictions/ [Accessed 24/03/2013] 49

Nike (2012) Nike: Find Your Greatness [YouTube video]

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impression that ‘...greatness is reserved for the chosen few...’ 50 but that others need not feel inadequate or unworthy of competing. Whilst giving off many negative opinions towards the Games, the advert did enforce some positive elements. It showed that no matter whom the individual, we are all capable of great things. This had links to the overall motto of the Games, “Swifter, Higher, Stronger” taken from the Latin phrase “Citius, Altius, Fortius” from Pierre de Coubetin (founder of the modern Olympic Games) in 1921.51

TECHNOLOGY AND THE OLYMPICS

The London Games utilised all possible avenues when it came to the use of technology. This was applied to a number of different areas within the Games, including: advertising, broadcasting and the Internet, with the Internet previously not being used to its full potential.

Contributing to so many different parts, the Internet can be seen as one of the most important pieces of technology used at the last Olympic Games. Sebastian Coe, Chairman of London 2012, wanted London to be a Games connected to the world; it was his vision to make the most of the new and exciting technology available, bringing people closer to the action, plus giving them a choice of how they wanted to experience it.52

A great example of this in effect was social networking. Social networking became a major technological device used throughout the Games to a multitude of different effects. For example EDF Energy encouraged users to ‘tweet’ in their comments via Twitter, with their views and opinions on the Games. The results were then analysed, picking out positive and negative words, and the data was used to create a daily piece

50

Nike (2012) Nike: Find Your Greatness [YouTube video]

51

J. Rosenberg “Interesting Olympic Facts” [Online]

http://history1900s.about.com/od/greateventsofthecentury/a/olympicfacts.htm [Accessed 26/03/2013] 52

London 2012 “New brand and vision revealed for London 2012 Olympic Games and Paralympic Games [Online Article]

http://www.london2012.com/media-centre/media-releases/2007/06/new-brand-and-vision-revealed-for-london-2012-olympicga.html [Accessed 27/03/2013]

29


of information Graphics, taking the form of a light show connected to the London Eye.53 As well as visualising the support from the general public, this acted as a device for advertising for the Games, showing the positive and negative thoughts surrounding the event in a previously unexplored way.

[FIG 16 – BA “DON’T FLY”]

THE LOGO

When the bidding for the 2012 Games was underway, London submitted a logo far from the end result revealed in 2007. The bidding saw London narrowly beat Paris with a total of 54 votes to 50, with Tony Blair referring to the event as “a momentous day”.54 The bid was won taken from the favourites (Paris) after what the BBC referred to as an “impressive presentation”55, by Lord Sebastian Coe the bid chairman. After winning the bid, Coe was met with much appreciation from numerous people, including the Queen, who offered her warmest congratulations.56

[FIG 17 - OLYMPIC LOGO SHOWN AT TIME OF BID - CREATIVE REVIEW]

After the winning of the Olympic bid, the proposed logo underwent a series of changes, with the final result for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games being unveiled in 2007. Created by the Design agency Wolff Olins, the logo featured a variety of jagged edges and came in a series of colours, including: pink, blue, green and also orange. The logo bore no image of famous London landmarks, or any sporting events. This was to show that the Games were bigger than London, bigger than sport

53

EDFEnergy (2012) EDF Energy Presents Energy of the Nation [YouTube Video]

54

BBC Sport “London beats Paris to 2012 Games” [Online Article] http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/front_page/4655555.stm

[Accessed 27/03/2013] 55

BBC Sport “London beats Paris to 2012 Games” [Online Article] http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/front_page/4655555.stm

[Accessed 27/03/2013] 56

BBC Sport “London beats Paris to 2012 Games” [Online Article] http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/front_page/4655555.stm

[Accessed 27/03/2013]

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and were for the entire world to enjoy and be a part of, regardless of any cultural, physical or political differences.57

Much scepticism greeted the logo Design as many felt the same as Jack Renwick, who is noted to have said “When the logo was first launched I wasn’t a massive fan and I found it quite ugly and dated...”58 Some individuals looked past the angular, geometric shapes and created alternate theories concerning the different shapes found within the logo. A common image to have been lifted from the Designed piece was the famous cartoon character, Lisa Simpson,59 known from the globally renowned television show, The Simpsons.

[FIG 18 – OFFICIAL 2012 GAMES LOGO]

The logo also gained positive feedback upon its launch. Nick Couch (Managing Director at Figtree) felt that the logo was “Bright, energetic and slightly dysfunctional... it reflects London”. Nick was not the only Design minded individual with this thinking, as Paul Bailey (Partner at 1977 Design) said this when asked about the Design:

“I would be lying if I said that I was a huge fan of the logo in itself, but I did think the approach had a certain energy, and potential so was willing to give it time to develop”.60

57

Design Boom “London Olympics 2012 – The look of the Games” [Online Article]

http://www.Designboom.com/Design/london-olympics-2012-the-look-of-the-Games/ [Accessed 04/03/2013] 58

A. Montgomery “London 2012 Design icons - the Olympic logo” [Online/Magazine Article]

http://www.Designweek.co.uk/analysis/london-2012-Design-icons-%E2%80%93-the-olympic-logo/3034949.article [Accessed 26/03/2013] 59

C. Stocks “New 2012 logo sparks huge response” [Online Article]

http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/sporteditors/2007/06/new_2012_logo_sparks_big_backl.html [Accessed 27/03/2013] 60

A. Montgomery “London 2012 Design icons - the Olympic logo” [Online/Magazine Article]

http://www.Designweek.co.uk/analysis/london-2012-Design-icons-%E2%80%93-the-olympic-logo/3034949.article [Accessed 27/03/2013]

31


One of the main focuses of the logo was to connect with the younger generation, emphasising the notion of 2012 being the reason for them to turn their lives around for the better, as it was a new year with a new start.

What many people did not realise was that the creation was not a ‘stand alone logo’ but part of a larger concept set to develop and change along with the build up to the Games. "It's not a logo, it's a brand that will take us forward for the next five years," 61 was the comment left by the Committee Chairman of the London 2012 Games, Lord Coe to BBC Five Live.

He was recorded to have said:

“This is the vision at the very heart of our brand, it will define the venues we build and the Games we hold and act as a reminder of our promise to use the Olympic spirit to inspire everyone and reach out to young people around the world”.62

Lord Coe was not the only one pushing this notion, as the prime minister at the time, Tony Blair, is noted to have said “When people see the new brand, we want them to be inspired to make a positive change in their life”.63 This showed his backing and support.

During the run up to the Games, Futurebrand and LOCOG were responsible for the application of the logo onto various materials, such as the Designs of venues, shop fronts and tickets.64 The major aim of the branding elements was to create a system

61

BBC “London unveils logo of 2012 Games” [Online Article]

http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/other_sports/olympics_2012/6718243.stm [Accessed 27/03/2013] 62

BBC “London unveils logo of 2012 Games” [Online Article]

http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/other_sports/olympics_2012/6718243.stm [Accessed 27/03/2013] 63

C. Stocks “New 2012 logo sparks huge response” [Online Article]

http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/sporteditors/2007/06/new_2012_logo_sparks_big_backl.html [Accessed 27/03/2013] 64

A. Montgomery “London 2012 Design icons - the Olympic logo” [Online/Magazine Article]

http://www.Designweek.co.uk/analysis/london-2012-Design-icons-%E2%80%93-the-olympic-logo/3034949.article [Accessed 26/03/2013]

32


that almost bombarded the viewer with the logo and its various applications. This was achieved by placing the logo onto a ‘bird’s eye’ view of the stadium. Each edge of the logo was then used to form a matrix, taking into consideration the shapes formed as these edges crossed and overlapped. The outcome of this was a series of geometric shapes, formed from the negative space between the lines. These pieces were then used to create various bounding shapes for signage, becoming: banners, wayfinding tools and other forms of navigation.

[FIG 19 – EXAMPLE OF WAYFINDING MADE FROM OVERLAY OF LOGO – CREATIVE REVIEW]

For example, in FIGURE 19 you can see a jagged shape, created in the same styling as the logo, being used as a device for holding parking information.

All signage featured the colours of the logo, using a combination of the pinks, blues, greens and oranges coupled with the newly developed typeface, Headline 2012 by Wolff Olins, which was specifically created for the Games. This new typeface was also met with a large amount of criticism upon its unveiling. Many believed that the typeface that was set to represent London should have evoked such words as “tradition”, “pageantry,” and “patriotism.” The London 2012 font, by contrast, ‘looks goofy’.65

The Paralympic logo for the 2012 Games was the first in recorded history to be based around the same Design as the Olympic Games. This was due to the fact Britain wanted to host what they referred to as a ‘truly integrated Paralympic Games’.66 The logo worked with the same bounding shapes, but featured a series of geometric patterns inside each form. The Olympic logo was also replaced, putting instead the official Paralympic logo. 65

M. Kushinka “London 2012 font: A critique” [Online Article] http://www.redlinels.com/2012/07/29/london-2012-font-a-

critique/ [Accessed 27/03/2013] 66

London 2012 “New brand and vision revealed for London 2012 Olympic Games and Paralympic Games [Online Article]

http://www.london2012.com/media-centre/media-releases/2007/06/new-brand-and-vision-revealed-for-london-2012-olympicga.html [Accessed 27/03/2013]

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RIO OLYMPICS

New Years Eve 2012 saw the unveiling of the logo for the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games, which are to be held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The proposed logo for the Games received a warmer welcome than its British predecessor, with many individuals agreeing with its Designers Tatil, in the fact that “it was a sculptural logo for a sculptural city”.67 The shape of the logo is derived from the shape of the Sugarloaf Mountain and uses the colours of the nation’s flag. The colours were used for the following reasons.

“Yellow symbolises the sun, vivacious and happy nature. Blue expressed the fluidity of the water that surrounds, and our easy-going way of life. Green represents our forests and hope, a positive vision that inspires us to go even further”.68

[FIG 20 – RIO LOGO]

67

Patrick Burgoyne “Rio 2016 Olympics logo: A closer look” [Online Article] http://www.creativereview.co.uk/cr-

blog/2011/january/rio-2016-logo-longer-look [Accessed 04/03/2013] 68

Patrick Burgoyne “Rio 2016 Olympics logo: A closer look” [Online Article] http://www.creativereview.co.uk/cr-

blog/2011/january/rio-2016-logo-longer-look [Accessed 04/03/2013]

34


FIG 9 - STOCKHOLM OLYMPIC POSTER 1921

FIG 10 – MUNICH 1972 ‘POP ART’ STYLE POSTER

35


FIG 11 – GREAT AD

FIG 12 – VISA

36


FIG 13 – BRITISH AIRWAYS AD

FIG 14 - COKE 2012 OLYMPIC RELAY

37


FIG 15 – PADDY POWER

FIG 16 – EDF INFO GRAPHIC

38


FIG 17 – 2007 OLYMPIC BID LOGO

FIG 18 – 2012 OFFICIAL OLYMPIC LOGO

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FIG 19 – OLYMPIC WAYFINDING

FIG 20 – OFFICIAL RIO LOGO

40


CONCLUSION

From the research into the many different areas surrounding the marriage of Graphic Design and sport, an educated conclusion has been reached. It has become apparent that on the surface Graphic Design seems to have acted in a positive way when coupled with sport, but when examined further, there are areas in which it has not helped growth, but in affect has actually stunted it.

Early history shows that the introduction of Graphic Design into the world of sport, in particular advertising, played a key role in the growth and promotion of sport. We know this, as sports benefited from advertising tools such as flyers, television/radio adverts and sponsorship due to the use by companies and organisations, which, as a result helped boost participation, product sales and spectator levels.

By looking at the history of Graphic Design it also shows that as sports have developed around Design, they have had to generate new ways to increase the levels inside that specific area of sport. For example the creation of the broadside led the way to the invention of flyers, which in turn produced poster adverts, forming the basis for early radio and television advertising. This shows that with the connection of both Design and sport, when one develops, the other must follow.

The use of sponsorship does not always have the desired affect when looking at the promotion of sport and thus positives are not always drawn. This is apparent in Formula 1 and the sponsorship of large tobacco companies. This combination formed a negative example of the use of Design as it associated the sport with products that were harmful to the public. This partnership also depicted the companies linking themselves with these sponsors; giving the impression they cared very little about the spectators of their sport and even less about their health.

The advertisement of sports teams is not all seen negatively. Adidas and Nike are examples of companies that used sport linked with advertising to a positive effect. This is apparent in the way their products are displayed and the positive messaged buried

41


within the campaigns, such as the promotion of healthier lifestyles through exercise and that everyone has the potential to be great.

It has been made apparent through this investigation that technology has played a major role in the development of sport and, in turn, Design. This is clear from looking at the introduction of television to some of the larger sporting events. From this it is clearly seen that the number of spectators for sport is rising and the technology of broadcasting is largely to be held accountable for this. An example of this would be the implementation of television viewing rooms for the 1936 Berlin Olympics.

Similarly, when looking at the Olympic and Paralympic Games it is never quick to arrive at a conclusion that generates a simple, to the point, answer. This is due to there being many variables that weigh in on different sides of positivity and negativity. This is due to the cultural and political elements that surround each set of Games. For example the 1936 Berlin Olympic Games produced one of the most iconic documentaries ever made, which is surely a positive when focusing on the advancements achieved in the field of cinematography. Despite these positive elements, the film also seemed to have major links with the National Socialist Party. Even though there was little evidence to prove this, it shone a negative light on the whole process bringing into question the motives around the film’s production and intended use, which could be seen as Graphic Design being used to a negative effect.

The Olympic and Paralympic Games seem to have been an ideal way for countries to emphasise their ideals, themes and morals through the use of Graphic Design. This is apparent from looking at past Games and the ‘Official’ posters used for promotion. These posters have, over the years, formed a strong visual identity for each event, allowing distinction to be made from event to event.

Sponsorship seems to play an integral part of any sporting event, especially the Olympics. It is apparent from this study that advertising and the Olympics do not always work together to form the best outcome. Although, an example of this working positively, would be Adidas and their campaign promoting the support of athletes and

42


their strong ‘official’ links with the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. This showed that Adidas was proud to be sponsoring the Games. Also this made apparent that the athletes being represented were proud to be seen as part of the Games and of their links with the sponsor.

Many post television advances in technology are also becoming integral devices when it comes to the advertising and communication of sporting events. For example, various companies encouraged the public to voice their opinions on the London Games using social networking sites such as Twitter. This proved hugely effective as more and more individuals gave their opinions. From this a following began, showing the immense support and backing the athletes received from the entire nation.

So to conclude, throughout history there have been many examples involving the use of Graphic Design and sport. This is, that despite some instances that show Design as hindering the growth and development of sport, we can see at large, Graphic Design has been an integral part in the growth of sport. It can also be stated that without one or the other, it would not be as successful as it is today.

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Riley, J. “Promotion – Sponsorship” [Online] www.tutor2u.net/business/marketing/promotion_sponsorship.asp [Accessed 03/03/2013]

Stocks, C. “New 2012 logo sparks huge response” [Online Article] http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/sporteditors/2007/06/new_2012_logo_sparks_big_backl.html [Accessed 27/03/2013]

Tennessee Virtual Archive “Throwaway History – The Broadside in American Culture” [Online] www.teva.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/landingpage/collection/broadsides [Accessed 03/03/2013]

Wired Blogs “Honda F1 Ditches Ads for the Planet” [Online Blog Entry] www.wired.com/autopia/2007/02/honda_f1_ditche/ [Accessed 03/03/2013]

Xinhua “Official Olympic Posters for London 2012 Unveiled” [Online] nhttp://english.cri.cn/8046/2011/11/05/2941s665940.htm [Accessed 04/03/2013]

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VIDEO Cocacola (2012) Coca-Cola presents... Move to the Beat of the London 2012 Olympic Torch Relay [YouTube video]

EDFEnergy (2012) EDF Energy Presents Energy of the Nation [YouTube Video]

FlyBritishAirways (2012) British Airways _ London 2012 Ad (UK) [YouTube video]

Nike (2012) Nike: Find Your Greatness [YouTube video]

Visa Brand (2012) Visa Olympics London 2012: David Boudia Team Visa Athlete Commercial [YouTube video]

IMAGE REFERENCES FIG 1 - ROLEX – Rolex “Screensavers” [Online] www.rolex.com/en#/world-of-rolex/sports-andculture/tennis/wimbledon/downloads [Accessed 22/02/2013]

FIG 2 - BASEBALL Ad –Heck, B. “Baseball Broadside” [Online] www.eephusleague.com/2011/02/baseball-broadsides/ [Accessed 20/12/2013]

FIG 3 - ADIDAS – Advertolog “Adidas Swim” [Online] www.adertolog.com/adidas/printoutdoor/adidas-swim-3836505 [Accessed 20/02/2013]

FIG 4 - MARLBORO & FERRARI - “Motorsport sponsorship” [Online] http://en.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enwiki/229544 [Accessed 27/03/2013]

Fig 5 - Brown, R. “F1 goes ‘green’ with Honda’s RA107 car” [Online] www.motorque.com/carnews/f1-goes-green-with-hondas-ra107-car-12388.aspx [Accessed 27/03/2013]

FIG 6 - REEBOK – Coloribus “Night Safety Running Shoes: “OWL” Print ad by Saatchi & Saatchi” [Online] http://www.coloribus.com/adsarchive/prints/night-safety-running-shoes-owl-4637255/ [Accessed 27/03/2013]

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FIG 7 - OLYMPIA - Cloud Disassembly RPI “Olympia – Video of the 1936 Berlin Olympics” www.clouddisaaaembly.transvercity.net/2011/09/15/Olympia-video-of-the-1936-berlin-olympics/ [Accessed 04/03/2013]

FIG 8 - OLYMPIC MEDALS –Rogers, S. “Olympics 2012: the alternative medals table” [Online] http://www.guardian.co.uk/sport/datablog/2012/jul/30/olympics-2012-alternative-medal-table [Accessed 20/02/2013]

FIG 9 - STOCKHOLM OLYMPIC POSTER 1921 - Bortzells, A. “Vintage Olympic Poster Auction [Online] http://www.bloomberg.com/slideshow/2012-04-18/vintage-olympic-poster-auction.html [Accessed 27/03/2013]

FIG 10 - MUNICH OLYMPICS – Harvey Abrahams Books “History of Edition Olympia” http://www.harveyabramsbooks.com/posters.html [Accessed 27/03/2013]

FIG 11 - GREAT CAMPAIGN – Aol “Oops! Visit Britain makes spelling mistake in £25 million campaign” [Online] http://travel.aol.co.uk/2012/02/27/oops-visitbritain-make-spelling-typo-in-25million-campaign/ [Accessed 22/12/2013]

FIG 12 - VISA – Head over Heals “I’m London Olympics Bound!!!” [Online] http://www.headoverheelsDesign.com/2012_07_01_archive.html [Accessed 04/03/2013]

FIG 13 - BA – Cargo Collective “BA – Don’t Fly” [Online] http://cargocollective.com/wedidthat/BADon-t-Fly [Accessed 22/03/2013]

FIG 14 - COKE 2012 OLYMPIC RELAY - O’Reilly, L. “Coke eyes legacy with major Olympic Push” http://www.marketingweek.co.uk/news/coke-eyes-legacy-with-major-olympic-push/4001218.article [Accessed 25/03/2013]

FIG 15 - PADDY POWER – McCabe, M. “Paddy Power sponsors ‘the biggest athletics event in London” [Online] http://www.marketingmagazine.co.uk/news/1142359/Paddy-Power-sponsors-the-biggestathletics-event-London/ [Accessed 22/02/2013]

FIG 16 - EDF ENERGY – Ellicot, A. “Cloudamt helps light up the 2012 London Olympics” [Online] www.cloudant.com/blog/cloudant-helps-light-up-the-london-olympics [Accessed 22/02/13]

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FIG 17 - BID LOGO – BBC “Old Loughts to host Olympics” [Online] http://www.bbc.co.uk/essex/content/articles/2007/02/16/hockey_olympic_feature.shtml [Accessed 27/02/2013]

FIG 18 - OFFICIAL LOGO – Wolff Olins “London 2012 Olympics Case Study” [Online] http://www.wolffolins.com/work/london-2012 [Accessed 03/03/2013]

FIG 19 - WAYFINDING – Creative Review “London 2012: the creative Olympics” [Online] http://www.creativereview.co.uk/cr-blog/2012/august/2012-olympics-round-up [Accessed 04/03/2013]

FIG 20 - RIO – Noll, M. “Rio Olympics 2016 logo by Tatil” [Online] www.thenewsgallery.com/2011/02/rio-olympics-2016-logo-by-tatil.html [Accessed 22/02/13]

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APPENDIX PRIMARY RESEARCH – I LOVE DUST (EMAIL CONTACT) Transcript of conversation between: Ben Theobald-Morgan (bentheobaldmorgan@gmail.com) and I Love Dust (ben@ilovedust.com) starting 12/10/2012.

Dear Ben,

My name is Ben Theobald-Morgan and I am currently studying Graphic Communication with Typography in my third year at Plymouth University. I am starting to collect research for my Dissertation. I was given your email by Sam John Smith and told you would be a great person to talk to, as your company has been involved in creating graphical work for sport. The title of the dissertation is ‘Has graphic design helped or hindered the evolution/growth of sport?’ If you could provide me with an answer and opinion to my question that would be hugely helpful. Also if there were anyone you feel I would benefit from talking to please let me know.

Thank you very much for your time.

Yours Sincerely

Ben Theobald-Morgan

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PRIMARY RESEARCH - BARNEY STOREY (EMAIL CONTACT) Transcript of conversation between: Ben Theobald-Morgan (bentheobaldmorgan@gmail.com), Sarah Storey (sarahstoreybails@talktalk.net) and Richard Barnaby (Barney) Storey (barneystorey@talktalk.net) starting 12/10/2012.

Dear Sarah Storey,

My name is Ben Theobald-Morgan and I am currently studying Graphic Communication with Typography in my third year at Plymouth University. Firstly I would like to congratulate you and your husband on your great achievements in the Paralympic Games this summer. Secondly I am writing to you to ask whether you would be able to give yours and your husband’s opinions on the world of Graphics in sport. This will enable me to gather a perception of Graphics in sport from a sports person and compare this with the opinions and perceptions of a Designer. This will hugely help me in answering my dissertation question 'Has Graphic Design helped or hindered the evolution/growth of sport'. I was passed your email by my mum (Wendy Theobald-Morgan), who sent you a cushion and was lucky enough to see you in action over the summer.

Thank you for your time and good luck to you and your husband with training for your next competitions.

Yours Sincerely

Ben Theobald – Morgan

RECEIVED 02/21/12

Hiya Ben,

Thanks for your email. Please send your questions to me and I will do my very best to answer. Apologies it’s taken a while to reply.

Best wishes Barney Storey RECEIVED 12/21/12

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Thank you Barney for your quick reply.

My main questions are:

Do you feel that Design (in the form of advertising) as helped the growth of certain sports?

Do you feel that the introduction of television has benefitted sport?

Do you feel that televising the Olympic and Paralympic Games has helped promote lesser-known sports? Has this had a positive affect on their participation levels?

Do you think that there are any negative connotations of the combination of Design and sport?

I hope these are ok and not asking too much of you.

Many thanks and a Merry Christmas to you and your family.

Yours Sincerely

Ben Theobald-Morgan

RECEIVED 01/01/2013

Hiya Ben,

I've included my answers directly below your questions. Let me know if you have any further questions.

Cheers Barney

-----Original Message----From: Ben Theobald-Morgan <bentheobaldmorgan@googlemail.com> To: barneystorey@talktalk.net Sent: Fri, 21 Dec 2012 18:01 Subject: Re: Student Inquiry Thank you Barney for your quick reply. My main questions are:

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DO YOU FEEL THAT DESIGN (IN THE FORM OF ADVERTISING) AS HELPED THE GROWTH OF CERTAIN SPORTS?

I think the exposure that sports get on television is the biggest help to growth within certain sports. Channel 4 created a lot of Design work and a huge advertising campaign around the Paralympic Games, which in turn has created Growth within Paralympic Sport. Whether this would have happened due to the success of the Games is not clear, but I think it helped.

DO YOU FEEL THAT THE INTRODUCTION OF TELEVISION HAS BENEFITTED SPORT?

Television has benefitted sport hugely. Television rights and the money put into sport from these rights is huge. Football is probably the biggest beneficiary, however, other sports benefit from exposure and people wanting to emulate what they see on television. Television helps sport develop, with younger enthusiasts able to follow their chosen sport far easier than always going to the venue.

DO YOU FEEL THAT TELEVISING THE OLYMPIC AND PARALYMPIC GAMES HAS HELPED PROMOTE LESSER-KNOWN SPORTS? HAS THIS HAD A POSITIVE AFFECT ON THEIR PARTICIPATION LEVELS?

The lesser known sports seem to receive a boost post Games, however unless the sports are in people's mind between each Olympic/Paralympic Games, the TV coverage might be wasted. It seems the majority of the public need reminders of the lesser-known sports between Games.

DO YOU THINK THAT THERE ARE ANY NEGATIVE CONNOTATIONS OF THE COMBINATION OF DESIGN AND SPORT?

I can't see any negatives really, creativity with Design must surely help sport and it's profile.

I hope these are ok and not asking too much of you.

Many thanks and a Merry Christmas to you and your family.

Yours Sincerely

Ben Theobald-Morgan

RECEIVED 03/01/2013

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Hi Barney,

Thank you for answering all of my questions. All of your answers will be very helpful in the writing of my dissertation. I have some more questions that I would be hugely grateful if you could answer.

WHAT ARE YOUR THOUGHTS ON ADVERTISING IN SPORT IN GENERAL?

HAS ADVERTISING AFFECTED OR CONTRIBUTED TO YOUR PARTICIPATION IN YOUR SPORT?

ARE THERE ANY OBVIOUS ADVANTAGES TO THE INTRODUCTION OF ADVERTISING IN SPORT?

DO YOU FEEL THERE ARE ANY DISADVANTAGES?

WHAT MEDIUM OF ADVERTISING DO YOU FEEL HAS BEEN THE MOST BENEFICIAL TO SPORT? AND WHY?

DO YOU FEEL THAT THE SPORT WOULD BE THE SAME TODAY WITHOUT THE ADDITION OF ADVERTISING?

DOES SPONSOR SHIP ENABLE CERTAIN SPORTS TO UTILIZE A GREATER AMOUNT OF ADVERTISING?

HOW DO YOU FEEL SPONSORSHIP HAS AFFECTED SPORT?

Thank you for all of your help so far and all information and opinions your have given me will be used for educational purposes only. Congratulations to Sarah as well on her recent Dame hood.

Many Thanks again Ben Theobald-Morgan

RECEIVED 03/01/2013

Hiya Ben,

See replies below in text. Sorry it's taken so long.

Hi Barney,

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Thank you for answering all of my questions. All of your answers will be very helpful in the writing of my dissertation. I have some more questions that I would be hugely grateful if you could answer.

WHAT ARE YOUR THOUGHTS ON ADVERTISING IN SPORT IN GENERAL?

Advertising in sport is great if it attracts people to play take part in sport.

HAS ADVERTISING AFFECTED OR CONTRIBUTED TO YOUR PARTICIPATION IN YOUR SPORT?

Probably not, it's a lot different now to when I started. My first bike race was 23 years ago and advertising may now help youngsters needing direction.

ARE THERE ANY OBVIOUS ADVANTAGES TO THE INTRODUCTION OF ADVERTISING IN SPORT?

Yes, as said in previous question, sometimes people are unsure unless provided with information.

DO YOU FEEL THERE ARE ANY DISADVANTAGES?

Not sure really, depends how things are sold, particularly to younger budding sports people. The message should always be positive.

WHAT MEDIUM OF ADVERTISING DO YOU FEEL HAS BEEN THE MOST BENEFICIAL TO SPORT? AND WHY?

Latterly TV, now the Internet is important through websites, as this is where most people look for what they can't find.

DO YOU FEEL THAT THE SPORT WOULD BE THE SAME TODAY WITHOUT THE ADDITION OF ADVERTISING?

Advertising and sport has moved with technology, so technology probably has more of a place of importance, but it really goes hand in hand with advertising too.

DOES SPONSOR SHIP ENABLE CERTAIN SPORTS TO UTILIZE A GREATER AMOUNT OF ADVERTISING?

Yes, money will always allow sports to grow quicker, as they have the funds to advertise, as this is not cheap.

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HOW DO YOU FEEL SPONSORSHIP HAS AFFECTED SPORT?

Sponsorship and money in general has massively affected sport over the last 10 years. Cycling is a very good example of a sport who now benefit from multi millions of pounds and with this success, where as prior to these funds internationally cycling was very average for British competitors.

Thank you for all of your help so far and all information and opinions your have given me will be used for educational purposes only.

Congratulations to Sarah as well on her recent Dame hood.

Many Thanks again

Ben Theobald-Morgan

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PRIMARY RESEARCH â&#x20AC;&#x201C; HOWIES (EMAIL CONTACT) Transcript of conversation between: Ben Theobald-Morgan (bentheobaldmorgan@gmail.com), Howies (info@howies.co.uk/naomi@howies.co.uk) starting 21/12/2012.

Hello Howies team,

My name is Ben Theobald-Morgan and I am a third year Graphic Communication student studying at the University of Plymouth. In our third year we have been given the task of writing a dissertation. Therefore I am writing to ask for a small amount of your time and to ask you as a company and individuals about how you feel about design in sport, if it has influenced sport and whether the use of advertising (digitally and physical) has helped the growth of certain sports and increased participation. Any time you could spare would be hugely helpful and any information provided will be used confidentially and for educational purposes only.

Thank you for your time and a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year to all at Howies

Yours Sincerely

Ben Theobald-Morgan

Received 21/12/2012

Hi Ben,

Thanks for your email.

I have passed your enquiry on. There's a possibility we may not have the manpower at the moment to be able to help, but if we can someone will get back to you.

Merry Christmas and Happy New Year from all at Howies.

Kind regards,

Naomi Sharp Customer Service at Howies

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PRIMARY RESEARCH – ROBERT HEWSON INTERVIEW – 3RD JANUARY 2013 WHAT ARE YOUR THOUGHTS ON ADVERTISING IN SPORT IN GENERAL?

Advertising largely benefits club meetings. It enables clubs to make participants (including riders and officials) aware the meetings and events are taking place.

HAS ADVERTISING AFFECTED OR CONTRIBUTED TO YOUR PARTICIPATION IN MOTOR CROSS?

Hugely, it has made me aware of meetings and events outside of the motor cross community I am not currently part of, and has made it easier for me to create links with companies that I previously would not have known were involved or linked with the sport.

ARE THERE ANY OBVIOUS ADVANTAGES TO THE INTRODUCTION OF ADVERTISING IN SPORT?

Yes, advertising allows for the promotion of sport. It allows the sport to be shown to a greater audience, which in turn, creates increased participation and a greater following.

DO YOU FEEL THERE ARE ANY DISADVANTAGES?

None at all. In the olden days there was little or no need for advertising as the sport had such a large following and information about meets and events were passed around by word of mouth. Also having the events and meetings on at the same time meant that advertising was not needed as the: time, place and event type never changed each month. Now a day this isn’t the case, but with the introduction of TV and radio, this allows for information to be passed around to the supporters and participants a lot quicker than word of mouth.

WHAT MEDIUM OF ADVERTISING HAS BEEN THE MOST BENEFICIAL TO MOTORCYCLE SPORTS? AND WHY?

When advertising was first introduced to the sport flyers seem to be the best way of advertising events and meetings. But due to new laws (part of the current data protection act) the putting out of flyers on windscreens is now prohibited. This method of advertising was made more affective by handing the flyers out in person. The stopping of flyers in certain areas has definitely had an affect on the promotion and general awareness of the sport.

DO YOU FEEL THAT THE SPORT WOULD BE THE SAME TODAY WITHOUT THE ADDITION OF ADVERTISING?

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The growth of the sport hasn't solely been down to advertising. The centre level of the sport is dying but the international circuit is growing. A number of different costs largely factor in to the participation and involvement in the sport. An increased fear of injury has driven up insurance costs meaning that riders are having to fork out a larger than before sum of money just to participate in the sport. This has had an effect on the amount of participants entering in at local level and has seen a decline in participation. Advertising has allowed the sport to become more accessible to the general public and has made the finding of information regarding the sport easier.

HAS ADVERTISING PLAYED A PART IN THE INCREASED FOLLOWING OF THE SPORT?

Not so much, it has made the sport more accessible to the public but hasn't increased much participation.

DO YOU FEEL THAT ADVERTISING HAS INCREASED THE PARTICIPATION OF MOTOR CROSS? OR DO YOU FEEL IT IS PORTRAYED IN A CERTAIN WAY MAKING IT APPEAR A NICHE SPORT?

Participation in the sport on the rise again, but there was a lull before. Word of mouth was used before any other form of advertising. The ‘Evening News’ was used for a short amount of time but not anymore. I don’t think that advertising shows the sport as being niche, if anything it makes anyone who buys a bike think that they can compete in any competition. This isn’t the case, as about 95% tend to drop out after only a few races.

DOES SPONSOR SHIP ENABLE CERTAIN SPORTS TO UTILIZE A GREATER AMOUNT OF ADVERTISING?

The coupling of a decent sponsor and advertising has greatly aided the sport and certain levels of participation, but this is also true for many other sports as well. The sponsors mainly get involved in the sport for tax purposes.

HOW DO YOU FEEL SPONSORSHIP HAS AFFECTED THE SPORT? The top class level of the sport has greatly been affected by sponsorship but the lower levels will benefit from smaller sponsors

DO YOU FEEL SPONSORSHIP HAS HAD A POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE AFFECT ON MOTOR CROSS?

Yes a positive affect on the sport.

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Graphic Design & The Olympic Games