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Ford Go Further


Ford Go Further FROM THEN TO NOW

Benjamin M. Paige III

B P P U B L I S H I N G H O U S E  | W i n c h e s t e r , V a


Ford Go Further Copyright Š2013 by Benjamin M. Paige, III All rights reserved. No part of the material herein may be used or reproduced in any manner whatsoever without written permission from the publisher except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews. For further information, please write: Benjamin M. Paige, III 105 Tey Court Winchester, Virginia USA benjaminpaige03@gmail.com


To my grandmother Elizabeth Opal Washington, my guardian angel.


Contents

01 The Birth of the Car 12 A New Direction 24 The Effect of Change 34 Ford’s First Pony Car 46 Rebuilding Ford vii


Preface Ever since I was a child, I have been interested in cars. Now that I am older and no longer playing with toy cars, my interest in The Ford Motor Company, and the cars they create, became evident. I quickly fell in love with the Ford Mustang, which to this day is still my dream car, and this is what inspired my choice of topic for my book. Many people don’t realize how big of an impact Henry Ford and The Ford Motor Company have made on us. My book discusses not only Ford and its major impact on the automotive industry, but also about how the company deals with bigger issues, such as war, job opportunities, and economical impact. B.M.P Fairfax, Va May, 2013

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01 The Birth of the Car Transportation is a necessity that many people can’t live without. The cowboys use horses and buggies, businessmen use airplanes, and manufacturers use trains to transport their goods. However, the most popular form of transportation that has stuck around for hundreds of years is the automobile. Over 254.4 million people in the United States own an automobile for personal use. Imagine if that statistic included tractor-trailers, work vehicles, buses, or vehicles outside the United States. Although there are several companies who manufacture cars, the company with the longest history and the greatest impact on the automobile industry is Ford Motor Company.

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1903


The Birth of the Car

Ford Motor Company was founded in 1903 (left) . It all began when Henry Ford Sr., the company foun der, and 11 investors signed articles of incorporation for the Ford Motor Company in Mic higan. Even though Ford had the design for the car and how it was to be assembled, he still had to partner up with several other companies to g et things such as, engines, transmissions, axles, and wooden bodies. Ford ’s goal was to assemble 650 automobiles, which was a success, allowing him to produce the cars and sell them. This set up the platform for a new set of orders to suppliers to help Ford modify the car and make a 1904 model. Through these improvements and new developments Ford Motor Company began to quickly excel in the automobile industry. In the meantime, Ford began the process of manufacturing his few models of medium priced automobiles. Due to the economic need for inexpensive cars, Ford created a car that was lightweight, but made out of high-quality parts and materials. Ford felt there was a need to supply the United States with an automobile that was powerful and didn’t require a great deal of mechanical skill to maneuver.

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Ford Motor Company was one of the world’s first American automakers. The company quickly became one of the most well-known profitable companies of its time. Ford was one of the companies to make it through the Great Depression.


Ford Go Further

Many people wanted the Ford Model T not only for its affordability and sturdiness, but for its style. For many years, the Model T came in only one color, black.

Ford Mo d e l T

As Ford continued to build other models within his series of cars, he alloc ated a portion of his Detroit factory for the development of a new kind of automobile, one that would please the market and cha nge the company in its entirety. On October 1, 1908, Ford finally introduced what he was keeping from everyone, The Ford Model T (right) . At the time, there were less than 200,000 Model T ’s on the road. The Model T was really expensive when it first came out, it cost around $825, which is about $18,000 in today’s economy. The automobile had 22 horsepower and an engine made out of heat-treated steel. The car was capable of going as fast as 40 miles per hour and could run on gasoline or hemp-based fuel. The Model T rapidly became one of the most popular autom obiles, not just in the United States, but also in the entire world.

N ew S p ac e f o r As s e m b l y P r o c e s s

At the same time as the release of the Model T, Ford began to move his factory from a rented space to a new space built by the Ford Motor Company, located in Detroit.

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5

1908


Ford Go Further

This was a huge step for Henry. It provided him with adequate space to assemble his automobiles. The building consisted of large open floors which allowed room for proper arrangement of machinery and also incorporated large windows that brought in more efficient lighting for the workers. When it came to the assembly process of the automobiles, it involved several teams of men working at different stations. Each station was responsible for assembling a part or parts of the automobile. Since Ford now had a great deal of space, he then began a new mission. In 1905, Ford ’s goal was to break apart from the many investors and the companies who supplied him with parts. He wanted to gain full control of his company. By doing so, he then created Ford Manufacturing Company and hired a new

group of mechanics that had the skills and ability to move the industry towards the idea of mass production. By January 1, 1910, Ford decided to move the Ford Manufacturing Company to a plant in Highland Park, Michigan. At this location, Ford and his workers created the principles for modern mass production.

Th e As s e m b l y L i n e

One of the most life changing elements that were included in this location was the continuously moving assembly line (right) . The assembly line was introduced in 1913 and drastically changed the assembly time for the Model T from 728 minutes to 93 minutes. By 1920, the plant was turning out cars every minute. The Model T was taking over the world; one out of every two automobiles in the world was a Model T.

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J o b O ppo r t un ities

Due to rapid production, Ford began to raise pay for his workers, offering higher wages than most people were making at the time. The rate at the time for majority of the population was $2.34 per day for nine-hours. Ford began offering $5 per day for eight-hour workdays. Ford also offered 3,000 jobs at the Plant in H ighland Park. The Highland Park Powerhouse was one of the first places to ever hire an African American man. By hiring William Perry, Ford wasn’t just breaking down boundaries within the automotive industry, but he was making life better for people in the economy.

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William Perry, the 61-year-old African American man was a bricklayer. He developed a severe heart condition and could no longer support his family. Perry went to the plant and asked to speak to Henry Ford about a job and ended up succeeding.


1913


1917

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The Birth of the Car

Through the next several years, the Ford industry began to spread and build at different locations across the world. Ford even established a Ford automobile in France and announced the plan to build an assembly plant in Bordeaux.

Fordson

Within the same year, Henry Ford II was born to Eleanor and Edsel Ford, the son of Henry Ford, which then led to Fordson. Fordson was a brand name that was used for mass-produced general purpose tractors that were manufactured by Henry Ford and Son, Incorporated. Fordson was the first mass-produced tractor in the world. Production of the tractor first began in Dearborn, Michigan, and it continued to be just produced throughout North America. Meanwhile, the Ford Model T continued to produce until May 1927. Ford assembled 15,458,781 Model T ’s by the end of production.

First Fo r d Truck

A year later in 1917, Ford introduces the first Ford truck, the Model T T (left) . The Model T T was based off the Model T and was constructed with the same engine as Model T. The Model T T was similar to the Model T, but included additional elements such as windshield wipers, gear changing, and the bed in the back of the truck allowing people and farmers to haul all kinds of things. Many farmers took advantage of the bed and use it to carry po unds of hay to various locations.

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02 A New Direction After major success with the Ford Model T and the other models that followed within that series, Ford began to expand his company and factories to several locations, and began to expand the types of vehicles he produced as well. This expansion created many different divisions within his company. Ford then purchased Lincoln Motor Company in 1922 for $8 million. This led to the development of Ford ’s new vehicle, the Lincoln Zephyr.

Th e Lin col n Z e p h yr

The Lincoln Zephyr, produced in 1936, was a new type of vehicle that many people had never seen before (right) . This car was considered one of the lower priced lines of luxury automobiles.

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1936


Ford Go Further

1939


A New Direction

The Lincoln Zephyr was a mix between Ford ’s V8 De Luxe automobile line and Lincoln’s K series o f automobiles. Ford purposely did this to help with the merge of both companies and to bridge the gap between the two types of cars. There was only one issue between the two types of cars, the Fords and the Lincolns. Ford ’s were extremely economical and Lincoln’s were extremely luxur ious and there was nothing in between the two. To fix this issue, Ford decided to create another division under Ford Motor Company and name it Mercury. This gave people more of a variety of vehicles to choose from and also targeted a different market of buyers.

E n try - lev el lu xury

Mercury was considered to be an entry-level luxury automobile, which was placed in between Ford models and Lincoln’s luxury vehicles. In 1939, the first car that was created under Mercury was the Mercury 8 (left) . Production began in 1938, and within the first year of being on the market, 65,800 were sold. With this model, unlike most of Fords automobiles, it was a new car completely. The Mercury 8 didn’t share any body parts with either Ford or Lincoln vehicles.

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Roman Mythology had a major influence on the name “Mercury.” Mercury was considered to be the messenger of the gods.


Ford Go Further

After about a year went by the next car that was introduced was the Lincoln Continental. The Lincoln Continental was the name for the series of automobiles that were manufa ctured by the Lincoln division of the Ford Motor Company. This was also considered a luxury car and targeted more of an upper-class audience. The full-sized Lincoln Continental was a distinctively platform and styled car. It was also highly- equipped, making it stand out fro m the other cars being created at the time.

W o r ld W ar II

Around the same time as the release of the Lincoln Continental, World War II abr uptly began causing Ford Motor Company to take a new direction and focus on a bigger issue. Starting in 1941, Ford began to put his focus on something a little different. He

began to not only focus on the everyday civilian, but he began to direct his focus towards the military. The United States Department of War needed a lighter vehicle that would be able to travel long distances and over rough terrain. The Ford Motor Company took on that challenge.

Ge n e r al - P u r p o s e J e e p s

Ford began to produce general-purpose jeeps for the United States Military. Production of these off-road jeeps began in 1942. Ford Motor Company teamed up with Wally’s-Overland Motors, an automobile company that is well known for its production of military Jeeps.The two companies together created two military off-road vehicles, the Ford GPW and the Willy’s MB (right) .

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1942


1942


A New Direction

The two had little differences; the Ford GPW was customized with the letter “F” on some parts, which quickly stopped due to the budget. The Jeeps that Ford created were used by every service within the United States Military. The Jeeps were given to every Army infantry regiment. The Model GPW was capable of so many different tasks such as; saw milling, serving as field ambulances and tractors, riding on rough terrain and railr oads, cable-laying, and many of them were able to go into seawater. By the end of World War II, there were 640,000 Jeeps manufactured. The Model GPW wasn’t the only thin g that Ford Motor Company helped contribute to World War II; the company did the last thing that many woul d have expected them to do.

B - 2 4 Liber a t or Bombers

In 1942, Ford Motor Company completely shut down civilian car manufacturing, and strongly focused on the production of resources to the Allied war efforts (left) . Edsel Ford and Charles Sorensen, both sons of Henry Ford, accomplished this operation.

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The Model GPW became so popular that it started to become imitated all over the world. After the war, Jeeps became available on the surplus market.


Ford Go Further


A New Direction

They began producing B-24 Liberator bombers, M-4 tanks, parts, engines, and several other pieces of equipment for war effort. The most significant item out of everything was the B-24 Liberator bombers (left) . Ford Motor Company mass-produced and assembled more than a million plane parts. They were producing 540 engine planes per month, which means that a plane was being manufactured eve ry 59.34 minutes. By 1945, the last B-24 Liberator bomber was built at Willow Run Plant, making it a to tal of 8,600 B-24 Liberator bombers that were built.

P o st Wo r ld W ar I I

After the duty of making the B-24 Liberator bombers and catering to the military’s needs, the Ford Motor Company was free to continue with normal production of the civilian automobile. Ford Motor Company’s Lincoln–Mercury divisions became established regardless of the sudden halt of the automobile production. Since World War II had finally come to an end, Mercury began to continue the production of the 1942 model cars. By the end of 1945, Mercury had produced 2,848 automobiles, ending the year on a positive note for Ford Motor Company.

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$2 million dollars was invested by the United States Air Force to help towards the cost of facilities and equipment needed to build the B-24 Liberator bombers.


03 The Effect of Change In 1945 and the next years to come, Ford Motor Company experienced a lot of changes. Edsel Ford ’s son, Henry Ford II was named the new president of the company. In 1946, Ernest Breech was named the vice president of the company.

Death of He n r y Fo r d

The next major change happened in 1947, when Henry Ford died at the age of 83 (right) . The death didn’t just have a major impact on the Ford Motor Company, but it had an extreme impact on Americans. About seven million Americans mourned his death.After Henry Ford ’s death, Henry Ford II quickly became the chairman of the Ford Motor Company.

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1947


Ford Go Further

Th e Stati o n Wago n

Regardless of all of the changes in the Ford Motor Company, they still managed to stay on top and still created and introduced new automobiles for people to enjoy.

The next car that was released about a year later was the Station Wagon. Many people referred to it as the ‘ Woody,’ simply because of the body style of the car. The Station Wagon was unlike most of the automobiles that Ford had created because of the appearance. The wagon consisted of slab-sides that were made out of plywood, often trimmed in maple or birch. The construction of this vehicle didn’t just possess a complex wood shape, but it also drastically cut down the price of production, and it reduced the amount of waste.

F- 1 Tr uck

In 1947, the same year as Henry Ford ’s death, the Ford Motor Company released a new type of vehicle (right) . The F-1 truck was introduced to the world. The F-1 was one of the first cars to be released after World War II. With the F-1, the buyer could choose between three different types of engines, which all consisted of much more power than the previous models of the Ford truck. Another element that this truck had unlike the others was the fact that it had better fuel economy, which grabbed people’s attention.

Fi r s t P e n s i o n P l an

By the 1950’s, Ford wanted to improve the benefits that they offered to their employees.

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1947


Ford Go Further

The Ford Thunderbird was created in order to compete with other cars on the market. The main reason it was created was to compete with the first-generation Corvette.

So Ford Motor Company provided the automotive industries first pension plan to their hourly employees. Ford offered their employees the maximum monthly benefits, including social security. The benefit was $100 a month for a worker who retired in 1950 after giving Ford 30 years of service. The plan ended up paying out $1 million to 1,800 retirees.

Time Fo r I m p r o ve m e n ts

For the next couple of years Ford continued to improve their products and different models. So many great things were taking place for the company. Ford was excelling in every category, but they hadn’t released a new model for the past five years, so the company was past due. In 19 54, Ford Motor Company introduced the Thunderbird as a personal luxury car with a V8 engine (right) . When Ford created this car they also created a new class of car, the ‘personal luxury car,’ making the Thunderbird the first in its class. This automobile was shiny and fashionable. The vehicle featured a 2-door design. However, at the same time it still offered comfort. Exceeding everyone’s expectations, the Thunderbird became popular and the sales grew very quickly.

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1954


1957


Ford Go Further

Ford Motors goal with the Continental Mark II was to create the most luxurious American automobile. The car quickly gained a good reputation due to its timeless look.

Besides the Thunderbird, another car that joined the personal luxury class of cars was the new Continental Mark II (above) . This car was created to compete with car companies such as General Motors’ Cadillac and Chrysler. The Continental Mark II was considered one of the most luxurious and elegant American cars available. This vehicle was especially popular to many rich and famous people. Ford wasn’t just creating vehicles for the middle class, but the company was reaching even further and catering to the needs of the rich and famous.

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The Effect of Change

Over the next couple of years Ford quickly became the top-selling brand. By 1957, Ford ended up producing and selling 1.68 million automobiles. Two years later, Ford Motor Company accomplished the goal of building its fifty-millionth vehicle.

Then within the same year, the Ford Econoline series was introduced, which included the van, station wagon bus, and pickup truck. Most of the Ford Econoline series were often sold to commercial or fleet-end users. Most of the vehicles in the Econoline series were used to transport important cargo. The next car that was produced was the Ford Fairlane. The Fairlane’s new design and look moved away from the vertical tailfins that most second-generation cars had, and leaned more towards a more space-age design. By 1962, the Ford Motor Company had produced thirty million V8 engines and by a year later, the company produced their sixty-millionth vehicle. The Ford Motor Company was manufacturing its cars by the thousands.

Fo rd Mo t or’s C redit C ompan y

By this time, Ford Motor Company was able to offer financing to their customers. The Ford Motor Credit Company was created. This company was created to provide automotive financing, which is something that many other car companies were doing at the time .

T he Appr oach of th e S ixties

When the 60s approached, the Ford Motor Company introduced a range of different types of cars. Within the first year, Ford introduced the Ford Galaxie and the Ford Falcon.

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04 Ford’s First Pony Car Ford Motor Company made automobiles an important part of a person’s everyday life. Without even trying to, Ford created so much social impact when it came to the different cars they had created. Ford impacted the way we travel, live, socialize, and so much more.

Firs t Ford M us tan g

In 1964, Ford Motor Company impacted the world once again, by adding speed to the equation. The first Mustang was introduced, which gave everyone what they were looking for, and that was speed (right) . Several of Ford ’s cars were pretty fast, but once the Mustang was produced, it brought speed to a different level.

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1964


Ford Go Further

The Ford GT40 was also introduced at the same time, but didn’t get the amount of attention that the Mustang got. When the Mustang was revealed, Ford Motor Company once again created a whole new class of cars referred to as the ‘ Pony Car.’ Ford did not expect the Mustang to sell like it did. Ford Motor Company sold 22,000 Mustangs on the first day, which was good because they only expected to sell 100,000 by the end of the year. Ford Motor Company hadn’t had a car sell like that in quite a while.

It didn’t take long for the Mustang to become more than just a pace car on the racetrack. In the same year, the Ford Mustang achieved one out of many successes, and that was winning first and second in class in the Tour de France international rallies. Also in 1964, the Mustang made its appearance in drag racing. Within the first 12 months of the Mustang being on the market, the number of Mustangs sold increased dramatically to 417,000, and within two years, it reached one million.

Appear a nce on th e Track

Go l d f i n ge r

The Mustang was relatively small, light, and often considered very powerful. The Ford Mustang was featured on a racetrack for the first time as one of the pacer cars for the Indianapolis 500 (right) .

The Mustang became so incredibly popular. The Pony didn’t only impress the every day people, but it even made its way to the big screen appearing in hundreds of notable films.

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Ford Go Further

The Ford Pinto wasn’t fancy at all. The Pinto didn’t cost more than $2,000 and it didn’t weigh over 2,000 pounds.

Goldfinger, produced in 1964, was the first movie the Mustang appeared in. By the end of 1966, Ford Motor Company had built their on e-millionth Mustang, which was achieved in less than two years since production began. The Ford Mustang wasn’t only dominating the car scene, but was overtaking anything and everything.

Ford P i n to

The 70s were right around the corner and Ford hadn’t introduced a car since the major success of the first pony car, the Ford Mustang. Ford Motor Company was due for a new kind of car that could be put in the same class as the Mustang. The company then introduced the Ford Pinto (right) . The Pinto was considered to also be one of Ford ’s Pony cars. The main reason why the Pinto was created was to provide sensible comfort and acceptable performance for the freeways, while at the same time being economical to buy and maintain. The Pinto, just like the Mustang, was a market success. The only difference was the Pinto had a lot of bad publicity in which the Mustang didn’t have. The Pinto was often known for catching on fire if it was to be hit in its rear, which gave it a bad reputation for safety.

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1970


1973

Ford Go Further


Ford’s First Pony Car

Must a ng II

Since the Mustang was such a big hit, in 1973, Ford Motor Company introduced the Ford Mustang II. The second generation of the Mustang didn’t have anything in common with the first generation Mustang. The Mustang II shared the same exact platform as the Ford Pinto (left) . At this time many buyers were interested in lower- priced and more fuel-efficient cars. They also had to trim down the size of the Mustang II. Ford took all of these changes into consideration because of the oil crisis.

O i l Crisis

The oil crisis ha d a major impact on the Ford Mustang and all of the other muscle cars in 1973. The oil crisis affected the global economy in an unpleasant way. However, the automobile industry was hit the hardest. Many Americans could no longer afford to buy cars that required a lot o f fuel, or cars that would guzzle down gas quickly. Due to the oil crisis, gas prices increased by over two hundred percent. This didn’t only affected the Mustang, but it affect the GTO, Chevelle, and several other muscle cars.

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The Mustang II was created to compete against subcompact General Motor automobiles. This included GM’s Buick Skyhawk, Oldsmobile Starfire, and Chevrolet Monza.


Ford Go Further


Ford’s First Pony Car

Th e L i n c o l n To wn Car

The oil crisis caused all of the automobile industry to change the way they were working and manufacturing cars. FordMotor Company was trying to find a way to squeeze the maximum mileage out of each drop of gasoline, and the answer to the problem was to build cars smaller and lighter. This was accomplished by creating cars out of plastic and aluminum body panels and Ford also managed to figure out a way to have electronically controlled fuel injections, which also helped reduce fuel consumption (left) . Even though the crisis had a ma jor impact on everything, many automobile companies made significant changes, which in return made their products much better and more efficient. The Ford Motor Company managed to be consistent with their products over the next eight years.

By 1981, Ford Motor Company released the Lincoln Town Car which was considered to be one of their, ‘ Traditional American Luxury Sedans.’ The Lincoln Town Car was often converted into a stretched limousine version and also used as a chauffeured vehicle.

Ford Escort

During the same year the Ford Escort was presented. The Ford Escort was such a progressive car for America because it was the first front wheel drive vehicle to ever be built in the United States. The Es cort was also known for replacing the Ford Pinto.

F o r d Taur us

Three years later in 1984, the Ford Motor Company also introduces the Ford Taurus, which was revolutionary for the company.

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1987


Ford’s First Pony Car

The Taurus was produced with aero-designed styling making the car more fuel efficient, allowing For d Motor Company to meet their requirements set by the Corporate Average Fuel Economy.

H e n r y Fo r d II Dies

Between 1986 and 1987, Ford Motor Company’s earnings managed to surpass those of General Motors for the first time eve r, which was a major accomplishment for the company. Within 1987, Henry Ford II passes away, but this doesn’t stop the Ford Motor Company from taking over the car industry.

G r ow t h w it hin Ford Motors

During 1987, Ford Motors managed to buy Aston Martin Lagonda (left) and shares of Hertz Rent-a-Car, the largest car rental company. Ford Motors doesn’t stop there; three years later, they bought Jaguar. Slowly but surely, the Ford Motor Co mpany took over the automobile industry. No company could compete with what they had to offer.

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Aston Martin Lagonda is a British Manufacturer. They are often known for their luxury sports cars.


05 Rebuilding Ford Even though Ford Motor Company was having so much success, the company quickly made a devastating downfall. In 1991, Ford Motor Company had its largest one-year loss ever, loosing $2.3 billion.

Ford Expl o r e r

Within the same year, despite the negativity, Ford still managed to introduce the Ford Explorer (right) . The Explorer made the rural and recreational sports utility vehicle into a popular family vehicle, which offered something new for customers to buy. The Ford Explorer could be used to help transport families from location to location, or to help transport tools and other construction materials.

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1991


Ford Go Further

T he Pur ch as e of Mazda

bi-fuel vehicles, which could accept up to two different types of fuel. Bi-fuel vehicles have the capability to switch back and forth between gasoline and diesel, making it more convenient for customers.

By 1992, Ford Motor Company talked to Mazda’s Motor Manufacturing and ended up buying half of Mazda’s Motor Company. In 1994, Ford began to expand their locations and began to set up the first Ford assembly in India. That same year, Ford Motor Company bought the remaining shares of Hertz Rent-a-Car and became the sole owner. In 1996, Ford Motor Company’s new goal was to focus on globalization. Ford wanted to develop a new family car that woul d fit within the global needs at the time. Even in 1998, Ford Motor Company still wanted to keep the environment in mind. Ford rallied with Ballard and Daimler-Benz automotive groups to develop full-cell technology. At the beginning of 2000, Ford Motor Company produced roughly 15,000

H yb r i d SUV

After creating bi-fuel, Ford managed to purchase Land Rover from BMW. Then by 2005, Ford Motor Company decided to create gas-electric hybrid sports utility vehicles (right) . The cost for vehicles that were gas only was roughly $4,000 more than the gaselectric vehicles.

Fo r d ’s D o wn f al l

During 2005, Ford Motor Company hit a major down fall. Ford ended up losing their market share for the tenth year in a row.

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2005


Ford Go Further

2013


Rebuilding Ford

Ford also managed to lose its place as America’s Best Selling Brand to General Motor’s Chevrolet. Ford Motor Company sold around 2.9 million vehicles in 2005 for a 17.4 percent market sha re, which was down from a market share of 18.3 percent in 2004 and of 24 percent in 1990.

J o b Lo ss

Due to the major down fall of the company and economic recession, in 20 06, Ford announced a plan to cut up to 30,000 jobs and idle plants by the year 2012. By 2012, Ford did exactly what they planned to do, causing thousands of people to by left without jobs. Between the six years from 2006 to 2012, Ford managed to get back on their feet and managed to accomplish this task without a government bailout, unlike many other motor companies.

F o rd No w

Currently in 2013, Ford Motor Company is considered to be a company with a bright future ahead of them (left) . Even though Ford has managed to get out of the financial crisis, the company is still shadowed by the amount of debt they still have.

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Ford Motor Company lost $1.6 billion during the recession and had to shut down 14 facilities.


Ford Go Further


Rebuilding Ford

Ford completely rebuilt themselves and their focus (left) . Ford plans to deliver vehicles with enhanced technology, fuel economy, and safety. Ford is offering things such as active park assist, adaptive cruise control, and blind spot warnings, not just in the luxury ca rs, but also all the way down to the car with the lowest value. Ford Motor Company is known as an Americans Icon. Ford has given so much to not only America, but to different regions all over the world. It might take Ford a couple years to get back to the top of the automobile industry. However, as long as they continue to push and be original, like they were when they first began, then Ford won’t have any problems ‘Going Further.’

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In 2009, Ford began to experiment with power and fuel-economy, which brought about EcoBoost engines. Also in 2011, the company started a new approach with inflatable seatbelts. Now, Ford is currently making their promise official.


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This single volume was designed and hand bound by Benjamin M. Paige III. The text is set in 10 pt Kozuka Gothic Pro. The Kozuka Gothic typeface family consists of six different weights that covers various uses ranging from body text composition to headlines. Kozuka Gothic is Adobe’s second original Japanese typeface family following Kozuka Mincho. Printed on a digital press in the Spring of 2013 Designed and bound at George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia



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