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LANDSCAPE DESIGN PORTFOLIO Benjamin Fairbank 129 WHITE HORSE ROAD - WHITE HORSE BEACH, MA 02381 (203) 415-2220 - fairbank.b@gmail.com


CONTENTS 1. Cultural Landscape Design 1 2. Trail Design 2 3. Barrier-Free Access 3 4. Wetlands Protection 4 5. Watershed Remediation 6

Excerpted from: 1. Steele Farm Management Plan for the Town of Boxborough, MA 2. Bates/Mitchell Site Master Plan in Montague, MA 3. A Neighborhood Strategy for Improving the Lower Mill Pond Watershed, for the City of Easthampton, MA

Benjamin Fairbank, M.S., Ecological Design, The Conway School Specializing in Land Restoration & Conservation


1

CULTURAL LANDSCAPE DESIGN Stormwater Stormwater Management at Steele Farm in Boxborough, Boxborough, Massachusetts Massachusetts Survey was conducted with total station survey instruments, interpolated on AutoCAD, hand-drawn, and superimposed onto other scaled data to produce Existing Conditions, Analyses, and Designs for the Steele Farm Management Plan. This was primarily useful for topographic information that led to an understanding of drainage conditions (below).

1 Driveway & Parking Design. A gravel driveway with a 3” crown and 6” deep

SURVEY SLOPE ANALYSIS STORMWATER SOLUTIONS

2 Regraded Trail Entrance Design. The hillside south of the parking lot is filled to

swales send runoff away from the drive and parking lot. Asphalt is removed, the surface regraded, and the new driveway maintained over time. To the east, an infiltration basin absorbs stormwater before it runs into the parking lot. To the west, water is sent to a runnel along the edge of the parking lot before it runs downslope. create a 10% slope with 6”-deep swales and a 3” crown to control the erosion and to acommodate barrier-free access. A more gradual slope eases access to the multipurpose space and controls erosion in the long run.

A

Slopes & Drainage Analysis Analysis of topographic and other data identified the areas most heavily eroded at Steele Farm: South of the driveway and Middle Road (darkest areas are slopes >15%). With a high frequency of human activity occurring directly around these slopes, natural resources are subject to possible contamination and/or erosion. This informed grading plans and design specifications to create a comprehensive entrance area design detail (see right).

MID INFILTRATION BASIN

HOU

SE

Main Connecting Trail Spur Trail Steele Farm Trail Wetlands Stream Drainage Direction Protective Buffer Zone

BAR

N

MULTIPURPOSE SPACE

ICE HOUSE

OA

D

1 PARK ING

OA

D

Legend water flow

2

tree path

INFILTRATION BASIN

Al

ING

Roads

BARN

ER

N

PAR K

Legend POND

BENCHES

MID DLE R

INFILTRATION BASIN

DL

Slope <2% 2-5% 5-10% 10-15% >15%

N

erosion A

Private Residences

Road

Interp. Multi-Purpose Space Overlook & New Trail Trail

Al

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Design Detail

Design Process


2

TRAIL DESIGN Stormwater Solutions for Sustainable Trails (Steele Farm) Design Process Two perspective renderings and grading plans illustrate design specification for these two alternatives. Both alternatives propose re-grading slopes to 10% or less (barrier-free access), limiting access to pedestrians (except for handicapped, truck and event access from the northeast field), and sustainable slope stabilization methods.

Steps Alternative: Grading & Design Specs

Water Bars Alternative: Grading & Design Specs

Six steps slow stormwater along the trail from the parking area. The trail in this design hugs the existing hillside to the west at a 10% slope and has one dam every 10 feet.

Four water bars divert water away from the trail, preventing erosion or gullying. The trail in this alternative runs down the hill from the parking area at a 10% slope with one water bar every 20 feet. For proper drainage, water bars will need to be regularly cleared of debris (see Maintenance Specification).

Perspective:

BARN

PARKING

TT

N

FOO

RF

LO

W

infiltration basin

W AT E

PARKING

BARN

PARKING

N

Maintenance Specification:

infiltration basin

infiltration basin

Grade After Clearing out Water Bar Grade Before Clearing out Water Bar

AFFIC

TR FOOT

Maintenance Specification:

infiltration basin

Swales on either side of steps will have to be maintained to prevent erosion: 6 inches deep to be cleared annually.

FLOW

W

BARN

C

FI RAF

ER WAT

LO

E AT W

PARKING

RF

OW

L RF

This re-grading requires some cutting along the west of the trail and will require extensive fill to the east. A gentler slope eases access and slows drainage, ensuring that the water bars will perform well and last long.

BARN

TE WA

This re-grading requires the least amount of cut but will require extensive fill to the east of the trail. This alternative works with existing drainage patterns and makes the trail more pedestrian friendly and easy to maintain.

Perspective:

Benjamin Fairbank - Design Portfolio

Designs respond to areas of high foot traffic next to heavy erosion as described on Page 1. This ultimately informed two re-grading alternatives (below). The trail had to have a slope of no more than 10% over the course of 70 feet, with no barriers, and with proper trail and slope stabilization methods (i.e., swale and infiltration basins). It is possible to incorporate either alternative with the designs on page 1.


3

BARRIER-FREE ACCESS Universally Accessible & Inviting Spaces (Steele Farm)

MULTIPURPOSE SPACE

Universal accessibility is possible for this space. The conceptual axonometric diagram (below) displays a barrier-free switchback trail at a slope of 5% or less. Another more direct path with steps intersects this switchback trail at intermittent landings, outsloped at no more than 2%. In between the trails, 1-foot-deep retaining walls retain the moisture and erosion at every contour and provide an opportunity for terraced gardens to beautify the area. Water is channeled via a swale to a infiltration basin to the southeast. With the right site engineering, this trail can be visually appealing while also providing A.D.A. access and erosion control.

BARN

MULTI-PURPOSE SPACE

PARKING

A.D.A. PATH

TERRACE

D GARDE

N

TERRACED GARDENS

INFILTRATION BASIN

NS This conceptual grading plan shows how a switchback trail, three feet wide and with a 5% longitudinal slope fits between the parking area and multi-purpose space. This complies with A.D.A. regulations.

INFILTRATION BASIN This concepual axonometric diagram re-visions how space is used wih a new A.D.A.-compliant path.

Benjamin Fairbank - Design Portfolio

Design Detail

ING

BARN

PAR K

Universal accessibility to public gathering spaces is required if the town restricts vehicular access and formally introduces public educational activities to a multi-purpose space. Universal accessibility calls for a trail at least 3 feet wide and a slope of no more than 5%. If the town decides to install an A.D.A.compliant path here, the necessary grading is shown to the right. There are some drawbacks to this. First, it would be regulated under the propertyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Conservation Restriction, which restricts regrading on site and would require a variance from the appropriate governing body. Furthermore, these features may restrict some current patterns of circulation in this space such as horse-back riding, tractors and mowers, or overflow parking. The town may apply for a variance of A.D.A. regulations so as to accommodate the current access and circulation.

.A. P ATH

Grading Plan

A.D

Design Process


4

WETLANDS PROTECTION Slope & Soil Data Collection at Montague, MA Private Residence 1

m

2

mowed lawn

3

house 4

BARN, HOUSE, & LAWN

overflow ditch

HOUSE ENTRANCE WOODS

wetland

vernal pool KEY PLAN

5

l

A

In sharp contrast to the highly managed driveway entrance and lawn area, a winding forest edge runs from north to south. The property has 4 acres of forest that extends westerly until it reaches a large meadow owned by the neighbor.

5

WETLANDS

r

uffe

’b 100 isolated

Nestled up a steep slope and behind a hedge of hemlock trees, the front entrance is hidden and therefore seldom used as an entrance.

4

A

gravel drive

The barn and house frame the north-facing slope of the back lawn, which provides an experience of transition between the rectilinear architecture of the house and the rugged, wooded and hilly terrain of Taylor Hill.

3

oad

rea

barn

PROPERTY ENTRANCE A gravel drive marks the entrance of the property from Taylor Hill Road. The flat and relatively open courtyard feeling at the entrance contrasts with the heavily sloped and wooded drive up the road from the center of town.

2

outflow from ditch

Hill R

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1

rm inte

ffer

Bu 00'

r Taylo

'B 100

Existing Conditions 1

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Conservation of natural resources were a major consideration for the Bates/Mitchell Site Master Plan. This focus area is two-thirds within the 100-foot wetland buffer zone, is located within the NHESP protected zone, and has many steeps slopes. The Existing Conditions Plan here displays these features within this focus area. Data was collected from transit measurements on total station, interpolated on AutoCAD, hand-drawn, and superimposed onto other scaled data to produce Existing Conditions, Analyses, and Designs using Photoshop.

Benjamin Fairbank - Design Portfolio

Design Process

0

PROPERTY BOUNDARY LINES

10’

20’

40’

80’

FOCUS AREA

- Much of the property lies within the 100’ buffer of the intermittent stream to the west and of an isolated wetland to the south. - This isolated wetland fills up with water during the winter and early spring. An overflow ditch to the south directs water northward through a culvert under the house and barn, and daylights by the northern tree line. This water eventually flows into the intermittent stream, which is also fed by a vernal pool south of the property. - The marbled salamander and spring peeper are among some of the wetland wildlife Johanna, Colin and Emlun have seen on their property.

A

l

forest

stream

lawn

house

isolated wetland

Taylor Hill Road

A


5

WETLANDS PROTECTION Invasive Species Removal, Re-Vegetation, & Erosion Control (Montague, MA) Planting Plan

Invasive species removal and selective clearing of trees that are within the 100-foot wetland buffer zone and have slopes greater than 25% require a conservation mitigation plan as to protect the nearby intermittent stream. The client also wanted this area to have a wilderness look to it. A planting plan (right) reflects these criteria by exploring solutions in erosion control, restoration of native habitat, as well as long-term maintenance.

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Cp

BARN

Cp

Cp Cp

A

Bn

2

l

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A 3

Forest

6

5

5

6

More native perennial plants line the edge of the forest into a hedge that connects to the sugar maples, providing a feeling of refuge and privacy with the dense forest as a backdrop. The river birch frame an access point into the forest. A series of check steps allow for easy passage that runs by the existing patch of hay-scented fern and various other native perennial plants. Before crossing the stream on a footbridge, the trail opens to an area that can be viewed from the back deck, which might stimulate interaction between both points through this resource-rich ecotone. A rich and diverse forest edge becomes the setting of a quiet and secluded refuge for lounging on the back deck in the summertime and in the 4-season room in the winter time.

4-Season Room

Bn Lawn Ac

Vd 4

4

HOUSE

DECK

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Two river birch trees flank what will become a trailhead (removal of invasive plant species will render this area off limits to foot traffic for at least two growing seasons in order to preserve the erosion control blankets). These trees also provide afternoon summer shade for the back deck and 4-season room. When their leaves fall, plenty of sun will filter through their thin branches, providing passive solar heating in winter months.

Cp

AI

3

Cp

m ent strea

Native perennial plants cluster around the sunniest spot of the forest edge. Birds and butterflies are attracted to their fruits and nectar, particularly under the cover of the forest edge.

Cp

1

Intermitt

2

Cp

TR

With the removal of 6 white pines along the forest edge, there is now full sun year round that is reaching the south-facing roof of the barn. After tree removal, another assessment from the solar panel installer will determine when to install the panels.

ELS

Cp Ac

1

R PAN

Vd

Vd

Ac

Design Details

SOLA

Vd

Code Common Name Botanical Name Characteristics Height Spacing Needs Vd

Arrowwood viburnum

Viburnum den- pollinating tatum shrub

60”180”

60”144”

Rh

Black-eyed Susan

pollinating Rudbeckia hirta flower

18”36”

24”-30” full sun

Cp

Sweet Fern

Comptonia peregrina

groundcover

24”48”

48”120”

Cp

Pennsylvania Sedge

Carex pensylvanica

rhyzomial tuft 6”-12” 12”-36” sun

Indian Grass

Sorghastrum nutans

36”pollinating grass 72”

Sn Bn Ac

partial sun

sun

12”-18” sun

300”- 300”600” 420”

sun sun

River Birch

Betula nigra

tree

Serviceberry

Amelanchier canadensis

120”- 180”pollinating tree 300” 300”

INTERMITTENT STREAM

COCONUT ECB, LAWN RE-VEGETATION & TRAIL

CONCEPTUAL SECTION DIAGRAM - NOT TO SCALE

DECK

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Design Process


WATERSHED REMEDIATION Catchment, Outfall, & Soil Analysis at Lower Mill Pond in Easthampton, MA Soil Analysis

Benjamin Fairbank - Design Portfolio

Catchment & Outfall Analysis

6

Priority A: catchments with Priority B: catchments with discharge to pond discharge to wetlands Catchment

Acres of DCIA

Catchment

Acres of DCIA

A1

32.5

B1

7-8

A2

20.5

B2

5-7

A3

12.5

B3

4-5

A4

10-11

B4

3-4

A5

7-9

B5

<2

Category A catchments present the greatest threat to Lower Mill Pond water quality. Category B catchments present the second greatest threat. Within these categories, the catchments are prioritized 1 to 5 based on their acreage of directly connected impervious area. Category C and D catchments are not connected to the storm sewer system.

Good Infiltration Capacity Many catchments south of Lower Mill Pond and west of Brickyard Brook have soils with excessively well drained soils, >80â&#x20AC;? to groundwater, and thus a fast infiltration capacity. Opportunities exist here to intercept the stormwater and infiltrate it in small, decentralized stormwater management systems before it reaches the pond or wetlands.

area. Solutions to reduce runoff here will involve holding water in place and infiltrating it as slowly as possible.

Variable Infiltration Capacity Moderately drained soils require stormwater systems to be sized to accommodate greater volumes of water in order to maintain the proper rate of infiltration. Because the groundwater is shallow (18-42 inches), it is risky to encourage infiltration as it might flood the

Low Infiltration Capacity Poorly drained soils and very shallow (0-18 inches) groundwater around Brickyard Brook represent the lowest infiltration capacity and lie away from the sewer system. This area is where storm sewer outfall pipes discharge stormwater along Plum and Brickyard

Medium Infiltration Capacity Moderately drained soils and shallow depth to groundwater require adequate sizing that retain larger volumes of water over a longer period of time to promote infiltration.


7

WATERSHED REMEDIATION Stormwater Solutions Based on Watershed Conditions (Easthampton, MA) BEFORE

Residence with Fast-Infiltrating Soils BEFORE

40% permeable surface

Road

82% permeable surface

0% tree cover

<1% tree cover

Catch basin

Driveway

Lawn

Catch basin

Lawn

WATER FLOW

AFTER

WATER FLOW

82% permeable surface 28% tree cover, rain gardens additional

AFTER 47% permeable surface 33% tree cover

Layer vegetation for best infiltration. Trees, shrubs, perennials, then ground cover. Shrubs slow and filter runoff before it

Road Driveway

flows off the site.

Rain gardens intercept, filter and infiltrate runoff before it can get to the street and storm drain.

Rain barrels capture rooftop runoff that can then be used to water lawns or gardens.

Trees between the driveways absorb stormwater.

Overflow connection to street or catch basin

N

Rain barrels capture rooftop runoff from gutters and downspouts that can then be used to water lawns or gardens. Add trees and shrubs to soak up stormwater

Replace asphalt driveway with permeable pavement to provide groundwater recharge.

Overflow connection to street A runnel, which is a narrow channel, directs driveway runoff to trees planted along driveway.

RAIN BARREL

N

RAIN BARREL

Catch basin

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Residence with Slow-Infiltrating Soils


8

WATERSHED REMEDIATION Stormwater Solutions Based on Land Use & Zoning (Easthampton, MA) Commercial Space Improvements

Neighborhood Solutions BEFORE

28% permeable surface

4% tree cover

Road

<4% tree cover

WATER FLOW

Asphalt parking lot

Catch basin

Two-way road Catch basin

WATER FLOW

Trees: • Protect water quality

AFTER 67% tree cover

AFTER

• Improve air quality

50% permeable surface

43% permeable surface

• Help save energy

28% tree/shrub cover

• Increase property values

New trees

• Reduce carbon dioxide

Catch basin

Wet-tolerant plants in depressed bed filter runoff.

Wet swale uses watertolerant plants to filter runoff before draining to storm sewer.

Tree bump-outs must be designed and engineered for healthy trees and to manage stormwater. Inlets and outlets are needed for stormwater to filter through. Engineered soils can alleviate compaction and allow roots to grow (EPA Stormwater to Street Trees).

Two-way road with parking becomes a one-way road with parking to allow room for tree bumpouts.

A green roof retains rain that is then transpired into the air by the plants, reducing runoff and heat island effects.

Lawn is replaced with shrubs, trees, and groundcovers to help infiltrate the rain.

One-way road

N

Road

Lawn

Lawn

Catch basin

N

Reduced parking space depth makes room for a recessed tree planter

Flow-through planter filters and absorbs stormwater then drains into the storm sewer.

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BEFORE

43% permeable surface

Profile for Benjamin Fairbank

Ben Fairbank's Ecological Design Portfolio  

Site Design, Trail Design, Wetlands Protection, & Watershed Remediation

Ben Fairbank's Ecological Design Portfolio  

Site Design, Trail Design, Wetlands Protection, & Watershed Remediation

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