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A AYHAWK ABROAD THE OBSERVATIONS OF MY JOURNEY, RESEARCH AND WORK IN PARIS

BENJAMIN COMPTON

5th yr MArch University of Kansas


O B S E R V AT I O N S

MY

EXPERIENCES

FOREWORD

PART ONE : researching the profession general us requirements working in the us working in france competition system

ajn firm description project description the competition team

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8 9 10-11 12-13

PART TWO : working in paris jean nouvel profile

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14-21

16-17 18-19 20 21

PART THREE : my internship experience 22-39 personal narrative and observations initial concept technical report final diagrams

24-25 26-30 31-33 34-39

BIBLIOGRAPHY

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A JAYHAWK ABROAD

FOREWORD PART ONE : RESEARCHING THE PROFESSION PART TWO : WORKING IN PARIS PART THREE : MY INTERNSHIP EXPERIENCE


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Fast-foreword: Prior to my coming to KU I had worked in and around building’s interior working parts....not the award winning areas of buildings but the ugly necessities that make all buildings work. That’s probably where my love of buildings began. As a furniture mover I had access to parts of buildings that no one actually using these large city structures intentionally saw. It’s here where the intrigue of the building captivated me; “Why are those pipes there? How did they know to put which internal workings where?” Access to a building’s loading dock and inner areas is a backstage pass to an Architects concert, with less prestige, but it’s where the magic of a functioning building happens, in a sense. I came to study architecture through a series of events starting with an awkward and utterly boring first year of Junior College. Concluding the Spring semester I found myself in Guatemala during mid May’s rainy season. Here I saw more buildings that were, well, mud and logs thrown together for housing and ‘modern architecture,’ buildings made of concrete, steel, and glass. By the end of that year I was in Kuwait and Iraq where I would be submerged with time to think about school and war. During this period I saw many buildings in the midst of production completely halted and will likely never be finished, soon to be a pile of rubble if they aren’t already. It was this time period that I began seriously flirting with the idea to go back to what I origi-

nally wanted to do with my life and that was to draw and be creative, more specifically creative within the built environment. I realized that destruction leads to creation, and someone somewhere would be responsible for those creations. When I returned I finished a two year transfer program to study architecture. Schools that accepted my credits without question were K-State, Nebraska, or KU. The choice was obvious. Once accepted and going over the next 5 years of my curriculum, I had figured that I would be finishing off these studies building with Dan Rockhill in studio 804. LEED certified buildings, and recognition for almost everything being built by the students involved intrigued me and were my original intentions of attending KU. I had no clue when enrolling at KU 5 years ago that my journey wouldn’t end in a jury room or open house for a project that was designed and drafted with peers and then constructed with those peers. After my first year of studying there I began to realize that Architecture is more than a regional or national practice. The future of Architecture is one practiced on a global scale with major ecological and economical implications as well as cooperation between firms and nationalities. Buildings have always had a major impact on when and where they are to be built, some more than others, but today’s Architecture is one where

a firm on the west coast develops an above average concept, uses a specialty metal fabricator from Kansas City, MO to develop specification details, and a contractor from out of state to finish construction and follow that off with a globally publicized opening to showcase the months, even years of collaboration. Or, a French structural expert collaborating with an Indian born-British sculptor and an English firm to turn a concept sketch into an actualized structure as a focal piece during an Olympic event. And, in my case a well known French architect competing on a project in the US using an office of individuals from around the globe, consulting with engineers in New York, NY on a project a few hundred miles south in Center City Philadelphia, PA. So, When the time came to make a decision for the final year of my Masters Degree I figured the best way to learn the global profession was to do it abroad. I had already spent time abroad to study the sustainable techniques of Asia and what happens when local resources are depleted, so why not study one of the oldest professions in one of the most well known and well kept cities of the world for art and Architecture. Afterall, I couldn’t pass up the opportunity to learn about my passion and gain a portion of the necessary knowledge of this global profession by living, studying and working in Paris. The best way to learn something is to thrust yourself into it and do it.

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ARCHITECT

THE

PROFESSIONAL STEP ONE - GRAD STEP TWO - INTERN

STEP THREE - TEST REQUIREMENTS

us flag DOMESTIC WORK

US

fr flag WORK ABROAD FIRM

FR

VS. FIRM COMPETITION

PART ONE : RESEARCHING THE PROFESSION GENERAL US REQUIREMENTS WORKING IN THE US WORKING IN FRANCE COMPETITION SYSTEM


THE

PROFESSION

Architects must be licensed before they can practice as an architect or call themselves an architect. There are three main steps in becoming an architect: education, internship, and examination. -NCARB website General US Requirements of Becoming an Architect: When researching requirements about being an Architect and practicing in another country I was asking myself questions that I had not known or heard the answer to. In general I know what it is that Architects do, but I don’t know the ins and outs of getting licensed and other requirements involved. So, I started digging around the NCARB website to learn more about the profession I have studied for the last six years. NCARB is the National Council of Architectural Registration Boards; a nonprofit corporation with a simple mission: to regulate the “architectural practice through the development and application of standards for licensure and credentialing of architects.”-Citation Additionally NCARB states that: “Architects are licensed professionals trained in the art and science of the design and construction of buildings and

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structures that primarily provide shelter.” As I have come to realize architects may be involved with designing more than just a building, but can also go as far as to detail the furniture inside, or smaller yet they can design and craft a drawer or door pull. More than just the aesthetic value of a building we must also make it functionally safe, usable, accessible and economical for the client and the intended users. Another key aspect of joining this profession is the ability to understand the construction of a project, and communicate the concept accurately to a client and the contractors. Architects have a large and unique role in shaping our communities thus requiring a license to practice, as well regulations and criteria to maintain those licenses. When licensed I am taking a legal responsibility for my work. In order to obtain a license

A JAYHAWK ABROAD Researching the Profession General US Requirements

someone like myself must complete a set of prerequisites like in any major profession. First step in the licensing process is earning a professional degree from an accredited university or school such as the University of Kansas. The time spent at school preparing for an internship and studying varies, but can be around five-six years for most individuals. Next, is the internship or the practical training involved with learning the profession, and finally after some time spent working, approximately three years, I will have to pass the Architects Registration Examinations (ARE), which will have differing divisions as well as regional requirements, because designing in Deluth, Minnesota is not the same as designing in Miami, Florida. Until all of these criteria are met I will not be able to call myself an Architect, nor will I be considered one.


Working in the US: The path to becoming an Architect is not an easy one for good reason. There is a great responsibility in designing a building for a client’s use. Without the legal restrictions and training involved in this profession anyone could hammer together some lumber and call it a safe structure for living. The years of internship are meant to shape and further prepare me for the real world and responsibility of designing a home, an office, or any other inhabited space. After that will come the ARE exams to test my knowledge and insure that I am ready to stamp drawings and take the legal liabilities that come with the privileges of designing the built environment. Acquiring the license to practice Architecture after my internship will help me in most any economic situation. Licensure will give me a necessary competitive edge to keep working as well as give me the opportunity to take on a greater role with projects and clients, thus giving me an increasing value to the firm in which I work at. Firms that have more licensed Architects on staff have an enhanced marketability in the eyes of prospective clients as well as lower the potentially expensive liability insurance costs. Along with a greater responsibility to having a license, my income as an Architect will likely increase as my career progresses. A license doesn’t only allow me to practice architecture; it will allow me to open my own firm at some point

down my career path. I will be able to stamp, seal, and sign my own drawings shifting my ideas and concepts into a reality that is an enjoyable space to a client or user. Without this extremely important step in the career field I will need to search for an Architect to render those services in the completion of my projects. After becoming a licensed Architect the effort to continue practicing with that license can be just as difficult, because of the requirements to maintain it and the accreditations involved. “Architects are responsible for the health, safety, and welfare of the people who occupy the buildings they create. Therefore, the path to licensure is designed to help aspiring architects meet that important responsibility.” If someone thought that they were finished with their education of Architecture when they walked the hill at graduation, they would be shocked to learn that, each regional jurisdiction requires continuing education credits to maintain an Architectural license. The amount of the continuing education credits and requirements vary between regional jurisdictions, but can be maintained easily. There are currently more than 40 jurisdictions requiring these credits to renew a license. Renewing and maintaining a license isn’t a difficult task but

is essential to being an Architect for the future. NCARB has a system to help licensed Architects maintain their professional skills and knowledge through their self-study courses as part of their Professional Development Program. Along with keeping track of the credits they also offer a series of monographs that can give credit towards this requirement and cover a wide range of topics within the architecture realm. Not all regions are the same and have a different set of requirements and frequency of renewal. An example of these requirements can be found at the NCARB website. For Missouri and Kansas the requirements are different even though they are neighboring states. Both require biennial renewal but Missouri requires a total of twenty-four hours with sixteen of those being in the Health, Safety and Welfare (HSW) category. Kansas requires a total of thirty in the same period but without the HSW requirement. Similar to France’s Ordre des Architectes, and Britain’s Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA); the US has the American Institute of Architects (AIA). It is the professional membership association for all practicing architects in the US, that is also a helpful resource for job hunting amongst other things. Prior to the formation of the AIA anyone could have called themselves an Architect. This is a necessary part of the community to protect the public as well as future Architects.

A JAYHAWK ABROAD Researching the Profession Working in the US

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Working in France: Working in France and the European Union is of course different than working somewhere in the US. Because I have only been working for a few months and have only worked in Europe, I asked a young Architect, Nicholas Gilliland, about his experience working in France and the documentation involved with it. He is a former KU and Yale graduate, who after working approximately six years at Ateliers Jean Nouvel, opened a partnership here in Pars with Gaston Tolila naming it Tolila + Gilliland Atelier d’Architecture. Most of my questions were about working in France and how firms get work using the competition system, as well as how he saw the future of Architecture, and a few personal questions about his journey working in France and the requirements to do so. His response to why he chose to work abroad made a lot of sense. He was excited by French and European clients, both public and private, thinking of Architecture as having a capital “A” and creating ambitious programs with great results. This contrasts to what I see in America on my daily routines. Generally buildings don’t appear to be designed in the sense that the person doing the drawings was worried about creating ‘Architecture’ but simply making a covered space that maximizes profit and minimizes talent and imagination, leaving something to be desired. The requirements to become an Architect in France are similar to those

of the USA. Earning a French diploma or another European diploma at graduation will allow someone to register with the Ordre des Architectes, similar to the AIA. The Ordre, in Belgium, France and Quebec, “is a corporation of public law established by members who practice the profession of architecture.” To register for the Ordre a person must meet the five conditions: • obtaining a recognized diploma or a qualification recognition from the Ministry of Culture • have completed an internship and obtained authorization to practice the profession of architect in his name • home ownership in the country, • not be prohibited from managing or bankrupt, • be covered by professional indemnity insurance (MAF: Mutual French Architects). Unlike working in the States an intern isn’t required to pass an exam like the ARE at the end of their internship. From my experiences though, the intern’s role in a firm is minimal and drastically overlooked and overworked for the miserable amount of money we made while there. The ultimate goal is to work hard enough that if you apply for a real position at the firm you’ll be accepted and receive a working contract. At the same time expectations and responsibilities assigned to that

10 A JAYHAWK ABROAD Researching the Profession Working in France

position are typically low. France does have their own set of requirements to for someone seeking work there. A carte de séjour is a required document to legally work. It can only be granted with a working contract and is approved with proper documentation from the firm that hires you as well as a medical check up. When opening your own office you can apply for the carte de séjour using your own firm. For this to happen proof must be provided that you currently have working contracts for future or current work. This is to show “that you will provide revenue and employment for the French”. On average starting a business in France takes quite a bit of time, but generally will be between three and six months. Similar to practicing in the US there are code compliances that must be met and adhered to legally. Building Codes within the European Union are similar but will vary between countries. A difference in their building codes is the environmental constraints being significantly more restrictive. French housing is currently guided by the Réglementation Thermique 2012 (RT 2012), replacing the older legislation, RT 2005. Réglementation Thermique is the French Energy Performance Standards for all buildings and dictates the energy consumption levels. The newer version “sets the new minimum standard of thermal insulation of dwellings and other types of construction in France,” increasing


the cost of new construction by twenty percent. General work in France is of course, different; construction documents here tend to be much more “text-heavy,” where “text primes over drawings”. There will be a few drawings to coincide with the text but much less details than the drawings seen in US documents. Another part of the process of getting a design built in the real environment is the litigation process. Nick said litigations exists but not to the extent that it occurs in the States. He also said a large part of the working in France is establishing yourself within the working network. When asked how firms generally received work, if from contacting clients or being contacted by them he responded: “It works both ways. The job is to build a network in which the client knows you, the city knows you, the “deciders” know you. When it comes time to jury a tender, or to call an architect for a new job, personal relationships and trust are of the utmost importance. Competitions are very common. But public tenders

are not anonymous, so once again, you have to be known in the network.” When thinking about the restrictions of building code compliance in France the future appears that it will be getting more restrictive because of the implications that occur when buildings fail as well as to protect clients. As economies evolve so do the types of work. Currently housing is a growing market in and around Paris, which is growing into a metropolis as the city and it’s suburbs expand into each other. This rapidly growing metropolis is causing a current need for the development of quality housing that respects existing green space and infrastructure. Eventually another shift in the Architectural world will occur to support the housing boom and the demographic changes coincided with those types of projects after they’re erected. As always a changing market creates changing software and ways of thinking and working. A growing work trend within the firms in France as well as what I’ve noticed as a student in Kansas, is the use of Building Information Modeling (BIM) software like Revit to complete renderings and Construc-

tion Documents (CDs) as well as that of preliminary design concepts. With changes in ways of working, firm dynamics will also adapt for better and more efficient techniques in working. Another growing change is the networking of firms within fields, or firms that are geographically de-centered creating a network of cooperation between firms in other cities, or in other parts of cities working together and adapting to survive in the always changing building market. This includes but isn’t limited to a firm like AJN winning a competition with it’s conceptual design proposal and then working with other firms by outsourcing the drafting of the CDs, or other work on the projects that it needs completed. This could also include the possibility of AJN working directly with a contractor or builder on a project to develop all necessary documents and drawings at the same time as the conceptual process. This future work process creates an exciting period for Architects, Engineers, and Contractors working within the built environment, and Nick feels that clients are becoming increasingly open to this new process.

A JAYHAWK ABROAD Researching the Profession Working in France 11


Competition System: One of the major differences between working in the US and in France or the EU is the ways in which firms get work. Firms can be contacted by a client for work or a future client will propose a competition. Some competitions are open to any applicant; others are on an invitation only basis. The competition system involves a selection board or jury and generally consists of two or three reviews. The more well known you are for doing good, usable buildings the better your chances are of winning and receiving the commission. The chances of winning a competition can also be slim depending on the amount of participants and applicants partaking in a public tender, like the Helsinki Public Library Competition which was an open international competition. Competitions are executed and launched by the planning corporation (SIM), or government entity launching the tender. Typically the jury chooses three to four teams to compete. After all work is submitted the jury will then select the winner and finally, begin developing the working drawings for construction of the selected project. The process a competition goes through is similar to what I’ve experienced in up-

per level studios at KU with a series of reviews before the final product is presented. Selecting the winning proposal involves a first review of a technical jury determining if the applicants are “apt.” After the technical review, a jury of elected officials, Architects and engineers; etc, select the winner. If all the design documentation is in order and everything happens the way it should, the concept will be moved from paper drawings and renderings to an inhabitable, usable structure. Sounds easy enough, but some

the competition I worked on at AJN paid each of the firms 175,000 USD. The winning firm was paid 100,000 USD more. In France competitions are open to any architecture firm with the proper licenses and documentation. However, all documents are written in French, and involve a large amount of paperwork. This process most likely makes these competitions a “national endeavor” and typically limits the amount of firms competing for them. Because of the strong EU economy as of late, there has been an increase

competitions are through an invite process only and limit the amount of participants. Open competitions exist but are therefore also crammed with participants; for example the Helsinki Library competition was an open International Architectural competition that had approximately five hundred submissions in 2011. In General the compensation for a competition is enough to cover expenses incurred during the competition; materials, labor, and documentation. However, the compensation paid is to participants that don’t win the competition, and only occurs during closed competitions. As an example

in foreign firms competing in some of the open competitions. I believe that this system should be implemented in the US more often. With more public competitions being publicized and made known to the world we could generate greater interest in the cultural world for Art and Architecture. It could even open the doors for more interesting projects that create a larger income from tourism both internal and external. We as future American Architects owe more to the world than our current ‘pop culture’ that is growing increasingly obnoxious and effecting the world more negatively than what is actually realized.

12 A JAYHAWK ABROAD Researching the Profession Competition System


Helsinki Design Contest Notice:

Competition tender released by the City of Helsinki, Real Estate Department

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AT E L I E R S

JEAN NOUVEL PROFILE

THE FIRM DEMOGRAPHICS

PROJECT

COMPETITION TEAM

PART TWO : WORKING IN PARIS

JEAN NOUVEL PROFILE AJN FIRM DESCRIPTION PROJECT DESCRIPTION THE COMPETITION TEAM 15


“Critics have defined me as a conceptual architect, that is, one who works more with words than with drawings. I mistrust drawings as fixing things too early in the creative process, while words liberate. I believe the architect is a man who says something ...” -Jean Nouvel Jean Nouvel: Ateliers Jean Nouvel (AJN) is a firm established by the award winning French Architect, Jean Nouvel. To date he detains 100% of the shares in the firm that is one of the largest architecture practices in France. Jean Nouvel is the 2008 Pritzker Architecture Prize winner and began his career in 1967 where he worked as an assistant to Claude Parent and Paul Virilio earning an income and a valuable reputation that led to bigger appointments at a young age, such as; being the project manager in charge of building a large apartment complex after working with

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them for only one year while still in his early 20s. Before that, in 1966, he won a national competition to attend the École Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts in Paris. After working as an assistant for approximately three years he entered into a partnership with François Seigneur in 1970 while earning his diploma two years later and expanding that partnership to add Gilbert Lézénès. He would have three major partners between 1972 and the opening of Jean Nouvel et Associés in 1984. The firm has had an assortment of name changes and partners until 1994 when he formed the current practice Ateliers Jean Nouvel abbreviated as AJN. On his road to forming AJN he has worked on an assortment of buildings and projects; from art exhibits and biennales to master plans of cities. Because of his work he has been awarded with several personal awards and eventually the Pritzker Prize. Dur-

16 A JAYHAWK ABROAD The Firm Jean Nouvel Profile

ing that span he had many commissions and worked on various projects that won praise for his design philosophy; as quoted from his Pritzker award biography in 2008: “Jean Nouvel’s projects transform the landscapes in which they are built, often becoming major urban events in their own right. His unique approach, driven by the specificities of context, program, and site has proven effective in numerous successes around the world.” His design philosophy and work ethic have led to many successful buildings and achievements throughout his already lengthy and decorated career. One such success, a building that first brought Nouvel international recognition is the Institut du Monde Arabe (IMA) in Paris where one of its


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94 89

90

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08 Winner of the 2008 Pritzker Architecture Prize

Founder of JNEC

Wins the competition for the IMA

Founder and Artistic Counselor of the Architecture Biennale of the Paris Biennale

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that is part of a thirty year agreement between the United Arab Emirates and the French Government. He is also invited to private and public competitions around the world, where the client has a short list of firms and architects that it wants competing for the commission. Competitions similar to one taking place in Philadelphia, PA that I worked on with a talented group of architects, graphic designers, interior decorators, and model builders until the end of my Internship with his firm. With the success that Jean has had in his career it is no wonder that his firm has continued to have the same success throughout a changing global market of economic highs and lows; keeping pace with the ever changing field of Architectural Design and the innovations occurring as we enter the growing digital age.

Establishes Ateliers Jean Nouvel

Associates with Gilbert Lézénès and Pierre Soria Founder of Jean Nouvel et Associés

77 76 Co-founder of the French architect movement MARS 1976

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72 72 Associates with Gilbert Lézénès and François Seigneur

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Assisstant to Claude Parent and Paul Virilio

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70 67

Co-founder of the Syndicat de l’architecture

Associates with François Seigneur

Born in Fumel (Lot-et-Garonne), France

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Receives diploma from Ecole des Beaux-Arts

developed and designed wonderful buildings that helped add to his reputation and led to his nomination and selection for the Pritzker Prize. Those projects were built in various countries throughout the world and under many different jurisdictions and code restrictions. Each project had its own complications and design aesthetics. Because his philosophy is contextual to the site, program and technology of the time each building is different and yet the same. Today, AJN continues working under Jean Nouvel’s instructions using his contextual philosophy as it inherits more youthful and impressive talent for next great movement of architecture. His firm’s continually successful work lands him offers from around the globe to design more and more beautiful buildings. Buildings like the Musee du Louvre Abu Dhabi, in the UAE

Admitted first in the entrance exam for École Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts

facades is made entirely of mechanical oculi operated by photoelectric cells that automatically open and close in response to light levels. The French critic, Alain de Gourcuff, said of it, “The overall effect is at once highly decorative in a Middle Eastern way and projects state-of-the-art electronics.” The IMA was commissioned in 1981 by then President Francois Mitterand and completed in 1987 as one of the first Grand Projects during his stay in office. Consisting of several spaces to educate about the Arabic culture: such as an auditorium, museum, library, temporary exhibit spaces, children’s workshops, a documentation center, and a rooftop restaurant, it was one of over two hundred projects singled out by the Pritzker Architecture Prize Jury. During the years after the completion of the IMA, Nouvel continually

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A JAYHAWK ABROAD The Firm Jean Nouvel Profile 17


AJN Firm Description: Former executive director of the Pritzker Architecture Prize from 19882005, Bill Lacy, said this about Jean in his book One Hundred Contemporary Architects and is quoted again in Nouvel’s Pritzker Prize Biography:

model making and image production. Jean Nouvel and his firm has a well rounded portfolio working on museums, concert halls, conference centers, theaters, hotels, housing, office buildings, commercial centers and private residences around the globe. He is recognized as one of the worlds most innovative architects and possibly one of the worlds last remaining Star-chitects. He is a contextual designer and uses his projects to transform the landscapes around them, “often becoming major urban events.” His

“Since the beginning of his architectural career in the 1970s, Frenchman Jean Nouvel has broken the aesthetic of modernism and post-modernism to create a stylistic language all his own. He places enormous importance on designing a building harmonious with its surroundings.” “In the end that building’s design may borrow from traditional and non-traditional forms, but its presentation is entirely unique.” Jean has taken his uniqueness and has led AJN to great success and beautiful projects around the world including opening offices in several different cities. AJN currently has site offices in Barcelona, Madrid, Geneva, and Rome with the main office located in the 11th Arrondissement of Paris, France. Currently there are over “50 active projects all over the world” with “2011 billings of 31.5 M€.” AJN is a multi-cultural staff with over 120 professionals and interns collaborating on projects in architecture, urban design, landscape design, graphic design, industrial design, interior design,

NATIONALITIES 78 France 6 Germany 3 Italy 3 USA 2 Japan 2 Lebanon 5 Spain 2 Belgium 1 Greece 2 Algeria 1 Austria 1 Bulgaria 1 Turkey 1 Finland 2 China 1 Tunisia 1 Argentina 1 Switzerland 1 Laos 1 Poland 1 Portugal 117 TOTAL

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18 A JAYHAWK ABROAD Ateliers Jean Nouvel AJN Firm Description

approach to architecture is driven by the specifics of site, program, and surrounding building context has proven to be an effective method in projects such as the Arab World Institute in Paris, Lyon’s Opera House, Lucerne’s Culture and Congress Center in Switzerland, the Vinci Conference Center in Tours, as well as various other projects around the globe. His international recognition has earned him favor on a number of notable projects currently under construction such as the National Museum of Qatar in Doha, The Musee du Louvre

The Ateliers

Demographics


Abu Dhabi (United Arabs Emirates), and the Anderson Tower in Singapore. Projects offered to him are not just buildings, some are on a much larger scale such as city plans. Many cities have also approached and entrusted AJN for their urban planning abilities, such as Boulogne-Billancourt (Ile Seguin), Praque (Czech Republic) Budapest (Hungary), Tangier (Morocco), Toledo or Vigo (Spain). In January of this year the firm appointed a Deputy Chief Executive Officer, Pascal de Thomasson. This addition gives “AJN it’s valuation in legal and commercial affairs,” and “allows Jean Nouvel to dialog with clients during the process of architectural design.” Part of being on top of this profession as well as any competitive profession is to be a master of the tools involved with the trade. As the age of computers steadily moves forward, so has the architect’s tool box. Formally a box or any container of markers, pens, pencils, rulers, and a drafting table and arm has now become computers and laptops equipped with an assortment of programs for drafting, model-

ing and creating layouts to present to drawings and renderings to clients. Architects are utilizing the tools such as Auto CAD, Revit and other modeling software to produce the best quality products for the clients as quickly as possible. With all the software needed where would a firm be without an IT department to fit and fix our tool boxes with the appropriate tools keeping us up to date or ahead of our competitors. The IT infrastructure at AJN is constantly updated to provide the highest quality at the most efficient service to their clients. Generally workstations are optimized for architectural productions and tasks. Depending on the department in which one works the station will be equipped with the latest versions of 3D modeling software, drafting programs, graphic design and various image manipulation and production programs such as the latest version of Adobe Creative Suites. General workstations will have Auto CAD, 3dsMax, the latest version of Adobe Creative Suite, and Microsoft Office. The 3D modeling department uses Rhinoceros 5 for the design work

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and Revit later in the project for Construction Documents as well as Digital Project Designer, both of which are (BIM) Building Information Modeling programs. All data and project information is stored on a large 36TB capacity server with an automatic backup system to ensure 24/7 data integrity keeping employees from moments of despair when a program or computer crashes before the next save opportunity. All printing and model making is completed in house, not outsourced to agencies that provide those types of services. Other general work conditions provide the employees with high speed, high volume data connectivity and exchange capabilities as well as video conferencing equipment that allow face to face interactions with clients around the globe and around the clock. Equipment and capabilities of this nature are essential for a firm producing buildings and products for clients around the globe in the growing digital age.

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A JAYHAWK ABROAD Ateliers Jean Nouvel AJN Firm Description 19


Project Introduction: The nature of architecture has led to clients creating competitions, some are open to the public and others are invitation only. In any case there will be criteria and programs issued to the companies and architects involved. Those firms will likely have a team of individuals working alongside each other with a ‘chef du projet,’ project manager, organizing the material, preparing the project presentations, and communications with the client as well as the consultants they’re familiar with. Days before I was to start my internship or ‘stage’, Jean, the chef du projet, and a few of his associates flew to Philadelphia, PA to meet with a potential client who had contacted AJN about a private design competition. This project was to take place in Center City Philadelphia, a specific area of Philadelphia that allows skyscrapers to be built using a set of zoning regulations and as well as setting the height

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restrictions. The client was Liberty Property Trust. They were making an addition to the area where they have already built the Comcast Center and where proposing another smaller building for NBC; south of the existing church. Both of which were designed by Robert A.M. Stern. It was later revealed that the majority of the offices in the program were to be for Comcast and their need to expand from their current ninety percent occupation of the Comcast Center. We were going up against five of the worlds best and well known architects in a brief, three month, design competition for a lot located at 1800 Arch Street. The firms we were competing against were Robert A.M. Stern Architects, Renzo Piano Building Workshop, Foster+Partners and BIG. There had been a previous proposal on the site a few years earlier by a

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1 Image of Jean Nouvel 2 Demographic image of the AJN office 3 Typical work station for AJN employee 4,5 Ateliers Jean Nouvel office environment

6 Plan from client showing their general program arrangements 7 Clients schematic elevation and explanation of their GSF usage per floor and height expectations

20 A JAYHAWK ABROAD Ateliers Jean Nouvel Project Introduction

different developer on what would have been called The American Commerce Center, proposed to be the tallest building in Philly, which is currently the Comcast Center on the neighboring site. The client emailed a program list of their requirements and a few diagrams of what they had in mind for the site. The finished product was to be a mixed use building or tower with a large public space at ground level. They wanted approximately seventeen floors of hotel rooms to the northeast and about thirty-six stories of office space on the west, with two lower levels of parking and MEP space. Another key component of this program was to have two to three stories of public retail space beginning at the ground level connected to the subterranean concourse linking the Comcast Center with the Suburban Street Station. Overall the project was to have approximately 1,276,900 GSF.


The Competition Team: The competition system has been around for a long time and has played an important role in the Architectural field. The competition we were working on was created by a client with a short list of firms and architects that they would like to design their future building. I believe this system is essential to our field, and that it keeps firms from doing lackadaisical work. Walking around the office I was able to see many competition boards that have been discarded after a competition and realized that the conceptual work done for those projects was generally exceptional and well thought out. I see that the competition system brings out the best of this intelligent and intellectual field as well as create a drive within a firm to stay ahead of other competing Architects and their firms. At AJN, Jean has built this firm around his contextual philosophy and surrounds himself with some of the best young architects from around the world. Our team originally consisted of a handful of people from around the office working on preliminary studies, site analysis, research, and developing the major project concept. At the time we were a handful of French and American Architects. By the end of the first review with the client, in Philadelphia, we had grown to over thirty people with a handful of different backgrounds from

the US, Spain, Brazil, France, China and Portugal. Most of us were Architects and Architectural Interns working concurrently in CAD and Rhino developing the concept and drawings for the client. We were working in teams across several offices and workspaces in the building so communicating had to take place in bi-daily meetings as the deadlines grew closer. In one of these meetings I was introduced to a new team working on the project. They were the graphic designers of his firm. While working with Jean and his firm on the competition for the project in Philadelphia, I began to notice a subtle shift in the approach he was taking with this project. The ‘graphistes’ or graphic artists were having a major role preparing the presentations for the clients. They weren’t just preparing the layout for our work and renderings but turning our Architectural drawings into an easily understood info-graphic. To me, this made sense because I’ve always been told that most clients have problems understanding floor plans and sections no matter how simple they appear to us and others in and around the profession. Seeing the labor of our drawings and hours of arranging and rearranging the functions of each floor turned into a graphic object that was less diagrammatic and precise but possibly more informative for a client unfamiliar with the draw-

ing language of architects was eyeopening. I didn’t really like what I was looking at but seeing symbols and icons on the plans with other little informative graphics, like a Google map or mall directory was self explanatory of what I was looking at immediately. I had only worked on a few aspects of the project and knew a lot about the project as a whole but I hadn’t seen every bit of planned space drawn up yet. Seeing an area of the project I hadn’t worked on in a new graphic language made it remarkably easy to read and interpret without over thinking what I was looking at. I understood the concept of the space being planned even though I may not have understood every aspect of the project because of the additional members in our team. Having more than thirty members working across several different workstations made it difficult to keep up with everything and the last minute changes. I had only been there for a few weeks, so I thought it was odd but it could be a growing trend within the architectural field; seeing as how the graphic design industry was exploding with the use of computers and how easily accessible the Adobe Creative Suite software was to students like myself and professionals that could afford it.

A JAYHAWK ABROAD Ateliers Jean Nouvel The Competition Team 21


OBSERVATIONS

CONCEPT

COMPETITION

THE

PHILADELPHIA

TECHNICAL

FINAL

PART THREE : MY INTERNSHIP EXPERIENCE

PERSONAL NARRATIVE AND OBSERVATIONS INITIAL CONCEPT TECHNICAL REPORT FINAL DIAGRAMS


SERVICES

OFFICES

WC

UP DOWN

UP DOWN

CAFÉ SNACK ICE VOIDS

PANORAMIC VIEW

UPPER SQUARE

TERRACE

RESTAURANT

CONNECTORS

Winter

PANORAMIC VIEW

INDUSTRIAL

LIFT

SHOP

CONNECTORS

EXPERIENCE UP DOWN

SHOP

ICE VOIDS

UP DOWN

WC

THE

OFFICES

SCREEN CLUB ACCESS

ELEV ATOR

LOUNGE

SERVICES

FIRE

SCREEN CLUB ACCESS

ELEV ATOR

SHOP

UNIVERSAL SQUARE

ROCKEFELLER PLAZA

Each new situation requires a new Architecture. -Jean Nouvel My first days at Ateliers Jean Nouvel was a nervous exciting moment. It was my first job opportunity and I had earned an internship with one of the top Architectural firms in the world. I had arrived as Jean Nouvel and some of the associates had returned from visiting a client that contacted him about a competition and a future construction site in Philadelphia. I was told then that I would be working with Brian Wait and a few others on this particular project. We started with a brief introduction of team members and a meeting that morning to discuss what we would be doing in the coming weeks. Afterwards I did what I had always done when handed project documentation. As I read into the document provided by the client, I realized how important this project would be, not that there is ever an unimportant project to be worked on, but some buildings have a larger impact on an area before it’s designed and built. The first hint that it was an important project was that the competition only included five firms. The other four were also well known and respected Architects; two of which were also Pritzker Architec-

ture Prize Laureates. The deeper I got into the article the more I realized the influence the client has in Philadelphia. They have already contributed greatly to the nearby city blocks and the surrounding Philly area, as well as various projects along the East Coast. This building was to be the next installment to their portfolio of buildings with their goal of creating an “Extraordinary Work Environment.” The first days of work were rather slow moving. A typical first day for new employees was getting set up at a work station, getting your user name and password to access the internal server, and getting the necessary software licenses loaded to work in the design programs and other software that is utilized at the office. It hadn’t quite set in that I was no longer a typical student, even though I was there to learn as well as work, and I hadn’t yet graduated. That first week was similar to any other first week of a new semester in studio, complete with introduction to others in the office, developing a concept, and researching precedent ideas. Work consisted of doing a site studies, looking up the

24 A JAYHAWK ABROAD Internship Experience Personal Narrative and Observations

local code requirements for building heights and floor area requirements (FAR), as well as settling into the AJN office culture. During my second week at the office I began to settle in to the routine. Generally, work began around 10am with about an hour break for lunch followed by an office exodus between 6pm and 8pm, depending on deadlines, team reviews and meetings with Jean. I generally kept the same routine that I had in school, and was using the same programs to develop and explain our ideas. The real difference in the working environment was that instead of having other classes to break up my day, I was always at or near my desk and other colleagues constantly working and reworking the concept and diagrams to show Jean. It wasn’t until I started working in Auto CAD that I really began to notice a difference between my usual quirks of working in layers, blocks, components and groups and the layers previously established by the graphic department at Ateliers Jean Nouvel. It was then that I was glad I had been naming


my files so specifically and with order. That made the transition to working with the firm happen more easily. At AJN, and I assume at other firms, there is a specific way to label files and layers when working in CAD and other programs being accessed by a team of individuals. The uniformity makes it easy to find and use a file created by another team member. Having your profile loaded into CAD also helps determine who is accessing the file if you have any questions about a change. After getting my profile installed and learning about the XREF function of Auto CAD, I had to learn the layers and line types they presently have installed. Luckily they have a guidebook for that, making that experience less of a headache than guessing at the abbreviations used, or constantly stopping to ask someone what each layer meant in the drawings. This organization is the key to success and ease of access to others work for a smooth collaboration of files and drawings

BE

NJ

AM

IN

FR AN

KL

IN

For example: When I was working on the plan of the basement and ground floors of our proposal and needed to gather information from another file as an XREF I could easily find it based on the type of file it was. If it were a plan or section I knew where to look for it and which version of the file I needed to use based on the suffix of the file. As the weeks continued to progress each meeting grew increasingly more important than the last. Several envelope options were shown to Jean over the course of the meetings with him as well as diagrammatic layouts of the buildings functions. After the decision was made to go with four contextual facades all responding to the uniqueness of their orientation on the site and their relations to the surrounding buildings we began to focus more intensely on the specific locations of each sub category in the required program. We started by opening the public space and created a forum with functioning ‘shelves’ that would make the

space more flexible and able to contain different functions as the client saw fit. Each shelf contained it’s own series of functions to accommodate a series of shops and cafes. Jean’s major intent was to make this space flexible as well as turn Cuthbert St., the access road dividing our site from the Sterling Building on the parcel to the south, into a closed pedestrian route. Jean’s Inspiration for this solution came from the Arabic word ‘souk’, which is a covered market place, and was being used in one of AJN’s Mideastern projects. The ‘souk’ would serve as a linking space between our site at 1800 Arch Street and the Comcast Center, becoming the focal point of the future Comcast Campus. More diagrams were drawn up to demonstrate to the client our intent and how we viewed the site’s future. Working on this aspect I pulled up old diagrams to update them with the graphic standards developed by the graphic department for the final presentation in Philadelphia on April 29th.

PA R

KW AY

15

10 CHERRY S

TREET

EET 18TH ST R

19TH ST

REET

5

1

1 Site analysis of the distances a person can walk in 5min increments with important buildings and tourist attractions

A JAYHAWK ABROAD Internship Experience Personal Narrative and Observations 25


Initial Concept Contextual Studies:

2 32 33

48

48

32

FROM 19TH STREET TROLLEY STATION

FROM SUBURBAN STATION

32 33

O

2

17 27 31 32 33 38 44 62 78 124 125

R

P

O

O

R

17 27 31 32 33 38 44 62 78 124 125

3 O

MASS TRANSIT

R

C

P

O

R

R

O

O

O O

O

O

S

O

4

O

R

S

BULDING USE

S

S

S R S

R S

S

5

2-5 Site analysis displaying differing key areas. 2-base drawing for diagrams 3-immediate area transit map 4-nearby building use 5-nearby retail zones; restaurant and shopping

6-8 Google Earth images to see a conceptual mass within the built environment of Center City. 9 Plan view of floor heights for the concourse connections with section through tunnel. 10 Zoomed view showing the tunnel connection to forum floor at that time in the project.

26 A JAYHAWK ABROAD Internship Experience Initial Concept

RETAIL LOCATION

Working those first few weeks consisted of developing a general site analysis and creating base drawings of the sight and surrounding buildings for future diagrams, the 3D modeling team, and the graphic designers so they could develop a series of graphic standards preparing the final documents for the client. The site analysis consisted of mapping the public transportation systems and major pedestrian destinations like the Suburban Street Station, which has an underground concourse leading to the neighboring Comcast Center and the building next door to that located at One Penn Center. This was a key element to our project because a major program requirement was to continue the underground link from the station to our site using the existing concourse. Other site analysis’ consisted of contextual building studies such as locating the public and private areas of nearby buildings, specifying each building’s use and facade typology, looking at the Philadelphia’s skyline and determine the views from our site at different altitudes. Research was also going into the buildings that were being planned in the area, because a handful of empty sites near ours had plans drawn up for construction projects in the near future, some of which could potentially block views to and from our building.


site to the model to get correct orientation of our tower on the site. I then uploaded the model into Google Earth. After I uploaded the model I created several positions in which we could fly through Philadelphia and view the existing buildings, the new concepts being planned and our massing mod-

6

8

7

ARCH STREET +24’

19TH STREET

+22’

+20’ +18’ +16’

+25’

+27’

CUTHBERT STREET

+34' 8'' +20’ +18’

JFK BLVD

TUNNEL PLAN

NORTH

9

PROPERTY LINE

TOWER PROPERTY LINE

Work on the project typically involved investigating areas of the program, generally the arrangement of spaces near the public levels of the project. Areas that included the forum, hotel space, lobbies, conference center as well as the subterranean aspects of our project, such as: parking, loading dock, mechanical areas, and connection with the underground Suburban Street Station concourse in the neighboring Comcast Center. The connection to the neighboring building was one of the major aspects of the program and was studied continuously. We looked at and revisited this area several times throughout the competition process to develop the connection and the forum to fit Jeans tastes as well as that of the client.

el. When all of this was set in place I established a fly through to show Jean and the other members of the team our building and how it appeared from various locations around the city. This showed us how much of our building would be visible between the existing towers in the area.

18TH STREET

A large part of building a tower is the effect it will have on that city’s skyline and how it will be viewed as someone approaches the city and the views a person will have of it from various destinations. Creating a simple massing model in Google Sketchup I used the geo-link tool and linked our

+22'

+20’

19TH STREET

+18’

+16'

+27' 18TH STREET

+34' 8'' +20' CC FOOD COURT TO SUBURBAN STREET STATION

COMCAST PLAZA +34' 8'' +27'

+16’

10

18TH ST

7'

COMCAST FOOD COURT +20'

SUBURBAN TRAIN TUNNEL -2.5'

A JAYHAWK ABROAD Internship Experience Initial Concept 27


Forum Concept and Explanation: TOWER

FORUM

+22'

+34' 8''

+27'

+20' CC FOOD COURT

+16' 19TH STREET

18TH STREET

TOWER

FORUM

+22'

+34' 8''

+27'

+20' CC FOOD COURT

+16' 19TH STREET

18TH STREET

TOWER

FORUM

+22'

+34' 8''

+27'

+20' CC FOOD COURT

+16' 19TH STREET

11

18TH STREET

PANORAMIC RESTAURANT

HOTEL LOBBY

OFFICE TOWER

COMCAST TOWER

GARDEN

12

FORUM PARKING

ARCH ST

CUTHBERT ST

13

19th ST

18th ST

14

28 A JAYHAWK ABROAD Internship Experience Initial Concept

Original proposals were diagramed showing different ways of opening the forum to the public with a general placement of it and how it could connect with the underground tunnel to the nearby station. Once the an idea for the forum and how it worked with the connection between towers, a concept was launched mirror the Comcast Centers reflective facade so the two towers would provide an infinite of different views of each other when looking into their facing facades. When the decision for the forum was made to have an elevated outdoor space and several interior cubes containing different activities sections were drawn up by myself and another intern to show the development of it at a real scale. Eventually the cubes were removed and the forum became lined with shelves and a focal point for digital information was added. The LED mast at the beginning of the forum facade denotes the front of the building and is in line with the neighboring church’s cupola. When fully lit it is intended to display images that could be anything from a televised game or become an informative mast explaining the event happening within. 11 Section of forum options prior to the technical turn in 12 Diagram of the major concept; reflections between the facades 13,14 Advanced section of the forum with cubes 15,16 Facade module studies for the offices with generic plans and building functions 17-21 3d structural models for the consultants; used to demonstrate our solution for lateral loading to maintain a large atrium in the hotel at the top of the tower


Structural Studies and Modular Planning: SKYDECK

module would be a suitable start and began working from that point forward. I drew up plan diagrams of 5’, 10’ and 20’ mullion placing to align with a column at it’s center line. After the plan and elevations were drawn up we then looked at 3D conceptual massing models with different materials in mind. We wanted to look at and discuss the possibility of rein-

17

HOTEL

OFFICE PLAN

HOTEL PLAN

MECHANICAL CATERED MEETING

MECHANICAL

MECHANICAL

HOTEL PLAN

15

HOTEL PLAN

COLUMNS 20' OC

HOTEL PLAN

16

PUBLIC AMENITIES MECHANICAL

forced concrete forms and/or a steel truss system for the hotel functions maintaining a solid R/C core for central stability against lateral and compressive forces of the environment. I created the 3D model to figure out what would be needed in order to achieve the desired atrium in the hotel if Jean decided he wanted the hotel at the top of the tower. Taking a few of the structural sketches from Brian I created a series of different models for the consultants to look at and tell us what would be required for them to work. The first series of models

18

OFFICE PLAN

OFFICE

OFFICE

COLUMNS 15' OC

OFFICE

MECHANICAL CATERED MEETING

OFFICE

During the beginning stages of this project Brian, the project manager, met with the firm’s structural consultants in New York, NY as well as video conference with the mechanical engineers. In order to prepare for these meetings I worked with him to develop a 3-D structural concept model using Rhino and AutoCAD. We began thinking about the grid spacing of columns and the alignment with the exterior window treatments. The 1800 Arch Street site was 160’ by 400’. We determined that a five foot

HOTEL

SKYDECK

19

PUBLIC AMENITIES MECHANICAL

made were bare models to show the essentials, next I added floor slabs to show the engineers our intentions of the size of the towers and the amount of floor space we desired. Each series of models included the final massing model to show our desired form at the time of the meeting. Modeling this concept also helped us to understand how the tower circulation within the core would work as the building grew in height. There was a need to separate the general public from accessing the employees workspaces.

20

21

A JAYHAWK ABROAD Internship Experience Initial Concept 29


ARCH STREET

ing our best to interpret what he wanted. One such idea I was assigned to work out, was his vision of how the parking aspect of the project was going to work. Jean wanted the vehicles to approach from 19th Street so I drew up a few loading dock solutions with the main access at ground level as a start. The client needed a twenty-six parking places for NBC satellite vans, a loading dock, and approximately 150 vehicle locations in a parking garage.

CUTHBERT STRE 22

ARCH STREET

19TH STREET

Jean’s initial concept called for an automatic parking garage for both the loading dock, NBC parking, and the parking garage. The garage manufacturer was a German company named Wohr which specialized in vertically oriented automated parking solutions. My study was to determine how much area of the building would be taken up because of the garage arrangement and how tall the options would be in order to accommodate for such a structure. Using Wohr’s specifications from their brochures I created 2D drawings in Auto CAD to show how the systems would work in plan and section. It was determined that it would not be a viable solution and that we would return to the traditional ramp system used to access the underground loading dock and parking structure. That solution like many others on any project had it’s own set of limitations, mostly because we did not want to go below the bedrock that was believed to be twenty-five feet below the surface.

CUTHBERT STRE 23

CUTHBERT STRE 24

25

26

30 A JAYHAWK ABROAD Internship Experience Initial Concept

ARCH STREET

19TH STREET

As the project progressed so did the nature of my work and the meetings with Jean. Before the first review with the client there were several “work shops” every couple weeks within the firm. Some were done in large groups and others were as simple as the Chef du Projet meeting with Jean during lunch or Jean himself peering over our shoulders when he was in the office. After collecting and analyzing the data for Jean, the team and myself developed a series of models and diagrams based on his sketches and ideas, do-

19TH STREET

Loading Dock and Parking Studies:

27


Technical Report and Schematic Intent: At the conclusion of the parking solutions I began developing a series of solutions for the services that would be contained underground and a series of ideas for arranging the conference center at that level as well as within the tower. Because of the spatial requirement for the conference center and parking we determined that the forum couldn’t maintain the conference center with it’s current design proposal. By moving the conference elements we gained more than adequate amount of space for those functions of the program that were servicing the building and could maintain them below the forum floor. The overall decision was to place the center beneath the hotel and place those areas on two floors between the rentable office space and the hotel lobby and the guest rooms. This also gave the large semi-public entity a better view and made events there more exclusive.

With the intensity picking up so did the amount of work needing to be completed. The additional work on the project led to the team growing over the final weeks. Additional interns were brought in to assist with plans, sections, elevations, diagrams, and model making. At this point I shifted from diagrams and drawings for the project to the technical report. The technical report was to be turned into the client prior to the final review a few weeks later. During this portion of my internship I was taking the text written by the chef du projet and adding corresponding images to the document as well as creating new diagrams for images that we didn’t already have on file. The information received from our consultants was also added to show the client the feasibility of our concept along with a simple diagram of the structure and general floor office floor plans that we found to be the most

economical. This document along with our renderings, and other graphic representations was bound in specially made binders and hand delivered to the client. In the report we worked on explaining another contextual requirement they wanted to achieve with their building. This was to develop a technologically advanced working environment for future users and employees within it. Studies had been going into the new ways people are working, what they’re using, how they’re using it, and the spaces in which they’re working from. Looking at various working campus’s like the Google campus, Apple’s future facility, and a few buildings from the AJN archives, we derived the idea to have all areas of this building digitally connected to the users and made a few diagrams to explain our intended uses for this aspect of the design.

SUSPENDED BALCONY HANGER

12' TRUSS

HANGER

PIER

4' TRUSS 12' TRUSS

PIER

4' TRUSSES TYP

SUSPENDED BALCONY

12' TRUSS

28

29

22-24 Early diagrams of the loading dock examples and ways trucks could approach them from Cuthbert Street 25-27 Automated parking structure studies showing the different types and layouts for our tower 28 Structural plan of the forum for the technical report 29 Structural section of the forum

A JAYHAWK ABROAD Internship Experience Technical Report 31


Tower Design Diagrams:

PUBLIC HOTEL

OFFICE

30

Preferred stacking - Hotel and conference center at top This stacking requires: • 4 stairs • 4 elevators for hotel/conference center RSF/GSF typical office floor = 83% Dimension A = 27’7 min – 58’9 max

PUBLIC

33

SERVICE

TOWER 40% AVERAGE SITE COVERAGE

31

Alternate stacking 1- Hotel at top, conference center at bottom This stacking requires: • 2 stairs • 2 elevators for hotel/conference center RSF/GSF typical office floor = 87% Dimension A = 35’1 min – 68’3 max

34

32 Alternate stacking 2- Hotel and conference center at bottom This stacking requires: • 2 stairs • 0 elevators for hotel/conference center RSF/GSF typical office floor = 88% Dimension A = 43’4 min – 77’9 max

32 A JAYHAWK ABROAD Internship Experience Technical Report

35

FORUM 159’ =40%

396’

PROPERTY LINE

tion. It is intended that the screen would be displaying worldly events up to the minute. Similar to the coverage of the highest free fall jump in history completed by Felix Baumgartner and sponsored by Red Bull. I also drew a simple line diagram to explain the zoning code compliance and how we used it to create the form of the building as well as our approach to using the full site. Basic office floor plans were also set into the report and used to explain our compliance with the Floor Area Ratio (FAR) of 1600%. Determined because our site falls under the CMX5 building code for Philadelphia and is subject to the Super CMX-5 when approved. To simply explain the overall project concept I drafted up a series of graphic representations to show the client leading up to the final review. Each diagram graphically represented the main points of the ideas happening at AJN.

CONFERENCE

PROPERTY LINE

Part of the technical report included base diagrams to explain the concept of the proposal at that point. Starting with the a simple block diagram we wanted to explain the option of the program that we thought was the best but gave the client a few different options they could have chosen from. The technological aspect of the building was to link the entire facility on a digital closed loop system so that it would be possible to view the projection happening on the screen hanging in the forum anywhere in the building via wifi or hard line connec-

65’


30-32 Optional office floor plans shown to the client for the technical review 33 Simple block and line diagram of the preferred function locations for the technical report 34 Line diagram showing the site constraints our coverage of the site and it’s compliance with the zoning codes for the Center City area; Zoning Code CMX-5 35 Building use diagram showing the technological connection for users within the buiding 36-40 Diagrams to represent the building concept graphically for the technical report 36 37 38 39 40

SHUTTLE

ROOMS

HIGH RISE

Connections between users in the offices Vertical circulation within the building Block function diagrams Public/private areas Diagram of the intermixing between public and private users

MID RISE

LOW RISE

36

37

PUBLIC

HOTEL

CONFERENCE

PRIVATE

OFFICE

PUBLIC SERVICE

PUBLIC

38

39

40

A JAYHAWK ABROAD Internship Experience Technical Report 33


Final Diagrams Forming the Tower: After the dust settled from the technical report, we got back to work updating the documents with information we felt needed to be added and continued diagraming our intents and changes that needed to be made for the final presentation with the client. A major focus during the period after the technical review was how the hotel worked with the rest of the building and how it linked to the public space at ground level. The last few weeks with AJN I worked specifically on explaining how the hotel and forum worked. Using a set of 3-D models that I received from our digital modeling team, I created a series of axonometric diagrams to explain our concept. The diagrammatic explanations were used in conjunction with our renderings to simplify the concept of the hotel guest rooms, the hotel circulation, function stacking, and our floor plans. During this portion of the competition we also made diagrams simpli-

BELVEDERE

BELVEDERE

HOTEL

HOTEL

fying and explaining the major concept of the reflective facade, how we determined the final form of the building, and what site contexts we used to mold the building into what became the tower at 1800 Arch St. Because the client’s current building called the Comcast Center, occupied by the American cable and internet company the Comcast Corporation and their need to expand; Jean saw fit to begin creating and developing the area into what we began calling the Comcast Campus. Comcast currently occupies ninety percent of Comcast Center and was going to be the primary lease holder in the new tower across the street. They have also began work on a project for a small studio on the south-west corner of the Center’s parcel. Keeping those items in mind we worked on creating a link between the two buildings and their parcels to develop the area into a large pedestrian area similar to Rockefeller Plaza.

41

FORMAL DETERMINATION OF TOWER HEIGHT

42

FORMAL DETERMINATION OF FACADE ANGLE

43

REFLECTION CONNECTION WITH COMCAST

44

FORMAL DETERMINATION OF BELVEDERE

BELVEDERE

CONFERENCE CENTER

OFFICE

OFFICE CONFERENCE CENTER LOBBY

OFFICE LOBBY

45

BASE PROPOSAL

HOTEL CONFERENCE CENTER LOBBY

OPTION 1

OPTION 2

TOTAL TOWER GFA

1 363 539

TOTAL TOWER GFA

1 394 844

TOTAL TOWER GFA

1 392 145

OFFICES GROSS FLOOR SF RENTABLE FLOOR SF

86.02 % 1 035 680 890 830

OFFICES GROSS FLOOR SF RENTABLE FLOOR SF

85.42 % 1 086 022 927 669

OFFICES GROSS FLOOR SF RENTABLE FLOOR SF

83.71 % 1 067 388 893 527

HOTEL GROSS FLOOR SF

327 859

HOTEL GROSS FLOOR SF

308 822

34 A JAYHAWK ABROAD Internship Experience Final Diagrams

HOTEL GROSS FLOOR SF

327 757


1/3 BUILT

AREA OF OUR STUDY

SITE

LAND USE 2/3 PUBLIC SPACE

NBC 10

46

47

48

41-44 Elevation diagrams explaining the concepts 45 Block diagram of the function options 46-50 Step by step diagram for the development of the proposed Comcast Campus

COMCAST CAMPUS SPINE UNDERGROUND SPINE

49

50

Site Development and Comcast Campus: In order to accurately convey our campus idea to the client I was given a few sketches to create; showing how we developed our final proposal for the end product. The first drawing was to show the existing site as the project documentation dictated followed by the area we saw as the future of Comcast and it’s connection in Philadelphia. Next came the division of property that is planned to happen between the new tower, forum, and future NBC studios.

Throughout Jean’s concept proposal there was a strong desire to link the building with more than an underground concourse as well as to give back a large surface area to the general public for use throughout the day. The idea was started because of the layout of Reading Terminal Market a few blocks away that has a large area dedicated to food services and shops for patrons passing to and from the trains during the daily business activities. Aligning these activities we created a spine linking the campus’s towers.

A JAYHAWK ABROAD Internship Experience Final Diagrams 35


Forum and Tower Development:

Universal Square Development:

After the technical review aesthetics went into forming quick visuals to go along with the site development and tower explanation. Starting with the site I added the building and began to add it’s components to explain the different functions. Starting from the ground up Jean and the design teams worked around a core building the office high rise for Comcast and other potential tenants. To keep the private functions separate from each other the hotel components were placed near the top of the tower. The hotel and office spaces

At the center of the campus lies Universal Square. A large space designed to host several different events. The everyday functions include the covered market place that becomes a pedestrian zone for shopping, eating, and leisure activities. Under the forum roof lies the shelves, what also became known as the Lower Square. This is the space in which major interior functions would be made possible and range from large banquets to major exhibitions. Features of Universal square included the roof top pavilion, Upper

were separated by a two level conference center. Capping the tower off was the grand view of the city and the public functions in the belvedere. At the base of it all is the forum which became known as Universal Square and will the center of the Comcast Campus. This element of the project is the most flexible, and is intended to host any major event or exhibition.

Square, complete with a screen that would be the largest of it’s kind rivalling the existing screen in Comcast Center’s lobby and able to host an night club with in it. Keeping with high-tech developments the LED mast would be a major attraction hosting informative messages that would scroll continuously completing the square and it’s major components.

TOWER

51

SCREENUPPER CLUB SQUARE MAST

NBC 10

55

LOWER SQUARE

UPPER SQUARE

CUTHBERT STREET MARKET

56

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36 A JAYHAWK ABROAD Internship Experience Final Diagrams

58


BELVEDERE HOTEL

OFFICES

52

51-54 Axonometric drawings of the tower, showing the location of the major components during the final review with the client

53

55 Axonometric of NBC 10; a proposal to complete Comcast Campus and was based on a current need from Comcast and Liberty Property Trust

BELVEDERE

BELVEDERE

HOTEL

HOTEL

OFFICES

OFFICES

SCREENUPPER CLUBSQUARE

SCREENUPPER CLUB SQUARE MAST

59

54

56-61 Axonometric explanation of the forum components; all components combined create Universal Square

UNIVERSAL SQUARE

60

61

A JAYHAWK ABROAD Internship Experience Final Diagrams 37


Explanation of the Hotel:

64

62

BELVEDERE

BELVEDERE

HOTEL

HOTEL

HOTEL

CONFERENCE CENTER

CONFERENCE CENTER

CONFERENCE CENTER

OFFICE LOBBY

OFFICE LOBBY

OFFICE LOBBY

OFFICE

HOTEL

BELVEDERE

UPPER LOBBY

OBSERVATION PLATFORM / TERRACE

LOBBY / ATRIUM

GUEST ROOMS SWIMMING POOL SHUTTLE ELEVATORS CONFERENCE CENTER TERRACE

LOWER LOBBY

STRE

ET

RE

ET

ARCH

TH

ST

63

19

When working on the final Diagrams for the hotel functions as well as the forum, we selected a series of axonometric plans, a three dimensional exploded axonometric view and another 3D view showing the tower and forum in it’s site but focusing on the movement from the lower lobby to the hotel and belvedere. To explain the circulation, we used the function stacking diagram and showed the vision of how the elevators were going to move people vertically through the tower. The axonometric diagram of the hotel as a hole was to show the placement of those functions at the top of the tower. Capping the tower was the Belvedere; a public space created to give visitors of the hotel, restaurant, or building an unobstructed view of the city surrounds. Standing within the belvedere one would be submerged in the city through a series of mirrors reflecting and refracting the landscape and buildings around Philadelphia. Mirrored surfaces are planned for the ceiling as well as the walls within the atrium and belvedere to achieve the desired effect. The guest room diagrams were

BELVEDERE

made to show the major theme behind it’s design, also reflections. The base room is one that shows the room’s view that can be reflected in the room or left so that an occupant can use the window to only view the exterior. The second diagram is to show that when not in use or upon command the room can

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38 A JAYHAWK ABROAD Internship Experience Final Diagrams

reflect an image throughout the room along the mirrors. A third and final option shows that it can be controlled so that an occupant can only watch what he/she wants to on the screen as well as control the view through the window. Any series desired can also be achieved if the person wishes too do so.

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Lower Square Event Examples: UP DOWN

UP DOWN

UP DOWN

UP DOWN

To maintain the graphic language after the break, I was instructed to create a series of ideas for the forum with another intern. These schematic layouts were set to put a visual scale to the forum for the events that could be taking place after it’s completion. The forum also needed to have the same graphic language and standards, so I worked with the graphic design department getting their working pallet of colors, line weights and line types. I began working with the intern had already started on the forum diagrams. I

INDUSTRIAL

INDUSTRIAL

LIFT

UP DOWN

UP DOWN

UP DOWN

UP DOWN

BEAUX ARTS BALL

67

AUTOMOBILE EXHIBIT

68

MONUMENTAL ART EXHIBIT

69

INDUSTRIAL

INDUSTRIAL

LIFT

UP DOWN

UP DOWN

UP DOWN

UP DOWN

took his base drawing of the forum to explain our concept and created simple drawings of how the space could be used during different events both public and private. When everything was as close to finished as it was going to be we bound it as we did before and began packing the model for transportation to Philadelphia. My work at AJN concluded when everything was loaded into the cab heading to Charles de Gaulle. I started work there on day one of the competition and ended my internship on it’s final day.

INDUSTRIAL

INDUSTRIAL

OFFICES

SERVICES

LIFT

WC

UP DOWN

UP DOWN

CAFÉ SNACK ICE VOIDS

PANORAMIC VIEW

UPPER SQUARE

TERRACE

RESTAURANT

CONNECTORS

Winter

PANORAMIC VIEW

INDUSTRIAL

LIFT

SHOP

ICE VOIDS

UP DOWN

WC

SCREEN CLUB ACCESS ELEV ATOR

LOUNGE

SERVICES

OFFICES

UP DOWN

SHOP

CONNECTORS FIRE

SCREEN CLUB ACCESS ELEV ATOR

SHOP

UNIVERSAL SQUARE

ROCKEFELLER PLAZA

70

62 Vertical circulation from lower lobbies through the tower 63 Axonometric diagram of showing the hotel connection to the tower with exploded axonometric diagram of the key hotel componets 64 Base hotel room with city scape view from room 65 Hotel room with projected image reflected throughout room. 66 Hotel room with projected image and city scape

67-69 Forum floor events displaying the flexibility of the space within Universal Square; event examples shown here are the Beaux Arts Ball, an Automobile exhibition, and a monumental size art gallery for large works like those of Anish Kapoor 70 Universal Square and Rockefeller Plaza comparison; Rockefeller Plaza was a key precedent in designing the forum for public use

A JAYHAWK ABROAD Internship Experience Final Diagrams 39


BIBLIOGRAPHY PART ONE : researching the profession 1: Conseil National De L’Ordre Des Architectes — Architectes.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Apr. 2013. <http://www.architectes.org/accueils/cnoa>. 2: “Cost of New Homes to Rise by up to 20%.” New Homes in France – RT2012 Energy Performance Standards. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 May 2013. <http://www.french-property.com/news/build_renovation_france/new_homes_rt_2012/>. 3: “The French Thermal Regulation.” Léconomie Dénergie Par Le Store Textile. Textinergie, 2008. Web. 24 Apr. 2013. <http://www.textinergie.org/>. 4:

Gilliland, Nicholas. “Questions about the Profession.” E-mail interview. 17 Apr. 2013.

5: “The Heart of the Metropolis — Helsinki Central Library Open International Architectural Competition.” Helsinki Central Library Open International Architectural Competition. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Apr. 2013. <http://competition.keskustakirjasto.fi/>. 6: NCARB - NCARB Homepage. Web. 3 Apr. 2013. <http://www.ncarb.org/>. 7: “Ordre Des Architectes.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 08 Apr. 2013. Web. 24 Apr. 2013. <http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ordre_des_architectes>.

PART TWO : working in paris 1: “Jean Nouvel.” The Pritzker Architecture Prize. Web. 13 Apr. 2013. <http://www.pritzkerprize.com/laureates/2008>. 2: “Jean Nouvel.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 04 Aug. 2013. Web. 13 Apr. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean_Nouvel>. 3: “JEAN NOUVEL - ATELIERS.” JEAN NOUVEL - ATELIERS. Web. 13 Apr. 2013. <http://www.jeannouvel.com/>.

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