STUDIO AIR 2018 SEMESTER 2, TUTOR: ISABELLE JOOSTE CHEW MING YI BENEDICT
PART A- CONCEPTUALISATION A.1. DESIGN FUTURING
A.2. DESIGN COMPUTATION
A.5. LEARNING OUTCOMES
A.6. APPENDIX-ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES
PART B- CRITERIA DESIGN B.1. RESEARCH FIELD B.2. CASE STUDY 1 B.3. CASE STUDY 2 B.4. TECHNIQUE: DEVELOPMENT B.5. TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES B.6. TECHNIQUE: PROPOSAL B.7. LEARNING OBJECTIVES & OUTCOMES B.8. APPENDIX-ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES
PART C- DETAILED DESIGN C.1. DESIGN CONCEPT C.2. TECTONICS ELEMENTS & PROTOTYPE C.3. FINAL DETAIL MODEL C.4. LEARNING OBJECTIVES & OUTCOMES REFERENCES
BENEDICT CHEW MING YI
Iâ€™m a 3rd year Architecture student at the University of Melbourne. I am from Singapore. I started my Architectural studies in Singapore Polytechnic and graduated with a Diploma in Architecture. I was a navy diver as well as a mixed martial artist. I occasionally challenge myself by attempting design competitions.
Digital Architecture: I learnt digital architecture through youtube videos, to sharpen my arsenal of tools. I would rely on them in design competitions as it is efficient. Software Knowledge: Revit Autocad Sketchup Rhino Grasshopper Photoshop
A.1. DESIGN FUTURING
“Answering the ‘design futuring’ question actually requires having a clear sense of what design needs to be mobilized for or against. Even more significantly, it means changing our thinking, then how and what we design. Equally, it also requires understanding that the ‘dialectic of sustainment’ is another basic feature of being human. Whenever we bring something into being we also destroy something - the omelette at the cost of the egg, the table at the cost of the tree, through to fossil fuel generated energy at the cost of (1) Hence, designers must analyse different perspectives, beliefs the planet’s atmosphere.” and ideas, bridging a common understanding between the elements which forms “good” designs. How can designers Thus every action has a consequence, so how are we going to capture the essence of these “unbuilt visualisations” as well progress further into the future while deciding which factors to as balance it to the initial concept that gave birth to the idea, sacrifice. Therefore, design is suppose to make things better, without losing its purpose (of making things better) in the will technology aid this logic? The following projects are used process? Is there a way to prepare for future challenges that to demonstrate the architectural ideas captured in designing futuring. may immerge after the completion of the concept? Currently, most designs are ‘future orientated’, planning for what is to come, being prepared for various situations. With that in mind, it gives birth to all sorts of possibilities and ideas. However how many of these ideas are in a sense ‘real’? All these ideas are positioned to improve things for the better, but everyone has their own concept of ‘better’. Are we designing ourselves to death through global warming and other manmade problems through design?
Making things better means that everything is more convenient and faster for human consumption without compromising integrity and sustainability, and this is done through design. Design is an original pre-conceived idea of what an outcome would look like, sometimes abstract, a designated purpose for things to work. Therefore what we designers seek is to estimate and predict intelligently, to design almost every possible outcome, and to not eliminate the concrete origins of the concept, keeping in mind that technology is a tool. However the current problem is neglecting certain information or beliefs that is beneficial to the project, hence the need to find a balance in terms of satisfying a need from a want.
(1)FRY, TONY (2008). DESIGN FUTURING: SUSTAINABILITY, ETHICS AND NEW PRACTICE (OXFORD: BERG)
Shadow play by Howeler + yoon
Design futuring seeks to design and prepare for future circumstances. Shadow play is an innovative pavilion with a future driven approach. Unlike typical pavilions, it seeks to provide unique shading to the public through a digitally crafted model which also sustains itself at night(with its lights). “By transforming a traffic median into a public space, Shadow Play fosters pedestrian life and improves the downtown Phoenix street-scape at Roosevelt Row. Clusters of shade structures create respite from the desert sun by offering a public parasol at an urban scale. Shadow Play’s hovering canopy is formed from an aggregation of identical geometric modules. Each module is fabricated from a steel plate to create a thin but structurally rigid cell. The aggregation of individual cells form clusters that span between vertical supports to create an angular canopy of open cells. The folded steel cells filter the intense sunlight, casting shadows on the ground and creating local microclimate in the shade. The geometry of the canopy maximizes the production of shade and shadow while allowing for (1) breezes and air movement.” “Photovoltaic panels are mounted to the top surface of the canopy, taking advantage of the optimally oriented geometry of the steel cells. Power generated by the photovoltaic panels is stored in batteries, allowing the canopy to be illuminated (2) from within in the evening.” Shadow play uses modular geometrical cells to provide basic thermal and solar comfort to the people in the public space below. Therefore using algorithm design to address human needs. It also addresses environmental change as it powers itself in the night and does not draw power from the city’s grid. Hence shadow play demonstrates how design futuring could be using digital technologies to perform certain functions to solve problems.
(1)(2) © 2015 HÖWELER AND YOON ARCHITECTURE, LLP, SHADOW PLAY (2015) <HTTP://WWW.HOWELERYOON.COM/PROJECTS/SHADOW-PLAY> [ACCESSED 8 AUGUST 2018].
FIG.1: MAIN PERSPECTIVE OF THE SHADOW PLAY
FIG.2: SHADOWS CASTED
FIG.3: MODULAR PANELS COMING TOGETHER
FIG.4: SUN PATH, ON HOW IT AFFECTS THE MODEL
FIG.1, FIG.2, FIG.3, FIG.4: REFERENCE: © 2015 HÖWELER AND YOON ARCHITECTURE, LLP, SHADOW PLAY (2015) <HTTP://WWW.HOWELERYOON.COM/PROJECTS/SHADOW-PLAY> [ACCESSED 8 AUGUST 2018].
ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2015-16
Biomimetic Investigation into Shell Structures By researching into shell structures and biomimicry, design futuring is seen as designing unseen futures. Therefore through intensive research. The ICD/ITKE University of Stuttgart had once again came up with an innovative pavilion displaying its technological capabilities and extensive knowledge in the field of futuristic architecture. Computers had revolutionise the way we work. The ICD/ITKE projects are relevant examples. The 2015-2016 pavilion is made up of timber strips(sewed together through robotics), hence changing the way we see and question about architecture through new ways of construction.
It contributes to design futuring as it displays an in depth study and thought process on how architecture is created even in a simple pavilion. It is revolutionary in the present as not many universities or research centres are expanding into this area. Compared to some unbuilt/visionary projects, this project is actually built, which proves that it is possible to design things that we are not able to predict or see for future designs. Therefore in designing futures, the ICD/ITKE research pavilion embraces its design through math and nature, generating a never before seen piece of architecture.
Digital computing ensured all the components were simulated and programmed for fabrication. If this was done manually, it would have taken a much longer time to realise and design the project, not to mention the errors and possible miscalculation which could set the project back even further. They also revolutionise the use of timber as a bendable material and structure(FIG. 5). ICD/ITKE states that the structure is not just based on the material alone, but the overall composition and form which “locks and rely on one another to stand”. “It demonstrates the morphologic adaptability of the developed system by generating more complex spatial arrangements than a simple shell structure. The research pavilion shows how the computational synthesis of biological principles and the complex reciprocities between material, form and robotic fabrication can lead to innovative timber construction methods. This multidisciplinary research approach does not only lead to performative and material efficient lightweight structure, it also explores novel spatial qualities and expands the (5) tectonic possibilities of wood architecture.” (3) (4) (5) THE INSTITUTE FOR COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN (ICD) AND THE INSTITUTE OF BUILDING STRUCTURES AND STRUCTURAL DESIGN (ITKE) OF THE UNIVERSITY OF STUTTGART, ICD/ITKE RESEARCH PAVILION 2015-16 (2016) <HTTP://ICD.UNI-STUTTGART.DE/?P=16220> [ACCESSED 8 AUGUST 2018]. CONCEPTUALISATION 9
FIG.5: MAIN EXTERNAL VIEW OF PAVILLION
FIG.6: TESTING THE FLEXIBILITY OF A MATERIAL
FIG.7: EXPLORING DIFFERENT STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS PROCESS
FIG.5, FIG.6, FIG.7 REFERENCE: THE INSTITUTE FOR COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN (ICD) AND THE INSTITUTE OF BUILDING STRUCTURES AND STRUCTURAL DESIGN (ITKE) OF THE UNIVERSITY OF STUTTGART, ICD/ITKE RESEARCH PAVILION 2015-16 (2016) <HTTP://ICD.UNI-STUTTGART.DE/?P=16220> [ACCESSED 8 AUGUST 2018]. 10
A.2. DESIGN COMPUTATION
Design Computation vs Design computerisation There is a big difference between computation and computerisation. Computerisation is using computers to generate the already designed idea in mind, while computation is using digital means to design and take things further then the human mind can imagine. “Scripting as a driving force for 21st century architectural thinking”-Burry The architecture industry we see today was created around the 1450s where it broke off and became its own form of profession. Prior to that, buildings in the thirteen century was built by master masons and craftsmen where it required a lot of people. Before the Renaissance, masons were confined to the knowledge of what they learnt as an apprentice, hence limiting the possibilities to just their experience. In the recent years, technology has been evolving at a rapid pace, enhancing our daily lives. It is the same for architectural design, it has changed so much over the years. With the aid of computers, design can be generated faster through digital renderings, plans, sections etc. A clear-cut communication of what is expected to be built translated into specific drawings and models. With computation, designers can now design things that were just visions in the past and bring them to life. Computers can code, script, render, generate, data log, and track every single component that is in the prototype model. However, a computer needs a set of instructions to function and without a human it would be useless. Humans can design and adjust to the situation. Therefore, uniting the two would be an upward force of synergy, which leverage on positive points from both sides-humans and machine. Computation contribute to performance-orientated design as it is more efficient than humans when it handles large amounts of data, this allows designers(humans) to focus on other important factors requiring their attention.
Ever since design was separated from construction, architects were not really part of the construction site. With technology, they can assume their roles as master builders once more as now they can program a realm for the building. With such techniques, it allows a smooth transparent work flow with the engineers, contractors and clients (from photo-realistic renders to a simulated environment). It allows robots to mass fabricate parts that will be impossible to make by hand. As computation is affecting the way architecture behaves, it gives rise to a new breed of buildings. Therefore, the research project of ICD-ITKE Research Pavilion 2013-14 and the Wooden Orchids-Green shopping centre are perfect examples of architecture and computation. “Drawings and scale models allowed architects not only to communicate with the builders and their clients, but also to experiment with alternative design solutions and test them on paper for form and function before they were committed to stone. They allowed more people to become involved in the design process and allowed the architects to develop (1) more intricate designs.”
(1) KALAY, YEHUDA E. (2004). ARCHITECTURE’S NEW MEDIA: PRINCIPLES, THEORIES, AND METHODS OF COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN (CAMBRIDGE, MA: MIT PRESS), PP. 5-25
ICD-ITKE Research Pavilion 2013-14
When it comes to design computation and design computing. Pavilions from the ICD/ITKE would normally come to mind. Hence my case study would arrive at this particular pavilion design(2013-2014 pavilion), as it is a solid example of how design computing is employed in the entire process. “The pavilion is based on biomimicry and robotics fabrication. With advancements in technology and a diverse team, the pavilion was designed to push boundaries and limits in architecture. There are 36 modular panels which are made of glass fibre weave. It affects the design process as (1) it heavily relies on grasshopper and C sharp programming.” Computation affects its outcome as its structure and environmental properties were digitally analysed to create the best possible outcome. The research pavilion combines computational logic of biology and structure. With the use of robotic fabrication, it can lead to the generation of glass fibre composite construction methods.
As Shown in FIG. 2, Panels are decided based on algorithmic data and physics, which creates it based on natural logic. It enhances the notion of “form follow function”, as now we are able to calculate beforehand what kind of functions is going to exist in the space as well as experiment with digital outcomes which was not available before technology. While being engaged in such advance processes, it is difficult to scale this type of projects for commercial use, as it is still fairly new. In my opinion, it is a work of innovation but it lacks support by many as it may be too costly, since most of the architecture industry(as well as all economic industries) are profit driven. Therefore the pavilion is a success even-though it is small in nature.
A total 36 individual elements were fabricated, whose geometries are based on structural principles abstracted from the beetle elytra(FIG.3). Each part has an individual fibre layout which results in a material efficient load-bearing system depending on each other to stand. “Through the development of computational design and simulation tools, both the robotic fabrication characteristics and the abstracted biomimetic principles could be simultaneously integrated in the design process. Glass and carbon fibre reinforced polymers were chosen as building material, due to their high performance qualities (high strength to weight ratio) and the potential to generate differentiated material properties through fibre placement variation. Together with their unrestrained moldability, fibre reinforced polymers are suitable to implement the complex geometries and material organizations of the abstracted (3) natural construction principles.” (1)(2)(3)The Institute for Computational Design (ICD) and the Institute of Building Structures and Structural Design (ITKE) of the University of Stuttgart, ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2013-14 (2014) <http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=11187> [accessed 2 August 2018]. 12
FIG.1: MAIN PERSPECTIVE OF THE PAVILLION
FIG.2: DIGITAL PROCESS THAT TEST AND EXPERIMENT WITH THE WEAVING STRUCTURE & PANELS
FIG.3: STRUCTURE STUDIES BASED ON THE BEETLE
FIG.1, FIG.2 REFERENCE: The Institute for Computational Design (ICD) and the Institute of Building Structures and Structural Design (ITKE) of the University of Stuttgart, ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2013-14 (2014) <http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=11187> [accessed 2 August 2018].
“Wooden Orchids” Green Shopping Center
Wooden Orchids uses numeric sequences that is present in nature, numeric equations and principles such as the golden section and biomimetic patterns. It uses prefabricated wooden structures to enhance the visual effect of an orchid’s petal. This single petal cell is then multiplied 6 times which creates visual voids between the cells, it is then connected by bridges. “The cells themselves employ additive and subtractive (1) processes in response to their programs. “ “In addition, each division of the site maintains a unique character enhanced by its own biodiversity and colours, while a network of bicycle and pedestrian paths creates an (2) internal linkage system.” In terms of design computing vs computation. This project would classify as computing. This is because it takes a set of “rules” from nature and program its overall space and form, thus resulting in the change of architectural tectonics and form. I feel that such projects are underrated. This project had a heavy grasshopper modelling influence. It addresses its form finding through cell boxes, multiplication and sets of replicated arrays. With such a straight forward process, it speeds up production(if it is to be built) and saves valuable time for everyone. “Additional strides toward eco-responsibility are made (3) through the shops’ digital and organic emphasis.” Its thought process and concept is based on multiplying cells or cell growth. This proves that computing can play an important role in designing commercial large scale buildings, not just research pavilions.
(1)(2)(3) HOLLY GIERMANN, VINCENT CALLEBAUT PROPOSES “WOODEN ORCHIDS” GREEN SHOPPING CENTER FOR CHINA (2014) <HTTPS://WWW.ARCHDAILY. COM/635899/VINCENT-CALLEBAUT-PROPOSES-WOODEN-ORCHIDS-GREEN-SHOPPING-CENTER-FOR-CHINA> [ACCESSED 8 AUGUST 2018].
FIG.3: MAIN EXTERNAL PERSPECTIVE OF THE BUILDING
FIG.4: ORCHID BLOCK TESSELLATION
FIG.5: JOINING THE VARIOUS BLOCKS TO GENERATE A WHOLE
FIG.6: 1ST & 2ND FLOOR PLAN
FIG.7: SITE PLAN
FIG.3, FIG. 4, FIG. 5, FIG. 6, FIG. 7 REFERENCE: HOLLY GIERMANN, VINCENT CALLEBAUT PROPOSES “WOODEN ORCHIDS” GREEN SHOPPING CENTER FOR CHINA (2014) <HTTPS://WWW.ARCHDAILY.COM/635899/VINCENT-CALLEBAUTPROPOSES-WOODEN-ORCHIDS-GREEN-SHOPPING-CENTER-FOR-CHINA> [ACCESSED 8 AUGUST 2018].
A.3. COMPOSITION and GENERATION
Architectural literature and practice changed dramatically when it was shifted from composition to generation. However there are advantages and disadvantages to new tectonic shifts in architectural design. Composition is understood as an overall make up or blue print of the design. This normally implies that the end product is somewhat fixed and rigid to the original idea. This exist in most traditional architectural buildings as the idea is thought of, and not developed along the way. With computation, it allows designers to make well informed decisions based on digital and scientific knowledge which will affect the overall tectonic of the architecture. It is no longer about translating a drawing to sculpture, but a formal method that literally “generate” the building based on logic. “An algorithm is a recipe, method, or technique for doing something. The essential feature of an algorithm is that it is made up of a finite set of rules or operations that are unambiguous and simple to follow (computer scientists use technical terms for these two properties: definite and effective, respectively). It is obvious from this definition that the notion of an algorithm is somewhat imprecise, a (3) feature it shares with all foundational mathematical ideas.” With a set of given rules, we are able to break down complex designs in parts that is string together by logical outcomes. Through these rules, newly generated forms surface in the world of design, forms that were not thought of before. When generating new designs, the computer would take the work load away from the designer, therefore allowing the designer to outsource such task to machines and allow them to focus on other key areas in the design/research. The following 2 projects will demonstrate the change from traditional design composition to generation. (3) DEFINITION OF ‘ALGORITHM’ IN WILSON, ROBERT A. AND FRANK C. KEIL, EDS (1999). THE MIT ENCYCLOPEDIA OF THE COGNITIVE SCIENCES (LONDON: MIT PRESS), PP. 11
AA [C]Space Pavilion
“[C]Space is the winning entry in the AADRL10 Pavilion Competition. It is an advanced technology concrete structure that was erected in Bedford Square London in March 2008 to commemorate the 10 year anniversary of the Design Research Laboratory Graduate Design Program at (4) the Architectural Association.” Similar to ICD/ITKE, it is also a design research project. The design and construction of the pavilion made an extensive use of digital modelling and fabrication techniques to manage over 850 uniquely shaped pieces and 3000 joints of varying angles.(6) The main focus of the project was being people orientated. Its thought process triggered various outlooks for the pavilion, such as a place for people to rest, work, play and celebrate. By digital generation, it allows the designers to decide factors such as openings and dimensions. “As you move around, the surface varies from opaque to transparent, producing a stunning three-dimensional moiré. The surface encloses while also providing a route through for passing pedestrians. It has neither inside nor outside.” (5) This pavilion, unlike other research pavilion, is focused on the experiential journey of the space. It is not the usual biomimicry or structure based story that dictates the form and (maybe) function. With user experience as its design core, thermal and physics studies were conducted to research on how people would react and use the space in comfort. Therefore I feel that this project is generated and not composed as it invokes a deep thought process that only digital algorithmic studies can produce such rigorous research data on how to solve the issue.
(4)(5)(6) MARCUS FAIRS , [C]SPACE PAVILION BY ALAN DEMPSEY AND ALVIN HUANG (2007) <HTTPS://WWW.DEZEEN.COM/2007/11/04/ CSPACE-PAVILION-BY-ALAN-DEMPSEY-AND-ALVIN-HUANG/> [ACCESSED 8 AUGUST 2018].
FIG.1: NATURAL SUNLIGHT PENETRATING INTO THE SPACE
FIG.4: STRUCTURAL RESEARCH OF EACH INDIVIDUAL COMPONENT
FIG.1, FIG.2, FIG.3, FIG.4 REFERENCE: SYNTHESIS DESIGN + ARCHITECTURE, [C]SPACE PAVILION (2008) <HTTPS:// ARCHINECT.COM/SYNTHESISDNA/PROJECT/C-SPACE-PAVILION> [ACCESSED 8 AUGUST 2018].
FIG.2: NIGHT VIEW OF THE PAVILLION
FIG.3: HOW THE PAVILION IS BEING GENERATED
Flotsam & Jetsam
Flotsam & Jetsam, mimics the beach of Miami, but also the city’s emergent function as a centre for creative visioning and technological discovery. To help realize Flotsam & Jetsam, SHoP utilises a Chattanooga-based fabrication firm that is working to bring 3D printing out of the realm of prototyping and table-top production and into broader use as a full-scale, practical means of construction. In terms of generative architecture, it is digitally prototyped and produced for construction, thus without generative technologies, it is impossible to prepare and plan for construction, hence we are (1) seeing generative architecture in the process of building.
FIG.5: MATH & PHYSICS RESEARCH OF THE GENERATED FORM
It relied on optimisation software to work out each component, leading to the final outcome. “You have to ask what’s the least amount of material we can use to make something that’s optimized for the structure. 3D printing has no geometric limitations in that sense, so we were able to go after this amorphic sculptural form,” Rebecca Caillouet, a senior (2) associate at SHoP. The architectural designer used Branch’s Cellular Fabrication (C-Fab) technology due to the “speed of fabrication, customized flexibility with 3D printing, production cost, and installation time frame.” This fabrication method would save time and speed up the process in terms of design. This means that the end product will be polished in terms of refinement and process of the design which is accelerated due to the (3) fabrication process.
FIG.6: INTERNAL VIEW OF PAVILION
(1) SHOP ARCHITECTS, FLOTSAM & JETSAM (2016) <HTTPS://WWW.ARCHITECTMAGAZINE.COM/PROJECT-GALLERY/FLOTSAM-JETSAM_O> [ACCESSED 8 AUGUST 2018]. (2) HADEER SHAHIN, “FLOTSAM AND JETSAM” WILL CELEBRATE WINNING THE WORLD RECORDS’ LARGEST 3D PRINTED STRUCTURE THIS YEAR’S DESIGN MIAMI. (2016) <HTTPS://WWW. ARCH2O.COM/FLOTSAM-JETSAM-WILL-CELEBRATE-WINNING-WORLD-RECORDS-LARGEST-3D-PRINTED-STRUCTURE-YEARS-DESIGN-MIAMI/> [ACCESSED 8 AUGUST 2018]. (3) COREY CLARKE, BRANCH TECHNOLOGY UNVEILS SHOP ARCHITECTS’ 3D PRINTED PAVILION AT DESIGN MIAMI (2017) <HTTPS://3DPRINTINGINDUSTRY.COM/ NEWS/BRANCH-TECHNOLOGY-UNVEILS-SHOP-ARCHITECTS-3D-PRINTED-PAVILION-DESIGN-MIAMI-103486/> [ACCESSED 8 AUGUST 2018].
Overall, in terms of composition vs generation, I think that this project is generative in nature as it is shaped by fabrication and construction which is normally a process after the composition. As they said that 3D printing has no limitations, it is possible to program and script forms that the human mind could not even visualise or compose. I feel that it is possible to model such a design in maya or 3dmax, however there is no logical scientific studies to support those modelling decisions(if they were modelled in those kind of software). Therefore through these 2 case studies, I now have a better understanding of generative design and how it affects and dictates the process and outcome.
FIG.7: GENERATIVE STRUCTURAL WEAVE OF THE EXTERIOR
FIG.8: MAIN EXTERNAL PERSPECTIVE
FIG.5, FIG.6, FIG.7, FIG.8, REFERENCE: COREY CLARKE, BRANCH TECHNOLOGY UNVEILS SHOP ARCHITECTSâ€™ 3D PRINTED PAVILION AT DESIGN MIAMI (2017) <HTTPS://3DPRINTINGINDUSTRY.COM/NEWS/BRANCH-TECHNOLOGY-UNVEILS-SHOP-ARCHITECTS-3D-PRINTED-PAVILION-DESIGN-MIAMI-103486/> [ACCESSED 8 AUGUST 2018].
A.4. CONCLUSION As I conclude part A, I feel that parametric digital design is key to develop new styles and ideas in design. It not just serve as a form finder, but as a research tool, data analysis as well as scripted instructions to pass on to the production robotics. Through design futuring, design computing/computation, and composition & generation, I now understand the importance and efficiency of programming and technology. This proves that by relying on a digital process, it helps me realize potential design flaws and ideas through the generative computing process. I feel that for the next phase of the project, I would like to focus on structural design, drawing key concepts from a logical structure view point. I believe that some digital concepts are too abstract, and I feel that there is a need to re-emphasize its main skeleton structure that supports the whole architecture, in a sense acting as a â€˜back boneâ€™ cornerstone to the design.
A.5. LEARNING OUTCOMES Before this studio, my only experience with grasshopper and parametric digital design is through certain architectural competitions and youtube. I feel that I am more confident in grasshopper and would like to explore the various functions. The case studies provided me with a background knowledge on how the project is being made, not just the aesthetic end looking product. It was difficult to break the classic design thinking in this studio as its ideas are fresh and unorthodox in nature. Understanding the various components was like learning a new language. However with the struggle, I learnt so many things that I never thought off. With this improved understanding about the topic, I think it is possible to tackle environmental issues and problems through architectural programming. All these case studies and theories will come in handy in the following weeks leading up to the final design. Therefore I am more confident in using algorithms to design for the given client in Part B.
A.6. ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES