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TOWARDS A NATURAL ARCHITECTURE


site Greenpoint, Brooklyn Towards a ‘Natural’ Architecture. Humanity has gone through great lengths to create an artificially built environment to inhabit. This necessary piece of our system, unfortunately has adverse affects on the primary system we serve; that of Earth (i.e. ecology. biology) Earth in itself is a system which completes itself through cycles, sensitively balanced throughout. Humankind’s course thus far has been ultimately linear, and such is our way of producing and consuming. We must understand the biological systems sustaining mother nature, Earth itself. Humans can apply the tenets of balance or ‘self-completing cycles’ of production and consumption to the built world we so desire to live in. In this discovery however, sensitivity to the primary system is most important. A method for moving forward in either complete cohesion or total isolation must be designed. I propose the latter as the safer choice, to both the benefit of the Earth and comfort of humans. A system separated both figuratively and literally, by edges of worlds, built and organic fields, distinguised by mediating borders containing systems supporting its inhabitants.


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ZONING MAP

FLOOD ZONES

WATER RISE IN THE YEAR 2050

CONCEPT DIAGRAM


DENSITY OF AIR POLLUTION

PROGRAM DIAGRAM


Newtown Creek

ge l ed stria tland f we ndu he i miles o ow t is n ce 3.8 s on

t wa

wha

ED N N W O O D N G A R AB OVE


Maritime and Industrial Zone

1891 vs. 2012 Clean marshland to polluted airway

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS


58% of NyC Waste Transfer


A Brief Timeline of Newtown Creek History - Early history. Native Americans called the creek, where they fished and swam, Mispat, which means “overflowing tidal stream” or “bad water place,” depending on which historian you believe. At that time, the creek was large enough that it had islands. - Early 15th Century. The Dutch begin to settle Manhattan.

- 1630s on. Dutch and English settle the creek, and - 1638. The Dutch West India Company purchases the land around the creek for New Amsterdam. set up farms, as well as some early industry, along both banks. - 1613. Dutch survey Newtown Creek.

- Some historians claim this early activity makes the Creek the oldest industrial waterway in the United States. - 18th century. More farming! - 1850. Neziah Bliss (for whom Blissville is named) built the Blissville drawbridge to Greenpoint (later rere placed laced by Greenpoint Avenue Bridge). This would lead to the industrialization of Greenpoint, which would soon house shipbuilding, printing, pottery, glassworks, and foundries. - 1866. The Laurel Hill Chemical Works is founded in Maspeth. The company would go on to develop numernumer ous important innovations in chemical and copper manufacturing and contribute to the fortunes of both Allied Chemical and the Phelps Dodge Corporation well into the 20th century. - 1867. First modern oil refinery in the US opens on the creek.

--11870. 870. John D. Rockefeller opens what will come to be known as Sta Standard Oil, on the Ne

- 1978. The Coast Guard observes a plume of oil in Newtown Creek coming from the end of Meeker

Avenue. Upon investigation, the full scale of the Standard Oil (now ExxonMobil, Chevron/Texaco, and BP)

17 – 30 million gallons of oil has been released into Newtown Creek

leak discovered in 1950 becomes apparent:

- 1980s. Areas of Greenpoint begin a slow process of conversion from industrial to residential uses. Several sites in the Newtown Creek area are designated Federal or State Superfund sites. Industrial activity will clean up significantly over the next decades. - 1992. Newtown Creek is designated a Significant Maritime Industrial Area (SMIA) by the City, mean to foster the continued growth of water-dependent industrial uses, which are increasingly difficult to site in NYC. - 2005. Greenpoint/Williamsburg rezoning. Environmental impact statement anticipates additional population of 16,700 people and net loss of 1 million square feet of existing industrial capacity. Even so, East Williamsburg alone employs 15,000 workers.

- 2005. Meeker Avenue Plume is discovered. The decades old contamination is made up of several large plumes of toxic chemicals under East Williamsburg, which release volatile gases into the homes and businesses above. It is now a state Superfund site. - 2009. Newtown Creek Wastewater Treatment Plant upgrade and expansion completed. Nature Walk along creek is opened to the public.

-2010. The designation of Newtown Creek as Federal Superfund site by US Department of Environmental Protection.

wtown Creek.

- 1900. Rockefeller owns over 100 oil distilleries on both sides of the creek. Both sides of the creek are now lined with shipyards, foundries, industrial food processors, and fabric and paper mills. - Standard Oil’s distilleries were good for the economy, but they also spewed on average 30,000 gallons of industrial effluent each week, most of it directly into the creek. Environmental regulation did not exist until the 20th century.

58% of nyc waste transfer +5.6

PAH

-1.3

21,000 ug/kg

- 1920s – 1930s. The creek is a major shipping hub. Its banks are widened, deepened, and bulkheaded to accommodate bigger boats.

- 1950. The explosion of a reinforced concrete sewer in Greenpoint reveals a massive underground oil spill at Standard Oil. - 1967. Newtown Creek Wastewater Treatment Plant constructed. - 1970. The US Environmental Protection Agency is formed. The era of handling industrial waste by disposing of it in the creek is over

- 1978. The Coast Guard observes a plume of oil in Newtown Creek coming from the end of Meeker

o2 < 1 mg/L

continous dredging to remove 15ft of sludge 170 acres of contaminated sediment


BioMass

Terra


arium

Housing


BioMass

Biofuel is sent through the main pipe to the housing blocks

Combustion occurs at the Oxidizer

4

3 5

Steam from the boiler powers the turbine for electricity

2 Mulchified wastes are sent to the gasifier.

1 Organic wastes from the farm stored beneath the hopper. Delivered over the footbridge from the terrarium


r

Calculating a BioMass Plant Amount of Waste

nt

me

classification

recyclables foodwaste metal wood

scale/measure volume

In Greenpoint

16,000 Homes

Average kW/Home

Wattage of Plant Average demand is 2kW/Home

In Greenpoint

16,000 Homes

@ 2kW/Home 1 MW / 500 HOMES 32,000 kW/16,000 H

32 mW / 16,00

ideal size: determined by allowable space 25 mW 130,000 c3 volume for biomatter

@ 2kW/Home 1 MW / 500 HOMES 32,000 kW/16,000 Homes

32 mW / 16,000

idea

Service 12,500 Homes


BioMass 4. Boiler The boiler produces hot steam to send to the back pressure turbine for electricity.

5. ESP After exiting the boiler the flue gas is cleaned in an electrostatic precipitator to remove up to 98% of particulate.

3. Oxidizer The syngas is conveyed into the oxidizer where it is combusted with the resulting flue gas directed through a boiler. 2. Gasifier Fuel is proc drying, pyr wood is con be used to natural gas

Stack

4

Electric Turbine

5

3 2

1


DRY ALGAE EXCESS SOLD

EXCESS SOLIDS TO SAND BEDS FEED

CARBOHYDRATE AND OTHER ANIMAL FEEDS

STOCK WATER

DIGESTED SOLIDS COW (1) URINE & MANURE CHICKENS (50) MANURE

URINE & MANURE WASTED FOOD

MILK AND EGGS

ANAEROBIC FERMENTATION

EXCESS RAIN OVERFLOW ALGAE WATER

ALGAE GROWTH SYSTEM

SUPERNATANT

SEDIMENTATION

VAPOR

SOLAR STILL DISTILLED WATER

RAIN

GAS STORAGE

DISTILLED WATER STORAGE

DRINK WASH

cessed in stages including rolysis and gasification. The nverted into “syngas” that can displace energy produced by s. 1. Fuel In-Feed Organic waste (inluding bark, mill residue, clena recycled construction material) is loaded into the fuel bin and conveyed to a metering in near the gasifier.

MAKE-UP WATER

SOIL CONDITIONER (CROPS)

COOKING SYSTEM WATER CLOSET

FOOD PREPARATION

REFRIGERATION ILLUMINATION

HAND PUMP

DRINKING

FLUSH WATER

URINE & FECES SURPLUS SOLD

HUMANS (4)

MILK AND EGGS

RICE, CEREAL, VEGETABLES & SPICES (PURCHASED)

Returning the site to a wetland

N

REM

E

TIO DIA

G

PIN

P CA

LAY F C URED OO PR TE PO R E T CRE WA IN ’ CON TH OF ITH 3 R E W LAY PED P CA

ND

LL S

I INF

OR

F OIL

TLA WE


Terrarium herbs

wheat

sourghum

Crops collected are used on site. Wastes are stored in the biomass plant.


Public Terrarium and park, for the preservation of nature

Sourghum, Wheat, and Herb farming


Housing Incentives

Allowable square footage of one structural bay: 3-4 floors with 12 units each

9600ft2

Housing

Total square footage:

28,800ft2


Projected Income

2013 Average $1500/sqft. Average return for one structural bay outfitted with housing

$43,200,000


A system under the guise Components of nature -Redtwig Dogwood

-Water Hyaconth

-Maiden Hair Furns

-Hornbeam

-Cattail

-Sedges

-Rushes


Thesis Portfolio  

My final thesis project at NYIT in Manhattan. Completed on May 13, 2013.

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