Vol XXVII No.3
B 73 B
March 1973 No. 305
CONTENTS List of Club Officers
The Webbing knot
ELECTRONICS FOR CAVING
Odd and Ends
Caving Reports Review
Monthly Crossword No. 32
Any views expressed by any contributor to the Belfry Bulletin, including those of officers of the club, do not necessarily coincide with those of the editor or the committee of the Bristol Exploration Club, unless stated as being the view of the committee or editor. CLUB HEADQUARTERS ‘The Belfry’, Wells Rd., Priddy, Wells, Somerset. Tele: WELLS 72126 CLUB COMMITTEE Chairman: S.J. Collins Minutes Sec: R. Bennett Members: R. Bagshaw; D.J. Irwin; M.J. Palmer; N. Jago; T.E. Large; A.R. Thomas; R. Orr. OFFICERS OF THE CLUB Hon. Secretary: A.R. THOMAS, Allen’s House, Nine Barrows Lane, Priddy, Wells, Somerset. PRIDDY 269. Hon. Treasurer: R.J. BAGSHAW, 699 Wells Road, Knowle, Bristol 4. Tel: WHITCHURCH. 5626. Caving Sec: T.E. LARGE, 39 Seymour Ave, Bishopston, Bristol. Climbing Sec: N. Jago, 27 Quantock Rd, Windmill Hill, Bedminster, Bristol 3. Hut Warden: R. ORR. ‘The Belfry’, as above. Assit H.W. N. YAYLOR, Whiddon, Chilcote, Somerset. Tel. WELLS 72338. Hut Engineer: R. HOBBS, Rose Cottage, West End, Nailsea, Bristol. Tacklemaster: M.A PALMER. 27 Roman Way, Paulton, BS18 5XB B.B. Editor: S.J. COLLINS, Lavender Cottage, Bishop Sutton, Nr. Bristol. Librarian: D.J. IRWIN, Townsend Cottage, Priddy, Wells, Somerset. Tel: PRIDDY 369. Pbs. (Sales) C, Howell, 131 Sandon Rd., Edgbaston, Birminham. Publications: D.J. IRWIN. Address as above B.B. Post: Mrs. K. Mansfield, Tiny Kott, Little London, Oakhill, Bath, Somerset. MENDIP RESCUE ORGANISATION. In case of emergency telephone WELLS 73481
Editorial ALL IN PICTURES? What with a cave survey; some tips on tying knots and a page of yer actual music, this B.B. threatens to become more of a picture that a written magazine. Never mind, it's variety that counts! CATCHING UP For a number of reasons, the B.B. has been approximately a month behind itself this year. It is planned to catch up over the next month, and this in effect means that we shall have to try to produce a B.B. a fortnight for this and the next two issues. I would therefore like to make a special plea for material of all sorts. It is quite surprising how much manuscript condenses itself into a single issue of the B.B., so if you have anything which you think worth sending, please send it. AND HANGING ON Which may sound surprising to a few authors who have sent in a copy which has not yet been published. I have not had time to reply individually, but one author who has sent in a long article will see it in print as soon as the caving political climate is right, and a fine crossword will appear later this year when the present stock of pre-printed monthly crosswords gets a suitable gap in it. “Alfie” _______________________________________________________________________________________
The Webbing Knot
From time to time we publish basic information on useful knots for club members. Here is a knot described by NIGEL JAGO - our Climbing Secretary.
I have been asked by a few members of the club to describe how to tie nylon webbing - or 'tape' as it is known. I have attempted to draw the knot used together with a brief explanation. TYING THE BASIC WEBBING KNOT The knot is basically an overhand knot with the opposite end of the length of tape threaded around the knot. The first stage is to form an overhand knot in one end of the length of webbing, as shown below:-
Such a knot pulls up into the shape shown in the next diagram. If the loose end ‘B’ is passed underneath the end ‘A’ and through the knot already formed, it will appear on top of the existing knot at 2, 3, 4 and 5 as shown loosely in the final diagram. To be on the safe side, at least an inch and a half of tape should lie outside the knot at 'A' and 'B' when completed and tightened up. The knot should be bounced on with a person’s weight to tighten it. Ends of the nylon webbing should always be sealed with a flame. ALWAYS check a knot before use.
_______________________________________________________________________________________ SUB-COMMITTEE ON VOTING PROCEDURES This sub-committee has completed its task, and some preliminary results were shown to the committee, including a very fine new voting form. Their final report will be to hand in the near future but, on the evidence so far presented, there seems to be every chance of the main committee endorsing their report. A vote of thanks was recorded to Mike Palmer for the work of the sub-committee. _______________________________________________________________________________________ SUB - COMMITTEE ON USE OF BELFRY FACILITIES Members are reminded that Jock Orr has been given the task by the Committee of forming a subcommittee to look into the use of Belfry Facilities and to place its recommendations before the general committee. Any members who have useful thoughts on the above subject should get in touch with Jock as soon as possible.
28 Editor’s Note: We have had a letter from GEORGE HONEY, who, as most members will know live in Sweden. He has been interested in scientific cave prospecting for some long time, and sends the article that follows. He hopes that it will stimulate some of our more scientifically minded members to reply.
Electronics for Caving Electronics could be used fro three main functions in connection with caving – Communication, Position Location and Cave Finding. The first thing to do is to set the boundary conditions, and those I propose for a start would be:Rock Depth Power
Homogeneous limestone. By this I mean solid pure limestone with no vertical or horizontal faults and no mineral strata. 100 metres (300ft approx.) maximum. I feel that for ease of transport, it would be as well to limit this to 6 watts as a continuous demand. This requires a power source of about the same size and weight as a miner’s battery.
General Remarks Any form of information transfer between two unconnected places must use magnetic or electric fields or both. Unfortunately, limestone presents a severe obstruction to the passage of radio signals, an obstruction which becomes rapidly worse with increase of frequency. This means that we must consider non-radio transmission. (i.e. magnetic or conductive) or use very low frequencies below 1Mhz. Recently, there has been much interest in such low frequency communication. Communication A telephone is of course the simplest way of communicating from surface to cave. It suffers, however, from several disadvantages. In a waterproof box it is relatively bulky; large amounts of cable have to be laid; and the system deteriorates rapidly if left underground. In comparison with a telephone, small walkietalkies have obvious advantages. In the spring of 1966, several tests were carried out in St. Cuthbert’s. These involved the use of 140Mhz transceivers; 27Mhz transceivers and 200Khz receiver. The results of these tests were that communication was lost in the highest frequency case that of he 140Mhz sets, at the bottom of the entrance drainpipe. The next sets, those operating at 27Mhz, lost communication about ten feet further in, at the top of the entrance pitch. The low frequency receiver obtained results from the Dining Room. A test was then made laying a single piece of thin bell wire (insulated) from the surface to the top of Arête Pitch. Good communication was then obtained on 27Mhz but none at all on 40Mhz. Considering the size, cost and availability, it would thus seem wire guided radio system is a feasible proposition at the present. Since transmission is not involved, I doubt if there would be any pressure from the G.P.O. to have such a system licensed. The thin piece of wire could well be hidden behind rocks and left permanently in position, and the best positions for communication in each chamber could be suitably marked. Because of the extremely low cost (about £3) and portability, this system (using low powered Japanese W/T's) lends itself to cave rescue work and large 'pushing' operations where surface support is needed. In fact, it would be possible to wire a number of caves together to a central rescue point. If lead wires are not to be used, then this leaves either radio communication using very low frequencies or magnetic communication using audio frequencies. The first of these two would require a G.P.O. licence, but this aspect will not be dealt with in this article. Basically, the lower the frequency, the better for maximum transmission through rock. This leads, however, to other problems such as large antenna size and low modulation index. From a quick search of the low frequency bands, both 120Khz and 80Khz appear to be free from navigational transmissions, so I would pick 120Khz for a start and make a fairly sensitive receiver which need be no bigger than a small pocket transistor radio. Transmission poses another problem. One can
29 either choose a frame aerial or a ferrite rod aerial. The frame aerial would be more efficient but would have to be made about three feet square and presumably made to fold up. The ferrite rod is compact and a transmitter could be made no larger than six inches cubed. There are, however, problems of modulation system and maximum drive power before saturation occurs. Prospecting and Surveying We must assume that the first step in cave location would be a careful study of the geological and contour maps of the area under investigation. This is likely to reveal watersheds; surface watercourses; strata declination and faulting. In simple terms, this study would give one a good idea of where to start looking. The next problem is one of magnitude. How large is the surveyed area to be and what size of abnormalities which could be due to caves is it hoped to find? These are to some extent conflicting requirements since one would want to cover as large an area as possible while at the same time looking for as small an irregularity as possible. A number of methods are theoretically possible. A list of some of them is given below:1. Infra-red photography using planes or satellites. 2. Thermo detectors plugged into the ground. 3. Gravitational surveys. 4. Resistivity surveys. 5. Seismic surveys. 6. Magnetometric surveys. 7. Vertical electromagnetic survey, similar to that used on Apollo 17. The feasibility of any of these methods must include expense, and I would imagine that any method involving the use if aircraft or satellites are out of the question without some form of government interest. The other methods need not be too costly, but would involved teams of people on long and laborious ground traverses plus the time taken on the interpretation of results. A short review of feasible methods follows:1. Cavities near the surface, or actual entrances would show up immediately on an infra red survey as anomalies. The depth limitation is unknown and the method expensive. 2. Requires a very large number of detectors to obtain any meaningful information. Could be used in conjunction with 1 to obtain further information on small selected areas. 3. It has been rumoured that a sufficiently sensitive gravimeter can be home-built. Would require a two man walking survey. 4. Resistivity surveying needs relatively cheap equipment but many people to carry out the survey, moving the stakes forward about twenty feet at a time. Given enough dedicated people; a fine day and walkie-talkie equipment, a fairly large area could be covered. Details, however, will be poor unless many close interval cross-surveys are carried out. 5. I have no details, but it is known that explosive detonations are not required. Hitting the rock surface with a large hammer may provide a great enough shock-wave. I do not know the cost a geophones and recording system. 6. This requires surveys spaced at twenty foot intervals. A two-man instrument can be cheaply made. Small fissures may give no significant change in vertical field, whilst more bodies may give misleading results. A proton Precession Magnetometer may be simply made, consisting as it does of a bottle of water with sensing and drive coils and a frequency monitor.
30 7. Electromagnetic sounding seems to have possibilities especially as we now have details of Apollo 17 and can get more technical details as required. Recording and interpretation may well be the problem, and this must be looked into. In conclusion, I feel that all of the above methods are applicable and, if some coordinating body could be formed, some real progress could be made on determining the most effective method to be employed. _______________________________________________________________________________________ George also sends some literature on the Apollo 17 experiments and some references which may be useful and which can be made available to any interested members. Perhaps "Prew", "Sett" or any of the members who have looked into these problems in the past might care to reply to this article in a future issue of the B.B.? _______________________________________________________________________________________
by D.J. Irwin and D. stuckey
A sketch and some notes on a new survey of this cave which will be available to members through the survey scheme in due course at about 10p.
As no survey was currently available through the survey scheme, it was felt that one of the best known minor caves Mendip should be surveyed to a reasonably high grade. The only widely distributed survey was by the Stride brothers in 1944, and this was published in the Mendip Caves book number 3 (1). Another version of the Stridesâ€™ survey appeared in British Caver in 1944 (2) having a scale 1 inch to 13.3 feet! No indication of accuracy was quoted. A smaller section of the Water Chamber and Paradise is to be found in the S.S.S.S. manuscript Caving Log for 2.11.1947 - but this is not generally accessible to cavers. The new survey was produced in three trips by members of the B.E.C., but is not complete. Purgatory has been blocked for nearly ten years and has not been re-opened by the surveying team. Perhaps some enterprising caver with time on his hands will set to and re-open this sporting section of the cave. The survey line was constructed by use of a survey unit as outlined in the notes on the East Twin Swallet survey (3). Passage details were taken at station and inter-station positions, and roof heights estimated where measurement proved impractical. The entrance survey point is marked with a chiselled cross in the outer rock face of the entrance arch. A permanent survey station has also been set up at the far end of Paradise the peak of an obvious pointed boulder a few feet from the Terminal Aven. Its coordinates are N +97.53; E +104.60 and Height O.D.382.97. The compass calibration was carried out as for the East in survey (3) and the co-ordinates processed by the use five figure logs. All the survey lines throughout the system are open traverse, but the end coordinates are probably within three feet of the estimated position based on the expected closed traverse of 400 feet length. (4). Details of the surface survey carried out to establish the height of the entrance above O.D. will appear in a future B.B. A C.R.G. Grade 6D is claimed for this survey to the end of the passage beyond the water table, and 5D for Paradise. Total Passage Length:
575ft. (Including avens and side passages.)
469.59 ft above O.D.
August 1968 and 22 and 27 October 1972
References: (1) Mendip Caves, Book 3. H.E. Balch, 1948. Page 91. (2) Mendip Bibliography, Mansfield, Standing and Reynolds. C.R.G. Publication No.13. (Jul. 1965) (3) Belfry Bulletin Vol 23 No1 (January 1969) (4) Traverse Closure in Cave Surveying. Irwin and Stenner. Belfry Bulletin Vol 27 No 1 F ig 5(b). (5) Cave Surveying. Butcher and Railtoin. C.R.G. Trans. Vol 8. No2.
ODDS & ENDS
Alan Thomas writes
I liked Dave Irwin's cave references from classical music very much. By all means let us have our bibliographies as complete as possible. In this connection, I should like to draw caver’s attention to Shakespeare. Cymbeline III, iii, 35 Romeo and Juliet II, ii, 13. There are also such speleological romances as "A Passage to India" and Dante’s Inferno I. Macauley refers to Mendip caves in ‘The Armada.’ Editor's Note: It is rumoured that Tony Oldham has references to every mention of a cave in literature and, no doubt, if true, the list must be impressive. Only goes to show that the caving spirit is more widespread than most people think! _______________________________________________________________________________________ WINEMAKING
‘Sett’ announces that the winemaking course is now cancelled owing to lack of support. _______________________________________________________________________________________ Sofa Rugby
Rumour hath it that there are no more sofas left on Mendip. How about somebody designing and making a special competition sofa? It could be made so that it could be dismantled for ease of transport and/or replacement of parts. Quite a challenge to our inventive geniuses who make underground _______________________________________________________________________________________ HAVE YOU PAID YOUR ANNUAL SUB. YET? £2.50 to BOB BAGSHAW _______________________________________________________________________________________
The Digger’s Song
It is a long time since verse last appeared in the B.B. We are also breaking new ground, as Kangy has sent us the music as well! (Dedicated to a rare body of men and, in particular, to the stalwarts of St. Cuthbert’s.) by Kangy
Chorus: (After each verse ):- Digging away, Digging all day, Dig, dig, dig, dig, Dig, Dig, Dig. I wanted to go down a cave, And now my ambitions I've got 'em, In Cuthbert’s I'm all the rave At the dig in the hole in the bottom.
A hole at the end gave the clue Leading to Everest and gravel. We slid down the scree in a queue More or less in the right line of travel.
I only went out on a spree Thinking to sup and be off, when I encountered a crowd - B.E. C. All lewd and licentious and tough men.
I staggered along in a daze Dimly noting the Sewer in passing They'd knotted me up in a maze When I suddenly noticed the splashing.
They said" Young man, it will go If you carry these ladders and drop ‘em Into a hole that we know That’s not really too much of a problem."
A wall - immense and quite tall Traversed the passage we trod in Blocking the flow in the hall And changing the level of 'oggin.
Now the entrance pitch is divine As long as you’re skinny and narrow The walls are all covered in slime From the drippings of Walt’s old wheelbarrow.
At the side stood a large bucket wheel Fixed in its bearings by packing This fiendish device seemed to deal With the drive of a pump, double-acting.
We continued on down the Arête The shaky old ladders appalling But, as the other bloke said, “It's a ruddy sight better than falling.”
So, sloshing the water about It pumped from one place to another A muddy great hole was washed out Without any effort or bother.
Two ladders, and then the Wire Rift Were next on the menu they brought me, To traverse I needed the gift That my ape-like ancestors had taught me
A spade, all eroded and rough, I was given to my consternation. They invited me kindly enough To get digging and start exploration.
Mud Hall and Stal Chamber too, And Boulder (with boulders abundant) My mates disappeared from my view As they hurried to show me what fun meant.
So now I'm a digger of note. To be found at my post every Tuesday. On cave exploration I dote. I'm sure I'll be digging till Domesdayl
Those members who frequented the Hunters in the days of the regular sing-songs will recognise the tune as basically that of 'The Hole in the Elephant's Bottom' (Ed.)
A Report on caving activities by the Caving Secretary, Tim Large.
What's happening on the caving scene? Well, lots - the Sunday Morning Digging Team have been pushing hard at the end of Gour Rift in Cuthbert’s, the dig now being about 6' deep but it fills up with water from the Bank Grille. Here John Knops has come to the rescue and invented the Mark I Perpetual Bailing Machine, which is a pump working from an overshot waterwheel. As yet, the prototype is still under going field trials and appears to be O.K. The next stage will be the Mark 11 - built on a stronger chassis and with phosphor-bronze bearings. This strange machine is a bit of a shock for any caver who comes across it unawares and leaps over the Gour Rift Dam to see a waterwheel there emitting great slurping noises. At the moment, the waterwheel slurps away alone - for the Sunday Team are away on the hills led by Wig and festooned with tripods; clinos; cameras etc. rushing around the Burrington area and working on the latest publication the Burrington Atlas. This should be out soon and will be the most comprehensive document on the caves of Burrington so far produced. Many of the caves have had detailed surveys produced for the first time. Back in St. Cuthbert’s again, the Tuesday Night Team have started digging in the soak away just upstream of Stal Pitch. The passage, which is quite big, follows the dip and down under a phreatic roof. Here again, mechanical devices have been installed – in this case and aerial ropeway to aid the removal of
35 spoil buckets. In between this, the Team has also visited Swildons on several occasions, going to South East inlets; abseiling and prussiking trip down Black Hole and more prussicking and climbing on the Twenty and the old Forty. They have also entered the unstable Eastwater and visited Primrose Pot (yes, on a Tuesday night!) but only to the bottom of the first pitch – a nice little trip for four people in three hours. One of the party only managed the squeeze by doing it bare from the waist up. Cuthbert’s has had its usual quota of tourist trips - two of these being on Tuesday Evenings with groups from R.A.F. Locking and Ian Calder's group of outdoor Activities Instructors from a centre near Brecon. One group was heard to mutter something about Cuthbert’s looking more like a building site, what with pumps and shoring etc, only to be truck speechless on emerging from sump I into Cuthbert’s II to be confronted by a peculiar wooden structure blocking the passage. This is the working of that notorious group known as the Shepton Mallet Building and Construction Co., who have launched an attack on the equally notorious "Man Trap" which is now approaching twenty feet deep and being re-named the "Party Trap". To overcome the problem of having to bale out the hole, the S.M.B.C.C. has constructed an aqueduct across the hole lined with heavy gauge polythene, thus keeping the dig permanently dry. This makes it the only underwater dig by non-divers on Mendip. If digging progresses at this rate in Cuthbert’s the Caving Sec will have to appoint a Clerk of Works and call in the factory inspectors to examine all these ingenious contrivances under Mendip! Elsewhere on Mendip, things have also been happening. Doug Stuckey has led successful trips to O.F.D. and Rhino Rift. “Mr” Nigel has been wittering away down Manor Farm Mine which he assures us will lead to ‘caverns measureless to man’ (how will Wig survey them in that case? Ed.) but at the moment is digging or rather wallowing - in a cowsh pool at the present end of the system. Another club trip was held to the caves of Western Mendip led by Chris Howell and visited Loxton Cave; Denney’s Hole; Sandy Hole; Foxes' Hole and Axbridge Ochre Mine. The last proved somewhat elusive with various bods disappearing in all directions amid much foliation until eventually the gorge-like entrance was found by that intrepid Nettle Pot digger - Tony Tucker. All in all, it concluded a very pleasant days caving. Not much has missed member’s attention during the past few months. G.B.; Longwood; North Hill Swallet have all been graced by our presence. Do you know there is a lesser horseshoe bat residing in the Boulder Chamber of St. Cuthbert’s? It’s been there for about two months and is now just off the normal route to Everest from Katchenjunga, clinging to a dry section of the overhanging roof. Various people have always thought they had seen bats flying in Boulder Chamber. Well, they were right! In the Future, there will be club trips to Yorkshire which will include such caves as Car Pot, Alum, Bull Pot and maybe Juniper Gulf for those wanting something a little more strenuous. Anyone who is interested should contact Roy Bennett as soon as possible. _______________________________________________________________________________________ NEW BELFRY KEYS are now available at the Belfry. Don't forget to bring along your old one if you have one. All members are reminded that Belfry keys are and remain the property of the Bristol Exploration Club and should be returned to the club if no longer required. All new keys have a serial number, and a register will be kept showing the possessor of every key to club premises. _______________________________________________________________________________________ A review of what is still available or will shortly be available
Caving Reports Review
Caving Report No 3A “The Manufacture of Lightweight Caving Ladder - S.M.C.C. Method." Price 15p (20p to non members.) This publication covers the basic construction of light weight ladders involving the use of taper pins for locking the ladder rungs. First published in 1962, it still offers everything that cavers need for ladder construction.
36 Caving Report No 5 A Survey of Headwear and Lighting. Price 30p or 40p non-members. With 72 pages and illustrations, this publication is still unique although it first appeared in 1958. It was revised in 1967 by Geoff Bull and although the prices are now some five years out of date, the coverage of equipment is exhaustive and little else has changed. A new cover has been designed for this publication by Barry Wilton which will show members the trend in cover design for future B.E.C. publications. Caving Report No 6 ‘Smaller Caves of Mendip - Volume I’ Price 15p to all. This of some interest historically and includes the Hunters Hole survey. Caving Report No 10 ‘The B.E.C. of Ladder Construction.’ 15p to all. Together with 3A, ladder construction is covered by this report. Caving Report No 11 ‘The Long Chamber/Coral Area of St. Cuthbert’s Swallet.’ Price 20p (25p to non members.) First published in 1965, it was the first real attempt to sort out the mysteries of the Long Chamber and Coral Series area of St. Cuthbert’s. The surveys are grades 1 - 3 and are printed on two sheets. ONLY TEN COPIES ARE AVAILABLE so members missing this item from their collection of caving reports should get it NOW before it makes its disappearance. There will not be a reprint. Caving reports 13E, 13F and 13H All part of the great Definitive Report on St. Cuthbert’s Swallet. 13E covers the Rabbit Warren in 20 pages and with 3 pull-out surveys of which the W.S.G. Bulletin says ‘the C. R. G. Grade 6D surveys are far above any other standard achieved. The quality of the drawing work is superb.’ Price 22p to all. 13F covers the Gour Hall area and 13H the Rabbit Warren Extension. Both at 15p to all. Caving Report No 14 Pyrenean Expedition. Price 25p to members and 30p to non-members. Available shortly. Caving Report No 15 Roman Mine. Price 45p to members, 60p to non-members. 50 pages of photos and report on the Roman Mine near Newport. Includes pull-out survey. Caving Report No 16 'Mendip's Vanishing Grottoes' 40p (members) 50p (non-members) Collection of 42 photos of Balch and Shatter caves by John Eatough and Roy Pearce. The C.R.G. Newsletter says, “Produced by two outstanding photographers…is a glaring example of the conflicts increasingly arising between caver and quarrymen. To describe this book as appalling is no insult to the producers, for it is their intention to shock all thinking speleologists into action rather than words over the problem of conservation. The volume is therefore an invaluable piece of history as well as a dire warning.” The W.S.G. Bulletin has this to say, “Every caver will want to have this fine collection of photos, well worth the money, with central stapling which allows it to be opened flat, a pleasing detail.”
37 Will members please note that copies of Vanishing Grottoes are dwindling rapidly. There are only a few left. If you want to obtain a copy of this or any of the reports listed contact C. HOWELL adding 7p for postage and packing. Make cheques or P.O.’s out to the Bristol Exploration Club. Alfie's Spelaeodes are still available at 50p per copy or 55p post free. _______________________________________________________________________________________ MONTHLY CROSSWORD – Number 32. Across: 1
Solution To Last Month’s Crossword A
1. Oddly, much weight is attached to this by cavers. (5) 4. This side of the sump. (3) 5. Hall or escalator on Mendip. (3) 7. Type of 1 across. (4) 8. Small round object. (4) 9. Speak. (3) 10. A hole on Mendip.(3) 11. The other side of the sump. (3) 12. Mendip rift. (5) 14. Cuthbert’s run. (3) 15. Consume. (30 16. Type of tooth found in Cuthbert’s (5)
Down: 1. Meets lion on Mendip. (9) 2. Has difficulty in keeping balance. (5) 3. Temporary shelter away from Mendip. (4) 4. Not on. (3) 5. Waste tear (on an unstable Mendip cave?). (9) 10. Cuthbert’s series. (5) 11. Diggers may form this? (4) 13. Temporary shelter on Mendip? (3)