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ISSN 2192-6921

Independent Review on European Security and Defence − A product of ProPress Publishing Group

Volume N° 25

special edition

Hybrid Energy

The future of energy supply lies in decentralised hybrid energy generation

Building resilience for hybrid threats Helena Lindberg, Director General for the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency (MSB)

The industry: partner in climate policy through decentralised energy supply Michael Keinert, Chairman of the Executive Board, Pfisterer Holding AG

www.magazine-the-european.com A magazine of the Behörden Spiegel Group

Edition 3/2016


EUROPE’S EVENTS

SECURITY and DEFENCE DISASTER MANAGEMENT 12th EUROPEAN CONGRESS ON DISASTER MANAGEMENT Berlin, 20/21 Sept 2016 www.civil-protection.com

DEFENCE AND SECURITY BERLIN SECURITY CONFERENCE 2016 – 15th CONGRESS ON EUROPEAN SECURITY AND DEFENCE Berlin, 29/30 Nov 2016 www.euro-defence.eu POLICE 20th EUROPEAN POLICE CONGRESS Berlin, 21/22 Feb 2017 www.european-police.eu

Raed Arafat, State Secretary, Ministry of Internal Affairs of Romania

Christoph Flury, Deputy Director, Federal Office for Civil Protection, Switzerland

Karl-Heinz Schröter, Minister of the Interior and Municipal of Brandenburg

Lieutenant General Ben Hodges, Commanding General U.S. Army Europe

Victoria Nuland, Assistant Secretary of State, U.S. Department of State

Jean Asselborn, Minister of Foreign and European Affairs, Luxembourg

Peter Altmaier, Head of the Federal Chancellery and German Federal Minister for Special Tasks

Fabrice Leggeri, Frontex’s Executive Director

Stefan Feller, Police Adviser, Head of the Police Division in the Department of Peacekeeping Operations, United Nations

Information: Helga Woll Behörden Spiegel Office Bonn Friedrich-Ebert-Allee 57, D 53113 Bonn Tel/Fax: +49 228 97 09 70 E-Mail: helga.woll@behoerdenspiegel.de © 2016 by ProPress Publishing Group Bonn/Berlin ProPress Publishing Group is the holding of the trade mark BEHOERDEN SPIEGEL. Photos: Bundesamt für Bevölkerungsschutz BABS (Flury); Behörden Spiegel/Hauss (Stocker), U.S. Army Europe (Hodges); Klaus Dombrowsky (Leggeri) Photos below: Tommy Windecker, fotolia.com (left); dirkvorderstrasse, CC BY 2.0, flickr.com (middle); Dombrowsky (right)

organized by

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Editorial

People have taken on board the idea of using alternative sources of energy. They want to participate in, and benefit from, the production and appropriate use of “clean” energy. They want a better environment. But the move to alternative energy is a complex issue and the various stakeholders have different views as to how such energy should be supplied. Energy involves power. The European Union wants to extensively manage the move to an Energy Union, with the primary focus on harmonisation. The large European electricity companies deliver what they have always (profitably) delivered – centralised power supply systems – despite the fact that the drawbacks of such systems are obvious. But the energy transition is nevertheless under way, and the trend towards self-sufficiency is discernible in those regions where people seek decentralised power supply systems because they have no choice – in Africa and Asia, where communities are developing their own local or regional systems; and around the world, in isolated areas such as islands, mines, large construction sites and remote settlements. Emergency services and humanitarian aid organisations (under pressure to rapidly supply refugee camps, among other things) are reportedly beginning to consider the use of alternative energy sources as a way to boost capability and flexibility. The sector in which fossil-fired power generation continues to have priority is the armed forces. Following the severe casualties suffered in Afghanistan, where more than 300 soldiers lost their lives transporting fuel, the armed forces are however now beginning to rethink their position. Both NATO and the EU Commission, in conjunction with the Council, have taken remedial action and initiated a shift to alternative energies. But a move to implement these initiatives in the armed forces at national level is only now getting under way. Clearly there is a move toward decentralised power supply and

Impressum The European − Security and Defence Union ProPress Publishing Group Bonn/Berlin

Headquarters Berlin: Kaskelstr. 41, D-10317 Berlin Phone: +49/30/557 412-0, Fax: +49/30/557 412-33 Brussels Office: Hartmut Bühl Phone/Fax: +33/684806655 E-Mail: hartmut.buehl@orange.fr Bonn Office: Friedrich-Ebert-Allee 57, D-53113 Bonn Phone: +49/228/970 97-0, Fax: +49/228/970 97-75 Advertisement Office Bonn: Oliver Hammel Phone: +49/228/970 97-50 E-Mail: oliver.hammel@magazine-the-european.com

the use of stationary and mobile microgrids in all areas. Modern energy management systems building on large-scale storage capacity and the use of solar and wind energy as well as biomass (in stationary systems) point the way forward. Hartmut Bühl All over Europe, small and medium enterprises are making new technologies available, but they will hardly be able to survive without support for their innovations. Industry is pursuing innovation in order to boost energy efficiency and help achieve the European environmental protection targets and it therefore deserves to receive special support. Contracting authorities should: • develop concepts or issue calls for tender that take account of the innovation capabilities of SMEs in the formulation of project design criteria and specifications, • amend procurement guidelines to place more emphasis on targeted environmental protection goals and on Total Cost of Ownership, • focus to a greater extent on the needs of the end user and on rapid implementation when defining project scale and content, • design financing models and contract clauses (e.g. liability and guarantees) to take account of the financial capability of industrial SME suppliers.

Photo: © Hofmann, Adelsheim

Power supply systems are changing

Will it be possible to turn over a new leaf and enable everyone to benefit from the energy transition? Most of the necessary technologies already exist. What is lacking is political and social methods for putting them into practice. Fortunately, faith is not the only way to move mountains.

Publisher and Editor-in-Chief: Hartmut Bühl, Brussels Deputy Editor-in-Chief: Nannette Cazaubon, Paris; E-Mail: nannette.b@gmx.net Publishing House: ProPress Verlagsgesellschaft mbH President ProPress Publishing Group: R. Uwe Proll Layout: SpreeService- und Beratungsgesellschaft mbH, Berlin Print: Heider Druck GmbH, Bergisch Gladbach The European − Security and Defence Union Magazine is published by the ProPress Publishing Group. The ProPress Publishing Group is the organizer of the congress on European Security and Defence (Berlin Security Conference), the European Police Congress and the European Congress on Disaster Management. For further information about the magazine and the congresses please visit www.magazine-the-european.com Subscription: This magazine is published in Brussels and Berlin. The copy price is 16 Euro: 3 copies for one year: 42 Euro (EU subscription) 3 copies for one year: 66 Euro (International subscription) including postage and dispatch (3 issues) © 2016 by ProPress Publishing Group Bonn/Berlin A magazine of the Behörden Spiegel Group

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THE EUROPEAN – SECURITY AND DEFENCE UNION

Vol No 25

Special Edition:

Advanced Hybrid Power Generation Solutions 3

Editorial

6

NEWS

8–14

Energy Generation 8

Documentation A Framework Strategy for a Resilient Energy Union with a Forward-Looking Climate Change Policy

9

Michael Keinert, Winterbach The industry: partner in climate policy through decentralised energy supply Energy production and consumption

12

Hartmut Bühl, Brussels China and the US put Europe to shame Commentary

13 Andy Francis Stirnal, Berlin Learning from physics: the principle of energy conservation Political impact and restrictions 14

18–20

Communications and Security 18

Patrick Biewer, Betzdorf Secure communications – a prerequisite for linking energy systems worldwide A special effort for remote systems

19

Destiny Bertucci, Perkins Backup and Monitoring – the keys to a stable IT infrastructure How to deal with energy disruption

Helena Lindberg, Stockholm Rethinking security: resilience in the age of transboundary flows and hybrid threats An approach geared to society as a whole

Photos (cover): © EDA; © MSB (left); © Pfisterer (right); page 4 and 5: © ThautImages, Fotolia.com

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Content

21–28

Operational Use

32

Torsten Schreiber, Hainburg Africa GreenTec Solarcontainers deliver triple impact for Africa Advanced & sustainable energies

34

Roberto Volante, Montichiari Innovative tents to reduce energy consumption – a worldwide request A revolution in deployable structures

35

Jesper Ellegaard, Roskilde A smarter water supply during military and civil operations Without water no operations

38

Andreas Arnold, Erkrath Energy-efficient water purification Towards a smart energy infrastructure

39

Vincent R.Toepoel, Haarlem From waste to energy Huge benefits for civil and military use

41

Gintaras Bagdonas, Vilnius Providing advice and solutions for the development of energy-efficient forces Capability providers in operations

22

Sharon McManus, Brussels Meeting energy & environment challenges From Military Green to Mali

26

Sorin Ducaru, Brussels Secure energy supply for NATO armed forces A behavioural change in the use of energy is indispensable

30–42

Technical Solutions

30

Uwe Tiegel, Radeberg Heat management in camps Gaining strategic advantages

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Jürgen Zitzmann, Nürnberg Hybrid energy for settlements and camps A comprehensive approach

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NEWS Energy Efficiency

HPGS system tested in NATO exercise

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The “Strong Hussar” international exercise conducted in August 2016 provided the opportunity for the Vilnius-based NATO Energy Security Centre of Excellence (NATO ENSEC COE) and the Lithuanian Armed Forces to test their deployable modular Hybrid Power Generation & management System (HPGS) in the field. During the exercises this innovative system was used to generate the energy for the participants’ basic tented camp. In a parallel test with the same energy demand, the HPGS enabled fuel savings of approximately 30%. The HPGS, which was handed over by the NATO ENSEC COE to the Lithuanian Armed Forces Grand Duke Vytenis Main Support Logistic Battalion in February 2016, consists of 2 diesel generators, The HPGS during the excercise „Strong Hussar“, 2016 a photovoltaic array, a wind  Photo: NATO ENSEC COE

turbine, and a battery storage, together with an intelligent energy management system, releasing power from the different sources in the required quantity. The components of the system can be housed in two 20’ ISO containers. The HPGS was developed by PFISTERER under the trademark of CrossPower to improve energy efficiency by reducing the use of diesel generators and increasing that of renewable energy sources, thereby reducing the logistic footprint of troops during exercises and operations and helping to protect the environment. The hybrid system will be used in the upcoming main exercises in Lithuania. > See also our interview with the Director of NATO ENSEC COE, Colonel Gintaras Bagdonas on pages 41–42

Climate change

Smart Grids

G20 reaffirms climate commitment and energy collaboration at China summit

EU-funded project for smart grid solutions

Ahead of the G20 meeting in Hangzhou, China, from 4 – 5 September 2016 where climate change and energy cooperation were high on the agenda, the US and China, together responsible for almost 40% of the world’s carbon emissions, both ratified the Paris Agreement on climate change. In a Communiqué the Group of 20 reiterated its commitment to sustainable development and to strong and effective support and actions to address climate change. It underlined the importance of energy collaboration for a cleaner energy future and sustainable energy security that also fosters economic growth. The G20 welcomed efforts by members to enable the Paris Agreement to enter into force by the end of 2016 and their commitment to completing their respective domestic procedures as soon as national procedures allow. The summit also highlighted the need to scale up green financing and for continued investment in energy projects to ensure future energy security, energy efficiency and prevent economically destabilising price spikes. > The Communiqué is available here http:// Great satisfaction at the end of COP21 in Paris tinyurl.com/zxgspnt  Photo: UNclimatechange, cc by 2.0, flickr.com

The EU-funded project GRID4EU worked on ways to better integrate renewable energies into the EU’s electricity grids. The latter are still largely designed around the needs of traditional, fossil fuel power stations. But, with a rapidly rising renewable energy supply, EU grids need modern, smart grid solutions to help integrate more variable and geographically dispersed power sources. The total cost of the project is  54 413 770, including  25 552 508 in EU funding. The GRID4EU project tested the potential of smart grids for integrating renewable energy, grid automation, energy storage and energy efficiency in six testing sites across Europe in Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden, the Czech Republic and France. While in Germany for example, GRID4EU focused on improving the monitoring and advanced control of the medium voltage using a Multi-Agent-System, in Italy, the project used energy storage batteries to smooth out electricity supply. web: http://grid4eu.eu/


Hybrid Energy Solutions

Photo: Š Nikokvfrmoto, Fotolia.com

Energy supply is getting more efficient – but there is still scope for development


THE EUROPEAN – SECURITY AND DEFENCE UNION

documentation

A Framework Strategy for a Resilient Energy Union with a Forward-Looking Climate Change Policy (Ed/ak, Berlin) On 25 February 2015, the European Commission issued this Framework Strategy for one of the priorities of the Junker-Commission: Energy Union and Climate. It contains objectives and concrete steps for building an integrated and sustainable European energy market and thus contributing to avert climate change. Excerpts: “Why we need an Energy Union […] Our vision is of an Energy Union where Member States see that they depend on each other to deliver secure energy to their citizens, based on true solidarity and trust, and of an Energy Union that speaks with one voice in global affairs; Our vision is of an integrated continent-wide energy system where energy flows freely across borders, based on competition and the best possible use of resources, and with effective regulation of energy markets at EU level where necessary; Our vision is of the Energy Union as a sustainable, low-carbon and climatefriendly economy that is designed to last; Our vision is of strong, innovative and competitive European companies that develop the industrial products and technology needed to deliver energy efficiency and low carbon technologies inside and outside Europe, Our vision is of a European labour force with the skills to build and manage the energy system of tomorrow; Our vision is of investor confidence through price signals that reflect long term needs and policy objectives; Most importantly, our vision is of an Energy Union with citizens at its core, where citizens take ownership of the energy transition, benefit from new technologies to reduce their bills, participate actively in the market, and where vulnerable consumers are protected.

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To reach our goal, we have to move away from an economy driven by fossil fuels, an economy where energy is based on a centralised, supply-side approach and which relies on old technologies and outdated business models. We have to empower consumers through providing them with information, choice and through creating flexibility to manage demand as well as supply. We have to move away from a fragmented system characterised by uncoordinated national policies, market barriers and energy-isolated areas. […] Today, the European Union has energy rules set at the European level, but in practice it has 28 national regulatory frameworks. This cannot continue. An integrated energy market is needed to create more competition, lead to greater market efficiency through better use of energy generation facilities across the EU and to produce affordable prices for consumers. [...] Energy infrastructure is ageing and not adjusted to the increased production from renewables. There is a need to attract investments, but the current market design and national policies do not set the right incentives and provide insufficient predictability for potential investors. Energy islands continue to exist as many markets are not properly connected to their neighbours. This adds to the costs faced by consumers and creates vulnerability in terms of energy security. We are still leaders in innovation and renewable energy, but other parts of the world are fast catching up and we have

already lost ground when it comes to some clean, low carbon technologies. Building up investment in high-tech, globally competing companies through stable policies will bring jobs and growth to Europe. New business sectors, new business models and new job profiles will emerge. Such transformational change profoundly affects the roles of all actors in the energy system, including the consumers. Europe needs to make the right choices now. If it continues on the present path, the unavoidable challenge of shifting to a low-carbon economy will be made harder by the economic, social and environmental costs of having fragmented national energy markets. The current low oil and gas prices, while they last, should be seized as an historic opportunity – when combined with the falling cost of cleaner forms of energy, a strong EU climate policy and the emergence of new technologies – to reset the EU’s energy policy in the right direction: that of an Energy Union. […]” The following aspects are considered in the Framework Strategy: • Energy security, solidarity and trust • A fully-integrated internal energy market • Energy efficiency as a contribution to the moderation of energy demand • Decarbonisation of the economy • An Energy Union for Research, Innovation and Competitiveness • Integrated Energy Union governance • And the Energy Union in fifteen action points > For the complete document visit: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/ EN/TXT/?uri=COM:2015:80:FIN


Hybrid Energy Solutions

Reaching environment objectives through innovative energy supply

The industry: partner in climate policy through decentralised energy supply by Michael Keinert, Chairman of the Executive Board, Pfisterer Holding AG, Winterbach

We are living in a time of political, economic and social up­ heaval. The world geopolitical and geostrategic order is shifting and no one knows which way the pendulum will swing. This climate of political uncertainty is awakening nationalistic instincts that challenge all that has been achieved thus far in terms of building common political approaches at international level. Even in the area of climate protection – an issue of such vital importance to all humankind – the international community is apparently finding it difficult to agree, even though last year’s climate conference in Paris charted a course. After the surprising ratification of China and the USA at the G20 summit in Hangzhou there is now hope that other countries will follow and ratify the agreement in order to meet criteria for enabling the United Nations to act.

Reliable framework conditions created by the EU The EU has adopted reliable framework conditions whose application is binding. Citizens and their elected representatives in the communities and parliaments all over Europe are calling for risky fossil fuel imports to be replaced by the increased use of renewables in all areas of our societies: all areas, this is the nub. In January 2014 the European Commission proposed energy and climate objectives for the EU to be met by 2030, including a binding EU-wide renewable energy target of at least 27% as well as several measures to increase energy efficiency at all stages of the chain: generation, transmission, distribution and consumption. The EU is on track; it has put in place a Consultation Forum for Sustainable Energy in the Defence and Security Sector, a Commission initiative managed by the Council, via the European Defence Agency. The Forum has already met twice, once in Brussels and once in Dublin, where it met for the first time with industry, and it will meet, again with industry, in November 2016 in Rome1.

Energy efficiency 1. Current solutions are not enough Industry has devised a wide range of conventional power supply system solutions that are significantly helping to protect the environment and substantially reducing the use of fossil fuels in electricity generation. It has achieved this by introducing technologies that improve energy efficiency in power generation, transmission and consumption, and more recently

Current solutions are not enough

photo: Fotolia.com/Pfisterer

by using renewable sources of energy. The resulting wind turbines, solar farms, biogas plants and hydroelectric and pumped storage plants have already put a permanent stamp on the landscape in many countries. 2. Decentralised microgrids These developments must be further improved and grids and interconnections must be made more coherent. This does not necessarily mean patterning them on the overwhelmingly centralised energy supply systems typical of many industrialised countries. Instead, we have a social and humanitarian duty to focus the solutions on human needs, especially in the developing countries. The solution that comes to mind is a supplemental, decentralised power supply system that can be connected to the grid. It would help meet climate objectives and would also substantially improve existing inefficient power supply systems. It could involve: • Switching to stationary or temporary hybrid generating systems in isolated areas (islands, remote communities, resorts, construction sites);

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“European SMEs deliver all the elements required for decentralised power supply.” Michael Keinert  • Equipping national and European emergency services and disaster management teams with mobile hybrid systems to extend their response capabilities (“capability provider”); • Introducing such systems in refugee camps, where their virtually unlimited modularity enables them to rapidly adapt to fast-changing conditions while providing uninterrupted supply; • Electrifying entire regions that cannot be supplied via the central grid and depend on mobile supply systems, which can be tailored to local energy needs, as part of as part of development assistance programmes. • Reducing the use of fossil fuels to supply power to armed forces in the field. The lower logistics requirement would free up manpower and allow more operational flexibility (“forces multiplier”).

Centralised vs. decentralised supply 1. Large industry continues to dominate the market As a rule, the large electrical equipment companies dominate the market, delivering systems for centralised power generation, while small and medium enterprises support them as component or subsystem suppliers. SMEs generate the most important innovations, although the latter often never benefit end users due to prevailing procurement guidelines. The

Zaatari refugee camp in Jordan

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contracting partners are typically general contractors acting as intermediaries, who serve their own interests and as a rule opt for the lowest bid without factoring in the cost of operating large facilities or complex systems over their entire life cycle (Total Cost of Ownership – TOC – principle). Huge prestige projects are carried out unchanged and often benefit users in remote or relatively inaccessible areas far too late or not at all. 2. European SMEs are catching up Contracting authorities are succeeding, albeit slowly, in approving projects in a form that focuses on users and their pressing needs. Fortunately, recent projects have shown that solutions involving the decentralised hybrid energy systems offered by Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) are being taken on board. Similarly, the crucial importance of binding commitments to finance SME projects and to earmark funding for them has been recognised. Exchange rate and liquidity risks must be avoided in the implementation phase.

Decentralised energy supply – a comprehensive approach It is already possible to meet the energy needs of isolated areas by means of hybrid systems that are completely independent of a central grid structure. Such systems can be designed as stationary grids or, alternatively, as mobile grids for

photo: Dominic Chavez-World Bank, CC BY NC ND 20., flickr.com


Hybrid Energy Solutions

Michael Keinert has been Chairman of the Executive Board of PFISTERER Holding AG and Managing Director of PFISTERER Kontaktsysteme GmbH since 2013. He studied business administration at Saarland University and bePhoto: Pfisterer gan his career in an international auditing firm. Mr Keinert has worked at a mid-sized pharmaceutical firm, as Commercial Managing Director of two Deutsche Telekom associated companies, and in an international consultants firm. Prior to his current position, he was sole Managing Director of a German mid-sized firm developing and producing high-performance filtration systems.

temporary use. If they are designed to be sufficiently modular and scalable, they can conceivably be employed in any circumstances, since they can be delivered by conventional transport systems to any point on the globe within a short period of time. Possible scenarios include: • Natural disasters: following an earthquake, a power supply system for emergency responders, mobile hospitals and mobile water purification plants can be airlifted to areas that are cut off from road access or are otherwise difficult to reach; • Stable power supply requiring minimal logistics for refugee camps and humanitarian aid facilities; • Power supply for military infrastructure: field hospitals, field kitchens, temporary housing or stationary facilities.

promoted to help reduce the use of fossil fuels.

The future power supply system Alongside existing centralised infrastructure, the future power supply system will rely on modern decentralised systems using alternative sources of energy. These new capabilities will be employed in international development assistance programmes as well as in crisis preparedness and natural disaster response. They offer flexibility and endurance in use. They will also, I am certain, be used for military purposes. Innovative solutions, notably devised by European SMEs, are already commercially available. If it proves possible to take a comprehensive approach to providing cost-effective, environmentally friendly state-of-the-art systems, European small and medium industry can serve as a partner for both civilian and military procurement offices. European SMEs offer the full range of equipment needed for decentralised electricity supply. Their strength lies in their ability to take rapid action, to innovate, to provide technical know-how and to deliver a broad range of products. 1) “The European -Security and Defence Union”, No. 24, Berlin/Brussels, page 54 ff

Since such systems virtually always support environmental objectives and sustainably reduce the use of fossil fuels, the value they create must be calculated across the entire chain, from production to transport, storage and use. Both producers and consumers must be enlisted in the effort to achieve the target set. 1. Producers The starting point is always the use of sun, wind, biomass or other renewable energy sources to supplement conventional diesel generator sets in electricity generation. To this should be added: • high-efficiency storage systems that ensure steady power supply and can be charged during off-peak periods, • modern energy management systems that optimise use and efficiency of producers and support user priority systems, • secure communication. 2. Consumers • retrofitting of new energy-saving materials (LEDs, cooling systems, insulating tents etc.) that are now mature and commercially available should be made compulsory; • consumer awareness of the need to save energy should be

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Commentary

China and the US put Europe to shame by Hartmut Bühl, Publisher and Editor-in-Chief, Brussels

On 12 December 2015 everything appeared still to be in order. The climate agreement on keeping global warming below 2°C until the end of the century was welcomed with something akin to euphoria. The agreement will enter into force once it has been ratified by 55 countries accounting for 55% of total emissions. Until the G20 summit in Hangzhou (China) from 4–5 September 2016 it did not seem very likely that the objective of celebrating the entry into force of the agreement at the next summit COP22 in Morocco would be achieved. Until that point only 23 countries – weighing in at 1.08 % of emissions – had ratified it. Yet surprisingly, China and the US, representing 40% of emissions, got together and ratified the agreement. This is an excellent result, but what about Europe? It would seem that the old continent, known for its visionaries

and pioneers, is losing ground because it has more urgent problems (refugees, Brexit) to tackle. On top of this, some European states that are still reliant on coal – Poland in particular – are refusing to understand that the energy transition also represents a chance for their own futures. What is surprising, however, is that countries like Germany that usually set the example on environment policy still have not ratified the agreement, and are not making a bigger effort to get other EU member states to do so.1 If the EU continues to drag its feet on ratification the Union will lose its leading role in the area of environment policy and China and the US will decide matters over Europe’s head.

1 Overview of countries that have ratified so far: https://treaties.un.org/Pages/ ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=XXVII-7-d&chapter=27&clang=_en

“The agreement is the best chance we have to save the one planet that we’ve got”

“Addressing climate change should not deny the legitimate needs of developing countries to reduce poverty and improve living standards”

Barack Obama

Xi Jinping

No-one was really willing to believe the promises made by the US and China in 2015 in Paris. The European media in particular doubted the credibility of the world’s two biggest polluters. Now the Europeans are the ones with egg on their faces as this typically European policy area slips away from them. All they can do now is to try and catch up as quickly as possible

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photos: UN climate change, cc by 2.0, flickr.com


Hybrid Energy Solutions

The European Energy Security Strategy

Learning from physics: the principle of energy conservation by Andy Francis Stirnal, ESDU correspondent, Berlin

Severe unrest in Eastern Europe already brought home the alarming level of vulnerability of Europe’s energy supplies back in the winter of 2006. The continued need for urgent action has again been demonstrated by the events of the last few years.

A framework for climate and energy In January 2014, the Commission presented its policy framework for climate and energy for the period 2020-2030, a measure that at the time was associated with climate change objectives and the conservation of resources. However, reducing our dependency on energy imports and resources efficiency are but two sides of the same coin. If we add security of supply and the need to rethink Europe’s energy mix to that equation, it becomes evident that the problem of reorganising Europe’s energy policy is something of a Rubik’s Cube. In spring 2014, in response to the crisis-laden environment in Europe’s eastern neighbourhood, a more targeted effort to reduce dependency on energy imports seemed to be the appropriate political answer. But the need to act has also revealed that not enough has been done since 2006 in terms of reorganising and strengthening the resilience of Europe’s energy infrastructure and of diversifying energy suppliers. Moreover, the strategic challenges confronting our future energy supply were not sufficiently anticipated, insofar as a system of crisis-resistant treaties bringing together supplier countries, transit countries and consumer countries has still not come about to this day, any more than crisis-solving mechanisms have been developed to any satisfactory extent. Indeed, in July 2014 Jean-Claude Juncker stated: “We need to pool our resources, combine our

infrastructures and unite our negotiating power vis-à-vis third countries. We need to diversify our energy sources, and reduce the high energy dependency of several of our Member States.”

A European Energy Security Strategy Pressure causes counter-pressure: in view of these circumstances, in May 2014 the Commission presented nothing less than a European Energy Security Strategy (EESS) based on an in-depth study of the state of energy security in terms of supply, consumption, capacities and transport, variables that are all needed for a balanced appraisal in order to reduce our vulnerability to external energy shocks. To prevent a disruption during the winter of 2014-15, member states must be able to meet peak demands, even in the event of a disruption of the single largest infrastructure asset, by December 2014. Moreover, reverse flow systems must be installed and functional for all cross-border interconnections within the EU. This is the technical condition for an emergency/solidarity mechanism, together with the completion of missing transport links. These infrastructure measures will be supplemented by enhanced coordination of risk assessments and contingency plans, in order to pave the way for a well-functioning and fully integrated internal energy market. In parallel to moderating energy demand, the EU will increase indigenous energy production, including the increased deployment of renewables as well as a balanced deployment of traditional energy sources. Furthermore, it is crucial to develop energy technologies that make it possible to maximise efficiency or even to benefit from new resources. In this regard, full use

European Commission Vice-President Maros˘ S˘ ef c˘ ovic˘ (left) and Commissioner Miguel Arias Cañete (right) at a press conference introducing the European Energy Security Strategy photo: Georges Boulougouris, © European Union, 2016, Source: EC – Audiovisual Service

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of EU structural funds and the mobilisation of private and public funding are seen as promising instruments.

Political impact and restrictions Disruptions of energy supply might be caused among other things by natural or technical incidents. The Commission, however, seems to place the emphasis on political incidents, in that it outlines the importance of diversifying supplier countries, routes and sources of energy. New partner countries (Caspian Sea Region, the Mediterranean) and increasing Liquefied Natural Gas supplies are just some of the keywords that signal its response to a challenging political environment. According to the paper, improved coordination of national energy policies and an effort to speak with one voice are of the utmost importance. The idea of a common external energy policy is not only insinuated, but clearly expressed in the document; it is also echoed in the “Strategic Agenda for the Union in Times of Change” and in the Council conclusions, both dated June 2014.

EU needs to stay on track to deliver More steps have been taken towards a secure, sustainable, competitive and affordable energy supply in Europe, as demonstrated by a “Framework Strategy for a Resilient Energy Union with a Forward-Looking Climate Change Policy”, which has been established in February 2015 bringing together the different aspects of a future-proof energy supply, as well as in several Commission reports evaluating the progress made in the ambitious project of an “Energy Union”. During a “stress test” exercise in late 2014, vulnerabilities related to a potential disruption of gas supply from the east were not surprisingly identified. Subsequently, cooperation between the Member States is aimed to be increased in terms of emergency and solidarity mechanism, contingency plans and coordination of national energy policies. The necessity of diversifying supplier countries, establishing cooperation platforms and infrastructures with new partner countries that likewise has to be accompanied by an increased production within the EU itself was emphasised in November 2015 within the Commission Working Document “the state of the Energy Union”. These strategic outlooks are complemented by concrete targets in energy savings and efficiency that member states have to achieve gradually until 2030. As Vice-President S˘efc˘ovic˘, who is responsible for the Energy Union, is pointing out, the geopolitical challenges faced in the past months and years will not go away. In order to meet the aims of a resilient Energy Union, energy security needs to stay in the focus of European energy policy and must be followed-up rigorously. Further information: Energy Security Strategy • Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council – European Energy Security Strategy – Brussels, 28.5.2014, COM(2014) 330 final > http://ec.europa.eu/energy/doc/20140528_energy_security_ communication.pdf • Commission Staff Working Document on the European Energy Security Strategy – Brussels, 18.11.2015, SWD(2015) 404 final > https://ec.europa.eu/energy/sites/ener/files/documents/3_EESS.pdf

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Hybrid threats demand a broad strategy and transnatio

Rethinking security: Resilience in the age of tr

by Helena Lindberg, Director General, MSB Swedish Civil Contingen

Throughout Europe, including in Sweden, serious rethinking about security is underway. For many years, we have seen a gradual “cognitive slide” away from the “security of the territory” and our geographical boundaries, towards the notion of “societal security” and the protection of our vital societal functions.

Concepts of security are in a constant state of flux An important explanation for this shift in focus has been the realisation that territorial control will not in itself safeguard the critical, transnational flows of energy, services, information, goods, and people that we have become so dependent upon. Protecting and maintaining those flows has given rise to new practices focused on the notion of “resilience” and with a “whole-of-society” approach to security, requiring cooperation across all levels and sectors in our societies and across national borders. However, we are now seeing something of a revival when it comes to the protection of our territorial borders and more traditional perceptions of security. Some would even argue that we are back in the Cold War again. The main explanation provided for this new outlook on security is the increasingly aggressive behaviour of our Eastern neighbour.

Boosting civil and military defence capacities These changing perspectives come out very clearly in the latest bill on security and defence policy 2016-2020, presented by the Swedish government.1 One of the conclusions drawn in the bill is the need for a “modernised civil defence”. The bill also calls for a boosted and renationalised military defence capacity: The top priority of the Swedish Armed Forces is no longer international missions in countries far away as securing the Baltic Sea Region has become a more pressing concern. The system of compulsory conscription, abolished as late as 2010, may well be introduced again over the coming years. We are also seeing an increasing focus on sharp military exercises with our close Nordic neighbours and together with NATO.

Known tasks, new context For the Swedish civil contingencies agency (MSB), with responsibilities across the whole risk and threat spectrum, this shift in orientation has a concrete impact. It means that civil defence planning for war, which has led a quiet life for many years, has now been revived – and there are great expectations for immediate results. Many planners, with experiences from the past, hope that the ambitious total defence structures that


Hybrid Energy Solutions

on al cooperation

ransboundary flows and hybrid threats

ncies Agency, Stockholm

were dismantled during the 1990’s will be rebuilt again over the next few years. However, not all of them realize that the old plans and procedures were developed for a completely different society: a society that was not totally dependent on critical transnational flows of goods and services in private hands, where government was able to invest large sums in storing quantities of essential goods and energy and where we did not yet rely extensively on internet-based technologies and the use of social media.

The hybrid challenge The task that policymakers and security analysts face today is not to reinvent past practices, it is to adjust old and more recent paradigms to current security realities. A common definition for the type of threats that we are facing is “hybrid threats”. Hybrid threats are not necessarily “new” threats, although they may be composed of elements that are combined in new ways. They may involve the use of both unconventional and conventional means (disinformation campaign, cyberattacks, military force) as well as a multiplicity of dissimilar actors (e.g. regular and irregular forces). The impacts can range from political disintegration and reduced trust in government institutions to loss of life and violations of national sovereignty.

Coping strategies The concept of “hybrid warfare” is sometimes used to describe the hybrid scenarios that are envisaged. However, I see a risk that the use of the term “warfare” in this context may lead our thinking in overly narrow directions – towards a primary focus on the more traditional (military) tools of warfare – when in fact the compound nature of the threats requires much broader coping strategies. In order to be successful in countering activities such as the spread of false rumours, cyber-attacks or disruptions in critical infrastructure, there is typically a need to combine information, methods and resources from many different stake-holders, civilian and military, public and private – more than ever before we are facing a massive challenge of multi-sectoral coordination. At the core of this effort we have the concept of resilience: Our defence against hybrid attacks depends on our ability to assure the continuity of vital societal functions, regardless of the threat we are facing.

Transnational efforts towards resilience Within NATO work is underway to outline the implementation of “baseline requirements for resilience”, focused on the ability of

Helena Lindberg has been the first Director General of the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency (MSB) since its formation in January 2009. Born in 1960 in Neuilly-sur-Seine, she obtained a Masters of Laws degree from Stockholm University. After working at the Ministry of Photo: MSB Justice, the Swedish Security Service, and the Government Secretariat for Intelligence Coordination, Ms Lindberg served as the permanent under-secretary at the Ministry of Defence between 2003 and 2008. Prior to her current position, Ms Lindberg was the Director General of the Swedish Rescue Services Agency (SRSA) and the Swedish Emergency Management Agency (SEMA).

the Allies and Partners to assure the continuity of critical functions and services in seven different areas. Resilience, defined as “the corollary of deterrence and reassurance”2, was also a leading topic at the NATO Summit in Warsaw in July 2016. There NATO and the EU presented a “Joint Declaration” aimed at countering hybrid threats, bolstering resilience and deepening operational cooperation.3 The same ambition to “join hands” in dealing with the complex security landscape is reflected in EU’s “Joint Framework to Counter Hybrid Threats” from April 2016, where 22 proposals are listed and where EU-NATO cooperation will be of great importance to reach progress.4 These steps towards more comprehensive and cross-institutional efforts, at all levels, are essential and should be further encouraged. Regardless of the strategies we may find to cope with the grey, hybrid cloud looming above us, one thing is clear – continued work in silos will not provide an effective way forward.

1 See www.government.se/government-policy/defence/the-swedish-defencebill-2016-2020/ 2 See www.nato.int/docu/Review/2016/Also-in-2016/nato-defence-cyber-resilience/EN/index.htm 3 See www.consilium.europa.eu/en/press/press-releases/2016/07/08-eu-nato-joint-declaration/ 4 See http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/en/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A52016JC0018

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Europe’s Leading Conference for Internal Security

20th European Police Congress

ress

ong Jubilee C

Save the date

Europe – boundless? liberty, mobility, security 21st – 22nd February 2017, Berlin Congress Center www.european-police.eu

Opening speech 2017: Dr. Thomas de Maizière, Federal Minister of the Interior, Federal Republic of Germany Picture: Henning Schacht

Organized by


Kolumnentitel

Communications and Security

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Photo: Šzhu difeng, Fotolia.com

The keys for stable and secure communications in decentralised energy generation and supply are the right type of communications, the right backup and high performance in monitoring


THE EUROPEAN – SECURITY AND DEFENCE UNION

A special effort for remote systems

Secure communications: a prerequisite for linking energy systems worldwide by Patrick Biewer*, CEO, GovSat, Betzdorf

In order to provide decentralised energy generation and supply, an efficient end-to-end service is required to ensure a high service level of the systems. Communication links are needed to monitor the performance, availability and control of backup capabilities of the overall systems. Satellite links are best positioned to provide such capabilities for remote missions with the right coverage and flexibility. The key is the secure and reliable link with additional added value services such as hosting capabilities. Introducing a new type of secure satellite, aimed exclusively at government and defence users, GovSat-1 is a multi-mission geostationary satellite that offers X-band and Military Ka-band capacity over Europe, the Middle East and Africa, and substantial maritime coverage over the Mediterranean and Baltic Seas, as well as over the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. GovSat-1 is a highly secure satellite with encrypted command and control, and anti-jamming capabilities. We lease satellite capacity on a non-preemptible basis, assuring that our users have full control over the management of their services.

The X-band is ideal for robust satellite communication links As X-band is reserved for governments and institutions, it is suitable for establishing secure and robust satellite communication links. GovSat-1 global beam has extensive coverage from 50°W to 90°E and 70°N to 70°S. Its multiple mission beams have high-power coverage over key mission areas. They are most effective for establishing critical and secure communications in theatres of operations. One of the biggest advantages is that they are fully flexible and steerable.

other key institutional or defence sites within Europe. It is also most adapted for connecting European headquarters to any of the GovSat-1 mission beams. The satellite multiple mission beams are high-power beams which enable high-bandwidth applications to small antennas. These are ideal for Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) and Communications on the Move (COTM) applications, providing, for instance, high-power coverage over the Mediterranean Sea supporting land, maritime and airborne users.

Teleport services On top of the secure and assured satellite capacity, a reliable teleport service and hosting capabilities provide an additional element as part of the full end-to-end service. For that, GovSat teleport services are within accredited facilities (EU SECRET and NATO SECRET facility clearance) and GovSat provides hosting capabilities in specially secured areas (including Host Nation capability) as well as the terrestrial connectivity to user sites. In addition, our 24/7 secure operations with security-cleared personnel and experts further support the demands of institutional and defence applications.

*Patrick Biewer has been CEO of GovSat since June 2015

Military Ka-band: securing mobility applications Also reserved for governments and institutions, Military Ka-band is ideal for establishing secure communications for high-throughput and mobility applications. GovSat-1 anchor beam has extensive coverage over Europe and its ideal for interconnecting headquarters or

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Satellites for secure, reliable and assured communications

Photo: SES


Communications and Security

Business continuity preparations

Backup and Monitoring – the keys to a stable IT infrastructure by Destiny Bertucci, Head Geek at SolarWinds, Perkins, USA

A working IT infrastructure is critical to nearly all enterprises and agencies worldwide. As we have been reminded lately, Europe is not safe from heavy earthquakes and other catastrophes that can turn the daily routine upside down. What happens to the IT infrastructure when the energy supply cannot be guaranteed? Modern enterprises and agencies rely on the uptime of their IT infrastructure for business continuity. Downtime can lead not only to revenue and data loss but can also dent the reputation of the organisation. Knowing this, IT cannot sit back and assume their existing disaster recovery (DR) and Business Continuity (BC) plan is adequate, particularly if it has been in place for some years without ever having being put into action.

Establishing a Recovery Point Objective When setting up a Business Continuity (BC) plan, there are two important factors to consider – a Recovery Point Objective (RPO) and Recovery Time Objective (RTO). The RPO is the maximum acceptable volume of data an organisation can afford to lose when a disrupting incident occurs. RPO is represented by a point of time in the past from which data can be recovered. There are some important points that must be considered when setting an RPO, which will save problems down the line. First off, it should be ensured that top-level management are on board so as to determine what amount of data loss is acceptable. Also, data backup plans should be analysed and the organisation should try to define what is critical and optional to speed up recovery after an incident. It should also be determined whether the data should be backed up more frequently if the data loss based on the current RPO is too high. The other key factor is Recovery Time Objective (RTO). A RTO determines how long it will take to get servers running again and data transferred to new hardware, and to get essential services such as email and internet back on line. With the RTO, you can calculate how quickly you need to recover and then dictate the preparations to be taken and the budget required for the recovery plan.

The right type of backup Choosing the right type of backup is also mandatory for a good DR plan. While big organisations can set up DR sites and choose between single site and multi-site backup based on how critical the data is, a great solution for smaller organisations is cloud-based backup. Cloud-based backup is more

Destiny Bertucci is Head Geek at SolarWinds, a Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA), CIW Masters, INFOSEC, MCITP SQL and a SolarWinds Certified Professional. Her 15 years of network management experience spans healthcare and application engineering, Photo: SolarWinds including over nine years as SolarWinds Senior Application Engineer. Ms Bertucci began her IT career in 2001 as a networking consultant before joining SolarWinds to help develop the tools she had come to rely on. She boasts a deep knowledge of the complete SolarWinds product line, including customisation, leading to expertise across network, security, application, server, virtualisation and database management.

affordable than having all data “mirrored” to a backup site periodically, and has an advantage over disc- and tape-based backups in terms of ease of use and exposure to other risks. Still, having a cloud-based backup also generates some potential threats and issues which have to be considered: a cloud-based backup needs to be monitored closely as remote data centres are still prone to natural disasters, human error and cyber crime. Therefore, the stored data should also be encrypted before it leaves the premises rather than by the service provider itself to ensure maximum security, and for moving large data volumes, a strong and stable internet connection is required as well – a factor that is often forgotten.

Monitoring is mandatory While backups help with recovery and business continuity during incidents, monitoring is the key to being proactive and identifying possible network and hardware performance issues that can lead to downtime. Monitoring will also help identify security issues such as breaches, data theft and DDoS attacks that cause network downtime. Keeping an eye on the infrastructure is mandatory – but far from being easy to do. There are two main questions to be answered: what should be monitored and how should it be monitored? When taking a look at IT infrastructures, you will most likely

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THE EUROPEAN – SECURITY AND DEFENCE UNION

encounter overlaps and redundancies. Monitoring cuts across functional silos in a way that few other IT disciplines do. In the world of monitoring, the router, the switch, the hypervisor, the VM, the storage array and the application are all part of an interrelated web of interactions and dependencies. When there is overlap, monitoring has to take it into account, otherwise when a critical service appears to be unavailable, multiple teams would be mobilised for no reason. Conversely, when dependencies are ignored, a seemingly minor failure cascades into a major outage with little warning.

What to monitor – and how Some items to monitor are obvious – like the routers, switches, firewalls, servers and storage, which also includes related hardware performance like health of the device, CPU and memory utilisation and functioning of fans and power supply units. Others are less obvious but might be more critical – like the available bandwidth, resource pool on load balancers, the firewall’s syslog messages, or overall packet loss and latency in the network. Or, even monitoring the status of routing protocols (OSPF, EIGRP, and even BGP), route flaps, IP conflicts, and

DHCP and DNS performance can provide insight that saves critical minutes during an outage. One of the most basic techniques to start monitoring is the good old ping, providing information on whether and how fast a device is responding and how many packets are getting lost in this process. SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) is the most popular; it is supported on most network devices and is useful for collecting information about a device either at preset collection intervals (polls), or only when a specific threshold has been exceeded (traps). And then there are syslog and event log messages generated by servers as well as applications that provide insight into application performance. Amongst other ways of monitoring NetFlow, packet analysis, WMI (Windows Management Instrumentation) and Performance Monitor Counters are useful as well and should be considered. That list is by no means exhaustive, but consists of some basic techniques that have been around a long time and are reliable and well documented. One observation from all of this is that if the IT environments are complex, monitoring those environments is even more so. But tools and techniques exist to make the job accomplishable.

NEWS

EU energy savings targets reached earlier (Ed/hb) The EU states appear to be showing that that the EU’s objective of a 20 % increase in energy efficiency by 2020, as compared with 1990, can also be achieved without legislating on energy efficiency. According to a study conducted by the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre, the EU had already attained that goal in 2014, with a 6.5% drop in energy consumption between 2000 and 2014. Little has been said about this, but these figures are interesting for the purpose of setting the Commission’s energy efficiency goals for the period 2014-2020, and then beyond 2020, at the beginning of October. Under the energy efficiency directive the nations are obliged to

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Photo: © EU 2016 EuropeanParliament

achieve annual energy savings of 1.5%. Will the Commission stick to that target or adopt a less ambitious one? Or will it stick to its objective of a 27% increase in energy efficiency by 2030? Perhaps the recent G20 Summit in Hangzhou

(China) will have the effect of encouraging a consistent approach, which would be a good thing for the EU’s credibility. > See also Hartmut Bühl’s commentary on page 12


Kolumnentitel

Operational Use

Photo: © smartflower energy technology GmbH

“Modern times call for modern approaches: behavioural change is an essential aspect...” (Sorin Ducaru)

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THE EUROPEAN – SECURITY AND DEFENCE UNION

From Military Green to Mali

The European Defence Agency: meeting energy & environment challenges by Sharon McManus, Energy Project Officer, EDA, Brussels

In 2011 the European Defence Agency (EDA) spearheaded the first targeted approach to managing energy in the military with its innovative initiative called ‘Military Green’. Combining the EU military concept for Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency, national armed forces priorities and EU directives, Military Green defined the concept, the principles and responsibilities to meet the energy and environmental challenges of the military.

A comprehensive approach to meet objectives Military green resulted in a dedicated Energy & Environment Working Group in the EDA, which has been in place since 2014 and takes a comprehensive approach to managing energy in the military. The approach is simple; understand the strategic drivers for the military, define the scope of the challenge through data collection and analysis, educate and inform, focus on efficiency first and then finally on alternative energy sources.

Why? The importance of strategic drivers Understanding the energy strategic drivers for the military (e.g. cost, resilience, force protection, environmental concerns, security of supply, autonomy, legal requirements, etc.) can be difficult as there is no ‘one size fits all’ approach and individual Member States (MS) have different priorities and policies. In fact, even within the armed forces of individual MS, the priority areas and strategic drivers will vary between services, branches and corps of the military. Hence, it is imperative to understand how and where energy is used and integrate all of the stakeholders in a cross-functional and integrated system which allows for bespoke yet systematic military solutions to be created for each individual challenge.

Lack of military energy data capture To date there has been no global capture of energy usage in the military at European level; all available statistics are based on interpolation and estimations. Member States individually have data available and work has recently begun in EDA on a data collection programme. This data collection, analysis & sharing ( DCAS) aims to collect information from Member States, at a macro and non-sensitive level, on the significant energy users of energy and fuel sources in the military. The data will initially be used to prove or disprove the assumption that the military is one of the biggest single energy-using sectors in Europe; it will then be used to define the scale and complexity of the challenge facing the sector and assist MS in setting priority areas for attention in terms of R&D, procurement, design and operational control over the coming years.

EDA initiatives to match objectives

Unfortunately experience shows that many organisations prefer to take the technology and renewable options first, expecting to see a rapid decrease in energy use, but the reality is very different. All organisations that employ an energy management systems approach and are committed to the system see vast improvement in terms of energy reduction and environmental impact. Those that don’t invariably see brief decreases in energy use followed by a gradual increase over time.

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1. Energy Management Systems (EnMS) A comprehensive Energy Management Systems (EnMS) Training course which will be offered to MS to educate and assist them in applying a systems approach to energy management will include not only classroom activity but also ongoing mentoring to aid Member States (MS) apply the principles of the system in their own armed forces environment. 2. Smart Energy Camp Technical Demonstrator The Smart Energy Camp Technical Demonstrator in the EU Training Mission Camp in Mali is the first of its kind to be deployed into a truly operational, multinational deployed camp and has three main objectives: • to test and verify the efficiency of various types of flexi-


Operational use

ble, combat-suitable photovoltaic panels in specific climatic conditions and test the integration of renewables with battery storage in a deployment scenario; • to test ‘demand management’ technology and its impact on inhabitants; • to collect reliable data for analysis and sharing with MS and to develop benchmarks for planning support tools for CSDP operations. BAE systems from the UK are the contractor for this project. The microgrid system supplied 33% of the test building’s load and 40% of the peak load and allowed all rooms to have functioning air-conditioning when no external supply was available. Member States are now considering the next phase of this project including an upscaling of the equipment installed to provide more renewable power to the camp, water management technologies, waste management technologies including waste to energy conversion and further efficiency measures. 3. Smart Blue Water Camps The Smart Blue Water Camps Project focuses on water management techniques and technology for fixed military installations. The project aims to achieve improved Security of Supply, Environment Impact Reduction, Cost Savings, better Environmental Awareness and Project Replicability. 5 Member States are partaking in the project. The project will be carried out in two phases, investigation and assessment followed by implementation, monitoring and knowledge transfer. 4. Consultation Forum for Sustainable Energy in the Defence & Security Sector The Consultation Forum for Sustainable Energy in the Defence and Security Sector (CF SEDSS) is a unique platform funded by the European Commission to engage Ministries of Defence and armed forces in a European Defence Energy Network (EDEN) to improve energy management, efficiency and the use of renewable energy on fixed military installations in Europe. The focus of the work, through three parallel working groups, is on assessing and implementing the existing EU energy legislation specifically the Energy Efficiency Directive, the Energy Performance in Buildings Directive and the Renewable Energy Directive and the objectives are: (1) to assess where EU energy legislation is applicable to the defence sector and more impor-

Training in the EU Smart Energy Training Camp in Mali

Sharon McManus is the European Defence Agency Energy Project Officer and is responsible for the EDA’s Energy & Environment Working Group and the Consultation Forum for Sustainable Energy in the Defence & Security Sector. She has a bachelor’s degree in civil enPhoto: private gineering, a master’s degree in energy engineering and has 20 years’ service as an engineer corps officer of the Irish Defence Forces, where she has worked in both combat and infrastructural roles. Sharon served on deployment with UNMIL, KFOR and MINURCAT missions. She was the Defence Forces Energy Manager between 2007 and 2012 when the Irish Defence Forces were accredited as the first Defence Forces in the World to the ISO 50001 International Energy Management Standard.

tantly where not; (2) to stimulate projects in key areas; and (3) to identify funding streams for such projects. A series of five meetings is planned over a two-year period and the process will be managed by the European Defence Agency as the main interlocutors between EU policies and EU armed forces. The first forum meeting took place in Brussels in January 2016, the second takes place in Dublin in June 2016 and the third will take place in Italy in November 2016. Two further meetings will take place in 2017.

The way ahead The EDA is a platform for MS to focus on energy challenges, both operationally and domestically, in a collaborative way and provides a unique opportunity for armed forces to develop energy efficiency, resilience and autonomy in cooperation with their national programmes and other organisations such as NATO’s energy security agenda and the International Energy Association. All platforms provide an opportunity to bring experts together and to drive this well accepted but not, as yet, well-developed military capability forward. There are many challenges to be overcome not least of which is the identification of the unique strategic drivers which motivate individual armed forces to invest financially and psychologically in this cross-functional task. We must bear in mind at all times that the mission comes first but that energy is more than a commodity: it is as essential to the mission as food, water and ammunition. Military energy efficiency, resilience and autonomy are key to sustaining operations at home and abroad but additionally, advances in this field will benefit the wider national economic and environmental strategic objectives of each Member State and of Europe. Photo: © EDA

Article first published in ESDU N° 24, edition 02/2016

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THE EUROPEAN – SECURITY AND DEFENCE UNION

A behavioural change in the use of energy is indispensable

Secure energy supply for NATO armed forces Interview with Ambassador Sorin Ducaru, ASG, Head Emerging Security Challenges Division, NATO, Brussels

The European: Mr Ducaru, you have been Assistant Secretary General of the new Emerging Challenges Division since 2013. How, in a few words, would you describe your mission? Sorin Ducaru: Today’s security environment offers a mix of emerging non-conventional challenges and some re-emerging conventional ones. They tend to merge into a hybrid blend. As an organisation that is responsible for the security of almost one billion people, NATO must have the tools to respond to both. My mission is to be an important part of this response. The European: One of your sections deals with energy. You wish to see less wastage of fossil energy sources in NATO forces. What is your plan of action? Sorin Ducaru: NATO is an organisation that brings together 28 member states and over 40 partner countries. Many of our partners are contributing to NATO-led missions. In some of these missions we face logistical challenges with resupply, of which energy and water are the most prominent. While NATO does not develop Smart Energy technologies, it can support cooperative research between national experts. One tool in this regard is NATO’s Science for Peace and Security (SPS) Programme that is part of my division. The SPS Programme has already supported a number of workshops, training courses and projects on Smart Energy. Furthermore we are working with other NATO Divisions and bodies to encourage the development of policies and standards on energy efficiency. To bring home that these steps are indeed feasible, we demonstrate, for example, that

diesel generators can reduce their consumption through energy management and additional renewable sources. The European: This is something of a revolution. How do you think force commanders will react when you take away most of their beloved generators? Sorin Ducaru: We will not take away their diesel generators. This is a common misperception. Instead we are showing that the old diesel generator can work more efficiently when it is connected to a micro grid with energy management. Last year, during the logistical exercise “Capable Logistician 2015” (CL15) in Hungary, we brought together private companies and armed forces to show that using less energy can actually result in having more power. In addition, the Science for Peace and Security Programme supported a group of public sector experts to evaluate the outcome. The European: Your strategy is clear, but are there already plans for the functioning of such Smart Energy systems in practice? Sorin Ducaru: The use of Smart Energy systems or micro grids is something that the nations will have to decide upon. NATO as an organisation should play the role of a mentor and mediator between policymakers, academia, the military and the private companies. The technologies are already on the market. But for them to be useful for NATO’s forces, it is necessary to agree on standards. Our job is to convince nations to go

Nannette Cazaubon discussing with Sorin Ducaru at his office in Brussels 

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photo: ESDU


Operational use

down this path. Furthermore, we are designing a complete cooperative system in which Smart Energy support is closely linked with the users’ equipment and also, I would say, their “behaviour”: cooled tents , LED, systems which automatically switch off when there is no demand for electricity, etc. The European: As I understand it, Smart Energy for you is about more than just reducing the consumption of fossil fuels. Is it also about changing people’s behaviour when using energy? Sorin Ducaru: Yes, modern times call for modern approaches, and behavioural change is an indispensable part of the story. The Emerging Security Challenges Division initiated a concept on Smart Energy and brought together a large network of stakeholders from NATO bodies, agencies and nations. Experts inside and outside NATO have started to work on training courses, exercises, exhibitions and workshops dedicated to new technologies, but also on standardisation, training and behavioural change. And NATO is not working alone on this. The EU, for example, is implementing complementary Smart Energy projects. The European: You have mentioned industry several times in connection with the famous CL15 exercise. How was it possible to get industry directly involved in a NATO exercise? Sorin Ducaru: One of my staff members, Dr Susanne Michaelis, had been building ties with industry for quite some time. When we felt that the time had come to take this cooperation to a new level, I supported her in bringing together interested companies and negotiating with CL15 Host Nation Hungary to permit their involvement as fully integrated participants in the exercise. Special agreements were signed and 14 companies brought over 50 pieces of equipment, interacting with other logistical units such as FUEL and MILITARY POLICE. None these steps had ever been taken before, but we felt that the importance of the issue made it worth taking risks. Fortunately, we were proven right.

“Modern times call for modern approaches” 

Sorin Ducaru

Sorin Ducaru: Yes. Besides the workshop on 3 March, we hope that the nations will agree on a conference and exhibition in November with the title “Innovative Energy Solutions for Military Applications” (IESMA 2016) in Lithuania. This will be the third event of its kind, and it has already become a trademark for NATO’s Smart Energy initiative. We also will follow up on the Capable Logistician evaluation report that will soon be presented to the nations, recommending, inter alia, the establishment of standards for micro grids. The European: I’m sure industry will appreciate that. I have the feeling from my discussions with industry representatives that they think NATO should now make an effort to involve them in the Trident exercises as part of the logistic chain. Wouldn’t this be fair? Sorin Ducaru: Exercises such as Capable Logistician 2018 and Trident Juncture 2018 are being discussed as possible opportunities to include Smart Energy equipment, including those contributed by both Armed Forces and companies. But as I said, the Emerging Security Challenges Division is not alone. NATO’s Allied Command Transformation and Allied Command Operations, as well as Committees, such as the Military Committee and the Logistics Committee, are also very keen to continue their good cooperation with industry. The European: Thank you for this exchange of views, Ambassador. Interview conducted by Nannette Cazaubon, Deputy Editor-in-Chief of this magazine

The European: This means that NATO created expectations and that industry spent a lot of money on building prototypes to participate in CL15. Who will be the customer: NATO or member states? Sorin Ducaru: Member states. It is always the member states who decide. And this is something we want to address at the Post Exercise Workshop that will take place at NATO Headquarters on 3 March. Together with NATO’s Public Diplomacy Division and other divisions we want to further raise awareness with the nations. We will provide experts from the public and private sectors with an opportunity to demonstrate the value of Smart Energy. Basically, the message I would like to convey is simple: invest a little more when you buy new technologies, then save in the long run. Journals, such as “The European”, can be of great help in getting this message to the potential customers. The European: Is there any follow-up for industry in the pipeline?

Interview first published in ESDU N°23, edition 01/2016

Sorin Ducaru has been Assistant Secretary General for Emerging Security Challenges since 2013. He studied at the Polytechnic Institute of Bucharest and the Romanian National School of Political Studies and Public Administration. Mr Ducaru holds a MPhil Degree in International Relations and a PhD degree in International Economics. He joined the Romanian Ministry of Foreign Affairs in 1993, assuming various posts. In 2000-2001 he was the Permanent Representative of Romania to the UN and from 2001 to 2006 the Romanian Ambassador to the US. Prior to his appointment as NATO ASG, Ambassador Ducaru served as Romania’s Permanent Representative to the North Atlantic Council.

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Kolumnentitel

Technical Solutions

Source: Hartmut BĂźhl

Energy efficiency will be achieved by combining hybrid energy generation and consumption through the use of innovative automatic energy management systems combining generators with renewable energies and an adaptable power storage

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THE EUROPEAN – SECURITY AND DEFENCE UNION

Gaining strategic advantages with smart HVAC systems

Heat management in camps by Uwe Tiegel, General Manager, TIEGEL GmbH, Radeberg*

Events in recent months have confirmed the trend: the situation in refugee camps is becoming increasingly difficult, to a point where often even the most basic humanitarian needs are not being met. The cost of covering basic heating, ventilation and cooling requirements in camps and settlements using fossil fuels remains very high. Investments in alternative energy sources or energy recycling remain few and far between. The main objective of TIEGEL GmbH, located just outside Dresden, is to put to good use energy that has already been produced while adapting the systems ever more closely to the users’ requirements. The company, which was founded in 1914, has been active in the area of mobile heating, ventilation and cooling systems since 1970.

Tiegel’s approach to energy recycling When considering the replacement of the generator technology, various points must be borne in mind. What is most important from the military standpoint is to guarantee security of supply and sustainability in the field of operations. This is where Tiegel’s heat management systems have a role to play. 1. The power generator is a very old, widely available, tried and tested technology, which, albeit reliable, is not only inefficient but also environmentally unfriendly. 2. The power generator produces about 1/3 electrical energy from the fuel. But what happens to the rest? This is where Tiegel comes in. 3. The rest is transformed into waste heat, which the Tiegel heat management system puts to good use.

A forward-looking concept The Tiegel heat management system is a mobile system that can be tailored to the heating, ventilation and cooling requirements of any of the living and storage areas of a settlement or camp with thermal requirements, while also supplying hot or cold water. 1. Various modules are assembled in accordance with the camp’s requirements. 2. A heat recovery module collects the waste heat from the generator and conveys it to a storage module. The purpose of this component is to preserve the energy for later delivery to the system’s user elements. 3. Various supply modules ensure that the areas with thermal requirements receive the appropriate heating, ventilation or cooling. The medium that is used is air or warm water. 4. Redundancy in the security of supply: if insufficient waste heat is available, the end units can provide heating or cooling by conventional means.

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Tiegel assets tested at CL15 in Hungary

photo: private

Modular design tested during CL15 The modular system design, based on the plug & play approach, is open on all sides. Even in an installation that is up and running, the user can modify the modular structure or add further modules. This means that the system can develop and grow together with the camp. It was successfully demonstrated during the June 2015 NATO CL15 exercise in Hungary in various scenarios that renewable energies in combination with energy-efficient technologies have a major role to play in increasing a camp’s self-sufficiency and independence. Involved in this fielding of energy-efficient equipment technology and technical expertise were, among others, TIEGEL GmbH, the Bundeswehr and the US Department of Defense, who thus demonstrated their interoperability.

Conclusions Tiegel’s heat management system can make an essential contribution to reducing a camp’s fuel consumption. Since the system builds on available technologies, it is simple to install it in existing camps, or to gradually incorporate individual modules into them. Thus the company with its forward-looking approach contributes to reducing logistics costs. * Uwe Tiegel took over with his sister Kerstin in 2005 – as the fourth generation – the family company Tiegel. He is the General Manger of Tiegel GmbH.


Technical Solutions

GreenLeb: A hybrid power generation project in Lebanon

Hybrid energy for settlements and camps by Jürgen Zitzmann, General Manager S & Z ENERGIESYSTEME GmbH, Nuremberg

The current refugee crisis requires us to act; this includes taking action wherever possible to encourage people to stay in their homes and to enable refugees from neighbouring countries to live decent lives within their “own” region in order to save them from an uncertain onward journey and to nurture their hope of returning home.

provided with an uninterrupted power supply at constant and affordable prices. This will strengthen infrastructure, enable schools to be built and create jobs. In addition, a reliable farmland irrigation system will make for better planning and harvests.

Partners in cooperation

GreenLeb – a first project for Lebanon Based on this conviction, S & Z is the driver behind the first project for tackling the problem of energy supplies in Middle Eastern Arab countries: we are on the way to supplying a little town in Lebanon, whose current sporadic power supply has negative consequences for the quality of life, education and economic development. As the water supply there also depends on the electric power supply we will integrate the water supply into our project. We will be installing for this town with 12,500 inhabitants and 2,500 refugees a 4-megawatt electricity supply from renewable sources.

We are implementing GreenLeb in cooperation with competent partners: the hard core of the project is the state-of-the-art CrossPower system built by Pfisterer Holding AG based in Winterbach (Stuttgart region), which is leading the technical and technological implementation. Our partner in Lebanon for GreenLeb is Maher Skaini, a project manager and consultant who has been involved in the project since the beginning and is eager to transfer the experience with renewable energy which he gained in Germany in cooperation with S & Z to his home country, in order to help improve the living conditions there.

GreenLeb is just the beginning

Photovoltaic and wind

Renewable energies are one of the key elements for the future of societies in the Arab region. GreenLeb will show that our hybrid power generation is the best energy solution for this region. These new technologies will improve people’s lives. That is why we intend to propose and implement similar projects on a comparable scale in other parts of the Arab world and elsewhere. * Jürgen Zitzmann is GeneralManager of S & Z Energiesysteme GmbH in Nuremberg. The company specialises in conversion areas.

Photos: J. Zitzmann

In order to provide a continuous supply of electricity we intend to create with GreenLeb a new grid incorporating the current emergency network based on diesel generators, to the extent that these are still usable. The aim is to cover 80 % of the town’s energy requirements from renewable sources. Located close to a windy coast and with 320 days of sun each year, the town offers optimum conditions for a power supply based on renewables. With the aid of a smart energy management system that includes battery storage, 2,000 households can be

On-site inspection of the terrain by the Industry Team 

This area (middle picture) may one day look like this (right-hand picture)



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A holistic approach to supplying sustainable and advanced energy

Africa GreenTec Solarcontainers deliver triple impact for Africa by Torsten Schreiber, Founder and CEO, Africa GreenTec, Hainburg

About 80% of Sub Saharan Africa’s population – more than 100 million households – is without access to electricity via a national power grid1, a situation that keeps people in poverty and encourages them to migrate to cities or other countries. And with population growth, this migration is increasing.

Diesel generators: not viable for the future Those with access to electricity tend to rely on inefficient diesel generators to charge mobile phones, serve reading lights after sunset, or cool medicine. Diesel generators pump out smoke particles, fostering a host of respiratory and cardiac diseases, and contributing to acid rain, with an impact on crop yields and biodiversity, as well as carbon dioxide, contributing to global warming. In addition to the environmental impact, diesel-generated off-grid electricity is also expensive: with the cost of the diesel fuel itself, transport to rural areas, capital and service for the generators – the typical price paid by an off-grid consumer in Sub-Saharan Africa is more than 50 cents per kilowatt-hour, more than double the price paid in Europe. Fortunately, solar power plants are able already today to deliver electricity at a lower cost.

Reliable and sustainable energy: all in one Africa GreenTec builds and delivers such solar power plants:

Torsten Schreiber is the founder and CEO of Africa GreenTec. He is a trained management assistant in the publishing sector. Mr Schreiber started his career as CEO of Eura-Marketing GmbH and became a member of the Executive Board of dress up AG in 2001. In 2006, he Photo: Private became CEO of RockmyStartup GmbH, a position he holds still today. In addition to founding Africa GreenTec, Mr Schreiber has co-founded bettervest GmbH, and is the founder of social startups.

solar containers made in Germany, ready-to-run with foldable solar panels delivering up to 48 KWp, generously sized batteries storing up to 120 KWh, inverters and monitoring equipment all built into a 40-foot high cubic shipping container. On arrival, the equipment unfurls around the solar container with minimal assembly, and starts generating electricity. A model with a built-in water treatment plant delivering up to 1,500 litres per hour of fresh water is also available, because in addition to a reliable electricity supply, the treatment, pumping and cleaning of water plays an important role when supplying communities,

Africa GreenTec Founders Aida and Torsten Schreiber with village people in Mali

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Source: Torsten Schreiber/private


Technical Solutions

Africa GreenTec first prototype in February 2016 in Mourdiah (Mali), near Sahara Desert

farms or disaster control facilities in rural areas. What is more, over a period of 20 years, a typical container saves the community 400 000 by way of costs for diesel-generated electricity, and avoids emissions of 820 tons of CO2.

Source: Torsten Schreiber/private

mitigate the causes of migration in regions that are uniquely impacted by climate change. In summary, a solar container generates not only a beneficial environmental impact but also a positive social and financial impact for rural communities in Africa.

A holistic concept… Where there is electricity, people have a better chance of getting out of poverty. Africa GreenTec as a social business aims not only to deliver clean electricity, but also to kick-start economic development. Every container comes with a set of LED lights, and the community receives training in the efficient use of electricity. Children benefit as well: European regulations allow communities with dependable access to electricity to receive electronic equipment grants – so Africa GreenTec partners with labdoo.org, providing laptops loaded with education software to the communities’ schools. The solar container not only delivers electricity to provide the lighting needed to study after sunset, but modern learning equipment as well.

1 “Africa Energy Outlook” prepared by the IEA in 2014: http://www.iea.org/ publications/freepublications/publication/weo-2014-special-report-africa-energy-outlook.html 2 More detailed calculations (German language only): http://blog.wattrechner. de/2015/01/minimierungsmaximierung/

…with a broad base To raise the capital needed to build and ship a solar container, Africa GreenTec partners with crowdfunding platforms in Europe. The first container, delivered in September 2015 to the village of Mourdiah in Mali, was financed by 174 individual investors. These investors benefit from an annuity paid for seven years with 9% interest. In addition to this financial benefit, every euro invested helps avoid CO2 emissions: The amount of CO2 savings per euro invested is comparable to the “CO2 return-on-investment” of solar panels on the roof of a central European home2. And every euro invested supports economic development and promotes education in a Sub-Saharan community, helping to

Snapshot of fossil fuel resources and renewable energy projects across Africa in 2012

Source: Matt.9.johnson, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons.

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A revolution in deployable structures

Innovative tents to reduce energy consumption – a worldwide request by Roberto Volante, G&G Partners Srl., Montichiari*

G&G Partners Srl. is a consolidated Italian company which has long-standing experience in the field of defence supplies and a consistent record of sales to both European and African military organisations. With its own 8 000 square metre state-of-the-art Italian hi-tech and hi-quality manufacturing facilities and technical and design department, it can satisfy every customer's requirements. Its Defshell modular deployable hangars and tents are the result of combining high-performance materials together. Such innovative high-tech products guarantee low weight, reduced volume, excellent habitability and low energy consumption.

A NATO-awarded smart energy company Defshell’s most innovative characteristics are: • Carbon hybrid: aluminium profiles reinforced with carbon fibres that increase the mechanical strength of the structure and drastically reduce transport weight and volume. • Thermocanvas: special membranes that increase insulation and comfort by reducing thermal transmission by 50% in summer and 35% in winter. Therefore, in particularly warm meteorological conditions, the temperatures in Defshell structures are about 10ºC (50ºF) lower than in traditional

PVC tents. Furthermore, the silver colour treatment on the membranes’ internal surface enhances the brightness of illumination and avoids the typical smell of PVC. These two innovations are the basis for Defshell energy-efficient hangars and tent structures.

Flexible but durable Defshell hangars and tent structures are characterised by modularity and flexibility, allowing reduced weight and volume, while still offering outstanding strength and durability, excellent comfort and thermal insulation. Due to their reduced weight and volume their transport is less expensive and they are easily assembled and disassembled. All this maximises energy savings and reduces operational costs. The complete range of deployable structures includes: tents of different sizes, hangars with various types and sizes of access doors, light buildings for every type of use, with or without internal partitions, as well as multi-purpose tent systems that can serve as complete field hospitals, air terminals, C&C centres, etc.

Becoming even more energy-efficient G&G has also designed a full range of last generation Defshell accessories perfectly matching the characteristics of the Defshell structures:  Light, adaptable, flexible photovoltaic high-performance panels  Smart Energy Management  Versatile and modular LED lighting systems  Field air conditioning systems  Electrical systems and switchboards  Flooring

A reliable partner for challenging environments Defshell structures are designed in compliance with all current EU standards and regulations. The technologies used allow us to create turnkey structures that can also replace traditional concrete buildings with limited costs and short delivery times. What is more, the tents and hangars are combat proven: Defshell structures are currently deployed in many overseas operations to the customers’ full satisfaction. *Roberto Volante, Col (ret), is Business Development Manager at G&G Partners Srl.

Defshell’s innovative hangars and tents

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Photo: G&G Partners Srl

> Visit www.defshell.it/en/ for more information


Technical Solutions

An economical, environmentally friendly and up-to-date water supply concept

A smarter water supply during military and civil operations by Jesper Ellegaard, CEO, MuchMoreWater, Roskilde

Guaranteeing a daily supply of drinking water for deployed civil and military forces is a major undertaking. And in modern military operations in hot and extremely demanding environments like Afghanistan, Iraq, Mali etc., the water requirement per person is very high. Soldiers can go several days without food, but a constant daily water supply is a vital necessity. The same is true for the personnel involved in civilian missions in harsh, remote environments such as natural and humanitarian disaster zones. Water deliveries are traditionally managed in one of two ways: units are supplied with safe drinking water from home or the water from local sources is filtered to transform it into drinking water.

Water supply – a costly undertaking Bottled water has long been the preferred option for the supply of troops. It can be delivered in jerrycans transported by military jeeps, with the risk that this entails of hostile attacks against these convoys. In areas where supply by road is not possible, water is airlifted in, making it a major undertaking. In Afghanistan, for example, bottled water supplies and water

Jesper Ellegaard has been the owner of PureH2O A/S since 2003, which is now being remodeled into MuchMoreWater. He studied management and economics in Melbourne and Copenhagen, deepening his knowledge with research on the potential benefits in cultural Photo: MMW Roskilde investments at University of Copenhagen. Starting his career in 1994, Mr Ellegaard became marketing assistant at P. Ellegaard A/S. From 1996 to 2002, he worked as Managing Director at PJC-Gruppen A/S, afterwards returning to P. Ellegaard A/S as Managing Director and owner of the company.

issue, since they are costly, logistically challenging and, not at least of all, dangerous.

The need for modern purification technologies

“The management of drinking water for modern operations calls for smaller, lightweight, flexible solutions, as opposed to the conventional large, often containerised, water purification plants widely used today by national forces worldwide.” Jesper Ellegaard 

hauling convoys for 20 000 US marines generated a daily cost of US$ 500 000, not including the recovery of empty plastic bottles and waste elimination and the fact that every 26th convoy was attacked, resulting in casualties and deaths. In short: bottled drinking water supplies are becoming a critical

This is why military commanders in particular are looking increasingly for an alternative and are privileging the use of modern water purification technologies in the field, enabling troops to source water locally. The management of drinking water for modern operations calls for smaller, lightweight, flexible solutions, as opposed to the conventional large, often containerised, water purification plants widely used today by national forces worldwide. The use of smaller, tactical plants instead of large purification plants gives deployed forces greater autonomy and simplifies the logistics, since convoys can be further reduced. In terms of drinking water quality, the purification units need to be able to reliably filter even highly contaminated water: not only must the purified water be safe to drink, it must also be palatable to soldiers and other users who widely still prefer bottled mineral water for its taste and the feeling that it is safer than filtered water from local sources.

Solutions – the BlueBox concept There are already solutions on the market that meet these needs, such as the MuchMoreWater BlueBox water purification concept, developed by MuchMoreWater, a Danish company

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(formerly known as PureH20) that has specialised over the last decade in small-scale, mobile water purifiers. MuchMoreWater’s BlueBox water purification units are already deployed by defence forces (e.g. British, Swedish and Norwegian forces), emergency management agencies, humanitarian rapid relief organisations (the Red Cross), and also within the commercial sector. The BlueBox design owes its success to its compact, modular “water-in-a-box” solution, allowing its rapid deployment to any place in the world. Setting up the production unit only takes 7 minutes after arrival on site, and the water purifier can be operated by unskilled people. The BlueBox design has standard internationally dimensioned couplings and fittings for maximum interconnection with the surrounding camp water infrastructure, and can operate with wind and solar energy, batteries and conventional power grids. Different coupling sizes and hose colours make it practically impossible to assemble the unit wrongly.

there are still issues, remineralisation can put back many of the beneficial minerals lost during the filtration process. The BlueBox concept offers a range of second barrier safety features to sustain the quality of the solution, and to further enhance the safety of the drinking water through ultra-violet disinfection and/or post-chlorination.

Clean water that tastes good

The BlueBox4000 system One of the latest developments by MuchMoreWater is the BlueBox 4000 unit, a specialised 2-box system for military deployment developed with defence partners. This unit comes in two small (1.2 x 1.2 metre) cubic boxes which can be stacked to fit in relatively small containers. A single unit is capable of producing 90m3 per day. This system is unique for its electromagnetic current (EMC) protection. It maintains the BlueBox purification concept and, in addition, offers maximum operational flexibility thanks among other things to its modular design, with the RO module separated from the pump and pre-filtration phases, each in its own box.

MuchMoreWater’s innovation philosophy over the past 12 years has been to provide “the best components in the class”. The core technology is a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane. RO-purified water has a bad reputation, being associated with a bad taste and a smell due to the source water and the removal of certain natural chemicals found in water. These problems can be solved by introducing active carbon filters for a better taste, which is standard in the BlueBox concept, and, where

The modularity features a 3-in-1 solution to improve the flexibility of the camp water system: • The 2-box BlueBox 4000 water-maker purifies and stores drinking water. • If stored drinking water is suspected of having been re-contaminated by bacteria and other micro-biological pathogens, the stored water (bypassing the RO module box) is

BlueBox60 with solar panel 

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Photo: MMW Roskilde


Technical Solutions

BlueBox 1800 with Solar Panels 

sent through the powerful ultra-violet disinfection system, thereby removing any micro-biological contamination. Thus, potentially scarce water resources can be recovered 100% (whereas RO processes normally involve a 50% loss, but a necessity in order to make all membranes work properly at 8-12 bar level, that will make the osmotic process run). • If stored water is chlorinated to avoid recontamination, but operatives do not find the chlorinated water palatable, the stored water is sent through an over-sized activated carbon area, which removes the chlorine and makes the water clear, odourless and palatable again. Bluebox 60 RO The newest Bluebox 60 RO will deliver only 60 litres/hour but the complete system is mounted in a suitcase-sized hard shell. This Bluebox 60 is designed for scout groups, first responders, forward operating bases and other groups that explore new territory without infrastructure – and often with no roads and no secure access to clean water – a group of 10-20 people can survive in very harsh conditions with the Bluebox 60 RO unit. It has multiple power source options like: 230 /110 volts from a grid or generator, 12/24 volts from a vehicle battery or from soft solar cells that will load up integrated batteries. Thus if water is accessible the Bluebox 60 RO will make sure that it is safe to drink.

Photo: MMW Roskilde

BlueBox 4000

Photo: MMW Roskilde

Conclusion Up until now there were few manufacturers of small, flexible and highly efficient water purification systems. If these systems are also modular and scalable, economical in terms of energy consumption and can also operate with renewables in order to save on fossil fuels and reduce environmental pollution, they constitute an up-to-date solution in response to the challenge of guaranteeing a safe, good-tasting, cost-efficient and environmentally friendly water supply for the personnel deployed on civil and military operations.

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Another innovative step towards smart energy infrastructure

Energy-efficient water purification

by Dr Andreas Arnold, Director Product Management & Business Development, Blücher GmbH, Erkrath*

With the “Smart Energy” approach being increasingly pursued for military operations and humanitarian aid/disaster management projects, the focus of technology development is not only on energy generation from different renewable sources, energy storage and management through smart grids, but also on mobile energy-efficient equipment, which is key to the successful implementation of the smart energy approach.

Time for innovation The two long-established technologies for the treatment of water are: ultrafiltration for water with particulate pollution only and reverse osmosis whenever there is known or suspected chemical pollution. More recently, however, the increasing presence of dissolved organic compounds and of traces of heavy metals, pharmaceutical pollution and pesticides has turned out to be a challenge in both urban and rural environments. The existing technology has proven to be incapable of removing certain critical substances, as well as having high energy demands and requiring bulky, heavy and immobile installations. The user community has therefore been encouraging industry to provide innovative solutions with enhanced mobility, energy efficiency and water quality. BLÜCHER’s mobile BWP400 water purification unit addresses those user requirements.

litres of drinking water per day with a power consumption of no more than 1 kW from various energy sources

Photo: Blücher

quality, the unit can produce approximately 200 000 litres of drinking water before cartridge replacement.

Prototypes successfully tested in Hungary

Thanks to its low weight of approximately 100 kg and small footprint the size of a Euro pallet, four operators are enough to move the water purification unit. Its low energy consumption keeps energy requirements to a minimum, and in environments with scarce water supplies its yield of typically 90% is advantageous. Highly automated, the system can be easily commissioned and operated even by personnel with a minimum amount of training. It is easily transportable on any small truck, trailer, or transport helicopter enabling it to be deployed in inaccessible zones or delivered to small units in difficult terrains.

Prototypes of the BLÜCHER BWP400 water treatment unit took part in NATO’s Smart Energy demonstration activities in the Smart Energy Camps set up during the Capable Logistician 2015 (CL15) exercise organised in Hungary. The systems attracted a lot of interest during the exercise, not only from military users but also visitors with disaster management and humanitarian aid backgrounds. The system successfully proved its readiness for use in military or disaster response environments. It was deployed and relocated several times for the purpose of different scenarios, thus demonstrating its high mobility and ruggedness. Thanks to its low energy requirements and resulting connectivity to a range of sources, e.g. solar panels, the system can be autonomously operated, dispensing with the need for a continuous fuel supply. Easily and quickly to various water sources, different energy sources and water supply and storage equipment, it successfully demonstrated its interoperability.

An innovative filtration concept

Lessons learned and consequences

The Blücher BWP400 is designed to cope with a range of difficult water purification challenges. The concept is based on an ultrafiltration step which retains particulate contamination such as suspended solids, bacteria and viruses, followed by an adsorptive filtration unit made from a special high-purity and high-capacity synthetic activated carbon bed designed to remove dissolved organic material (odour, colour, pesticides and pharmaceutical residues) and heavy metals such as arsenic. Approximately 8 000 litres of drinking water are delivered per day in a nearly continuous mode and, depending on the water

Water treatment and supply is an essential element in military and civil operations, and energy-efficient, mobile components are a highly appreciated part of smart energy installations. Trials in realistic scenarios showed that new customised systems are readily available. The experience during the CL15 exercise and extensive on-the-spot discussions revealed the need for the current technology-biased standards for drinking water purification to be revised in a performance-focused manner.

Low weight and small footprint

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Soldiers installing BLÜCHER’s BWP400 system, which delivers 8 000

* Dr Andreas Arnold leads the Product Management and Business Development Division of Blücher GmbH in Erkrath.


Technical Solutions

Huge benefits for military and civil use are possible

From waste to energy

by Vincent R. Toepoel, Founder and Director, Toeps, Haarlem

The military energy challenge is clear and well communicated: cost, resilience, force protection, environmental concerns, security of supply, autonomy, legal requirements, etc. Improving power generation during member states’ military operations is integral to plans and demonstrations. The Dutch Ministry of Defence applies its Defence Innovation Competition tool, which challenges SMEs to come up with solutions not yet on the radar for the military: one result is the “from waste to energy” concept in military camps. Technologies like waste and energy technologies also have great potential outside military operations, in the civilian world.

Using waste and biomass for energy production Military operations Waste is a category in its own right due to the strong pressure for military camps to comply with EU waste regulations. And there is also the issue of force protection, for example, avoiding personnel documents ending up in the trash and being discovered at dumpsites. Almost all waste and biomass has energy potential, which can be harvested by breaking up at high temperatures large molecules of solid material such as food residues (biomass), tyres, plastic, paper and other combustible components into small molecules without or with a minimum of air. Without air the materials cannot burn and so turn into gas, which can be used

Vincent R. Toepoel is an entrepreneur and consultant in new energy technologies & development. His company Toeps operates 2 companies, Waste4ME BV and DieselUp BV. He has a master’s degree in sustainable process and energy technologies from Delft Univerphoto: private sity of Technology. He has worked for IATA, Qatar Airways and Qatar Science & Technology Park, mainly on renewable jet fuels. With Waste4ME BV he and his partners developed small-scale waste to energy technologies to prototype level for and in cooperation with the Dutch Ministry of Defence.

like natural gas and LPG for power generation by Waste4ME. The military injects the gas into diesel generators via the dual fuel system, where part of the diesel is replaced by gas. This proven technology is comparable to converting a gasoline car into a LPG car. However, applying it in military conditions is more challenging due to the strong requirement for simplicity, safety, mobility and low input from staff.

Process of taking in the waste and converting it at a high temperature into gas, which is injected into a diesel generator for a secure electricity supply

photo: Waste4ME

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will help to reduce and make the camp independent of external waste management.

Engine using dual fuel system

photo: Waste4ME

Military market: the benefits are evident Take a 1000-person camp, for example; the staff generates a total of about 10-30 kg waste per person per week totalling 10-30 tonnes per week. Oil and tyres are normally classified as chemical waste and require shipping to specific sites for recovery in Europe. This waste has an energy content equivalent to 2.6 to 7.8 m3 diesel per week. For a commander this means one fuel truck less per 2 to 6 weeks and fewer problems with regulations. For the accountants this means an annual total saving of  1.37 – 4.11 million per year based on  4 / litre,  120 / tonne of normal waste and  5.000 / tonne of chemical waste. This constitutes a viable business case: the cost of the system can be earned back within one year or 4 months. These savings will not make a camp energy independent, but

Gas can be a security risk if not consumed by a generator or safety burn-off

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Civil use Military camps have a viable business case for hybrid use, but military camps are limited in amounts. Hybrid use makes it possible to develop the technology for the major military requirements, but the true potential for earning back is in civil use. A military camp is basically an island, surrounded by enemies and often sand. Islands, remote villages and disaster relief operations have the same characteristics as military camps: the logistics are expensive and often limited, waste management is often lacking and energy is imported. Waste management on some islands is so under-performing that these locations are fined for non-compliance with EU regulations. The islands can earn back the investment within 2 years or have free energy for 10 years paid by waste management.

Cooperation is necessary The technologies are simple to use, flexible to develop and effective. The energy aspect alone of military operations justifies taking a risk with newer products or technologies and it justifies the higher initial cost of energy systems, if only due to the quick payback and the spin-off for the civilian market. In the decentralised energy, energy efficiency, water and waste management market no country has the complete solution. But the EU countries all together do have the energy, water and waste companies to take this big leap towards operational effectiveness.

photo: Waste4ME


Technical Solutions

Efficient hybrid energy solutions are capability providers in operations

Providing advice and solutions for the development of energy-efficient forces Interview with by Gintaras Bagdonas, Colonel, Director NATO ENSEC COE, Vilnius

The European: Colonel, your institution was created in October 2012 as a military organisation. What was the idea behind it? Gintaras Bagdonas: It sprang from the major insight that energy security is part of broader security, a lesson learned by the civil and military forces in Afghanistan. These operations brought home that military operations in particular required huge volumes of energy and complex logistics. Getting this energy from a single fuel source restricts flexibility, while using a variety of sources including renewables constitutes a mission enabler for commanders, by reducing logistical transport and human resources requirements. The European: How are you organised within NATO and what is your mission? G. Bagdonas: I report to the nations that are members of my centre of excellence: seven NATO nations1 and Georgia as a partner nation. I receive my instructions from a steering committee in the form of guidance for projects, approval of planning, human resources, budgets etc. We are linked with NATO HQ in Brussels and with the HQ SACT in Norfolk in particular; our exchanges of views provide the opportunity to submit proposals based on the needs of the Alliance, as well as to respond to requests from Strategic NATO Commands faster and more efficiently. The European: Is your organisation an open structure or is it based on actual membership? G. Bagdonas: We are an open structure and are generating interest in the member states through our successful work. Thus the US will probably be joining us before the end of 2016; Germany has declared its intention to join in the very near future and the Czech Republic will cooperate as an expert in the form of a voluntary contribution. The European: Colonel, congratulations on these positive developments. But do you have the feeling, in spite of all your success, that it is not always easy to get the “army goes green” concept across to military commanders? G. Bagdonas: An interesting question and I see your point. We are doing our best to convince and have a range of tools to promote energy efficiency in the military: we invite the Chiefs of Defence (CHODs) and commanders to meetings. We publish articles and give interviews in newspapers and on TV, and of course, we give advice in response to special requests from nations. I send my specialists out to participate on invitation

NATO ENSEC COE Director Col Gintaras Bagdonas, speaking at the HPGS handover ceremony, February 2016

Photo: NATO ENSEC COE

in national meetings on energy efficiency, and we participate as a partner in all meetings of the European Defence Agency (EDA). We organise courses here in Vilnius and are developing together with ICT an internet course starting next year. Finally, we have strong and fruitful relations with universities. The European: You mentioned that military leaders have to be convinced. We know that military leaders only believe in a project when it is something tangible, preferably hardware. So, what are you doing to put your ideas into practice? G. Bagdonas: Every two years we hold our IESMA (Innovative Energy Solutions for Military Application) Conference in Vilnius (the next will take place on 16/17 November 2016) where we bring together leading NATO personalities, commanders and industry representatives. We participate in the multinational exercise “Capable Logistician” (the previous ones were organised in 2013 and 2015; the next is scheduled for 2019); In other words we act as a hub for information exchange and awareness raising for the military, governmental institutions, industry and academia in the area of military energy efficiency. The European: Do you test systems at the Centre? G. Bagdonas: Yes indeed, another instrument at our disposal is the test of hybrid energy systems such as the HGPS (Hybrid Power Generation and management System), which fulfilled our highest expectations in terms of technology and handling. We collected data over a period of more than six months

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and the most striking result for me was an energy gain in the absence of any sun and wind of 40% through simple energy storage, guided by a management system. The energy management system is state-of-the-art and able to coordinate generators, wind and batteries in an optimal fashion.

G. Bagdonas: You have put your finger on a key point. Yes, we need a change of behaviour. Before doing hardware, the Centre studied from 2013 onwards this change of culture that is needed. We published a study on this topic in 2015 and are disseminating our ideas to the forces during workshops.

The European: And you handed it over to the Lithuanian Forces. It participated in the NATO “Strong Hussar 2016” exercise. G. Bagdonas: The HPGS is indeed now fielded by the Lithuanian Army and has been very successfully tested under operational conditions. The system showed almost 40 per cent fuel efficiency during that exercise and we were very happy with this result.

The European: What are your next projects? G. Bagdonas: We are working on definitions and standards, a very complicated task because of the diversity of national habits, regulations etc. But we are also launching a project on the enhancement of critical infrastructure protection against concrete threats such as cyber attacks.

The European: You mentioned that the system has largely exceeded your expectations. What are the highlights and what improvements might be made? How did NATO commanders react? G. Bagdonas: I have already mentioned the technological status of this system, but an even more important advantage is the ease with which it can be built, handled and controlled by the user. Soldiers are able after a week of instruction by industries to master it. The European: To come now to the users, the soldiers: are they trained not to waste energy? Don’t we need a change of culture in the use of energy?

The European: Colonel, can you define energy efficiency in one sentence? G. Bagdonas: Energy efficiency is a capability enabler and a multiplier of military power. The European: Colonel, thank you for this interview. Hartmut Bühl held this interview on 5 September 2016 in Vilnius.

1 Estonia, France, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Turkey, United Kingdom. Partner Nation is Georgia

A highlight in the existence of NATO ENSEC COE was the official handover ceremony of the Hybrid Power Generation and management System (HPGS) to the Lithuanian Armed Forces, in February 2016  

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Photo: N. Cazaubon/ESDU


BSC

Berlin Security Conference

1 5 th C o n g r e s s o n E u r o p e a n S e c u r i t y a n d D e f e n c e

29 – 30 November 2016 andel’s Hotel & Convention Center Berlin

Europe at risk – what are our answers to common threats? Partner of the BSC 2016: France Highlights of the Main Programme, e. g. > HIGH-LEVEL DEBATE: Europe under multiple pressures – how to regain and balance internal and external security? > FORUM: European Industrial Security and Defence Cooperation – on its way to strategic autonomy? > HIGH-LEVEL INTERVIEW: Terrorism in Europe – how to consolidate the fight against it? > HIGH-LEVEL MILITARY FORUM: European Defence – common ambitions and national realities

Forum, e. g. > > > >

Hybrid Security and National Resilience Prevention of and Protection against Terrorism – a point of view from Israeli industry Cyber Security – organizational and conceptual challenges High Readiness Forces – mobility and interoperability: an urgent requirement

Top Speakers, e. g. Louis Gautier Secretary General for Defence and National Security (SGDSN), French Republic

Patricia Adam Chair, Defence Committee, National Assembly, French Republic

Michel Barnier Special Advisor on European Defence and Security Policy to the President of the European Commission

General Mikhail Kostarakos Chairman of the European Union Military Committee

General Denis Mercier Supreme Allied Commander Transformation, Norfolk, USA

General Petr Pavel Chairman NATO Military Committee

Lieutenant General Martin Schelleis Chief of Staff, German Joint Support Service

Dr Géza Andreas von Geyr Director General for Security and Defence Policy, German Federal Ministry of Defence

Lieutenant General Jörg Vollmer Chief of Staff, German Army

Further Information and Registration  www.euro-defence.eu

Organised by


The European - Security and Defence Union  

Issue 25

The European - Security and Defence Union  

Issue 25