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Personalization: The Next Evolution in Lecture Capture Technology How User Context Can Deliver a Personalized Learning Environment and Greater Academic Achievement

Wainhouse Research, LLC 34 Duck Hill Terrace Duxbury, MA 02332 USA +1.781.934.6165

Alan D. Greenberg & Andy Nilssen Wainhouse Research

August 2010 Study sponsored by:

Contents Executive Summary ........................................................................................................ 3 Methodology .................................................................................................................... 4  Introduction ..................................................................................................................... 4  Lecture Capture at its Core ............................................................................................. 5  Going Beyond Authentication to Achieve Context-Sensitivity and Personalization ......... 7  Knowing the Learner: Personalizing the Experience ....................................................... 7  New Possibility: Learning by Democratizing the Content Creation Process ............................. 9  New Possibility: Learning by Accessing Information More Efficiently...................................... 10  New Possibility: Impact on Educators ..................................................................................... 13  Learning by Interacting with Instructors and Classmates Differently via Presence ....... 13 

Personalization and Mobility .......................................................................................... 14 Conclusions ................................................................................................................... 14  About the Authors ......................................................................................................... 15  About Wainhouse Research .................................................................................................... 15  About Tegrity ........................................................................................................................... 15 

Figures Figure 1 - Sample Approach to Bookmarking ............................................................................. 11 Figure 2 - A Comparison of Old vs. New Methods ...................................................................... 12

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Executive Summary Higher education has by nature always been somewhat learner-centric, in placing greater responsibility on the part of young adults for their educational efforts. As colleges and universities continue to seek efficiencies and improvements, lecture capture will be an increasingly attractive educational technology that offers a variety of benefits and methods of achieving return on investment. In fact, a newer phase – personalized lecture capture – the subject of this white paper – will be an increasingly attractive model in higher education. Though not new, lecture capture is beginning to enter mainstream acceptance based on newer digital technologies and advanced capabilities. Simple to use user interfaces, creative licensing schemes, flexible approaches to methods of recording and playback, integrated editing tools, and other features have made lecture capture relatively simple to deploy and help users find return on investment that much quicker. Lecture capture removes the “latency” introduced when learners are forced to struggle to retain an instructor’s words and thoughts, and instead frees them to focus on the content being relayed. This translates into a greater ability for customized learning environments for students - in effect creating a context-sensitive, personalized learning experience that can also translate into faster learning and improved student performance. The ability to integrate lecture capture platforms with Learning Management Systems (LMS’s) can help to automate the authentication and authorization needed to ensure learners get to review what they are allowed to review. Integration hooks provided by lecture capture and LMS vendors are viable as methods of ensuring a baseline approach to secure access. Yet most lecture capture systems do not know who the viewer is (as the LMS does the authentication and authorization); they only know that the stream is permitted to play and that students of the course are watching. This sets the stage for the next transformation of lecture capture solutions – into platforms that can understand not just who their users are, but also what those users need to do and how their experience can be personalized and enhanced. The coming shift will bring creation of custom learning environments that cater to the individual student by offering personal context-sensitivity, the ability to draw on the knowledge of peers and instructors, and the ability to better manage and monitor each individual learner’s behaviors and customize their experience to their individual needs. Among the major effects of this shift: •

Democratization of the content creation process as learners themselves contribute to or otherwise use lecture capture tools to learn from or teach others

Faster learning by enabling learners to access information more quickly through bookmarks – and placing efficiencies within the platform to streamline teaching and learning

Changing impact on educators, who can rely on lecture capture feedback loops based on features like bookmarking to enable them to adjust content and teaching styles to suit learner needs

Use of presence and the fact that a system can know a learner to automate and make more efficient the act of finding peers or instructors for further learning interactions

Greater ability to deliver content and offer customized features via mobile devices

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Copyright © 2010 Wainhouse Research, LLC

This white paper focuses on the evolution of lecture capture as a tool for creating a coherent environment for learner-centered instruction, showing the possibilities for improved efficiencies and better learning outcomes.

Methodology Wainhouse Research held a number of briefings with the community of lecture capture solution providers, and for follow up, conducted a small set of interviews with end user organizations already using or considering using advanced personalization features. This white paper should be considered an envisioning of what is possible today and what is coming tomorrow within lecture capture platforms that will impact educational processes within institutions of higher education (IHE).

Introduction Just as technology has transformed how both businesses and individuals communicate, it is beginning to transform the business of education. In Clayton Christensen’s 2008 book Disrupting Class, 1 the Harvard Business School professor predicts significant “flip” in the U.S. education system in the coming decade, from teacher-centered, monolithic instruction to student-centered, computer-assisted instruction. This process will begin to accelerate in 2012, such that he estimates that by 2019 50% of high school students will be participating in online, student-centered courses. Higher education – which by its nature has operated within a different type of business model and utilizing different pedagogical approaches – has by nature always been somewhat learnercentric, in placing greater responsibility on the part of young adults for their educational efforts. The rapid adoption of PC’s and laptop computers on the part of college learners signaled the beginning of a paradigm shift in higher education, but it was only the beginning. Wainhouse Research believes that a “flip” similar to Christensen’s primary / secondary shift is already beginning to take place in higher education – and that this shift similarly will accelerate as high schoolers graduate into institutes of higher education (IHE’s). This coming shift in IHE is the result of the convergence of a number of factors: •

IHE’s hold a natural role as the testing ground for new technologies as well as new ways of teaching

Learners are increasingly asking for advanced technologies, which they see as enriching factors in their educations as well as one more way to differentiate between schools

An overall explosion in digital content, often in multimedia formats, are changing models for delivery of textbooks, and in fact, a few libraries are beginning to actually eliminate hard copy books

Competitive pressures from the likes of private, for-profit online universities are being felt by public and private, not-for-profit organizations alike

Aging student bodies (the average age of IHE learners has been increasing for years and the average age of community college students is 29), which translates to adults who may be in school part-time or working full time jobs


Christensen, C., Horn, M., and Johnson, C., (2008), Disrupting Class: How Disruptive Innovation will Change the Way the World Learns, New York: McGraw-Hill.

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After decades of discussion and expectations that classroom technology might someday begin to impact educational processes, the corner has been rounded. The debate at one time reflected an anxiety that educational technologies (and often distance or online learning) might materially degrade learner outcomes. That debate has shifted, however, as studies increasingly are beginning to show that educational technologies do two things: 1. Help address varying learner styles that have held back some students in the past 2. May improve learner outcomes and be strong supplements to traditional face to face instruction. Thus the arguments are less about the potentially negative impact of technologies on learning, and more about how to best use technologies, understand their impact on outcomes (grades, completion rates, effectiveness) and best practices. Meanwhile, the interest in learner-centric education is waxing in higher education, hence the rapid adoption of a number of different technologies that are now available for use: lecture capture, personal learning networks / social media, presence engines, videoconferencing, web conferencing, virtual worlds, and of course Learning Management Systems. As these technologies have made their way onto campuses and into the hands of academics and learners alike, greater sophistication in how and when to use them has come about. Thus, when it comes to thinking about student-centered instruction, IHE’s understand that change calls for not just handing technology to learners and saying “go play in a common, generic sand pit with everyone else.” Instead, it calls for a degree of creation of custom learning environments that cater to the individual student by offering personal context-sensitivity, the ability to draw on the knowledge of the crowd (think crowd sourcing), a variety of multimedia elements that are critical to engaging millennial learners, and the ability to better manage and monitor each individual learner’s behaviors and customize their experience to their individual needs. While student-centered instruction will always require the attention of the instructor, Wainhouse Research believes that the technologies themselves should be designed with the context of the individual student and his/her unique needs in mind. This white paper focuses on the evolution of lecture capture: a key platform for uniting real-time, synchronous learning and on demand, asynchronous learning activities, and for creating a coherent environment for learner-centered instruction.

Lecture Capture at its Core Lecture capture is one of the hottest technologies in higher education. While perhaps only beginning to enter mainstream acceptance, the action of capturing academic content has been around for decades in analog configurations. Historically, the lecture capture “category” consisted of recording audio and possibly video and shipping the archived content to remote learners, or placing said content in libraries for simple on-campus review – and creation of a relatively simple type of archive. Little could be accomplished with these archives other than time shifting, straightforward library review, or accommodating a population of distance learners. This past decade has seen the rise of the true lecture capture solution: sophisticated digital platforms for capturing audio, video, in-class and after-class interactions, and data such as curricular content and delivering it real-time and (more typically) on demand, with robust features that support single sign-on, scheduling, indexing, review capabilities, threaded discussions, and media management (accomplished with varying levels of LMS integration).

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Copyright © 2010 Wainhouse Research, LLC

As we get past Intellectual Property concerns – which other technologies like videoconferencing also had to get past in education – and as more and more specific disciplines adopt (medical, engineering, and business schools, as well as the sciences have been among some of the earliest adopters), we’ll see more and more IHE’s standardize on capturing lectures. Solution providers take a variety of approaches to delivering their products. Some excel at indexing and search; some offer a focus on the audio/visual, others on the data/content being recorded; most offer various approaches to integration with LMS’s like Blackboard and Moodle. As the crop of lecture capture vendors gets crowded, buyers are seeking differentiation and features that make sense to them and address their unique deployment needs. Data from a recent Wainhouse Research survey of educators shows that IHE buyers are concerned most with some very specific selection criteria, including factors like pricing / licensing models, editing tools, video / multimedia formats, scheduling and management capabilities, and integration approaches to LMS / Course Management Systems. Historically these have been and continue to be important, yet many of these capabilities are becoming somewhat commoditized. We believe that focus on how individuals review and play back content, and how they access content, will become a strong focal point and is the next frontier in the discussion of the benefits of lecture capture, as educators become more familiar with the possibilities. In fact, we believe that within a few short years the ability to personalize the experience of interacting with captured content likely will be among the top selection criteria. This is for two reasons: •

The very act of interacting with academic content – and process of retaining that content – is altered when lecture capture is deployed. Where learners were accustomed to furious note taking as a means of retaining an instructor’s words and thoughts, lecture capture frees them to focus on assimilating those words and thoughts, not the archival. Typically those without laptops hand write furiously, those with laptops type notes furiously. That very process of needing to take notes creates a type of latency between learner and instructor / content, where the focus is on the note taking, not on fully digesting the content. Anecdotally and via surveys we know that learners rely on lecture capture to revisit specific areas of lectures for catch concepts or techniques they may have missed, or to improve understanding.

By their nature, lecture capture solutions are among the most effective and efficient technologies in producing learning results (which, increasingly, can be quantitatively measured using the tools themselves). This translates into a greater ability for customized learning environments for students, in effect, context-sensitive, personalized learning.

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Going Beyond Authentication to Achieve ContextSensitivity and Personalization A first “wave” of lecture capture has evolved as vendors have developed capabilities to “hook” their platforms into LMS / CMS / SIS platforms. These hooks take advantage of the LMS’s various authentication / single-sign-on (sso) approaches to enable access to links to lecture capture content inserted within LMS to external LC streams. This first wave was done to achieve improved security, permissioning, and a level of ease of use for both users and administrators. Those hooks are quite viable as methods of ensuring a baseline approach to secure access – that those who are supposed to have access to content get it, those who are not supposed to have access do not. But those hooks do this and not much more. Once a student can access a stream, because the lecture capture platform controls the stream, it is the same stream for all, and the player experience is generic. Notes or comments are typically viewable by all in public forums, not necessarily through private connections between instructor-learner or learnerlearner. This is because most lecture capture systems do not know who the viewer is (as the LMS does the authentication); they only know that the stream is permitted to play and that students of the course are watching. This sets the stage for the next transformation of lecture capture solutions – into platforms that can understand not just who their users are, but also what those users need to do and how their experience can be personalized and enhanced?

Knowing the Learner: Personalizing the Experience

Blackboard integration was very important for us. This way faculty don’t have to worry about students being enrolled, making sure we have the right faculty attached to the classes. That was a tremendous asset for us, to have a highly functional snapshot between Blackboard and our lecture capture (Tegrity) solution. We needed something that could work for an institution of our size. Not all tools are robust enough to work with 22,000 students enrolled. That eases things as links appear in Blackboard, to which the faculty is accustomed, with single sign-on. It’s no burden to get them to have access.

The next phase is all about enhancing and optimizing the learner’s experience through personalization. Personalization transforms what previously was at best a whole-class “batch” experience into a true one-on-one interaction between the learner, the instructor, and the lecture materials themselves, where the educator’s and learner’s goals are understood and needs are met. No longer is viewing a lecture “passive.” The ability to view, -- Dr. Andrew Wright, review, manipulate, and contribute the media itself on a Asst. Professor, personal level in combination with two-way, ongoing Dept. of Computer Information interaction with the instructor and class peers holds the Systems, University of Louisville potential to move traditional lecture capture to a whole new level – the realization of what we call a personalized lecture assimilation and enrichment experience. Two key capabilities are required to make this transformation happen. The first is that the lecture capture system must establish a “transactional” relationship with the LMS where the LC system can query the LMS for class and learner status / permissions at any moment in time. The second capability involves architecting and implementing a set of capabilities on the LC

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Copyright © 2010 Wainhouse Research, LLC

system itself (since it controls the presentation of the lecture stream) that take advantage of “knowing” this newly-realized real-time user context to personalize the learning experience. Most current lecture capture systems exchange information with their LMS counterparts to varying degrees. LMS systems were created in part to authenticate users and authorize the delivery of electronic course material based on course registrations. Lecture capture systems grew out of the need to record, catalog, and view real-time media. The two systems can (and often do) exist independently. Yet the need to post lectures as course material on the LMS (without moving the often huge media files themselves to the LMS) and for the LMS to authorize what content can be viewed by which students through the lecture capture system presents a natural integration dilemma. One approach involves creating a parallel database by exporting course schedules and class rosters from the LMS and importing them into the LC system so that it knows which students are authorized to access which class material. This typically requires a manual “batch” process that is performed by IT at the beginning of a semester – and requires additional incremental updates to keep course registrations current. Another approach involves posting encrypted links within the LMS for viewing course material on the LC system. While this method may relieve IT from some manual processing tasks, it can insert a new level of complication to confirm user authentication through the two systems (typically involving a external single sign-on system) – and, while the lecture capture system may know which class is being viewed, it does not differentiate between the individual students in the class. In retrospect, these methods are simply a legacy-induced “band-aid” to what is really needed: the real-time exchange of information between the LMS system that controls course registration and content authorization and the lecture capture system that delivers the media stream and controls the user experience while viewing that stream. Not only does this exchange simplify the data architecture (no parallel databases to maintain, no need to depend on encrypted links, etc.), but, once the user context becomes available in real-time, new personalization and interactivity features become possible as well. Here are some examples of what real-time personal context, when fostered by a lecture capture platform, can enable: •

Learning by interacting with content differently – Personal preferences can be set and recalled (screen layout, tools, chat lists, libraries, etc.). Personal index points and annotations / notes can be set anywhere in the media streams, even while seeing the lecture live, for future reference.

Learning by interacting with instructor differently – Private annotations / notes can be selectively shared with the instructor. The instructor can privately respond and / or initiate a conversation. The collective view of these annotations makes it easy to monitor which students are having difficulty grasping particular concepts.

Learning by teaching others – Indexing points, note / annotations, and conversations can be selectively shared with others in the class roster, which indicates who is online at a particular moment (this would not be possible were the information not truly real-time). Thus both asynchronous and spontaneous interaction between class members – at the precise time when the learning moment is ideal – can be catalyzed by the lecture capture system. This takes the experience well beyond the simple review of lecture material.

Reporting collective and individual results – including viewing frequency, time, and duration across courses – down to a specific student or instructor. Administrators can cross-correlate the data in order to determine the system’s impact on grades and class

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completion rates. These “outcome” reports can be used to justify lecture capture investment and expansion of capabilities, while also indicating the fulfillment of the institution’s educational missions. The above capabilities, when realized, represent a new level of on-line learning experience made possible because the lecture capture system knows which student is viewing which material and then intelligently uses that data to create personal context. As a leading-edge example, Tegrity, the sponsor of this paper, has implemented this real-time approach. Instead of building a parallel database in the lecture capture system, Tegrity has developed advanced, user-level enabled “connectors” to the popular LMS’s and SIS’s that can access course and enrollment data on a real-time basis – so there is no data to keep synchronized in the lecture capture system, and the benefits of personalization can be realized. This approach mimics the “transactional” nature of modern web services. Using the connector, the lecture capture platform can request user-level information from the LMS at any time and thus become completely “up to speed” on who is the viewer, their level of authentication, authorization, and optionally other information such as the viewer’s presence state. This information can be used to not only enable viewing of the material, but also achieve the full interactive benefits that can only be enabled through real-time personal context.

New Possibility: Learning by Democratizing the Content Creation Process Because the lecture capture system knows who each user is, it can be the vehicle to enable personal interactions between student and instructor or student and student. This sort of activity Tegrity includes a feature which often is first introduced as a voluntary behavior – perhaps allows students to make their own extra credit option – whereby an instructor asks learners recordings, capturing voice, video, to actually problem solve and record their solution. This and all activity on the computer forces the screen. I just ask my learners to go learner to walk through a problem and take on a teacherto one of my review pages, have like persona – and the content can even be used to them review a problem and work it support instruction / review afterwards. The benefit of out step by step as an extra credit assignment. Half a dozen students personalization is that the instructor can make recordings took me up on it. They start a private or public, for group assignments in particular recording (from their PC), go to a within some disciplines. Because of system intelligence web page, and using a mouse and and user context, the system knows where to place a audio, record how they would solve student’s recording so that the instructor sees it the problem. Those who do it have automatically upon logging in (or can be notified when it is done a good job. Some “fall into” completed). teacher-like voices. Learners Some academics who try out such a pedagogical approach will eventually want to integrate it into their curriculum, making it a task in which each student – whether in face-to-face classes or distance learning classes – participates.

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understand better when doing the problem themselves and explaining it. -- Professor Chris Mizell, Dept. of Mathematics, Northwest Florida State College

Copyright © 2010 Wainhouse Research, LLC

Sample Approach to Enabling Personalized Learning: Tegrity AAIRS


AAIRS™ Enabled Features


Workflow Automation

Tegrity’s approach to enabling personalized learning involves the use of “connectors” that provide the real-time exchange of data between the lecture capture system and the LMS and other IT infrastructure.

Authentication Connector

Authentication Agent

Authentication Authorities

Authorization Connector

Authorization /Dataset Agent

Users, Courses, Enrollment

Interlinks Connector

Interlinks Agent

CMS, Portal, Web presence

Through Tegrity AAIRS, the lecture capture system can access on-demand authentication, from single sign-on systems or other directory authorities; authorization, to understand course enrollment and access rights; and the LMS, to manage the links to content and gain presence status.

Real-time data requests are “transactional” in nature, which is typical of a cloud-based service. There is no need to maintain parallel databases, so database synchronization and maintenance is not an issue. The result is instant information exchange with the academic infrastructure, which enables the lecture capture solution to understand who the user is and subsequently to personalize their learning experience. Other benefits of the real-time, transaction-oriented AIIRS approach include: •

Low network impact – due to the elimination of error-prone, data intensive batch process that would be needed if a parallel database was maintained.

Greater security – no user information such as passwords are stored, again because no parallel database is maintained.

Reconfiguring is easier if the environment changes – user organizations can simply install a new agent and direct AAIRS to the new data or authentication source.

Seamless support for multiple authentication authorities, as well as multiple, concurrent LMS platforms.

New Possibility: Learning by Accessing Information More Efficiently The system that knows its learners can enable advanced personalization features, such as bookmarking. The very first lecture capture solutions lacked bookmarking – the ability to place a locator or have a system “know” where a user had left off. Think of the first web-based streaming products (pre YouTube era) that often required a viewer to start all over if they ended a stream. Newer platforms (particularly for-profit services like Netflix) remember where a viewer left off in a stream.

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The concept of bookmarking takes that notion of “memory” one step further, by enabling a learner to place one or more markers – with contextualized notes or signifiers that a section is difficult to understand, or recommended – and make those markers available to others. The typical student behavior is to place bookmarks during a class – or afterwards if reviewing on demand – to mark a section which they may want to review later or which they wish to highlight for clarification or further discussion – using one of various devices, such as an iPhone (& iPod) app, web-enabled cell phones, or browser on a PC or Mac. The advantage of placing bookmarks during a class is that the learner immediately can note, without getting too distracted, where he/she wishes to return for clarification or review.

We heard from students that they use the ability to make bookmarks frequently as a study aid. Most don’t do it live. They wait until after they have had time to think about it. (A few use Tegrity’s iPhone / iPod App to bookmark during class, but most do it after the fact.) Those who are thoughtful about the studying process, go in soon after the recording is uploaded, and insert bookmarks, e.g., ‘here’s where somebody said something important’. -- Dr. Andrew Wright,

Asst. Professor, Another advantage of placing bookmarks is that it creates Dept. of Computer Information a platform for discussion and community, enabling Systems, University of Louisville learners to aid one another, and instructors to see where learners may be struggling. Approaches vary: learners may send links to an instructor that show precisely where they have questions, while others may simply place a bookmark question for the instructor to review when logging in later.


? 00:06:45 Unclear

! 00:12:32 Important!

? 00:21:05 Unclear T 00:43:27 Why dividing by 2? Add


Figure 1 - Sample Approach to Bookmarking

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Instructors also can share private bookmarks for students to whom they wish to pay particular attention (say someone struggling to grasp certain concepts or techniques), or they can make Almost every student on campus the bookmarks public to share them with the rest of the has an iTouch or iPhone, which class. Like many other technologies of a transactional can be used to view content and nature, bookmarks can be “checked off” (identified as set bookmarks such as unclear or having been reviewed or “handled” through discussion or important. I believe this will be a other interactions). valuable tool for students and instructors and represents feedback instructors have not had before. -- Dr. Al Ducharme, Asst. Dean, College of Engineering and Computer Science, University of Central Florida

Absorb Lecture Concepts

Review Material

Resolve Questions

Feedback for Professor



Professor Lectures

wW Ne

Wa y

The potential benefits of bookmarking cannot be understated. Those reading textbooks traditionally have been accustomed to being able to place sticky notes / tabs / dog-eared pages as markers. Those viewing digitally recorded content could not – until now. And as stated earlier, bookmarking is one more way to reduce the latency between learner and instructor that occurs when one is taking notes.

Student attempts to absorb concepts and take notes at the same time (brain deals with significant latency between what is spoken and note taking)

Student focuses on absorbing concepts, taking notes is optional: In class, places bookmarks using lecture capture (via iPhone or PC) at time points to review later

Student reviews notes (deciphers own scribbles and/or typos) while trying to correlate to course materials

Student brings questions to next lecture (or meets with other students / visits professor)

Professor has minimal feedback to figure out what concepts were not grasped

Viewing/reviewing later, places bookmarks or reviews previously placed bookmarks

Student notes if professor or classmates are online via presence, then uses text chat or phone call to resolve questions. Professor reviews student bookmarks to understand where issues arising, addresses immediately via email or lecture archive, or in next class session.

Process Repeats

Figure 2 - A Comparison of Old vs. New Methods

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New Possibility: Impact on Educators Another potential benefit of bookmarking is in how it will empower educators to improve based on a real, quantifiable feedback loop. What we’re talking about here is instant evaluation and feedback for instruction, based on the “bunching” of student bookmarking that provides an overview to where learners are struggling. This is a first, as noted by Dr. Ducharme of UCF, and suggests that in future instructors may be able to utilize the quantified nature of bookmarking to see where they can modify how they are explaining content, bringing in new ideas or resources as needed. Leading systems go so far as to use visual schemes to enable instructors to identify comprehension issues – and offer comments when the instructor hovers over those bookmarked areas. An educator has several options for responding to bookmarks. One approach is to provide links to clarifying sections (perhaps using advanced search to quickly find and import those links), or by sending the learner back to review the material more thoroughly (making the learner do the work). In fact, the future strength of lecture capture solutions will be in how they merge advanced indexing and search capabilities with bookmarking. The blending of the two creates a paradigm for personalization, as the activities can be applied to each individual learner at any moment to create a custom learning environment – without detracting from the educator’s overall pedagogical goals.

Learning by Interacting with Instructors and Classmates Differently via Presence One of the benefits expressed by many educators in IHE’s about being in that field is in the evolving relationship between those who can influence a life forever (educators) and those just becoming adults who are in need of mentoring (learners). As the learners move online, and as the content has moved online, it’s natural that the instructor too will move online. What this creates is the opportunity to change how instructors and learners create community and interact with one another. Presence – and real-time integration that pulls enrollment data – are the engines that enable real-time community. While it is straightforward to create community via threaded discussion boards, it is presence that draws on real-time data to enable learners and instructor to monitor each other’s current availability at the opportune time for learning. While some IHE’s will continue to use the presence engines and discussion boards provided within their LMS platforms, others will seek to use that capability integrated into their lecture capture platforms so that it can show in real-time who is available to discuss class content. On some systems, a link must be sent to invite others to see a particular location within a lecture. Among a very few lecture capture platforms, the sharing of screen context is established automatically when sending a chat invite. This way, users simply chat and don’t go through the extra step of sending a link. Only the melding of recorded content, presence, and user/enrollment data makes this possible.

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Using Tegrity Connect I can log in each evening and just make my presence known, in case someone has questions. If they send their questions to me in the form of a chat message, it comes with a link directly to the video that they have the question about. It might not be so unusual for the distance learning classes. If I can log in and make my presence known, they can interact with me and ask questions. I want to get to where I do this with my faceto-face classes as well as my distance learning classes. -- Professor Chris Mizell, Dept. of Mathematics, Northwest Florida State College

Copyright © 2010 Wainhouse Research, LLC


Personalization and Mobility Most solution providers support enhanced podcasting, which is uniquely important for situations where learners desire mobility and full rich media: audio, video, and content. Enhanced podcasting is an important component of the ability to review individual course sessions. But podcasting in general requires pre-planning, not a trait for which students are noted. Additionally, many platforms require that recordings be downloaded as podcasts separately and treated as separate, unique learning objects, lacking any particular organization to them. The future will include features like that found in the Tegrity (sponsor of this paper) Mobile Application (for iPhone, iPod Touch and iPad), in which a learner might use the same log-in used for the LMS / CMS, and be automatically presented with all courses in which he/she is enrolled, along with all the associated class recordings. This is possible because Tegrity’s AAIRS integration knows who you are, and which courses you are enrolled in. The platform can then stream any of the recordings directly to the mobile device over WiFi or 3G. Tegrity even takes this as step further by letting students search for text or phrases presented in any of the recordings. This personalizes the mobile experience and allows content interactions not possible through systems with no user-context.

Conclusions Data is already available in a variety of published studies that shows that learners, educators, and administrators believe lecture capture is having a positive influence on grades, and few would disagree with the premise that personalization features make study time more efficient. Thus it is only a matter of time before comparative studies are conducted that compare the impact of lecture capture with personalization features in contrast to lecture capture lacking such features. It makes sense: more efficient study should lead to better performance on exams, better retention of important concepts, a stronger feedback loop between student and instructor, and ultimately, better grades. As stated earlier, lecture capture is uniquely suited to the Socratic, interactive, learner-centric activities that are the norm in both public and private colleges and universities. And as colleges and universities continue to seek efficiencies and improvements, personalized lecture capture will be an increasingly attractive model in higher education.

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About the Authors Alan D. Greenberg is Senior Analyst & Partner at Wainhouse Research. He is distance education and eLearning practice manager at Wainhouse Research, and co-lead analyst on WR’s WebMetrics web conferencing survey program. He has conducted research into dozens of distance learning networks and e-learning users, was product marketing manager for a set of turnkey classroom packages, and has led a number of educational and training initiatives. Most recently he authored the three-volume segment report The Distance Education and e-Learning Landscape and authored the white papers The 2009 Update: Taking the Wraps off Videoconferencing in the U.S. Classroom, Best Practices in Live Content Acquisition for Distance Learning Networks, and Mapping the Sea of Research into Video-Based Distance Education. He also has consulted to many states, universities, and regional educational consortia on distance education strategies, and received the 2010 Outstanding Leadership by an Individual in the Field of Distance Learning award from the U.S. Distance Learning Association. Alan holds an M.A. from the University of Texas at Austin and a B.A. from Hampshire College. He can be reached at Andrew H. Nilssen is a Senior Analyst & Partner at Wainhouse Research, where he is a consultant to rich media conferencing vendors, network infrastructure vendors, end users, government agencies, end users, and venture capitalists. Andy is a co-author of WR's annual three volume series Rich Media Conferencing, the firm’s thorough analysis of the conferencing industry and leads the WR web conferencing and IM & Presence practice. Earlier in his career, Andy managed the planning and launching of PictureTel's Venue and Concorde group videoconferencing systems. Andy has 25 years of experience in high-technology product marketing and market research, earned his MBA and BSEE degrees from the University of New Hampshire, and holds two ease-of-use related patents. Andy can be reached at

About Wainhouse Research Wainhouse Research,, is an independent market research firm that focuses on critical issues in the Unified Communications and rich media conferencing fields, including applications like distance education. The company conducts multi-client and custom research studies, consults with end users on key implementation issues, publishes white papers and market statistics, and delivers public and private seminars as well as speaker presentations at industry group meetings. Wainhouse Research publishes a variety of reports that cover all aspects of rich media conferencing, and the free newsletter, The Wainhouse Research Bulletin.

About Tegrity Tegrity Campus is the only cloud-based Lecture Capture solution proven to improve student achievement, satisfaction, retention and recruitment across an institution. Tegrity’s unique service model lets Institutions choose to store content on campus, or in the cloud. Tegrity Campus makes class time available all the time by automatically recording, storing and indexing every class on campus – without the need to install any special hardware, software or appliances in classrooms. The company’s patentpending Search Anything™ and Smart Bookmarks™ features then let students instantly review key class moments online using a PC, Mac, iPod, iPad or other mobile device. For more information, visit

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August 2010 Alan D. Greenberg & Andy Nilssen Wainhouse Research Wainhouse Research, LLC 34 Duck Hill Terrace Duxbury, MA 02332 USA +1.78...