Page 1


IRT 201- MATERIAL JOINERY - Prof. Goddard


Team Members: Bahareh Zaeem Mara Purves Olivia Manderson Lisa Porter Kathy Henriques



Origin & History of Glass


Manufacturing of Glass


Cultural Significance of Glass


Physical Properties of Glass


Applications of Glass


Ecological Footprint


Final Model




LEED Considerations






Team Members: Bahareh Zaeem Mara Purves Olivia Manderson Lisa Porter Kathy Henriques


ORIGIN, HISTORY, RAW STATE AND COMPOSITION A short history by: David Whitehouse



The story of the origin of glass, told by Natural History, an encyclopedia completed in 78AD, told the story of sailors disembarking on a ship equipped with a cargo of mineral natron (one of alkaline substances used in glassmaking to lower the melting point of sand) in order to cook a meal. Unable to find suitable stones for supporting their cauldrons over the fire, they took chunks of natron from the ship. Once heated, a strange liquid was produced that mingled completely with the sand, which once hardened, became what we know as glass. (Pg.9)

The true origin of glass however is unknown, though has been pieced together via written evidence and archaeological discoveries (Pg.9) Glass does exist in nature, most often in the form of obsidian Obsidian is an igneous rock that forms when molten rock material cools so rapidly that atoms are unable to arrange themselves into a crystalline structure. The result is a volcanic glass with a smooth uniform texture that breaks with a single fracture. (see photo on right).

Obsidian: The specimen shown above is about two inches across. The curved semi-concentric ridges are breakage marks associated with obsidian's conchoidal fracture.


Raw State •

• • •

• •

Most glass consists of minerals that are heated until they melt and are cooled at a rate that prevents them from resuming their original crystalline structure. Hot glass is a liquid that becomes progressively more viscous as it cools until it becomes completely rigid, possessing the same qualities of a solid though maintaining the same random structure of a liquid. Glass cab therefore be softened by reheating and reshaped repeatedly until the desired shape is attained. People have been manufacturing glass for 4000 years Sand is readily available Soda or potash can come either in the form of the mineral trona (natron) or as ash derived from plants growing in salty environments Lime is often found in both silica and soda and thus is almost an inadvertent addition to the recipe The addition of oxides gives the glass color or removes unwanted colors

In pre-Roman times in Western Asia, where glassmaking began, the furnaces capable of reaching the required temperature to melt the raw materials were very small and thus most glass items were very small Specialized knowledge required to select the raw materials as well as the expertise required to operate the furnaces, meant that glass objects were very rare and greatly prized

The discovery of glassblowing in the early t o m i d fi r s t c e n t u r y r e d e fi n e d glassmaking By blowing into a mass of molten glass on the end of a tube, glassworkers realized they could inflate the glass in a similar fashion as one inflates a balloon From this point onwards glassworkers had the ability to manufacture glassware quickly and inexpensively and the demand for glass rose


Before the discovery of glassblowing, other methods were employed to shape and manipulate glass, such as:

1. 2.

caused by impurities in the basic ingredients Temperatures of 1000-1100 C are required to melt the raw materials

Composition •



SILICA Pouring or pressing glass into open molds was a technique learned from metalworkers to make items such as beads and amulets Cire Perdue aka ‘lost wax’ was another technique acquired from metal workers that involved a method of casting in which the desired object was modeled in wax. It was then coated with fine clay and pierced with small holes. The model was then heated, causing the clay to harden and the wax to melt out of the holes. The result was a clay mold wherein the raw materials for making the glass would have been poured and heated to create the desired object Core-forming is another method unique to glass making in which a core, usually of clay, was attached to a metal rod and modeled to the size and shape of the interior of the vessel. The core was then dipped in glass or coated with powdered glass and heated until it fused After annealing (process of carefully cooling the glass) glass objects can be decorated in methods such as painting, gilding, engraving, cutting or etching

Soda or Potash


Inflation of molten glass into a bubble.

1. Silica: a white/colorless crystalline compound. The main constituent in most of the Earth’s rocks. Main chemical compound in sand and is most often used to make glass and concrete. 2. Soda or Potash: Any compounds containing potassium. Lowers the melting temperature of the sand 3. Lime: known as calcium oxide, which gives stability to an otherwise unstable combination

















Soda to reduce melting temperatures to a more workable level

Main ingredient in production of glass is silica

Lime To increase durability of glass



The mixture of ingredients to make up the glass, with recycled glass, together with small quantities of various other minor ingredients are mixed in a rotary mixer to ensure an even mix of ingredients before entering the furnace.

Molten glass is channeled off in heated channels where it is slowly cools to increase its viscosity.



The mixture is heated to 1500-1550oC, where the ingredients melt, various chemical reactions take place and CO2 and SO3 are evolved.

Precisely weighed slugs of glass are cut off, molded with compressed air, cooled slowly in annealing ovens, coated with a special spray to prevent scratching.





The molten glass is cooled to 1000 C in a drawing canal, and then drawn up a tower (the drawing tower) where it is pressed into the desired width and thickness, and cools to 280 C. Individual plates of glass are further cooled before being put into storage ready for sale.




CROWN GLASS is most commonly used for lenses, eyeglasses and other optical instruments as it is resistant to chemical and environmental impacts. Crown glass has been used for decades and was once used for glazing however it could only be made in small quantities and was therefore replaced by modern variations.

FLOAT GLASS Float glass is made from a mixture of sand, limestone, soda ash, dolomite, iron oxide and salt cake. All of these materials are heated to a temperature of 1500 degrees and floated over a bed of liquid tin. Float glass is extremely translucent and due to this property is easily manipulated to vary in opacity. For example, Frosted glass is produced from float glass by either sand-blasting or acid-etching.

Rolled Glass Produced by pouring molten glass onto a metal table and immediately rolling it into a sheet using metal cylinder. Glass made this way is never fully transparent, and doesn’t necessarily have texture. Rolled glass is widely used nowadays.

PRODUCTION FACILITIES IN ONTARIO Since 1883, PPG has been involved in the development of heat absorbing glass and low-emissivity glass. PPG Flat Glass is fabricated into products primarily for the commercial construction and residential market.


Owens- Illinois Canada is funded by Micheal J. Owens who invented the automatic bottle-making machine, which became the foundation for today’s glassmaking industry. The company’s rich history of innovation, unparalleled expertise, and global reach make O-I the world’s leader in glass packaging.


Manufacturing Location

Glass Type

PPG Industries Canada Inc.

Owen Sound, ON

Flat Glass

Owens - Illinois Canada Corp.


Container Glass

Milton, ON

Container Glass

Toronto, ON

Container Glass

GLASS ASSOCIATION The Canadian Glass Association (CGA) is a national trade association representing the provincial and national interests of the glazing industry.



Captain John B. Ford and John Pitcairn together establish the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company (PPG).

P P G b e c o m e s t h e fi r s t commercially successful U.S. producer of high-quality, thick flat glass using the plate process.




Stained glass pattern


CULTURAL SIGNIFICANCE OF MATERIAL TO VARIOUS CLIENTS AND CONSUMERS The first few centuries of glass finds are few and far between and consist mostly of small, s h a p e l e s s l u m p s . T h e fi r s t identifiably man-made glass was produced in Mesopotamia, in the form of glass vessels via a technique known as core-forming. Beads and amulets, some of the first glass objects, were found in Egypt, buried with the dead in the belief that items would follow one to the afterlife. As glass was a rarity and luxury item in Egypt at the time, the glass found buried was primarily with Pharaohs and other high ranking members of society. In the 19th century, the manufacture and use of glass was revived and glass appeared in inlays in ivory plaques and panels that adorned fine furniture. In the Hellenistic period, the revival of mosaic glass dominated and many objects were still made into inlays as well as shrines and other objects. It was Hellenistic glassworkers that made the first ever glassware for eating and drinking. These were considered luxury objects whose use was reserved to the wealthiest section of society.

In the early to mid first century in Rome, the discovery of the technique of glass blowing was made, allowing artists and glassmakers the ability designers the make objects much began to use glass on a more quickly and in a larger scale greater variety of sizes Glass finally entered the art and shapes. The discovery of glass blowing was world, explored by most followed by the realization that glass famously, Galle and Tiffany for could be formed and decorated decorative objects such as lamps, using a variety of methods in order vases, panes, etc. After the to manipulate both color and industrial revolution, artists and texture. designers began to use glass on a larger scale and glass began to Glass was a medium most influence those in the field of frequently used in decorative a r c h i t e c t u r e . G l a s s w a s applications due to its elegant and implemented for items such as fragile appearance as well as its fountains, windows, and finally versatility in terms of its ability to be architectural structure. colored, cut, or engraved. The use of glass is Eventually, glassmakers in ubiquitous nowadays, serving a Rome began to view glass as a plethora of purposes and acting as more utilitarian material for necessary a sustainable option for a variety of objects like drinking glasses and needs on account of its versatility other dish ware such as bowls and and recyclability. The cultural decanters. The significance of glass significance and evolution of glass however was not confined to the from a small rarity akin to a d o m e s t i c r e a l m . I t s u n i q u e diamond, to a decorative medium, properties found it a place in to a utilitarian material that we rely on science and medicine where those for an infinite number of purposes, is depended on glass apparatus due a remarkable transformation worthy to its transparency and the fact that of note. it did not contaminate it contents by corroding.





Cactus House (Rotterdam, Netherlands)





type can physically damage glass, in which case it

There are many variations of glass that

would have to be replaced, however almost all glass

highlight its practical physical applications rather

can be 100% recycled, therefore this is not a huge

than simply its optical and decorative features.

loss or impact on the environment.

Examples of this include insulated glass (or double

There is currently a product on the market known as

glazing) which is filled with air in order to provide

self-cleaning glass. It is made of ordinary float glass

insulation. Another example is laminated glass. Laminated glass is used when safety is paramount i.e.: most commercial applications. It is composed of two sheets of glass which are stuck together by a thin layer of resin. Heat resistant glass (also known as Pyrex) is unaffected by change in temperature due to a low thermal expansion coefficient. Finally,

which is coated with a special photo catalytic layer. It is made by chemically bonding a microscopically-thin surface layer to the exterior surface of glass. This technology uses UV rays as well as the moisture and liquid from weather in order to break down dirt.

toughened glass is an excellent example of the

Most glass is ordinary float or panel glass which is

practical applications for glass. It is made by the

not self-cleaning, so these actions are

rapid cooling of annealed glass into pre-cast

recommended in the general maintenance and

shapes. The rapid cooling of the glass creates

upkeep of glass products. Both indoor and outdoor

internal stress and forces it to break into regular

glass, regardless of size or scale can usually be

cubes, rather than shards. There are many

cleaned using a simple solution of water and soap.

applications and opportunities for the use of glass in

For routine maintenance and dust removal from

commercial, residential and decorative application.

small-scale and household glass objects a camel-

Because of its naturally fragile state it is often

hair or anti-static brush is recommended in

manipulated in order to alter its fragility into an

combination with non-flammable fluorocarbon

extremely strong, durable and structural material.

propellant. To remove oils, grease and surface stains isopropyl alcohol may be used. There are some ways in which professionals can attempt to


restore damaged, scratched and discoloured glass. There are two types of soiling that effect the optical

For example; jewellers rouge is often used for small

and reflective qualities of glass. The first includes oil,

scratches and inflections. In most cases, however, it

dirt, dust and grease which are easily cleaned using

is easier and more practical to replace seriously

the proper products. Improper handling of fragile or

damaged glass. For critical applications it is

decorative glass may also result in scratches and

recommended to purchase glass that has been

unwanted marks. The second type of damage to

standard tested and approved for optimal durability.

glass is caused by abrasives, chemical vapors or acids and extremely high temperatures. This second








Glass has also been used as a medium for endless range of sculpture and installation art as artistic works as well as new modern furniture. well. Colored glass is often used, though Several of the most common techniques for sometimes the glass is painted, and innumerable producing glass art include: blowing, kiln-casting, examples exist of use of stained glass. fusing, slumping, pate-de-verre, flame-working, hot-sculpting and cold-working. Objects made out Glass can also be found in homes or famous of glass include not only traditional objects such as attractions, such as the CN Tower glass floor. vessels (bowls, vases, bottles and other Load tests are performed annually on each panel to containers), paperweights, marbles, beads, but an ensure safety. APPLICATION Glass can also be found in homes or famous attractions, such as the CN Tower glass floor.




2 ½”

42" by 50"

■ 3/16 " scuff plate (replaced annually) ■ Two ½ " layers of clear tempered glass, laminated together ■ A one inch layer of air (for insulation) ■ Two ¼ " layers of clear tempered glass, laminated together





EPA reported a 28 percent glass recycling rate in 2007




DID YOU KNOW...! 100 %

12,000 BC

Glass is 100% recyclable. Glass containers can go from the recycling bin to the store shelves in as little as 30 days.

The oldest example of glass are Egyptian beads dating from 12,000 BC.


584,000 Tonnes

70% of consumers believe that glass packaging suggests quality.

Rexam uses on average 584,000 tonnes of sand and 1,128,000 tonnes of cullet a year.

59% In Europe 59% of glass containers are recycled.


1 Bottle

Glass container manufacturing processes can use up to 90% cullet, if the necessary cullet amount is available on the market.

The energy saved from recycling 1 glass bottle will power: • A 100 watt light bulb for almost an hour • A computer for 25 minutes • A colour television for 20 minutes • A washing machine for 10 minutes


An ecological footprint is a measurement which determines the extent of the impact that humans have on their natural surrounding environment. Toronto’s ecological footprint is 7.6 hectares per capita per year. Glass is one of the most recyclable materials in the world, and by encouraging the recycling of this material, city’s such a Toronto can easily save energy, resources and money. In the table below the path of recycled glass and how glass is returned back to the consumer is illustrated. it concludes that for every ton of glass that is recycled, one ton of raw materials are saved. On average this consists of 1,300 pounds of sand, 410 pounds of soda ash and 380 pounds of limestone.





Model composed of light, sand, shattered glass and bottles

Material’s natural state: Sand


Manufactured state:

Product State:

Shattered glass

glass bottles

Our model represents the stages of glass manufacture from the beginning raw material stage, namely sand, to one of its most frequent uses; bottles. The model is further repurposed to serve as a light fixture. The different shades of glass demonstrate the versatility of the material and its ability to be colored. The transparency can be controlled both via color and via a technique known as frosting. In order to represent frosting, we coated the bottles in sand to create juxtaposition between the opacity between coated and non-coated glass. Other techniques to manipulate glass include engraving and etching which are commonly used in a commercial setting. Silicone was used to join the bottles to the wooden base to demonstrate the most common and effective means of glass joinery in the glass industry. One of the most enticing properties of glass is its transparency, which we highlighted through the use of lights. Our model illustrates the recyclability of glass, another one of its appealing qualities, and is a prime example of why glass is used increasingly more as time goes on.





Reusing the recyclable objects




glass is one of the most recyclable materials as it is 100% recyclable.

create beautiful things

Nearly all of Toronto’s recycled glass is processed in a Plant in Brampton.

and arts and crafts out of recyclable and free found objects.


The definition of recycling is to treat or process in order to use again. In this sense glass is one of the most recyclable materials as it is 100% recyclable. It can be recycled and used over and over again with no degradation or loss in quality, and the process of turning old glass to new produces virtually no waste or unwanted by-products. The importance of recycling glass can more easily be explained by this fact; that recycling a glass jar saves enough energy to light a 100 watt light bulb for four hours. Unfortunately 27 billion glass containers are still thrown away each year, rather than being recycled.

This cycle can be endlessly repeated, making glass incredibly valuable towards being environmentally friendly and saving the user/purchaser allot of money. Bottles and jars are the most easily and commonly recycled glass materials; almost 90 percent of recycled glass is used to make new containers. Other uses for recycled glass are kitchen tiles, counter tops, and wall and more and more commonly fibreglass for insulation. Glass recycling has grown considerably in recent years, due to both increased collection through recycling programs as well as manufacturers' increased demand for recycled glass.

The first step in the recycling process is that the consumer throws glass into appropriate recycling bins which is then taken to a glass treatment plant. At the plant it is sorted by colour and washed/treated in order to remove any bacterial and impurities. It is then crushed into what is known as “cullet” which is the main ingredient is reproducing glass products. To make glass, manufacturers mix sand, soda ash, limestone, and cullet. This mixture is heated to a temperature of 2,600 to 2,800 degrees F; and then molded it into the desired shape. Sand is the only material used in greater volumes than cullet to manufacture glass. Using cullet, or crushed recycled glass, saves money and helps the environment. The new product is then shipped back out the consumer/ user.

Although there are many glass manufacturer’ and recycling companies, the increased desire and popularity of recycling has spurred many private companies as well as individuals to come up with ways of glass recycling on their own. For example companies such as: The Green Glass Company recycles and recreates glass in their own factories and workshops. This particular company takes old bottles and logo’s or can incorporates a client’s new logo and most commonly turns old glass products into new glasses and decorative elements. In this way The Green Glass Company has provided a way for companies to advertise/market themselves through products that show the company’s commitment and awareness of preserving resources.


There are many individuals who take an interest in the use and re-use of glass. For example,

The seamless joinery is an o f




excellent example of how recycled bottles, weighing a total of 250 tons. glass can be manufactured and In 1952 after his retirement from the moulded in to large sheets in order funeral business he retired and

Steve Jobs, with the help of

t o a c c o m m o d a t e l a r g e - s c a l e started to give shape to his very

designer Philippe Starck has re-


used the idea of his apple brand and recently launched a yacht in the Netherlands that has large floor to ceiling glass panels that span almost forty feet long.

unique and environmentally

The re-use of glass can also conscious example of what creative act as a means of architectural and and practical uses recycling glass structural construction. There have can lead to.

been many houses around the world made from entirely re-used/re-cycled glass bottles. One example of these A blog/ site created by a woman is located in the Kootenay’s in British with ways to create beautiful things Colombia, Canada. David H. Brown, and arts and crafts out of recyclable working in the Funeral Business and free found objects. This is a decided to make use of the perfect example of the trend in thousands of jars that were used for recycling and the popularity of living e m b a l m i n g fl u i d s t o b u i l d a a greener lifestyle. As glass is a whimsical castle-like house. He 100% recyclable material its use started to collect bottles from many goes hand in hand with promoting people in the funeral business and an environmentally friendly earth. together they collected over 500,000



GLASS RECYCLING IN ONTARIO Nearly all of Toronto’s recycled glass is processed in a Glass s is a very controversial blue box material in Plant in Brampton. This has not always been the case. Ontario. Since the introduction of the deposit-return Until recently the majority of Toronto’s recycled glass has program for liquor containers in 2007, there has been been shipped to plants as far as Syracuse, N.Y or approximately 50% reduced glass being collected in Montreal. This means spending allot more energy, blue bins. Furthermore many municipalities have a money, time and resources shipping a material that is ‘single stream’ collecting system, which results in supposed to be in the process of re-using and recycling broken glass that is almost impossible to sort into clear in order to conserve energy.

and coloured. As well given the few processing facilities that do exist glass is becoming harder and harder to get rid of. Also when it is mixed with other materials such as newspapers, the newspaper then becomes unrecyclable as it is now full of contaminants. So


because of the inherent physical properties of glass, it must be handled carefully in order to insure that it is recycled properly. Stewardship Ontario and uncial Inc. have agreed to build a new mixed glass processing facility in the GTA, making it even more energy-efficient and cost effect to process and recycle glass within the GTA.

Municipalities do have to pay processors to take the recycled glass off their hands, therefore due to a much closer location, Toronto will pay about 11$ per ton rather then 48.75$ per ton as they previously were.









System of credits that

Recycled content and regional materials

credits for optimizing energy and performance

acts as incentive for the construction industry to build in a more sustainable and environmentally conscious fashion. [25]

Rating System

LEED CERTIFIED LEED building has increased significantly in North America and now accounts for almost one third of new construction. LEED h a s s i g n i fi c a n t l y i m p a c t e d industry in terms of product development, marketing and sales, and managing documentation. Innovation in terms of products and installation methods have helped the industry progress towards more sustainable construction, however there is little that individual companies can do as most LEED credits available through glass and glazing are related to overall building design.

Glass considerations under the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design program


The LEED certification program is a system of credits that acts as incentive for the construction industry to build in a more sustainable and environmentally conscious fashion. There are two separate systems for the United States and Canada that cater to differing climates, construction practices, and legislature. The system is organized into five environmental categories with two extra categories dedicated to innovative design and regional differences. Credits and points are offered for items such as reducing energy and water usage, implementing materials that produce minimal impact on the earth, and by protecting and preserving natural habitats.

Of the 100+ points available within the system, there are roughly 12 that can be applied to the commercial glass and glazing industry. Major relevant credits are as follows: Materials & Resources Credit 4: Recycled Content (Maximum 2 points)

Intent of the credit The goal is to increase demand for products with recycled content in an effort to reduce impacts related to extraction and production of new materials Glass Contribution Float glass produced by major glass manufacturers has no allowable recycled content under the LEED system. Some specialty glass manufacturers and glass artists use recycled glass. Although LEED credits are not applicable, some types of glass are completely recyclable at the end of their useful life provided that have not been contaminated with glazing materials. Some recycling facilities are capable of recycling laminated and insulated glass products that would otherwise wind up in a landfill. To achieve LEED credits, the allowable recycled content of glass is based on the weight of the entire assembly being installed into the building. Postconsumer recycled content is given greater value if it is perceived to offer an increased environmental benefit.

Despite the fact that many float glass manufacturers use up to 20% recycled materials, it is not allowable under this credit on account of the fact that the recycled materials are preconsumer recycled and is therefore considered reused rather than recycled.

Glass Contribution Glazing products are eligible for this credit if the raw materials used in their fabrication were extracted and manufactured within 500 miles of the project site. This distance varies depending on the method of transportation.

Post-consumer recycled content is defined as consumer or industrial waste that has served a purpose in the market before being used again as a component in another material, such as construction debris or materials from curbside recycling programs.

If only a fraction of the product adheres to the criteria, then that percentage according to its weight can contribute to the credit. The product is not considered eligible if only one of the two criteria (extraction and manufacturing) is met.

Pre-consumer, also known as post-industrial, recycled content comes from process waste that one industry has sold or traded with another that would otherwise be disposed of as waste. For example a board manufacturing company purchases sawdust from a lumber mill that would otherwise be incinerated. Reusing materials in the same process in which they were generated does not contribute towards the recycled content of a material. Materials & Resources: Credit 5: Regional Materials (Maximum 2 points)

Intent of the credit The goal of this credit is to increase the demand for materials extracted and manufactured within the region in order to reduce the environmental consequences of transportation.


This criterion is applicable to both companies that manufacture and fabricate, as well as those that handle installation of glass products. The major flaw within this credit is that it doesn’t take into consideration the distance travelled between the extraction and final manufacturing site relative to the project site. For example, if a raw material is extracted in New Jersey but then shipped to Texas and then to the West Coast to be fabricated and finally to New York to be insulated, if the building is in New York and the first and last points are within 500 miles of that building/ project site, the product would c o m p l y, d e s p i t e b e i n g inconsistent with the intent of the credit.

Energy & Atmosphere natural light while also restricting Indoor Environmental Quality Credit 1: Optimize Energy the effects of infrared energy and Credit 6.2: Controllability of Performance solar heat gain. These methods Systems – Thermal Comfort (Up to 19 points for overall building can contribute to lower energy (Maximum 1 point) performance & Up to 21 points for use in addition to smaller commercial interiors) equipment requirements and thus Intent of the Credit re d u c e d s p a t i a l n e e d s f o r The goal is to provide individual Intent of the Credit occupants or groups in multimechanical and electrical The goal is to reduce impacts equipment. occupant spaces the associated with increased ability to control the energy use and to reduce level of thermalpostoverall energy comfort in an effort to consumer consumption within the encourage productivity, waste building. contentment, and wellbeing. Glass Contribution This credit refers to methods with which to optimize Glass Contribution energy usage and This credit refers to the performance via four individual needs and fundamental strategies: preferences of building occupants via 1. Reduce demand adjustable comfort 2. Harvest free energy c o n t ro l s . E l e m e n t s 3. Increase Efficiency such as operable 4. Recover waste energy windows and lighting controls contribute to The use of glass in the occupant ability to building envelope as well adjust comfort controls Manually operated devices such as the interior contributes to the as shades or blinds are not in terms of ventilation and harvesting of free energy by temperature. Individual controls considered eligible increasing day-lighting properties may increase initial buildings and thus reducing the under this credit as it is only costs though are typically offset requirement for artificial, electric p e r m a n e n t a p p l i c a t i o n o f by energy savings from lower lighting. coatings, electro chromic glass, ventilation requirements and use Techniques such as combination and tints that allows for this type of shading devices. glass construction, tints, and of solar control to be included in coatings, provide a means with calculations. LEED also takes into which to control the amount of consideration glazing properties light introduced into each area such as visible light within the space. High transmittance, solar heat gain, performance glazing on the and shading coefficients. exterior of a building also contributes to an increase in


BIBLIOGRAPHY WEBSITE John W. Root, Ph.D. “Maintenance Manual for Glass & Ceramic Color Transfer Standards”. Mt. Baker Research L.L.C. Accessed 10/11/2012 The Daily Green, , accessed 11/11/2012 Dorobek, Jamie. “the bottle tree” C.R.A.F.T – creating really awesome free things. http:// Accessed 09/11/2012 The Green Glass Company. “Products” Accessed 11/11/2012 Recycling Guide Organization. “How Glass is Recycled” (Fubra Limited 2012) Accessed 10/11/2012. Saskatchewan Waste Reduction Council. Glass recycling in Ontario. http:// Accessed 12/11/2012 “Glass Recycling Available” US Fed News Service, Including US State News (HT Media ltd, Washington, D.C] 11/11/2009 Unknown. “The Glass House” Kootenay Lake East Shore; Spectacular by nature. Kootenay Lake Chamber of Commerce 2012. Accessed 09/11/2012 Unknown. “Hope floats: Steve Jobs’ yacht Venus launched in Netherlands” RT news. 05/11/2012 Accessed 10/11/2012

Books Agnes, Michael & Guralnik B., David. Webster’s new world college dictionary, Fourth edition. (IDG books worldwide, Foster City, CA. 2009) Whitehouse, David. Glass: A Short History. Washington, DC: Smithsonian, 2012. Print. King, Thomas B. Boston: Boston Mills, 1987. Print. Tait, Hugh. Five Thousand Years of Glass. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania, 2004. Print. Shelby, James E. Introduction to Glass Science and Technology. Cambridge, England: Royal Society of Chemistry, 1997. Print. [29]

Research & Model on Glass  

This is an indepth research on glass, and it's properties and functions. Topics include: material’s place of origin, history, raw state or...

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you