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Special Edition: Body Systems in Tennis


Issue #421: March 13, 2012

Insight into the world of Seigaku:

“Juice is essential to every training program!” ~Inui

Brought to you by: Shiba and Inoue

Special Edition: Body Systems In Tennis Always warm up before participating in a sport competition, that’s what everyone says. If you don’t warm up properly, your muscles may unconsciously start a spasm. However, if the spasm continues, it results in a muscle cramp.

Federer Q&A Roger Federer Is a Swiss professional tennis player. He has won 16 Grand Slam singles titles, more than any other male player. He is one of six male players to have captured the career Grand Slam.

“Who was his mentor?” -Jellal Fernandes, 19, FI His coach is Peter Lundgren.

“What is the string tension of Roger Federer’s racquet?” - Carla Shagotte, 16, ED

First of all a bit of general information, muscle cramps are forcibly contracted muscles that can’t relax. These muscles may be a single muscle or a group of muscles that work together. Surprisingly, most people have experienced a cramp sometime in their life, 95% of the population actually. If you would like to know more about muscle cramps, read on. Next will be the causes of muscle cramps and treatment for muscle cramps will be explained. Most of the cramps that people experience are true cramps. True cramps are caused either by injuries, vigorous activity, dehydration and low blood calcium and magnesium. There is also a type of cramp called rest cramps. -


Roger Federer's racquet has 24 - 28 kg (50-60 lbs) recommended tension, depending on his opponent, court conditions, weather, altitude, humidity, etc.

For matches, he (as well as other players) will have several racquets in his bag with varied tensions. Like racquet choice, string tension is a very personal decision.

Muscle injuries have a high chance of causing a spasm, if it`s sustained, will quickly turn into a cramp. Vigorous activity is the most common cause of muscle cramps, due to muscle fatigue. These cramps may come during the activities, or sometimes, hours after the activity. People at any age might experience a muscle cramp after activities, especially older adults. Dehydration is caused by excessive fluid lost from sweating while participating in a sport. This cause for cramp happens mostly in warm weather. True cramps caused by dehydration are sometimes even a sign of early heat stroke. Actually, it’s not just dehydration by itself, losing water also means losing sodium. Both of dehydration and sodium associates with cramps. Speaking of loss of water, loss of calcium and magnesium may also cause muscle cramps. Low blood levels of calcium or magnesium directly make the nerve endings and muscles they control more “excited”. This cause is found more commonly amongst older adults and pregnant women; however, any condition that causes loss of the two minerals may lead to a muscle cramp.


Special Edition: Body Systems In Tennis Causes of true cramps (continued…) -

Would you like to take tennis lessons? Tennis Calgary provides all types of lessons for your needs! We give lessons to people at any level and age. Our staff will give you the best experience you will ever have. Call us at (403-tennis-0) or email us at for more information.

Rest cramps are quite different because the cause is unknown. Again, older adults have a higher chance of experiencing rest cramps, but it may occur to anyone, even children. Rest cramps occur during the night, it may happen many times in one night and/or several nights in a week.

Now that all the causes of true cramps are explained, the treatment and prevention of cramps will be explained next. -


Sometimes, all you need to do is stretch the muscle. For a cramp in the leg or feet, just getting up and walking around may stop the cramping. If it’s a cramp in the calf, stand 2-2.5feet from a wall, put your forearms against the wall and keep your back and legs straight and keep your heels on the ground. This will help stretch the calf. Massage the cramp or applying a heat pad will also help.

Here are some ways to prevent muscle cramps.


To prevent dehydration, drink plenty of water before and during the exercise. Warm up and cool down when participating in an event. To prevent rest cramps, stretch before you go to bed and make sure you have enough calcium and magnesium in your diet.

Always remember to stretch so you don’t get a cramp. Cramps are painful and they disrupts your activities, thus, always remember how to prevent and treat muscle cramps.

Enjoy Tennis!

Buy tennis balls now from Xtreme Sports! Order online at www. 3

Special Edition: Body Systems In Tennis The Respiratory System in Tennis In tennis, the respiratory system is very important. The players benefit more from a more sufficient respiratory system for they have to run a lot around the tennis court. Tennis players and people that have long sustained sports must have a good respiratory system in order to be able to play the sport. The respiratory system is made up of many parts. In the upper respiratory tract there is the nose, pharynx, larynx and trachea while in the lower respiratory tract there is the bronchioles, alveoli, and lungs. The nose is the entrance of the respiratory tract. You can breathe and exhale air through it. The pharynx is situated behind the mouth and it is a passage to the stomach and the lungs. The larynx is at the top of the trachea and it contains vocal cords. It is also known as the voice box. The bronchioles are the branches of bronchi that conduct air into the lungs and the alveoli are sacs in the lungs where gas exchange occurs. Finally, the lungs are two inverted cone-shaped organs present in the chest of a human being. The main function of the respiratory system is to supply the blood with oxygen in order for the blood to deliver oxygen to all parts of the body. We use the respiratory system all the time while exercising or playing sports.

Ask a Pro: Equipment The two primary measurements of tennis rackets are power and control. These are the yin and yang of tennis racket design. The perfect balance of power and control for one player will be totally wrong for another. As a general rule, however, you can say that beginning players have smaller, more hesitant swings that do not generate lots of power. Beginners rely on the racket to generate this power for them and therefore need a racket that has a high power rating.

Conversely, you can say that advanced players have bigger, more aggressive swings that generate lots of head speed and power. They don't need a racket with a high power rating since they are doing this work themselves. What the advanced player needs is a racket that gives them more control over their shots. Another basic tenet of racket design is that bigger racket heads give more power, and smaller heads give less power. Power is affected by many other design elements as well, but you can use this basic principle to start your search for the perfect racket. ~Nanjirou Echizen Tennis Specialist


Special Edition: Body Systems In Tennis The system is important because it works while we breathe; the exchange of gases is the respiratory system’s means of getting oxygen to the blood. We need a good respiratory system if we want to keep up with the exercises. Without a strong respiratory system, we might breathe too Est heavily and runUt outSed of stamina.

Tennis Tips Tennis can be a difficult sport to master in the early stages of your career but practice really does make perfect if you want to use it as a health and fitness workout tool. Here are some tips to getting the most out of your tennis playing so your health and fitness levels are successfully boosted.


PRACTICE You should always practice no matter what you do. As they always say, practice makes perfect. When practicing and playing, be sure to always warm up and stay refreshed. Try hitting a ball against a wall and holding your racket with the right grip.


EQUIPMENT There are plenty of rackets to choose from, with the standard particularly good, even at the lower end of the scale. Rackets for beginners and junior-sized rackets are relatively inexpensive, but don’t just go for the cheapest — choose one that matches your body and grip size. Ask for advice from the sales assistant. Once you have been playing for a while, don’t assume that once a string has broken the racket is no good and should be thrown away. If it is a good one, it may be worth having it re-strung and having the tension adjusted to suit your play. HAVE FUN


Take some lessons and be sure to always have fun. Everyone plays their best when actually enjoying what they are doing.

Respiration is achieved through the mouth, nose, trachea, lungs and diaphragm. Oxygen enters through the mouth and the nose and then passes through the larynx and the trachea. The trachea is a tube that enters the chest cavity. Lungs are the part of the respiratory system that allows you to breathe. They work along with the diaphragm. The diaphragm is a curved sheet of muscle, which separates the thorax from the abdomen. When it contracts, the diaphragm flattens, which increases the volume of the thorax, which then expands the lungs. Contracting the diaphragm therefore is associated with breathing in. Overall, not only is the respiratory system important in tennis, it is also important in all of the other areas of our daily lives. Without it, we wouldn’t we able to breathe properly or even talk! Nam laoreet egestas tortor. Duis augue tortor, auctor non, porta eget, dapibus eget, ligula. Aliquam imperdiet, mauris at imperdiet nonummy, diam nulla ullamcorper odio, vel lobortis pede justo nec nunc. Sed mi nisl, facilisis accumsan, eleifend eu, luctus vitae, mauris. Cras consequat, ut condimentum Justo id eleifend faucibus, magna urna dolor gravida, quam nibh scelerisque consectetuer dui, vel pretium risus turpis, a rhoncus risus orci eget libero. Nunc quis felis in nunc sagittis purus sed pede. Integer diam elit, egestas. Nullam nonummy, erat vel facilisis eget. fermentum gravida, lacus nulla aliquet magna, et ultrices nibh odio nec metus. 5

Special Edition: Body Systems In Tennis

Tennis comic

'Advantage' (Tennis player has huge racket) 6

Special Edition: Body Systems In Tennis

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Nam laoreet egestas tortor. Duis augue tortor, auctor non, porta eget, dapibus eget, ligula. Aliquam imperdiet, mauris at imperdiet nonummy, diam nulla ullamcorper odio, vel lobortis pede justo nec nunc. Sed mi nisl, facilisis accumsan, eleifend eu, luctus vitae, mauris. Cras consequat, magna ut condimentum gravida, quam nibh scelerisque turpis, a rhoncus risus orci eget libero. Nunc quis felis in nunc sagittis egestas. Nullam nonummy, erat vel fermentum gravida, lacus nulla aliquet magna, et ultrices nibh odio nec metus. 7

Special Edition: Body Systems In Tennis


Special Edition: Body Systems In Tennis How to Strengthen Your Bones Porlyusica Marvell, GfE. Strengthening your bones is highly beneficial in all aspects of your life, not only tennis, because they act as levers during movement and provide solid structures to which muscles are attached. Like muscle, bone is living tissue that responds to exercise by becoming stronger. Young women and men who exercise regularly generally achieve greater peak bone mass (maximum bone density and strength) than those who do not. For most people, bone mass peaks during the third decade of life. After that time, we can begin to lose bone. However, racquet players have been shown to have greater bone density in their playing arms. The condition of bone may be improved by exercise as it responds to mechanical stresses. Where these mechanical stresses are applied, most it has been shown that more mineral salts are deposited and more collagenous fibres are produced. Your joints are equally important to your tennis playing ability. Joints allow movement between bones and these movements are directly related to the type of joint and range of motion. Joints fall into one of three categories: Fixed fibrous, Slightly moveable, and Freely Moveable. Freely Movable joints fall into four main groups: Ball and Socket, Hinge, Pivot, and Gliding. A common joint injury to tennis players is Tennis Shoulder. Tennis shoulder is common in tennis players because of repetitive forces on the unstable shoulder joint with strokes such as the serve, overhead smash, high forehead, and backhand volley. However, protective measures and shoulder conditionings can help to avoid this problem, and can enhance performance and avoid fatigue from eccentric overload. Located on the next page are some methods you cam use to prevent tennis shoulder and other injuries:

The Circulatory System The circulatory system is important in tennis playing. It’s important to know what’s happening in your body while you play. Here are some facts about the circulatory system: The heart is the pump in the energy transport system. The circulatory system driven by the heart will transport nutrients, including oxygen, to the working muscles and remove the waste products including carbon dioxide and water away from the working muscles. Since the circulatory system also helps control body temperature, it is a factor in dissipating heat (helping you cool off).

When you play tennis, your circulatory system is hard at work.


Stretching Before and After Tennis Play It is important for the competitive tennis athlete to maintain good shoulder flexibility in order to allow for full range of motion, which improves stroke potential. The stretching program recommended for the tennis player focuses on stretching the usually tight posterior and inferior joint capsule and increasing shoulder internal rotation. The stretches should be performed 3 times each and held for 45 seconds twice a day. It is also recommended that the stretches be performed before and after playing tennis.

Starting Position Lift arm out in front of you to shoulder height with elbow bent at 90 degrees.

Starting Position Place hand in the small of your back with your palm facing out.

Starting Position Lift your arm overhead with your elbow pointing to the ceiling.

Stretch Position Using your other arm, pull the elbow across your body.

Stretch Position Holding a tennis racquet, pull your arm up your back.

Stretch Position Holding a tennis racquet, pull your arm towards the ground.


Special Edition: Body Systems In Tennis

A General Idea of Tennis Elbow Everyone’s probably heard of tennis elbow, more scientifically, it’s called lateral epicondylitis. Tennis elbow is caused by repetitive movements that involves bending the wrist in a turning or backwards motion. For tennis, if an arm keeps receiving large impact while using one-handed backhand stroke, it will lead to tennis elbow. Lateral epicondylitis is a common injury that results from overuse, injury or strain of the tendon that attaches the forearm muscles to the boney part of the outside of the elbow. Under the skin, microscopic tears in tendon cause inflammation and pain.

This Issue is brought to you specially by Kathy Qian, YiLing Kang and Cenxiao Li, with the help of Seigaku, Monthly Pro Tennis and Nanjirou Echizen. Thank You for your help.

There isn’t exactly a way to prevent tennis elbow from striking. However, when playing tennis, use two-handed backhand instead of one-handed backhand for less burden on the arms. Also, you can add a dampener to your racquet because it helps absorb the shock from the impact. However, these methods will only reduce the chances of tennis elbow, it does not guarantee no tennis elbow. If you do get lateral epicondylitis, don’t be too surprised because over 50% tennis players have tennis elbow. So play tennis the safe way by using two-handed backhand and add a dampener to your racquet.

The Dampener


Special Edition: Body Systems In Tennis

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