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Assignment ENRM 230 Submitted By: Fernando S. Guevara Student No. 2010-82059 Introduction My assignment will be about the spatial distribution of patches and edges around the heavily forested Mount Malindig in Marinduque. I will also try to identify poverty areas around Mount Malidig that potentially threaten the environment. I will also try to find solutions to mitigate anthropogenic activities in the area that could affect the biodiversity. My case study came about when I chance upon the 2008 Community Based Monitoring System (CBMS) when I went to Marinduque last July and was a little lucky when I was able to borrow the 1990 Master Study on the Integrated Agricultural Development Project in Marinduque made by JICA1. I found these two (2) document interesting because I was thinking if I am able to combine these studies through landscape ecology maps then it would be much easier for the LGUs2 to make decisions in solving the problem of poverty in their localities and prevent the deterioration of its present biodiversity. My case study is simple but I hope this can serve as a model for future studies in solving human depredation of its surrounding environment for short term economic gain.

Assumptions This study will not attempt to make projection beyond its present time. Since I got some data in the 1990s I may be able to approximate the present activities of humans around Mount Malindig. The top of Mount Malindig is assume to have not change because it is protected by its natural surrounding.

Location Marinduque is an island province at the center of the Philippines and is part of the MIMAROPA region. The capital of Marinduque is Boac and is situated between Tayabas Bay to the north and Sibuyan Sea to the south. It is located south west of Quezon, east of Mindoro, and north of Romblon. Mount Malindig is located south of Boac and is facing the province of Romblon in the south, the Sibuyan Sea on the southeast and Tablas Straight at the southwest. The Mount Malindig is 3420 meters high and slopes by 60O starting 400 meters high as shown in Picture 1. Mount Malindig is considered an inactive volcano. The upper part of Mount Malindig is a predominantly mossy virgin forest. Because of its steep slope no one has been able to reach the top of the mountain.

1 2

Japanese International Cooperation Agency Local Government Units


Philippine Situation The Philippines contains one of the largest mineral ore deposits in the world and is one of the 17 countries that is rich in biodiversity. The country also has 52,177 identified species and half of the species could not be found elsewhere in the world. Unfortunately, according to the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) the Philippines is “one of the few countries in the world that is both a mega-diversity country and a biodiversity hotspot”. The biodiversity is at risk because the forest cover has dropped from 270,000 km 2 during the Spanish times to 150,000 km2 in 1946 to just 8,000 km2 in 2006. With the government policy to attract mining investors and targeting 30% of the country’s land area to mining sites located at the upland areas it would further reduce the forest cover and would leave a toxic heritage to the next future generations. At this point in time mining should stop in our country and instead focus on preserving and protecting what is left in our biodiversity. We may even gain the respect of all nations that despite of being the poorest country in Asia we are taking care of the present biodiversity for the appreciation of the future generation. Who knows the Philippines maybe the eco-tourism capital of the world.

Methodology In this study I used two (2) documents which I was able to source in Marinduque, namely the 2008 Community Based Monitoring System (CBMS) and 1990 Master Study on the Integrated Agricultural Development Project (MSIAD) in Marinduque made by JICA3. The CBMS is a compilation of statistical data on household survey reflected in maps. This data are used to guide the Local Government Units in policy formation, planning and monitoring poverty alleviation programs undertaken. The data maps provided by CBMS will be “overlayed’ into the MSIAD present land use map. The MSIAD are data mapping tools used for integrated agricultural developments. The document contains 25 maps that shows locations, land use, hydrological conditions, geological formation, population density, soil conditions and other information relevant to the farmers. Our interest from MSIAD is the map on the present land use of Marinduque specifically around Mount Malindig. I also got a Geographical Information System (GIS) files from NAMRIA and this will be also used similarly as MSIAD but will reflect the latest land use maps. From these overlying of maps we will try to analyze the extend of human interference in the present biodiversity and find solutions to solve the problem.

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Japanese Information


It would be better if the exact location of the population is shown on the maps to give us a better appreciation of the situation. I tried using the Google Maps but in Marinduque it does not give a clear picture. All maps of CBMS and MSIAD has been digitized using AutoCad software.

Landscape Ecology Maps Shown below are two (2) land cover maps. Figure 1 was sourced the 1990 Master Study on the Integrated Agricultural Development Project (MSIAD) in Marinduque made by JICA and Figure 2 was sourced from 2002 National Mapping Resource Information Authority (NAMRIA). The MSIAD Project by JICA has been digitized by using AutoCad and the NAMRIA was convert from a Geographical Information System (GIS) file to an AutoCad file. The latest software was a great help to show the 1990 and the 2002 landscape with the same format which made me compare the past and the present land cover. In the span of 17 years the landscape cover around Mount Malindig on the west has changed significantly from natural grass and wooded land to cultivated perennial crop which are mostly coconut trees. On the east of Mount Malindig some of the grassland in blue has been planted with coconut trees and some matured to shrubs and wooden trees. In 1985 the central part of Mount Malindig represented by green patches as the open forest has been planted mostly of coconut trees. In 2002 the remaining green patch is the mountain top as shown in Figure 2. The following picture is shown to get an idea what Mount Malindig looks at a far distant.

Picture 1 Shows Planted with Coconut Trees


Picture 2 Similarly the Lower Portion are Planted with Coconut trees

Picture 3 A Golf Course is Shown at the Foot of the Mountain

Picture 4 Shows more Coconut Trees and Settlers at the Foot of the Mountain

Shown in Figure 1 and Figure 2 below are the landscape geographical maps showing the spatial distribution of forest patches and edges around Mount Malindig.


Figure 1 Landscape Cover In 1985

Figure 2 Landscape Cover in 2002


Landscape Ecology vs. Poverty Maps Show below are the Landscape Maps with colors representing the data shown in the CBMS Report.

Figure 3

Figure 4


Figure 5

Figure 6


Figure 7

Figure 8


Figure 9

Figure 10


Figure 11 Maps shown from Figure 3 to Figure 11 represent the Tables Shown below for Buenavista and Torrijos: Table 1. Health and Nutrition Indicators, by Barangay, Province of Marinduque, 2008 Municipality

BUENAVISTA

TORRIJOS

Barangay

Bagacay Bagtingon Barangay I (Pob.) Barangay II (Pob.) Barangay III (Pob.) Banagay IV (Pob.) Bicas-bicas Caiganga Daykitin Libas Malbog Sihi Timbo (Sanggulong) Tungib-Lipata Yook Bangwayin Bayakbakin Bolo Bonliw Buangan Cabuyo Cagpo

Number of children (0-5 years old) 158 228 159 43 72 105 105 329 400 319 242 203 151 307 509 60 45 65 153 322 216 61

Malnourished children (05 years old) Magnitude Proportion 30 28.0 42 21.4 15 9.6 5 11.6 9 12.5 31 29.5 12 12.6 59 19.0 71 17.8 35 11.0 15 6.2 42 20.7 21 13.9 73 23.8 52 10.2 3 5.0 5 11.1 7 10.8 3 2.0 22 6.8 23 10.6 15 24.6


Dampulan Kay Duke Mabuhay Makawayan Malibago Malinao

140 54 58 171 447 116

19 3 15 8 53 12

13.6 5.6 25.9 4.7 11.9 10.3

Table 2. Housing, Water and Sanitation Indicators, by Barangay, Province of Marinduque, 2008 Municipality

Barangay

BUENAVISTA

Bagacay Bagtingon Barangay I (Pob.) Barangay II (Pob.) Barangay III (Pob.) Banagay IV (Pob.) Bicas-bicas Caiganga Daykitin Libas Malbog Sihi Timbo (Sanggulong) Tungib-Lipata Yook Bangwayin Bayakbakin Bolo Bonliw Buangan Cabuyo Cagpo Dampulan Kay Duke Mabuhay Makawayan Malibago Malinao Maranlig Marlangga Matuyatuya Nangka Pakaskasan Payanas Poblacion Poctoy Sibuyao Suha Talawan Tigwi

TORRIJOS

Households living in makeshift housing Magnitude Proportion 3 1.4 0 0.0 9 3.8 0 0.0 2 1.6 10 8.0 0 0.0 18 3.9 10 1.9 16 3.7 8 2.6 1 0.3 2 1.0 9 2.3 22 3.9 2 2.1 1 1.4 3 3.0 8 2.5 14 3.3 12 3.4 5 4.5 14 6.5 6 5.0 8 7.2 27 10.7 21 3.6 6 4.0 3 0.9 15 5.1 4 1.6 1 0.5 9 8.5 10 6.1 74 10.2 4 2.2 25 7.4 9 2.9 19 17.1 46 9.2

Households who are informal settlers Magnitude Proportion 2 0.9 2 0.7 1 0.4 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 2 0.4 12 2.3 1 0.2 2 0.6 2 0.7 1 0.5 1 0.3 97 17.1 0 0.0 1 1.4 0 0.0 7 2.2 5 1.2 2 0.6 4 3.6 15 7.0 1 0.8 1 0.9 3 1.2 13 2.2 0 0.0 1 0.3 7 2.4 4 1.6 0 0.0 0 0.0 7 4.3 9 1.2 2 1.1 3 0.9 3 1.0 2 1.8 0 0.0


Table 3. Education indicators, by Barangay, Province of Marinduque, 2008 Municipality

BUENAVISTA

TORRIJOS

Barangay

Bagacay Bagtingon Barangay I (Pob.) Barangay II (Pob.) Barangay III (Pob.) Banagay IV (Pob.) Bicas-bicas Caiganga Daykitin Libas Malbog Sihi Timbo (Sanggulong) Tungib-Lipata Yook Bangwayin Bayakbakin Bolo Bonliw Buangan Cabuyo Cagpo Dampulan Kay Duke Mabuhay Makawayan Malibago Malinao Maranlig Marlangga Matuyatuya Nangka Pakaskasan Payanas Poblacion Poctoy Sibuyao Suha Talawan Tigwi

Number of children (1216 years old) 235 270 219 59 89 110 167 413 455 420 260 288 165 398 581 78 69 87 231 376 291 105 178 83 111 222 596 133 278 261 178 169 89 141 518 153 290 270 92 420

Children not attending elementary school (6-12 years old) Magnitude Proportion 44 18.7 42 15.6 48 21.9 9 15.3 16 18.0 26 23.6 28 16.8 65 15.7 74 16.3 75 17.9 53 20.4 46 16.0 29 17.6 81 20.4 103 17.7 19 24.4 16 23.2 10 11.5 34 14.7 100 26.6 61 21.0 33 31.4 29 16.3 17 20.5 16 14.4 52 23.4 102 17.1 23 17.3 51 18.3 54 20.7 46 25.8 27 16.0 15 16.9 20 14.2 93 18.0 39 25.5 51 17.6 90 33.3 19 20.7 65 15.5


Table 4. Income Indicators, by Barangay, Province of Marinduque, 2008 Municipality

Barangay

BUENAVISTA

Bagacay Bagtingon Barangay I (Pob.) Barangay II (Pob.) Barangay III (Pob.) Banagay IV (Pob.) Bicas-bicas Caiganga Daykitin Libas Malbog Sihi Timbo (Sanggulong) Tungib-Lipata Yook Bangwayin Bayakbakin Bolo Bonliw Buangan Cabuyo Cagpo Dampulan Kay Duke Mabuhay Makawayan Malibago Malinao Maranlig Marlangga Matuyatuya Nangka Pakaskasan Payanas Poblacion Poctoy Sibuyao Suha Talawan Tigwi

TORRIJOS

Households with income below the poverty threshold Magnitude Proportion 187 86.2 236 85.8 139 58.4 10 12.7 44 35.5 101 79.5 148 84.1 287 62.5 194 36.4 366 84.1 203 64.9 158 51.3 168 88.0 157 40.6 322 56.8 60 63.8 43 58.1 76 76.8 172 53.6 280 64.2 170 47.9 68 61.8 118 55.1 39 32.2 58 52.3 131 52.0 386 65.8 103 69.1 161 48.3 159 53.7 142 58.0 119 56.9 52 49.1 100 61.0 233 32.1 115 62.2 183 54.3 157 50.2 85 76.6 255 51.1

Households with income below the food threshold Magnitude Proportion 159 73.3 203 73.8 106 44.5 4 5.1 30 24.2 91 71.7 120 68.2 222 48.4 124 23.3 338 77.7 140 44.7 103 33.4 148 77.5 97 25.1 238 42.0 47 50.0 23 31.1 64 64.6 115 35.8 201 46.1 128 36.1 49 44.5 94 43.9 26 21.5 34 30.6 85 33.7 310 52.8 88 59.1 99 29.7 104 35.1 106 43.3 79 37.8 33 31.1 66 40.2 150 20.7 84 45.4 141 41.8 84 26.8 67 60.4 185 37.1


Table 6 CBMS Composite Indicator, by Barangay, Province of Marinduque, 2008 Municipality

Barangay

BUENAVISTA

Bagacay Bagtingon Barangay I (Pob.) Barangay II (Pob.) Barangay III (Pob.) Banagay IV (Pob.) Bicas-bicas Caiganga Daykitin Libas Malbog Sihi Timbo (Sanggulong) Tungib-Lipata Yook Bangwayin Bayakbakin Bolo Bonliw Buangan Cabuyo Cagpo Dampulan Kay Duke Mabuhay Makawayan Malibago Malinao Maranlig Marlangga Matuyatuya Nangka Pakaskasan Payanas Poblacion Poctoy Sibuyao Suha Talawan Tigwi

TORRIJOS

CBMS Composite Indicator 3.5 2.4 1.7 0.5 0.9 2.6 2.9 1.9 1.2 2.5 2.0 1.6 2.7 1.7 2.3 2.1 1.5 1.8 1.1 1.7 1.4 1.6 1.5 0.9 1.3 1.3 1.8 1.8 1.1 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.5 2.0 0.9 1.3 1.7 1.3 3.6 1.6


Discussion and Analysis For local government unit (LGU) official looking at tabulated data is quite challenging to understand and comprehend to arrive at a conclusion. Using landscape geographical maps would help the LGUs visually understand the problem in their localities. Integrating landscape ecology maps into landscape geographical data maps would give the LGUs a more powerful tool to find solutions to the nagging problem of poverty. Between 1985 and 2002 the landscape cover has changed significantly around Mount Malindig. Without overlaying the CBMS data map into the landscape ecology map the relation between Mount Malindig’s biodiversity and human interference cannot be truly be understood. But looking at Figure 2 and understanding Figure 7 and Figure 8 will immediate understand why the foot of Mount Malindig turn from grass and wooded land to land planted with mostly coconut trees and other perennial trees. The humans in this place turn to the edges of the forest land for their livelihood. And also in Figure 2 you will notice the tiny patches in red indicate movement of communities to the upland where in Figure 1 there was no intrusion to the mountain edges. In Figure 6 if you will note of the high threshold of the youth not attending school would indicate that these kids are helping their family in upland farming. The further these families work upland the less educational benefit for the kids. If you will look at Figure 9 and Figure 10 food shortage is not a problem in these areas presumably that because of upland farming they are able to feed themselves properly. The above observations and by just looking at the maps will give the LGU official a “snapshot� of what is happening in their community.

Conclusion My case study is just a simple demonstration of an existing locality that by making reference to landscape geographical maps would help understand and comprehend the problems of poverty in any place. This is in line with the definition of landscape ecology where it is a study of the reciprocal effects on spatial heterogeneity of the ecological process in individuals in the environment. It is this role of humans in creating and effecting landscape patterns that will help us understand their social and economic situation.

Recommendations Although the method I have presented is simple it has demonstrated that this model is a useful tool in finding solutions to the social, economic and environment concerns in a province, town or community. But I find that the data and geographical landscape cover should be accurate and precise. A more detailed and accurate conclusion can be accomplish by using satellite pictures but unfortunately these documentation is very expensive. On the above case study I would recommend that educating the community especially the youth will solve ecological problems. So that it would be necessary for the LGUs to improve the educational infrastructure and move the schools closer to the upland communities.



Landscape Ecology