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Week 1- Compression Links to subject content Through this week’s material we were introduced to the concept of compression, which is when the load of a building/ force of gravity will always find, it’s way to the ground through following the buildings joints. The concept of compression was explored through being tasked to build the tallest and strongest structure from solid bricks that could also support an opening for an item. Description and Analysis of Construction System When we separated into our group to build a tower we were originally going to directly over lap each brick and building two square large bases that would then join higher up thus creating a space for the toy to fit inside our structure. However as we began to create this idea it became clear that it would be time consuming, and might not necessarily work. We were therefore prompted to create gaps when overlapping the building bricks, which allowed the load to find alternate ways to the ground. This therefore allowed us to create openings. We decided to stick with the idea of a larger square base that would eventually narrow, as it grew taller. As we were building the structure to narrow it also took on a more circular shape. Overall this technique was very effective as we were able to build a structure that reached the ceiling and was still able to stand as we removed large amounts of bricks.

These pictures show the progress of the structure being built and the overlay of the bricks with slight gaps, which allows the load to find a way to the ground through a variety of paths within the structure.

Right: Finished tower Left: building process and creating doors/ windows

Efficiency of Material The solid bricks worked very well under compression as they were thick enough to support the loads present and where also of the right size and shape to create the separated overlapping pattern that we used to construct our tower. If the bricks were bigger it would have been a faster building process but the structure would have become unstable when it came to creating windows and arches as these would have had a larger span to support the load, which places it under greater pressure than the smaller blocks. Sketches of Load Paths

Left to Right: Final brick pattern and demonstration of load path, Original brick pattern and load path

Week 2- Frame Links to subject content This week’s studio activity looked at the concept of tension, which is the opposite force of compression. In tension internal forces are pulling outwards. Within the studio our groups were tasked with building structures from thin balsa wood and glue or masking tape that were meant to be as tall as possible while still be able to support heavy objects. Description and Analysis of Construction System Our group started off sketching and thinking about several ideas with our main ideas stemming from triangles which are cross braced and are therefore stronger in tension frame structures than the standard square or rectangle.

Photos: Show strong braces maintaining triangular shape

We decided on a pentagonal base as it allowed us to explore and use the triangular shape, which gives the best support for structures in tension. We started off with shorter sticks as this gives less area for the beams to deform or flex and break. Once we finished a level we crosssupported it to strengthen the frame and to also provide a platform for objects to be placed upon. As the levels went up this sticks increased in size in order for us to make a tall structure, this contributed to the structures downfall but to minimise this we did narrow the structure the taller it got to ensure that the centre of gravity was as close to the middle of the structure as possible which would lead hopefully to an even distribution of weight and in turn force.

Left to Right Plan of Structure base, Building structure base, first level of construction with cross-supports

When our structure was weight tested it survived most middle weighted objects, however when the heavier spray bottle was placed higher up on the structure the longer beams deflected and ultimately snapped under the pressure and load. In order to avoid this in future structures I would either uses shorter beams or cross brace them more, or even a combination of both.

Left to Right: Further progression of structure Below: Structures deflection under heavy weight

Efficiency of Material The material may also be more efficient if it was slightly thicker, the thinness at times meant that it would be hard no matter how well built for the structure to support a certain level of weight.

Week 3- On Site 1. Eastern Precinct Student Centre (link between buildings)

Left to right: Counter-lever & Frame roof, Timber veneer, Counter lever steel roof

Potential Construction Constraints: -­‐ Pre existing buildings This means that the level of the new floor needed to match the levels of the pre-existing buildings to either side. This also meant that the structural supports had to be carefully implemented to check that the pre-existing buildings did not receive new load that would exceed their load bearing capacity. The pre-existing buildings would have also presented constraints as to how the link was actually constructed as there would have been limited and constrained access to build and to place necessary tools and equipment. Links to other Buildings o Plate and four bolts directly onto columns o The main roof systems and flooring also matched and joined the two buildings through this new link Construction Type -­‐ Concrete and Asphalt flooring -­‐ Cladding – timber -­‐ Acoustic panels -­‐ Steel columns -­‐ Glass windows Structural Systems -­‐ Counter lever -­‐ Steel Frame o Steel beams and columns Estimated dimensions 4 storeys high, 10meters wide, 25m deep

2. MSLE Building (Link between buildings)

Left to right: Timber and laminate flooring with pre-existing brick wall, Air conditioning system, Pre existing brick wall with steel counter levers supporting new upstairs area

Potential Construction Constraints: -­‐ Dimension -­‐ Existing materials – brick Links to other Buildings -­‐ Counter-lever -­‐ Frame Construction Type -­‐ Concrete Floor and Stairs -­‐ Laminated Floor -­‐ Timber planks à floor -­‐ Rubber tactile Structural Systems -­‐ Counter-lever -­‐ Air conditioning -­‐ Frame -­‐ Roof àtimber or steel Materials -­‐ Glass -­‐ Steel -­‐ Timber -­‐ Concrete -­‐ Plasterboard and Paint -­‐ Laminate -­‐ Rubber tactile Estimated dimensions 2 storeys high, 4m wide, 10 meters deep

3. Queens College Extension

Left to right: External piping and render, Steel columns and concrete flooring, Timber framing supporting rendered veneer

Potential Construction Constraints -­‐ Proximity to the boundary line Links to other buildings -­‐ Timber Ledger Construction Type -­‐ Painting -­‐ Pipes -­‐ Joints Structural Systems -­‐ Columns -­‐ Frame -­‐ Concrete walls -­‐ Timber beams Materials -­‐ Concrete -­‐ Steel -­‐ Timber -­‐ Stone Estimated dimensions 1 storey high, 10m wide, 10m deep

4. Ormond Theology Centre Reception

Left to right: Outside Columns and mesh veneer, Exterior columns, Building joins and piping

Potential Construction Constraints -­‐ Joining to a very old building Links to other Building -­‐ Hard to see any detailing from outside of building and without building plans Construction Type -­‐ Hydration Grates -­‐ Mesh cladding -­‐ Pipes Structural Systems -­‐ Columns (Concrete) -­‐ Frame à to hold glass window walls Materials -­‐ Timber -­‐ Steel -­‐ Glass -­‐ Veneer Estimated dimensions 3 storeys high, 13m wide, 100m deep

Oval Pavilion Project

2. Shows heritage listed part of the building that is being renovated and joined to new building. Renovations still to fully commence.

1. Retaining and underground wall being constructed. Waterproofing, reinforced concrete blocks and floor joists are visible. Mid construction stage




A fourth photo on the southern side of the building could not be taken due to access constraints.

3. Construction of foundation to the south of the building appears that it will support a load wall. Yellow caps are placed in the reinforcing rods for workplace safety. This is in early construction stage.



List the types of information found in the title block on the floor plan page. - Architect information - Page reference numbers - Project number - Orientation - The Drawer - The Scale - The date printed Why might this information be important? So you are aware whom to contact to run changes past or to ask for further instruction. It also gives some basic context to the drawings. 2 DRAWING CONTENT - PLANS - What type of information is shown in this floor plan? - Birds eye detail of each level of the building - Where section and elevation details have been cut from - The wall constructions - Measurements - Placement of windows and doors - Provide an example of the dimensions as they appear on this floor plan? What units are used for the dimensions? Unit of measurement is mm. The width of the extension area that we are focusing on is 4000mm and the length is 20500mm. - Is there a grid? What system is used for identifying the grid lines? There is a grid and letters are used on the x axis while numbers are used on the y axis. - Why is some information found in General Notes? It gives extra details to the plan and construction over all. Building instructions regarding standards such as emergency lights and other details are included in this section. - What is the purpose of the legend? Gives greater detail and understanding to the plan while allowing shorthand and drawings to be used which shows details more effectively once the legend is understood.

- Why are some parts of the drawing annotated? Illustrate how the annotations are associated with the relevant part of the drawing. It gives greater detail and also allows referencing to other plans and details.

- Illustrate how the locations of sections are identified on the plan. What do these symbols mean? With arrows facing a certain direction shows view of section and then there is a reference number to show where this can be found.

- Illustrate how references to other drawings are shown on the plan. What do these symbols mean? Circle with a reference number.

- How are windows and doors identified? Provide and example of each. Is there a rationale to their numbering? What do these numbers mean? Can you find the answer somewhere in the drawings? Doors are reference through DG followed by a number (DG.29) and windows are referenced through WG followed by a number (WG.14). These can then be used to find the style and type of window or door in the window and door schedule. - Illustrate how floor levels are noted on the plan? Annotations and through the title block.

- Are some areas of the drawing clouded? Why? Yes due to construction issue or area that has since been changed within the plan and needs to be addressed more directly in order to understand what changes or directions apply. 3 DRAWING CONTENT – ELEVATIONS - What type of information is shown in this elevation? How does it differ from the information shown on the plan? - Floor heights - Side views - Ceiling heights - Number and placement of doors and windows It differs from a plan as it gives a side view as apposed to a bird’s eye view. - Are dimensions shown? If so, how do they differ from the dimensions on the plan? Provide an example of the dimensions as they relate to the elevation. Yes, ceiling and floor levels are shown through SFL 0.000 (Standard Floor level) and CL 6.124 (ceiling level.) - What types of levels are shown on the elevations? Illustrate how levels are shown in relation to the elevation. Floor and ceiling levels are shown in relation to the ground level. - Is there a grid? If so, how / where is it shown? Yes there is a grid running above the sections using numbers. - Is there a legend? What does it identify and how is it used? There is not a specific legend for the section pages. - What types of information on the elevations are expressed using words? Illustrate how this is done. Level names – “Plant room roof” and exterior details –“tinted film to existing window” are expressed using words. - Illustrate how the doors and windows are identified on the elevations. Only through drawings Example of a window

- Are any parts of the elevation clouded? Why? Yes due to construction issue or area that has since been changed within the plan and needs to be addressed more directly in order to understand what changes or directions apply. - Illustrate where this elevation is located in relation to the plan? A06.03- West Elevation 4 DRAWING CONTENT – SECTIONS - What type of information is shown in this section? How does it differ from the information shown on the plan and elevation? - Inside cross-section view - Plan is a birds eye view - Elevation- exterior section - Are dimensions shown? If so, how do they differ from the dimensions on the elevation? Yes, there are also widths. - What types of information on the sections are expressed using words? Illustrate how this is done. Details of buildings and materials are shown as well as room names, such as “Reception”. - Illustrate how the section drawing differentiates between building elements that are cut through and those that are shown in elevation (beyond). Immediate building elements are shown by being coloured solid black while the further back elements are they become increasing faint or are shown using dotted lines were appropriate. - Provide examples of how different materials are shown on the sections. They are shown using patterns.

5 DRAWING CONTENT – DETAILS - What sorts of things are detailed? - Ramps - Walls - Doors - Windows - Fixtures and finishes

- Are the details compressed using break lines? Why? Yes, this is done so large areas can fit onto one page and therefore give the context to the finer detail that is actually be focused on. - Provide examples of how different materials are shown on drawings at this scale. Patterns used to show materials.

Week 5- Structural Concept – MSLE Description/classification of structural systems Foundations and Footings: It is a concrete slab on slab footings. Primary Structure (Horizontal and vertical) Vertical: Load bearing walls, footings, columns Horizontal: Slab floor, beams Secondary Structure (Horizontal and Vertical) Vertical: windows and doors, lift-shaft Horizontal: Handrail Graphic Structural Diagrams Foundations and Footings:

Primary Structure- columns and beams

Secondary Structure

Lift Structure


-­‐ -­‐ -­‐


Identification, description and location of structural materials Page A06.07 Brick column: made out of brick is used to support the second level flooring system while also creating more open rooms as lessens the need for structural (load bearing) walls Concrete slab: the concrete slab creates the floor for the ground level and is supported by the brick footing Brick Footing: similar to the brick columns it is made out of brick but is used to support the slab flooring system Open web joistà ceiling material: Open web joisting allows the ceiling material to be supported on the top level of the building and also allows space for services and pipes to be placed through the ceiling without reducing its structural integrity Zinc cladding à outdoor deck roofing material: Zinc being a rust resistant, light and durable metal is being used to create both a structural and design feature of the decking roof. (Week 6 Materials: Metal video, 2013) Identify 3 Structural Joints and Sketch

Left to right: Column to floor join, removable grate join, typical wall section (two walls joined)






Identify and explain the use of different structural fixings Weld: Used to join two types of metals together, this type of join is hard to break but does create structural weakness of the structure at the join (Ching, 2008) Concrete: Used in the MSLE building to create a slab flooring system and also the slab footings, it is a strong material under compression (Week 4: materials- concrete, 2013) Bolt: Are one of the strongest joining methods combining the principles of the screw and nail but design for more heavy duty joins. Bolts can join almost any materials together and has small ridges which create a tight hold in the material. (Ching, 2013) Screw: A screw is stronger than nails and is drilled into the material (typically wood) and has groves, which grip in and hold the material. Screws can vary in shape and size. (Ching, 2013) Nail: Used to join two pieces of wood together, not a strong join compared to screws and bolts so are therefore predominately used in frame construction and secondary structures. (Ching, 2013)

Sustainability and Environmental Analysis Carbon Footprint: The building is overall designed to be fairly environmentally friendly. It consists of lots of large windows and since the building is predominately used during the day it means that there is a reduced need for so much lighting/ for it to be turned on all the time, which therefore reduces the buildings carbon footprint. Embodied Energy: The building is made out of a vast number of materials ranging from wood, steel and bricks, each of these materials have a different level of embodied energy however they have been used throughout the building to provide the best structural support/system which therefore means the building is designed to last a long time. This therefore means that despite materials such as steel and timber having large levels of embodied energy it is outweighed by the fact that the building is durable and will last for many years before needing to be fixed, redesigned or demolished. Recyclability: Although some of the materials throughout the building could be recycled such as the wood or the metal being smelted after building use, the structure has been designed in such a way that does not make this process easy and it therefore wouldn’t necessarily be cost effect and at current technology levels, environmental viable to recycle and reuse parts of the building. However as previously stated this is mainly due to the building be built in a durable way which therefore reduces the need for the building to be recycled anytime in the near future. Economical Implications of Decisions The type of materials and method of construction all play an important role in determining costs for a building. Buildings such as the MSLE building have standardised the doors and windows, which helps to minimise construction costs of those elements, as they are effectively bulk bought. Having the same types of windows and doors also creates a faster installation process as there is less to worry about in terms of which window goes where and it also means that the installation process for all the windows is the same and therefore the process can become faster as more of the windows and doors are installed. Decision of whether to use prefabricated structures such as wooden frames or concrete slabs offsite can also have large economical implications as they can save overall building construction time and also reduce the number of staff needed on site to build these structures therefore meaning that there is reduced labour costs. Overall the more complicated and technical the construction becomes when designing and building the more expertise and time and materials is often needed which therefore corresponds with a direct increase in price. (Ching, 2013)


Above: Presentation slides, words were mainly taken from previous weeks worksheet done together in the tutorial.


Above Photos (left to right): Cutting out different level floors which do not have particular structural features, Two load bearing walls which support and take the weight of the slab flooring, Roofing structure with 10 rafters distributing loads to the walls.

Within this weeks tutorial we were required to make a structural model of out building (MSLE link) in order to visually see the load paths of the structure. The area of the building that we were focused on had two load bearing walls to either side of the structure, which supported the main loads (Figure 1). However within one of these walls there were two lintels (one above a door and the other above windows), which were designed to direct the load around these new features in the preexisting brickwork (as shown in Figure 2). The upstairs ramp was also supported through cantilevers attached to the load bearing side wall (Figure 3). The roof structure is a low sloped skillion roof which had one ridge beam and then 10 rafters that spaned between the walls equally taking the load of the roof and directing it down the two load bearing walls (Figure 4).

Left  to  right:  Load  path  diagram  (cross  section  of  walls),  load  path   diagram  with  new  and  old  lintel  in  brick  wall  

Above:  load  path  diagram  of  skillion  roof  (birds  eye  and  cross  section   view)  

Week 7- Site Visit During this studio we got to go and visit construction sites. This was a really interesting experience as we were able to apply our knowledge that we have gained over the pervious 6 weeks to a real life example. The first site we visited was in the process of excavating down to be able to build the basement levels and foundations for the proposed apartment building. To be able to continue excavating down the construction teams had to build retaining walls the prevented the sides of the hole from collapsing. This was done by getting a 14m drill to drill down into the ground at the sides of the site before digging commenced, in situ concrete was then poured down these holes to create columns that would help support the construction of walls as the excavating took place. The builder who took us on the tour explained that they could only dig down 1.5m at a time before they were required to shock-crete the walls, (this was a material we learnt about in the eLearning on concrete) which is applied through a pipe pumping out concrete which is then smoothed onto the walls manually. These walls were also reinforced with wire mesh spanning between the columns, which enabled the shock-crete to stick to the walls and not collapse whilst drying.

The Machinery used to excavate the site

The in-situ concrete columns and wire mesh waiting to be shock-creted before further excavating can continue

The drill used to create the holes, which formed the in-situ concrete columns

The second site we visited was next to the previous site but was much more advance in it’s building stage. The building is a 6-story retirement home (two basement car park levels), with a special focus on elderly people with dementia. This therefore means that special consideration is given throughout the design process in contrast to a normal build and results in the building have a hospital-esque design and special technology being integrated throughout the building. The building mainly consists of pre-fab concrete, which has then been craned into place by the crane situated in the main lift shaft of the building. The flooring however is slab concrete flooring and has pre tension concrete. We were able to get a close up look of how the pre-tension concrete works when we visited the roof slab, which had only been poured a few days prior. The pre-tension concrete works by having metal rods that span across the slab, the concrete is initially poured and these rods are then pulled into tension and secured as the concrete dries. Pre-tensioning the slab flooring give the building extra strength against lateral forces and in particular earthquakes as it allows the flooring to cope with higher tension forces. This building needs to have higher standards, in regards to events such as earthquakes because it is an elderly home and it is to hard to evacuate them all from the building in a short time frame and therefore it needs to provide extra protection for it’s vulnerable residents.

Exposed Pre-tension rods, used in the roof slab, these are later grouted over and therefore become invisible to the roofs appearance. Another interesting aspect of the building was it outside panel and window design, which had been drawn by the architect. The outside panelling of the building was meant to be coloured poured concrete with the desired outcome being consistent black concrete panels. The construction manager

however explained that this had been a source of great trouble as the colour of the panels was not distributed evenly through the panels providing a more marbled look which did not meet the clients approved standards, this meant that more money is needed to be spent recoating the outside of each concrete panel to the desired panel which could have been an easier and more efficient cost decision to begin with. The building also has may windows in order to saturate it with natural lighting, this has however provided an issue in terms of venting as no vents are allowed to be placed within 6m of a window as it means that the air that is trying to be expelled from a building would just flow back in. This has resulted in venting pipes running from each floor to the plant room on the roof where it can be expelled. This means that there are pipes that then push the fumes and air from the basement car parks up through the centre of the building all the way to the roof (up 8 levels).

Example of a lintel found on the construction site. One of the most exciting parts of the site visit was just being able to start to recognise features of the construction without guidance, drawing on my knowledge gained throughout the semester thus far. For example I was able to recognise lintels and bracing. Overall visiting construction sites first hand was an invaluable experience in terms of being able to see what we have been learning in action, the second more developed site in particular acted like a 3D textbook in which you could identify all the different stages and reasoning behind the constructing process. The site visit also helped me to gain a deeper appreciation of the thought and organisation that is put in by the architects, structural engineers and builders themselves who all work to plan every stage of a building and ensuring it is of high standard, there is simply so much detail that goes into a building that the users never notice or realise.

Cabling and pipes (services) that were placed in the ceiling soon to be covered

Services Lift shaft being in the basement car park

Columns used in basement car park to support upper levels, temporary props can also be seen in the background, these were being used to help support the weight and load of the crane currently situated on top of the building until it is removed.

Exposed column foundation located on the lower basement -made from insitu concrete that will be covered for aesthetic purposes in later stages of the construction.

The Crane currently situated on top of the building being supported by the lift-shaft. This was due to be removed a few days after our visit to enable the construction of the plant room on the roof to begin. In order to remove the crane it must be disassembled and lifted off by another temporary crane that is brought onto the site. When the crane is lifted out of the lift shaft there is no room for error and the process will take place floor by floor to ensure that it doesn’t sway and destroy the walls of the lift shaft or other structural elements. The process of removing the crane depends strongly on weather conditions as any wind can make it impossible to remove the crane without creating damage.

Week 9 & 10 - MSLE BUILDING In Detail Our group was given four sections of the MSLE building to look at in detail. All of the sections detailed the roof structures and the floor and ceiling structures within different areas of the building. Drawing these details at 1:1 scale it helped to demonstrate what was actually happening in these areas of the building.

Figures above show detailed sections that were drawn 1:1 scale (example can be found in appendix)

Composition Both sections of detail were comprised of concrete slabs for flooring, with the slab in the lift shaft (right figure) being suspended. Both details had flashing to keep the water out of the roof openings. The cavities such as between the roof and ceiling and walls were also filled with insulation to help the building gain a level of thermal control. Building Process The details that have been looked at play a major role in the structural integrity of the building through supporting flooring and roofing systems. This therefore means that they would be constructed early on in the building process. The flooring system is made out of concrete slabs which needs at least 28 days to reach maximum strength which would have also effected the timing of surrounding constructing work to ensure that it does not impact the curing and strengthening of the concrete that had been poured (Ching, 2008). The lift shaft detail however was more reliant on windows and frames, instillation of these

elements would be dependant on the manufactures delivery schedule, however these elements were necessary to be able to water tight the building and allow the fit out of services and finishes to start in the interior of the building. This means that the windows and frames have a large impact on the timing of completion of the building process. Sustainability and environmental analysis The use of building materials such as metal, glass and concrete which are predominately used in these details are energy intensive material – as in they have high levels of embodied energy. This however has meant that they are stronger and longer lasting, particularly in how they have been used within the detailed sections (i.e. Metal flashings) which means that the building is more likely to wear better over time, thus creating a longer lasting building that should also require less maintenance. The use of insulation in the cavities also means that there should be less demand for heating and cooling systems within the building which not only reduces the buildings power running costs, but also means that less energy is being used, thus creating a less polluting building. Economic Implications of decisions The details show just how much consideration was put into each section of the building and therefore reflect that informed and thought through decisions where made. This ultimately means that all the decisions were economically smart, in the long run. An example of this is the use of materials, as already discussed in the sustainability section above, these are long lasting and durable materials, so although they are not the cheapest building materials they will require less maintenance or replacement thus being cheaper in the long term. Areas of the detail have also tried to be standardised across the building as can be seen how the joins across both details (which are actually in different sections of the building) are the same where it is plausible to do so. This therefore means that on the construction site there is less chance of confusion and the builders maintain a high level of skill and accuracy at completing these types of joints which enables construction to be completed to a high standard faster, which in turn saves labour costs. Where and why these sections go wrong As with any opening or join, such as the windows and roof structures within the details the places for error occur when water can get into the building and undermine the weatherproofing and structural elements (Week 9 eLearning, 2013). Water is only able to get inside buildings if there is an opening, if water is present at that opening and if there is a force present to move the water, if you remove one of these factors then the building becomes waterproof (eLearning- week 9, 2013). The details of the MSLE building that have been focused on

have had multiple elements in place to prevent these factors enabling water to enter the building as can been seen through the lack of openings through minimal vents and windows being sealed into the frames, opens that are present such as the air vents are then capped and have flashings to help any water that could be present run off rather than pool. So through the detailing aiming to eliminate around two of the factors mentioned that allow water to enter the building, they have waterproofed the building with such back-up mechanisms in place which therefore means that there are less areas for faults resulting in building failure (water entering the building). Other sections that could go wrong also include the joining methods and strength of material for the role in which they play in the buildings structure. Weak materials or joints would result in sections experiencing minor or major breaks, which compromises the overall function of the building. Thankfully structural engineers are qualified to help specify the building requirements to ensure that no such fault occurs or that the odds of such mistakes are lessened.

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Week 10 -Oval Pavilion Site Visit The first place we stopped on our visit was at the south end of the building development where a retaining wall was undergoing the final stages of construction. The construction of this wall was increasingly important as it plays a pivotal role in ensuring the building site does not become flooded as it sits at a lower ground level than the adjacent playing ground. Form ply was used to create the formwork in which concrete and reinforcing bars where then placed to create the wall. As the wall is also functioning as a retaining wall it means it is holding back soil which therefore means it requires reinforcement bars to prevent buckling and breaks. On the front side of the wall, waterproof membrane in the underground section of the wall is also being placed to ensure that the wall remains waterproof which is integral to maintaining the walls optimum strength (Ching, 2008.)

Figure 1: First point of discussion during site visits where retaining walls were being constructed.

There was also pattern work on the concrete walls, which was made from origin, which leaves the impression of timber on the concrete. This process is more time consuming and expensive than creating a plain concrete wall however this adds a distinct design element creating a more aesthetically appealing finish. Most of the building is made out of a combination of steel and wood. The type of timber used changes throughout the building to fit the purpose at which it is needed. Due to timbers lightweight nature and

the fact that it is easy to handle means that the studwork has been made of timber. This has allowed for a faster build of these sections, which in turn also saves in overall labour costs. Concrete blocks have also been used in the construction to create masonry walls. These masonry walls serve a retaining wall function and are laid out in a checker pattern (Figure 2) to allow for reinforcing bars (both horizontal and vertical) to be placed at the correct distances apart to allow for the wall to hold the weight and forces that will be placed upon it.

Figure 2 and 3: checker block-work patter and figure showing ply formwork and reinforcing bars that create in-situ concrete walls.

Some of the timber posts join to the steel beams through tongue and grove joins. This is where a grove is made in the timber and then there is a point in the steel which slots into the timber hole, which creates a flush and strong join, which is able to support the roof structure (Ching, 2008.) (Figure 4)

Figure 4: Timber and steel tongue and grove join which bolts further secure this join.

The purlins of the roof structure run horizontal and then there are four main steel members that run north to south through the structure. The roof of this building has been designed and constructed slightly differently to traditional roofs as there is a layer of timber before the battens and final roof to help insulate the building for noise. This timber is compressed sheeting which is a material, which suits the purpose of noise insulation (Ching, 2008.) The building is also being fitted with toughened glass. Although this is more expensive it is practical within the context of the building as it is right next o the sports ground that therefore means it has increased chances of having a sports ball hit a window, which would break normal strength glass. Toughened glass is able to withstand hits that spread force equally across the window but are however very weak when it comes to high force impacts through a small point (Ching, 2008.) Steel mullions act as the main form of structural support around the windows. There is cladding being attached to the eastern side of the building which is a tongue and grove system (as described through the join of the timber post and steel beam above.) This particular type of joining system is especially designed for walls rather than floors as it has a wider gap between the planks. This allows installation to be completed in a way so that the next piece added hides the nails attaching the cladding of the previous piece. This creates a seamless finishes and really allows the cladding to be the main focus rather than lots of nail or screw heads.

Figure 5: Tongue and Grove Joint

Nail  head,  which  is   covered  buy  next  layer   of  cladding.  

Figure 5: Cladding being attached to the eastern wall

Z purlins are used throughout the building as they are designed to allow for overlap to create purlins the length desired, while C purlins do not allow for this overlap, which therefore makes them more limiting in the construction process. The Z purlins are also made of galvanised steel as this is very lightweight which means that less labourers are required to help lift and support larger spans than if it was made out of another material.

Figure 6: Henry holding a galvanised steel Z purlin

Push Props where also used during construction to take the support of the heavy roof structure before the walls and further strengthening could be put in place as seen in figure 7.

Push  Props  

Figure 7: Push Props

The bracing rods have been embed into the timber walls and ceilings to ensure that the plasterboard can be fixed smoothly, creating level walls. The gutters used across the building are box gutters, which then have a flashing that sits over the top of the whole design. This creates a seamless finish and means that there are no gutters detracting from the roof structure as the gutter blends into the edge of the roof.

Reference List MSLE & Oval Pavilion Building Plans provided within tutorial sessions and on the LMS Francis D.K Ching, 2008, Building Construction Illustrated, 4th Edition, John Wiley and Sons Shahin Vassigh, 2008, Interactive Structures- Visualising Structural Behaviour 2.0, John Wiley and Sons

Appendix 1- Workshop Description of materials

Measurements Plywood: 1200 x 100 x10 (2 pieces) - Strongest in compression when placed sideways (thin edge at top) - Strong in deflection due to thin nature of material Treated Pine: 1200 x 35 x 35 (2 pieces) - Strong in compression - Grain and knots can create naturally existing weaknesses Option of nails or screws at various sizes. - Nails: can be slow and tedious to place by hand - Screws: can create a new point of weakness in structures that can tear materials apart under force Pine  


Photos and Description of all tools used Drill:  Used  to  screw  the  planks  of   wood  together.  It  was  battery  operated   and  simple  to  use,  only  requiring  one   person  and  could  screw  clockwise  or   anticlockwise  either  placing  the  screws   further  into  the  wood  or  taking  them   out.  

Saw:  Used  to  cut  the  ply  wood  into  pieces  to   help  make  the  truss,  we  tried  multiple   methods  of  cutting  the  plywood  however   using  the  hand-­‐saw  was  most  effective  as  it   allowed  different  pressure  to  be  place  on  the   wood.  The  only  downside  of  a  handsaw  is   that  it  leaves  room  for  error  if  you  do  not  cut   straight.  (Photo:  B2B,  2012)    

Screw:    Used  to  join  the  plywood  and  pine.   This  was  a  much  faster  and  more  accurate   technique  than  hammer  and  nails,  however   the  screw  as  it  grinds  into  the  wood  can   create  a  point  of  weakness  when  put  under   pressure  especially  if  put  in  to  tightly  so  this   was  the  only  concern.  (Ching,  2008)  (Photo:   Sentronix,  2013)     Bench  Hook:    This  was  used  to  make  it   easier  to  saw  the  planks  of  plywood  without   it  damaging  or  moving  all  across  the  table.   (Photo:  Lumberjocks,  2013)  

Photo and description of structural performance and failure mechanism of all four designs Mine teams design was a truss as shown through the sketch below. We designed it this way as it allowed the structure to move in both compression at the top and tension at the bottom with the stronger pine material being used to take the immediate impact of the force. Overall our structure was fairly strong and worked the best out of all teams in it’s ability to be deflected before actually breaking (45cm deflection) even though it couldn’t support the greatest amount of weight. The final breaking point in our structure was were the bottom piece of pine had to undergo tension, pine wood is not the best material for supporting tension forces, however the structure still worked well given the materials provided. The points where the screws were placed also provided another point for the wood to be pulled apart as can be seen in the picture even though this was not the structure’s downfall.

Team 2 Design: The design was a piece of plywood at the top of the structure joining the pieces of pine with a gap between them. This team had a fairly good design however they were provided with a worse grade of wood which had natural forming knots within it. These knots placed under forces of compression and tension ultimately lead to the piece of wood being torn apart and it was therefore clear to see the impact knots and other imperfections can have o woods ability to cope with forces as was also discussed in the Wood material eLearning module. Above: Original structure, below- failure mechanism knot in the wood

Team 3 Design: Team 3 similar to team 2 had used their pieces of plywood to join the pine together using nails. This team however had a higher grade of pine, extra piece of plywood used to support the other side of the

structure and also placed with the piece of pine facing upwards. This teams structure ended up being the strongest of the three teams (taking the most downwards weight). The failure mechanism was the plywood being unable to cope with the increasing torsion forces placed on the structure as could be seen through the appearance of tear marks rather than snaps within the plywood.


Reference  List   B2B  International,  A  Stanley  tool  found  in  nearly  every  tradesman’s  bag,   accessed  8/09/2013  <­‐ blog/2007/11/21/a-­‐stanley-­‐tool-­‐found-­‐in-­‐nearly-­‐every-­‐tradesmans-­‐bag/>   Sentronix,  Screw-­‐Gypsum  7  x  2  1/2,  accessed  25/08/2013,   <>     Lumberjocks,  Poplar-­‐Bench  Hooks,  accessed  8/09/2013   <>  

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