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Bedre Foundation (Non-Formal Education, Research and Training Insititute)

tte

rs

sing / s

songs

It They

Verb (2)

Object

I We You He She It They Suma

read wrote told brought sang gave ate drank

books letter stories roses songs results apples milk

eaten

eating

Sub.

n g d

dr

ha

as

sung

reading

has

am

You H e

She

is

singing

You H e

a m Su I W e

She

w

It They had

e iv

k in

ha a m Su I W e

ha

is

ar e

u dr

ha

t

g

read

ve w

rr

itt

en

told

telling

ng

gh

iti

have

rr

d

have

s br ou

are

w

nk

Sub.

Be

(V+ing)

Object

Sub.

Have

(P.P.)

Object

I We You He She It They Suma

am are are is ------was were was

reading writing telling bringing singing giving eating drinking

books letter stories roses songs results apples milk

I We You He She It They Suma

have have have has ------had had had

read written told brought sang given eaten drunk

books letter stories roses songs results apples milk

Present / Past Perfect

She It They were

le

books

stories

Note: ‘s’/ ‘es’ should be added to the verbs used with the Third Person Singular (He, She, It or Ravi,Soni, Suma, Tony etc.) Subjects.

in

as w

a m Su I read W e w ro te

PastTense(Simple)

apples ate

ve rs

g

ng vi gi

k an dr

ga tte

TEN SES

It They eat / s

/s e v gi

ul

ts

apples

ts ul s re

s re

told

books letter stories roses songs results apples milk

s s s s s s s s

le

ht

read write tell bring sing give eat drink

ilk m

es

I We You He She It They Suma

/s

ro s

Object

br i ng in

Present/PastContinuous

te

songs

ri

sang

w

She

read / s books

tell / s stories

Verb (1)

/s

ilk

b r ou g

You

e br /s s Sub.

/ / / / / / / /

k in

m

You H e

H

a m Su I W e

dr

in g ro se

PresentTense(Simple)

ESSENTIAL ENGLISH - REFERENCE MANUAL

1 [ Bedre Foundation for Non-Formal Education, Research and Training, Teachers’ Colony, Chitradurga-1. Ph. 228074 [


THE TENSE FORMS The TENSE is a verb form showing the time and degree of completeness of an action or event .The degree of completeness shows whether an action is started (Indefinite), is it being continued (Indefinite Continuous), has it been over (Definite / Perfect) or has it been continuing for a long time (Perfect Continuous). These four different degrees are found in each of the popularly known, three tenses. PRESENT TENSE: PAST TENSE: FUTURE TENSE:

A verb that refers to PRESENT TIME is said to be in the PRESENT TENSE. A verb that refers to PAST TIME is said to be in the PAST TENSE. A verb that refers to FUTURE TIME is said to be in the FUTURE TENSE.

SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE SENTENCES INTERROGATIVE AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE S

(V1)

I We You He She They Ravi

write read play drinks sings bring types

O

S

Do+not

(V1)

O

Do

S

(V1)

O

letters books T.T. tea songs sweets poems

I We You He She They Ravi

don’t don’t don’t doesn’t doesn’t don’t doesn’t

write read play drink sing bring type

letters books T.T. tea songs sweets poems

Do Do Do Does Does Do Does

I we you he she they Ravi

write read play drink sing bring type

letters? books? T.T.? tea? songs? sweets? poems?

The letter/s “s” or “es” should be added to the verbs used with the Third Person Singular Subject. That is to say, if you use the Subjects like He, She, It or Suma, Tony, Vazeer etc, then you have to add “s” or “es” to the verbs used with them.

SIMPLE PAST TENSE SENTENCES S

(Vs)

O

S

Did+not

I We You He She They Ravi

wrote read played drank sang brought typed

letters books T.T. tea songs sweets poems

I We You He She They Ravi

didn’t didn’t didn’t didn’t didn’t didn’t didn’t

SIMPLE FUTURE S

M.Ax.

(V1)

I We You He She They Ravi

shall shall will will will will will

write read play drink sing bring type

(V1)

O

Did

write read play drink sing bring type

letters books T.T. tea songs sweets poems

Did Did Did Did Did Did Did

S

(V1)

O

I we you he she they Ravi

write read play drink sing bring type

letters? books? T.T.? tea? songs? sweets? poems?

TENSE SENTENCES

O

S

M.Ax+not

(V1)

O

M.Ax.

S

(V1)

O

letters books T.T. tea songs sweets poems

I We You He She They Ravi

shalln’t shalln’t willn’t willn’t willn’t willn’t willn’t

write read play drink sing bring type

letters books T.T. tea songs sweets poems

Shall Shall Will Will Will Will Will

I we you he she they Ravi

write read play drink sing bring type

letters? books? T.T.? tea? songs? sweets? poems?

PRESENT / PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE SENTENCES AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE S

Be

(V1+ ing)

O

S

I We You He She They Ravi

am are are is is were was

writing reading playing drinking singing bringing typing

letters books T.T. tea songs sweets poems

I We You He She They Ravi

Be +not (V1+ ing)

am not aren’t aren’t isn’t isn’t weren’t wasn’t

writing reading playing drinking singing bringing typing

O

Be

S

(V1+ ing)

O

letters books T.T. tea songs sweets poems

Am Are Are Is Is Were Was

I we you he she they Ravi

writing reading playing drinking singing bringing typing

letters? books? T.T.? tea? songs? sweets? poems?

2 Bedre Foundation for Non-Formal Education, Research and Training, Teachers’ Colony, Chitradurga-1. Ph. 228074 [ [


FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE SENTENCES AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE S

M.Ax.

Be

(V1+ ing)

O

S

I We You He She They Ravi

shall shall will will will will will

be be be be be be be

writing reading playing drinking singing bringing typing

letters books T.T. tea songs sweets poems

I We You He She They Ravi

M.Ax+not Be

(V1+ ing)

O

M.Ax.

S

Be

(V1+ ing)

O

shalln’t shalln’t willn’t willn’t willn’t willn’t willn’t

writing reading playing drinking singing bringing typing

letters books T.T. tea songs sweets poems

Shall Shall Will Will Will Will Will

I we you he she they Ravi

be be be be be be be

writing reading playing drinking singing bringing typing

letters? books? T.T.? tea? songs? sweets? poems?

be be be be be be be

PRESENT / PAST PERFECT

TENSE SENTENCES

S

Have

(P. P.)

O

S

Have+not

(P. P.)

O

Have

S

(P. P.)

O

I We You He She They Ravi

have have have has has had had

written read played drunk sung brought typed

letters books T.T. tea songs sweets poems

I We You He She They Ravi

haven’t haven’t haven’t hasn’t hasn’t hadn’t hadn’t

written read played drunk sung brought typed

letters books T.T. tea songs sweets poems

Have Have Have Has Has Had Had

I we you he she they Ravi

written read played drunk sung brought typed

letters? books? T.T.? tea? songs? sweets? poems?

FUTURE S

I We You He She They Ravi

M.Ax. Have

shall shall will will will will will

have have have have have have have

PERFECT

(P. P.)

O

S

written read played drunk sung brought typed

letters books T.T. tea songs sweets poems

I We You He She They Ravi

TENSE

M.Ax+not Have

shalln’t shalln’t willn’t willn’t willn’t willn’t willn’t

have have have have have have have

SENTENCES

(P. P.)

O

M.Ax.

S

Have

(P. P.)

O

written read played drunk sung brought typed

letters books T.T. tea songs sweets poems

Shall Shall Will Will Will Will Will

I we you he she they Ravi

have have have have have have have

written read played drunk sung brought typed

letters? books? T.T.? tea? songs? sweets? poems?

PRESENT / PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE SENTENCES S

I We You He She They Ravi

Have Been

(V1+ ing)

O

S

have have have has has had had

writing reading playing drinking singing bringing typing

letters books T.T. tea songs sweets poems

I We You He She They Ravi

been been been been been been been

Have+not Been (V1+ ing) haven’t haven’t haven’t hasn’t hasn’t hadn’t hadn’t

been been been been been been been

writing reading playing drinking singing bringing typing

O

Have

S

letters books T.T. tea songs sweets poems

Have Have Have Has Has Had Had

I we you he she they Ravi

Been (V1+ ing)

been been been been been been been

O

writing letters? reading books? playing T.T.? drinking tea? singing songs? bringing sweets? typing poems?

FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE SENTENCES S

I We You He She They Ravi

M.Ax. Have

Been (V1+ ing)

shall shall will will will will will

been been been been been been been

have have have have have have have

writing reading playing drinking singing bringing typing

S

I We You He She They Ravi

M.Ax+not Have

Been (V1+ ing)

M.Ax.

S

shalln’t shalln’t willn’t willn’t willn’t willn’t willn’t

been been been been been been been

writing reading playing drinking singing bringing typing

Shall Shall Will Will Will Will Will

I we you he she they Ravi

have have have have have have have

Have Been

(V1+ ing)

been been been been been been been

writing? reading? playing? drinking? singing? bringing? typing?

have have have have have have have

There is an arguement that there are only two TENSES in English. Of course, it is true. If we consider the TENSE as a pure VERB FORM then we have only PRESENT TENSE VERB FORMS and PAST TENSE VERB FORMS. But the TENSE FORM of a VERB shows TIME as well as DEGREE OF COMPLETENESS of an action or event. In this case the TIME factor is considered as PRESENT TIME - PAST TIME - FUTURE TIME and the DEGREE factor is considered as INDEFINITE (SIMPLE) - SIMPLE CONTINUOUS - DEFINITE (PERFECT) - PERFECT CONTINUOUS. Many English Grammarians have taken these factors into consideration and termed the TENSES as PRESENT - PAST - FUTURE . The argument of having only two tenses still prevails! What do you say?

[ Bedre Foundation for Non-Formal Education, Research and Training, Teachers’ Colony, Chitradurga-1. Ph. 228074 [ 3


USES OF DIFFERENT TENSE FORMS Present Tense (Simple / Indefinite) {Please do add “ s “ to the verbs used with the third person singular pronouns or any single name — He, She, It or Ravi, Suni etc.— in Simple Present Tense only.}

Future Tense (Simple / Indefinite) 1. To express an action that has still to take place e.g.: I shall go to the library tomorrow. She will visit us next week. Samarth will tell a story. They will send a gift to our institution shortly.

Present Continuous Tense

1. To know general/ universal truth e.g.: Fortune favours the brave.Cows eat grass.The stars twinkle. Oil floats on water.The sun rises in the east. Honey is sweet.

1. To express an action that is going on at the time of speaking. e.g.: She is singing a song. (i.e., now) They are playing chess. Sumanth and Samarth are watching Fox Kids. etc.

2. To know habitual action e.g.: She drinks tea everyday.I read newspapers everymorning. Samarth gets up very late. Suma brushes his teeth twice a day.

2. For a temporary action which may not be actually happening at the time of speaking e.g.: Sheela is reading the Bhagavad Geetha. (She is not reading at this moment. She is reading it these days.) Sumanth and Samarth are attending the swimming camp. etc.

3. To describe the action that is taking place actually at the time of speaking {the performative use} e.g.: I write a sentence now. Kumble bowls to Sachin Tendulkar. Sachin hits the ball. Srinath runs towards the wickets. 4. To indicate a future event that is a part of a plan or arrangement. st e.g.: We go to Bangalore next week. Our college reopens on July 1 . I build a house during this summer vacation. 5. In vivid narratives as a substitute for simple past e.g.:Iran rushes to help his co-player. Akbar wins the battle of Panipath. 6. To express the permanent facts e.g.: I live in Chitradurga. Sumanth visits the library once a week. 7. To introduce quotations e.g.: Gandhiji says, “Do or die.” Shakespeare says, “Life is a tale told by an idiot.” 8. In exclamatory sentences beginning e.g.: Here comes the bus! There she runs! 9. Used in stead of Present Continuous Tenses with certain verbs only. Those verbs are : see, hear, smell, notice, recognize, appear, look, seem, want, wish, desire, feel, like, love, hate, hope, refuse, prefer, think, suppose, believe, agree, consider, trust, remember, forget, know, understand, imagine, mean, mind, have, own, possess, belong , contain, consist etc. e.g.: I see the black board. (Not - I am seeing the black board.) (Not - I am hearing the sound.) I hear the sound.

Past Tense (Simple / Indefinite ) (Use the Adverb of Time with Simple Past Tense -- last night, yesterday evening, yesterday, the day before yesterday, the other day, a few days ago, last week, the other week, a few weeks ago, last month, a few months ago, last year, sixteen months ago, a couple of years ago, a few years ago, ten years ago, a long time ago, etc.) 1. To indicate completed activity in the past. It often occurs with the adverb of past time. e.g.: The result appeared in the newspaper yesterday. She sent me a letter a few days ago. Srilanka defeated the Indian team easily recently.

2. Sometimes this tense is used without an adverb of time. In such cases the time may be either implied or indicated by the context. e.g.: I didn’t sleep well. (i.e., last night) Srilanka won the cocacola cup. ( i.e., last month) Sudha brought the vegetables. (i.e., recently) 3. To express past habits. e.g.: She drank tea everyday. (Now she is not drinking.) I read the magazine regularly. (Now I am not reading.) Samarth jogged for 2 kilometers. (Now he is not jogging.) 4. Used in stead of Past Continuous Tenses with certain verbs only. Those verbs are : see, hear, smell, notice, recognize, appear, look, seem, want, wish, desire, feel, like, love, hate, hope, refuse, prefer, think, suppose, believe, agree, consider, trust, remember, forget, know, understand, imagine, mean, mind, have, own, possess, belong , contain, consist etc. e.g.: I saw the black board. (Not - I was seeing the black board.) I heard the sound. (Not - I was hearing the sound.)

3. For an action that is planned to take place in the near future. e.g.: Shashikiran is going to circus tomorrow. Spoorthi and Varshini are visiting their aunt next week. etc.

Past Continuous Tense 1. For an action that was going on at some specific time in the past. The time of action may or may not be indicated. e.g.: She was singing a song when I visited her last week. Sumanth and Samarth were watching Fox Kids all the evening. etc. 2. This is also used with always, continually, etc. for persistent habits in the past. e.g.: He was always smoking in his scollege days. Smitha was continually attending dance classes in her childhood.etc.

Future Continuous Tense 1. To express an action that will be going on at the time of speaking in future. e.g.: She will be singing a song. They will be playing chess. Sumanth and Samarth will be watching Fox Kids on Saturday evening. 2. For future events that are planned. e.g.: Sheela will be reading the Bhagavad Geetha during Shravana Masa. I shall be staying here till next Sunday. Sumanth and Samarth are attending the swimming course during the summer vacation. etc.

Present Perfect Tense 1. To express an action that has just been completed in the immediate past. e.g.: She has sung a song. (i.e., just now.) They have played chess. Smitha and Sneha have watched the programme Fox Kids.etc. 2. To express past actions whose time is not given and not definite. e.g.:Sheela has read the Bhagavad Geetha. (She has read it definitely.) Sumanth and Samarth have attended the swimming course. 3. To describe past events when we think more of their effect in the present than of tha action itself. e.g.: Shashikiran has eaten all the biscuits. (Nothing is left now!) I have cut my finger. (And it is bleeding now.) Spoorthi and Varshini have finished their homework. (Now they are free.) 4. To denote an action beginning at sometime in the past and continuing up to the present moment. e.g.:Priyanka has been ill since last week. (Now she has recovered.) I have worked here for ten years. (And now, I have been transfered.) Divya has stayed with us for a month. (Now she has left for home.) 5. The Present Perfect is never used with adverbs of Past Time. However the following adverbs cab be used with Present Perfect. e.g., just, often, never, ever, so far, till now, yet today, this week, this month. e.g.: I have passed S.S.L.C. I passed S.S.L.C in 1982. I have visited London. I visited London in 1985. I have completed the lesson. (Present Perfect) I completed the lesson yesterday. (Simple Past) He has done the homework already. (Present Perfect) He did the homework yesterday. (Simple Past)

4 Bedre Foundation for Non-Formal Education, Research and Training, Teachers’ Colony, Chitradurga-1. Ph. 228074 [ [


Past Perfect Tense

CAN

1. Past Perfect is used to denote an action completed before a certin moment in the past. It is also called the Super Past because the action happens before the Simple Past. e.g.: India had launched many satellites before 2003. India had won many cricket matches before this series.

1.

2. If two actions happened in the past, it may be necessary to show which action happened earlier than the other. The Past Perfect is used in such situations to show the action happened earlier. The Simple Past is used to denote the action which happened later. e.g.: When Rashmi came to take away her notes I had already completed copying it. When I reached the railway station the had already left the station. Shyla had written a letter to Manu before he visited her. etc.

3.

Future Perfect Tense

Capability : He can lift 250 kgs. She can sing ghazals. Ravi can eat 25 idlies. Characteristic : He can get your work done by hook or crook. She can tell awful lies. Permission : You can go to the park tomorrow. She can bring the book later. Rajani can stay here after class hours. Request : Can you do this for me ? Can you pass the salt, please ? Request for permission : Can I take somemore buiscuits, sir? Can I throw this rotten apple out? Possibility : Rajesh can be hiding. Ravishankar can climb Mount Everest.

2.

4. 5.

6.

The Future Perfect is used to denote an action that will have been completed at somepoint of time in future.

Present Perfect Continuous Tense

MAY 1.

The Present Perfect Continuous Tense is used for an action which began at sometime in the past and is still continuing.

2.

Past Perfect Continuous Tense

3.

Permission : You may go. She may come afterwards. Sanjay may attend the seminar. Request for permission : May I go now, sir ? May I come in, sir? Benediction and Malediction : May you live long. May God bless you. May that rogue break his leg. Possibility : Sumanth may get the first prize. It may rain. Savitha may be there by this time.

The Past Perfect Continuous Tense is used to denote action that had been going on for sometime before another acction took place. 4.

Future Perfect Continuous Tense The Future Perfect Continuous Tense is used to denote an action that will have been going on at or before some point of time in future.

MUST & HAVE TO

Uses of Modal Auxiliary Verbs

1.

WILL

2.

Will is used in the Second Person (You, You) and the Third Person (He, She, It, They) and sometimes in the First Person ( I, We) 1. Prediction or Simple Futurity : Dr. Raj will visit us tomorrow. He will come tomorrow. 2. Willingness : I will do it for you. Who will come with me to the Himalayas? 3. Request / Order : Will you keep quite? Will you do me a favour ? Will you come for tea ? 4. General Facts : Oil will float on water. Cows will give milk. 5. Characteristic Habit : He will sit in the library for hours doing nothing. He will tell you anything. 6. Probability : She will be at the library now. Ravi will iron your shirt by now.

Obligation or Compulsion : He must do as I say. He has to do as I say. She must sing a song now. She has to sing a song now. Conclusion : You must be joking. You have to be joking. She must be making fun. She has to be making fun. Ravi must be mad to do it. Ravi has to be mad to do it.

OUGHT (to) 1.

Duty : I ought to go now. You ought to help her. They ought to bring the home assignments today.

DARE & NEED 1. These have no specific use, but they are used with negatives. I daren’t do it. Shashi daren’t ask him anything. She needn’t bring all her books to the class. He needn’t go.

USED (to) 1.

Habitualness of the action or state: He used to sing many songs. She used to collect stamps when she was a student. In the past : I used to live in Mysore. I used to visit the library once in two days when I was a college student.

SHALL Shall is generally used in the First Person (I , We). If it is used in the Second Person (You,You) or Third Person (He, She, It, They) then it shows Order or Threat. 1. Prediction or Simple Futurity : I shall come to the library tomorrow. We shall discuss the matter tomorrow evening. 2. Promise : I shall get you a new dress tomorrow. We shall go to the movie tomorrow night. 3. Suggestion : Shall we take down the note ? Shall we visit the library tomorrow? 4. Insistence : He shall complete the work tomorrow. You shall give that book. Note : In present-day English there is a growing tendency to use will in all persons.

SHOULD 1. 2.

Duty or Necessity : You should do this work now. He should attend the classes. The Tentative Use ( to mean ‘ in case’): Should you come early, you can get the room key from the neighbour.

2.

Suma Suma Suma Suma

.......... is .......... has .......... has been...........

He He He He

.......... (V1 +s) is .......... (V+ing) has .......... (P.P.) has been ........... (V+ing)

He He He He

was had had been

.......... .......... .......... ..........

(V2) (V+ing) (P.P.) (V+ing)

Suma .......... Suma was .......... Suma had .......... Suma had been..........

He He He He

will .......... will be .......... will have .......... will have been......

(V1) (V+ing) (P.P.) (V+ing)

Suma Suma Suma Suma

He has .......... (to +V1) He had .......... (to +V1) He will have .......... (to +V1)

(V 1 +s) (V+ing) (P.P.) (V+ing) (V 2) (V+ing) (P.P.) (V+ing)

will .......... (V 1) will be .......... (V+ing) will have.......... (P.P.) will have been......(V+ing)

Suma has .......... (to +V1) Suma had .......... (to +V1) Suma will have .......... (to +V1)

5 [ Bedre Foundation for Non-Formal Education, Research and Training, Teachers’ Colony, Chitradurga-1. Ph. 228074 [


THE

TENSE

STRUCTURES

01. Simple Present Tense 02. Present Continuous Tense 03. Present Perfect Tense 04. Present Perfect Continuous 05. Simple Past Tense 06. Past Continuous Tense 07. Past Perfect Tense 08. Past Perfect Continuous 09. Simple Future Tense 10. Future Continuous Tense 11. Future Perfect Tense 12. Future Perfect Continuous 13. Present Tense (Compulsive) 14. Past Tense (Compulsive)

S + V1 + O S + Be + (V+ing) + O S + Have + P.P. + O S + Have + Been +(V+ing) + O S + V2 + O S + Be + (V+ing) + O S + Have + P.P. + O S + Have + Been +(V+ing) + O S + M.Ax. + V1 + O S + M.Ax. + Be + (V+ing) + O S + M.Ax. + Have + P.P. + O S + M.Ax.+Have+Been +(V+ing) + O S + Have + ( to+V1 ) + O S + Have + ( to+V1 ) + O

15. Future Tense (Compulsive)

S + M.Ax. + Have + ( to+V1 ) + O I shall have to write a letter.

SENTENCE

1. V1 V1 COME GO SIT ST AND STA READ WRITE TELL SING BRING PLEASE

2. V1 V1 COME GO SIT ST AND STA READ WRITE TELL SING BRING

DO

Go. Tell. Sit. Take. Bring.

V1 PLEASE C O M E GO SIT ST AND STA READ WRITE TELL SING BRING

1. V1 V1 COME GO SIT ST AND STA READ WRITE TELL SING BRING

DO

write a letter. am writing a letter. have written a letter. have been writing a letter. wrote a letter. was writing a letter. had written a letter. had been writing a letter. shall write a letter. shall be writing a letter. shall have written a letter. shall have been writing a letter. have to write a letter. had to write a letter.

PLEASE DON’T

COMP.

C FAST SLO W L Y LY SLOW HERE UP P RRO O P E R LLY Y N E AAT T LLY Y A LLW W A YS S W E E T LLY Y OFTEN

C FAST SLO W L Y LY SLOW HERE UP P RRO O P E R LLY Y N E AAT T LLY Y A LLW W A YS S W E E T LLY Y OFTEN

S

Be

S.C.

I We You You He She It They This That Ravi

am are are are is is is are is is is

a student. players. a singer. dancers. a painter. an artist. a book. officers. a table. a board. an actor.

(Please go.) (Please tell.) (Please sit.) (Please take.) (Please bring)

She types pomes. She is typing poems. She has typed poems. She has been typing poems. She typed poems. She was typing poems. She had typed poems. She had been typing poems. She will type poems. She will be typing poems. She will have typed poems. She will have been typing poems.

She has to type poems. She had to type poems. She will have to type poems.

Parts of Speech

COMP. PLEASE 2. V1 DON’T

EXAMPLES

STRUCTURES

PLEASE

1. V1

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

&

V1 COME GO SIT ST AND STA READ WRITE TELL SING BRING

1. V1 V1 COME GO SIT ST AND STA READ WRITE TELL SING BRING

PLEASE

(An old children’s rhyme for remembering parts of speech.)

DO

2. V1 OBJECT READ WRITE TELL SING BRING

S

Be

Not

S.C.

Be

S

I We You You He She It They This That Ravi

am are are are is is is are is is is

not not not not not not not not not not not

a student. players. a singer. dancers. a painter. an artist. a book. officers. a table. a board. an actor.

Am Are Are Are Is Is Is Are Is Is Is

I we you you he she it they this that Ravi

Do go. (Please do go.) Do tell. (Please do tell.) Do sit. (Please do sit.) Do take.(Please do take.) Do bring.(Please do bring.)

Don’t go. Don’t tell. Don’t sit. Don’t take. Don’t bring.

Every name is called a NOUN As field and fountain, street and town; In Place of noun the PRONOUN stands, As he and she can clap their hands; The ADJECTIVE describes a thing, As magic wand or bridal ring; The VERB means action, something done-To read and write, to jump and run; How things are done the ADVERBS tell, As quickly, slowly, badly, well; The PREPOSITION shows relations, As in the street or at the station; CONJUNCTIONS join, in many ways, Sentences, words, or phrase and phrase; The INTERJECTION cries out, ‘Hark! I need an exclamation mark !’

Go there. Tell me. Sit down. Take it. Bring that.

A BOOK LETTERS ST ORIES STORIES SONGS SWEETS

S.C. a student? players? a singer? dancers? a painter? an artist? a book? officers? a table? a board? an actor? Please Please Please Please Please

PLEASE DON’T

2. V1

OBJECT

READ WRITE TELL SING BRING

A BOOK LETTERS ST ORIES STORIES SONGS SWEETS

S

Be

Adjective

I We You You He She It They This That Ravi

am are are are is is is are is is is

lazy. clever. intelligent. famous. brilliant. beautiful. good. kind. brown. black . popular.

go there. Do go there. Don’t go there. tell me. Do tell me. Don’t tell me. sit down. Do sit down. Don’t sit down. take it. Do take it. Don’t take it. bring that. Do bring that.Don’t bring that.

6 Bedre Foundation for Non-Formal Education, Research and Training, Teachers’ Colony, Chitradurga-1. Ph. 228074 [ [


LIST OF IMPORTANT IRREGULAR VERBS PRESENT V1

PAST V2

abide arise awake backbite backslide be (am/ is/are) bear become befall beget begin behold bend beseech

PAST PARTICIPLE P.P.

PRESENT PARTICIPLE (V + ing)

INFINITIVE (To + V 1)

abode / abided arisen awoken backbitten backslid been

abiding arising awaking backbiting backsliding being

to abide to arise to awake to backbite to backslid to be

borne become befallen begotten begun beheld bent besought / beseeched beset bespoken bestridden bet / betted bid / bidden bound bitten bled blessed / blest blown / blowed broken bred brought

bearing becoming befalling begetting beginning beholding bending beseeching

to bear to become to befall to beget to begin to behold to bend to beseech

beset bespeak bestride bet bid bind bite bleed bless blow break breed bring

abode/ abided arose awoke backbitten backslid be (was/ were) bore became befell begot began beheld bent besought / beseeched beset bespoke bestrode bet / betted bid / bade bound bit bled blessed blew broke bred brought

besetting bespeaking bestriding betting bidding binding biting bleeding blessing blowing breaking breeding bringing

to beset to bespeak to bestride to bet to bid to bind to bite to bleed to bless to blow to break to breed to bring

broadcast browbeat

broadcast browbeat brow

broadcast beaten

broadcating browbeating

to broadcast to browbeat

build burn bust buy cast catch chide choose cleave cleave cling come cost

built burnt / burned bust / busted bought cast caught chid / chided chose clove / cleft clave / cleaved clung came cost

built burnt / burned bust / busted bought cast caught chid / chidden chosen cloven / cleft cleaved clung come cost

building burning busting buying casting catching chiding choosing cleaving cleaving clinging coming costing

to build to burn to bust to buy to cast to catch to chide to choose to cleave to cleave to clinging to come to cost

countersink

countersank

countersunk

countersinking

creep crow cut deal dig dive do draw dream drink drive dwell eat fall feed feel fight find flee fling

crept crew / crowed cut dealt dug dove / dived did drew dreamt /dreamed drank drove dwelt ate fell fed felt fought found fled flung

crept crowed cut dealt dug dived done drawn dreamt / dreamed drunk driven dwelt eaten fallen fed felt fought found fled flung

creeping crowing cutting dealing digging diving doing drawing dreaming drinking driving dwelling eating falling feeding feeling fighting finding fleeing flinging

to creep to crow to cut to deal to dig to dive to do to draw to dream to drink to drive to dwell to eat to fall to feed to feel to fight to find to flee to fling

floodlight

floodlit

floodlit

floodlighting

to floodlight

fly forbear forbid forecast foresee foretell forget forgive forsake

flew forbore forbode forecast foresaw foretold forgot forgave forsook

flown foreborne forbidden forcast foreseen foretold forgotten forgiven forsaken

flying forbearing forbidding forcasting foreseeing foretelling forgetting forgiving forsaking

to fly to forbear to forbid to forcast to foresee to foretell to forget to forgive to forsake

forswear

forswore

forsworn

forswearing

to forswear

to countersink

LIST OF IMPORTANT IRREGULAR VERBS freeze gainsay get gild gird give go grind grow hamstring hang have hear heave hew hide hit hold hurt inlay input inset

froze gainsaid got gilt / gilded girt / girded gave went ground grew hamstrung / hamstringed hung / hanged had heard hove / heaved hewed hid hit held hurt inlaid input / inputted inset

frozen gainsaid got gilt / gilded girt / girded given gone ground grown hamstrung / hamstringed hung / hanged had heard hove / heaved hewn / hewed hidden hit held hurt inlaid input / inputted inset

freezing gainsaying getting gilding girding giving going grinding growing hamstringing

to freeze to gainsay to get to gild to gird to give to go to grind to grow to hamstring

hanging having hearing heaving hewing hiding hitting holding hurting inlaying inputting insetting

to hang to have to hear to heave to hew to hide to hit to hold to hurt to inlay to input to inset

interweave

interwove

interwoven

interveaving

to interweave

keep ken kneel knit know lay lead lean leap learn leave lend let lie light lose make mean meet miscast misdeal mishear mishit mislay mislead misread misspell

kept kent / kenned knelt knit / knitted known laid led leant / leaned lept / leaped learnt / learned left lent let lain lit / lighted lost made meant met miscast misdealt misheard mishit mislaid misled misread misspelt / misspelled misspent mistaken

keeping kenning kneeling knitting knowing laying leading leaning leaping learning leaving lending letting lying lighting losing making meaning meeting miscasting misdealing mishearing mishitting mislaying misleading misreading misspelling

to keep to ken to kneel to knit to know to lay to lead to lean to leap to learn to leave to lend to let to lie to light to lose to make to mean to meet to miscast to misdeal to mishear to mishit to mislay to mislead to misread to misspell

misspend mistake

kept kent / kenned knelt knit / knitted knew laid led leant / leaned lept / leaped learnt / learned left lent let lay lit / lighted lost made meant met miscast misdealt misheard mishit mislaid misled misread misspelt / misspelled misspent mistook

misspending mistaking

to misspend to mistake

misunderstand

misunderstood

misunderstood

misunderstanding

to misunderstand

mow outbid outdo outfight outgrow output outrun outsell outshine overbid overcome overdo overdraw overeat overfly overhang overhear overlay overpay override overrun oversee overshoot oversleep overtake overthrow

mowed outbid outdid outfought outgrew output /outputted outran outsold outshone overbid overcame overdid overdrew overate overflew overhung overheard overlaid overpaid overrode overran oversaw overshot overslept overtook overthrew

mown / mowed mowing outbid outbidding outdone outdoing outfought outfighting outgrown outgrowing output / outputted outputting outrun outrunning outsold outselling outshone outshining overbid overbidding overcome overcoming overdone overdoing overdrawn overdoing overeaten overeating overflown overflying overhung overhanging overheard overhearing overlaid overlaying overpaid overplaying overridden overriding overrun overrunning overseen overseeing overshot overshooting overslept oversleeping overtaken overtaking overthrown overthrowing

to mow to outbid to outdo to outfight to outgrow to output to outrun to outsell to outshine to overbid to overcome to overdo to overdo to overeat to overfly to overhang to overhear to overlay to overpay to override to overun to oversee to overshoot to oversleep to overtake to overthrow

[ Bedre Foundation for Non-Formal Education, Research and Training, Teachers’ Colony, Chitradurga-1. Ph. 228074 [ 7


spotlit / spotlighted spotlit / spotlighted spotlighting

partook paid pled / pleaded prepaid proven / proved put quit / quitted read rebound rebuilt recast redid reheard remade rent repaid reran resold reset resat retook retold rewrote rid rode rang rose ran sawed said saw sought sold sent set sewed shook sheared shed shone / shined shat / shitted shod shot showed shrank / shrunk shrove / shrived shut sang sank sat slew slept slid slung slunk slit smelt / smelled smote sowed spoke sped / speeded spelt / spelled spent spilt / spilled spun / span spat split spoilt / spoilled to spread to sprin to stand to stave to steal to stick to sting to stink to strew to stride to strike to string to strive to sublet

to spotlight

to partake to pay to plead to prepay to prove to put to quit to read to rebind to rebuild to recast to redo to rehear to remake to rend to repay to rerun to resell to reset to resit to retake to retell to rewrite to rid to ride to ring to rise to run to saw to say to see to seek to sell to send to set to sew to shake to shear to shed to shine to shit to shoe to shoot to show to shrink to shrive to shut to sing to sink to sit to slay to sleep to slide to sling to slink to slit to smell to smite to sow to speak to speed to spell to spend to spill to spin to spit to split to spoil

partaking paying pleading prepaying proving putting quitting reading rebinding rebulding recasting redoing rehearing remaking rending repaying rerunning reselling resetting resitting retaking retelling rewriting ridding riding ringing rising running sawing saying seeing seeking selling sending settting sewing shaking shearing shedding shining shitting shoeing shooting showing shrinking shriving shutting singing sinking sitting slaying sleeping sliding slinging slinking slitting smelling smiting sowing speaking speeding spelling spending spilling spinning spitting splitting spoilling

partake pay plead prepay prove put quit read rebind rebuild recast redo rehear remake rend repay rerun resell reset resit retake retell rewrite rid ride ring rise run saw say see seek sell send set sew shake shear shed shine shit shoe shoot show shrink shrive shut sing sink sit slay sleept slide sling slink slit smell smite sow speak speed spell spend spill spin spit split spoil spreading springing standing staving stealing sticking stinging stinking strewing striding striking stringing striving sublettin

partaken paid pled / pleaded prepaid proven / proved put quit / quitted read rebound rebuilt recast redone reheard remade rent repaid rerun resold reset resat retaken retold rewritten rid ridden rung risen run sawn / sawed said seen sought sold sent set sewn / sewed shaken shorn / sheared shed shone / shined shat / shitted shod shot shown / showed shrunk shriven / shrived shut sung sunk sat slain slept slid slung slunk slit smelt / smelled smitten sown / sowed spoken sped / speeded spelt / spelled spent spilt / spilled spun spat split spoilt / spoilled

spotlight

spread sprang stood stove / staved stole stuck stung stank / stunk strewed strode struck strung strove sublet

spread sprung stood stove / staved stolen stuck stung stunk strewn / strewed stridden struck strung striven sublet

spread spring stand stave steal stick sting stink strew stride strike string strive sublet

withstand

undo unfreeze unsay unwind uphold upset wake waylay wear weave wed weep wet win wind / wand withdraw withhold

undertake underwrite

understand

swear sweep swell swim swing take teach tear tell think thrive throw thrust tread unbend underbid undercut undergo underlie underpay undersell

withstood

undid unfroze unsaid unwound upheld upset woke / waked waylaid wore wove / weaved wed / wedded wept wet / wetted won wound / wand withdrew withheld

undertook underwrote

understood

swore swept swelled swam swung took taught tore told thought throve / thrived threw thrust trod unbent underbid undercut underwent underlay underpaid undersold

withstood

undone unfrozen unsaid unwound upheld upset woke / waked waylaid worn woven/ weaved wed / wedded wept wet / wetted won wound / wand withdrawn withheld

undertaken underwritten

understood

sworn swept swollen / swelled swum swung taken taught torn told thought thriven / thrived thrown thrust trodden / trod unbent underbid undercut undergone underlain underpaid undersold

withstanding

undoing unfreezing unsaying unwinding upholding upsetting waking waylaying wearing weaving wedding weeping wetting winning winding withdrawing withholding

undertaking underwriting

understanding

swearing sweeping swelling swimming swinging taking teaching tearing telling thinking thriving throwing thrusting treading unbending underbidding undercutting undergoing underlieing underpaying underselling

to work to wring to write

to withstand

to undo to unfreeze to unsay to unwind to uphold to upset to wake to waylay to wear to weave to wed to weep to wet to win to wind to withdraw to withhold

to undertake to underwrite

to understand

to swear to sweep to swell to swim to swing to take to teach to tear to tell to think to thrive to throw to thrust to tread to unbend to underbid to undercut to undergo to undelie to underpay to undersell

I You He She It I You He She It

have have has has has had had had had had

am are is is is was were was was was

We You They They They We You They They They

We You They They They We You They They They

We You They They They We You They They They

do do do do do did did did did did

have have have have have had had had had had

are are are are are were were were were were

Do Do Does Does Does Did Did Did Did Did

Have Have Has Has Has Had Had Had Had Had

Am Are Is Is Is Was Were Was Was Was

I ? you? he ? she ? it ? I ? you? he ? she ? it ?

I ? you? he ? she ? it ? I ? you? he ? she ? it ?

I ? you? he ? she ? it ? I ? you? he ? she ? it ?

Do Do Do Do Do Did Did Did Did Did

Have Have Have Have Have Had Had Had Had Had

Are we ? Are you ? Are they ? Are they ? Are they ? Were we ? Were you ? Were they? Were they? Were they?

INTERROGATIVE FORMS S + Ax. + V ..... = ( ? )

I You He She It I You He She It

do do does does does did did did did did

we ? you ? they ? they ? they ? we ? you ? they? they? they?

we ? you ? they ? they ? they ? we ? you ? they? they? they? I You He She It I You He She It

ASSERTIVE FORMS S + Ax. + V ..... = ( . )

worked/wrought worked / wrought working wrung wrung wringing wrote written writing

P R E S E N T

P A S T

P R E S E N T

P A S T

P R E S E N T

P A S T

work wring write

BE FORM HAVE FORM DO FORM

8 Bedre Foundation for Non-Formal Education, Research and Training, Teachers’ Colony, Chitradurga-1. Ph. 228074 [ [

CONJUGATION OF AUXILIARY VERBS


NOUNS

NOUNS

Group One

Group One

ACCIDENT ADDRESS AFTERNOON AGE AIR AIRPLANE ANIMAL APARTMENT ARM AUNT BABY BACK BANK BED BEGINNING BICYCLE BIRD BIRTHDAY BOAT BODY BOOK BOX BOY BREAD BREAKFAST BROTHER BUILDING BUS CAR CHAIR CHILD CIRCLE CITY CLASS CLOTHES COAT COLOUR CORNER COUNTRY CUP DATE DAUGHTER DAY DESK DICTIONARY DINNER DIRECTION DOCTOR DOOR EAR EARTH END EVENING EYE FACE FAMILY FATHER FINGER FIRE FISH FLOOR FOOD FOOT FRIEND FRONT FRUIT FUTURE GARDEN GLASS GIRL HAIR HALF HAND HAT HEAD HOLIDAY HOME HOMEWORK HOSPITAL HOTEL HOUR HOUSE HUMANBEING HUSBAND IDEA INFORMATION INSECT JOB JUICE LAND

LANGUAGE LEG LETTER LIBRARY LIFE LIGHT LINE LUNCH MAN MEAT MILE MINUTE MISTAKE MONEY MONTH MOON MORNING MOTHER MOVIE MUSIC NAME NIGHT NOON NOSE NOTEBOOK NUMBER OFFICE PAGE PARENTS PARK PART PARTY PAST PEN PENCIL PEOPLE PEPPER PERSON PICTURE PLACE PLANT PRESENT PRICE PROBLEM QUESTION REASON RESTAURANT RICE RIVER ROOM ROOMMATE SCHOOL SHOE SIDE SISTER SKY SMILE SON SOUND STREET STUDENT SUN TABLE TEACHER TEST THING TIME TOWN TREE TROUBLE UNCLE UNIVERSITY VACATION VEGETABLE VOCABULARY VOICE WALL WATER WAY WEATHER WEEK WIFE WINDOW WOMAN WORD WORK WORLD YEAR ZOO

ESSENTIAL ENGLISH WORD LIST 750 WORDS FOR ALL OCCASIONS

VERBS

VERBS

VERBS

VERBS

NOUNS

NOUNS

Group Two

Group Two

ADJECTIVES ADJECTIVES ADJECTIVES AMOUNT (GENERAL) (OPPOSITES) (GENERAL) ARMY Group One ART Group One Group Two Group Two Group One Group One Group Three BAG ANSWER BALL LET ACCEPT NOTICE ARRIVE BAD GOOD ABSENT BEACH LIKE ACT OBTAIN ASK BEAUTIFUL UGLY ANGRY BILL LISTEN ADD OFFER BE BIG LITTLE BALD BLOOD LIVE AGREE ORDER BECOME BIG SMALL BRIGHT BOTTOM LOOK ALLOW OWN BEGIN CHEAP EXPENSIVE BUSY BRIDGE LOSE APPEAR PASS BELIEVE CLEAN DIRTY CALM BUSINESS LOVE ATTEMPT PERMIT BREAK COLD HOT DEAD CAT MAKE ATTEND PICK BRING COOL WARM DELICIOUS CEILING MEAN BEAT POINT BUILD DANGEROUS SAFE DELIGHTFUL CENTRE MEET BLOW POUR BUY DARK LIGHT DIZZY CENTURY MOVE BORROW PRACTICE CALL DEEP SHALLOW ESSENTIAL CHANCE NEED BURN PREPARE CARRY DIFFERENT SAME FAMOUS CLOCK OPEN CAUSE PROMISE CATCH DIFFICULT SIMPLE FLAT CLOUD PAY CHOOSE PROVE CHANGE DRY WET FOOLSIH COFFEE PLAN COLLECT PROVIDE CLOSE EARLY LATE FOREIGN COLLEGE PUT COMPLETE PULL COME EAST WEST FREE COMPUTER CONSIDER PUSH CONTINUE RAIN EMPTY FULL FRESH CONCERT READ CONTAIN REACH COST FAST SLOW FUNNY CONDITION RIDE CONTROL REALIZE CRY FAT THIN GLAD CONVERSATION RUN COOK RECEIVE CUT FIRST LAST GREAT COURSE RECOGNIZE SAY CROSS DIE HAPPY SAD HANDSOME CROWD REFUSE SEE COUNT DO HARD EASY HUMID DEFINITION REMEMBER SELL COVER DRINK HARD SOFT HUNGRY DIFFERENCE REPEAT SEND DANCE EAT HEALTHY ILL LAZY DISTANCE REPLY SIT DECIDE END HEALTHY SICK MAD DOG SLEEP DISAPPEAR REPORT ENTER HEAVY LIGHT NATIVE DRESS SPEAK DISCOVER REQUIRE EXPLAIN HIGH LOW NERVOUS EARTHQUAKE RETURN STAND DIVIDE FALL INTELLIGENT STUPID NICE EGG RISE START DOUBT FEEL LARGE LITTLE PRETTY ENEMY SAVE STAY DRAW FIGHT LARGE SMALL PROUD EXAMPLE SEARCH STOP DREAM FIND LONG SHORT RAPID EXPERIENCE SEEM STUDY DRESS FINISH MESSY NEAT RIPE FACT OLD-FASHIONED ROUND SEPARATE MODERN TAKE DRIVE FIX FALL / WIDE SERVE TALK DROP GET NARROW SERIOUS AUTUMN QUIET SHARE TEACH ENJOY GIVE NOISY SHARP FEAR SOUTH SHOUT TELL EXIST GO NORTH SORRY FIELD NEW SHOW THINK EXPECT GROW OLD SPECIAL FLOWER YOUNG SIGN TOUCH FAIL HAPPEN OLD STRANGE FOREST RICH SING TRY FILL HAVE POOR TERRIFIC FORM PUBLIC SMELL TURN FIT HEAR PRIVATE TOUGH FURNITURE LEFT SPELL USE FLOW HELP RIGHT UNIQUE GAME UNDERSTAND FLY WRONG SPEND HOLD RIGHT VARIOUS GAS(OLINE) VISIT SMOOTH SPREAD FORGET HOPE ROUGH WHOLE GOLD WAIT TALL SUCCEED GUESS HURT SHORT WILD GOVERNMENT SWEET SUGGEST HANG INTEREST WALK SOUR WISE GRASS WANT WEAK SUPPLY HATE KEEP STRONG WONDERFUL GROUP WASH SURPRISE HIT KNOW HALL WATCH Group Two SURROUND Group Two HURRY LAUGH HEALTH WORK TASTE IMPROVE LEARN HEART WRITE INACCURATE TEAR INCLUDE LEAVE ACCURATE HEAT UNCERTAIN INTRODUCE THANK CERTAIN HILL UNCLEAR TIE INVITE CLEAR HISTORY COMFORTABLE UNCONFORTABLE TRAVEL JOIN HOLE COMMON UNCOMMON WAVE KILL HORSE COMPLETE INCOMPLETE WEAR KISS HUNDRED CONVENIENT INCONVENIENT WIN LEAD ICE DEPENDENT INDEPENDENT WISH LEND INDIVIDUAL DIRECT INDIRECT WONDER LIFT INDUSTRY FAIR UNFAIR WORRY MARRY ISLAND FAMILIAR UNFAMILIAR KEY ADVERBS ADVERBS ADVERBS HAPPY UNHAPPY KITCHEN HEALTHY UNHELATHY KNIFE Group Two Group One Group Two IMPORTANT UNIMPORTANT LAKE INTERESTING UNINTERESTING LAW ACTUALLY AGAIN FORTUNATELY KIND UNKIND LIST AFTERWARDS JUST AGO LAWFUL UNLAWFUL LUCK ALMOST ALSO LATER LEGAL ILLEGAL MAGAZINE ALREADY ALWAYS NEXT LOGICAL ILLOGICAL MAIL ANYMORE EARLY OBVIOUSLY NECESSARY UNNECESSARY MARKET ANYWHERE EVER PERHAPS NORMAL ABNORMAL MATHEMATICS APPARENTLY FAST QUIETLY PLEASANT UNPLEASANT MEANING CAREFULLY FINALLY RARELY POLITE IMPOLITE MEMBER GENERALLY CERTAINLY REGULARLY POSSIBLE IMPOSSIBLE MIDDLE COMPLETELY HARD SELDOM PROPER IMPROPER MIDNIGHT CONSTANTLY HERE SERIOUSLY RATIONAL IRRATIONAL IMMEDIATELY DOWNTOWN SOMEWHERE REAL UNREAL EASILY LATE STILL REGULAR IRREGULAR ENOUGH MAYBE SURELY RESPONSIBLE IRRESPONSIBLE ENTIRELY NEVER TOGETHER SURE UNSURE ESPECIALLY NOW TOO TRUE UNTRUE OCCASIONALLY EVERYWHERE WELL USUAL UNUSUAL OFTEN EXTREMELY YET VISIBLE INVISIBLE ONCE

MILK MILLION MIND MOUNTAIN MOUTH NATION NATURE NECK NEIGHBOUR NEWSPAPER NOISE OBJECT OCEAN OFFICE OPINION PAIN PAINT PAIR PANTS PEACE PERIOD PICNIC PLEASURE POCKET POSITION POWER PRONUNCIATION

PURPOSE RADIO RESULT RING RULE SALT SANDWICH SCIENCE SEA SEASON SEAT SHAPE SHIRT SHOULDER SITUATION SIZE SKIN SNOW SONG SPACE SPELLING SPRING STAMP STAR STORE STORM SUBJECT SUCCESS SUGAR SUIT SUMMER TAPERECORDER TEA TELEPHONE TELEVISION THEATRE THOUSAND TOP TOY TRAIN TRIP TROUBLE UMBRELLA UNIVERSE VALLEY VALUE WAR WIND WING WINTER WOOD

9 [ Bedre Foundation for Non-Formal Education, Research and Training, Teachers’ Colony, Chitradurga-1. Ph. 228074 [


PARAGRAPH / STORY WRITING

MATCH - STICK DRAWING

CONTENT WORDS : NOUNS:Teacher, Students, Table, Chair, Globe, Board, Pointing Stick ( Pointer), Pice of chalk, Lesson, Notes, Homework, etc. VERBS : Standing, Sitting, Teaching, Listening, Reading, Showing, Dictating, Taking down, Answering, Asking Questions, etc. STRUCTURES

S + Be + S. Compl. S + V1 + O + C S + Be + (V + ing) + O SENTENCES ( PARAGRAPH) : This is a class room. Many students are sitting. A teacher is standing near the board. There is a table near the board. There is a globe on the table. He is teaching a lesson of Geography. He is telling some important points about the Earth. He is showing the globe to the students. He is expalining the lines called the longitudes and the lattitudes. He is dictating some notes to the students. They are taking it down. He is a very nice teacher. The students like him verymuch.

Construction of paragraphs or stories on the given outline is a very good exercise to bring out the student’s imagination and capacity to write in simple language. 1. While writing the paragraph / story follow the outline given carefully. Do not omit any point. Keep to the order in which the points are given in the outline. 2. Be careful to connect the points given in the outline naturally so that the whole willbe read well as a connected piece of good composition. You must use your imagination in filling the details of action, gesture and conversation that should connect one point with the next. 3. If you are asked to supply a heading or title to the paragraph or story, you may choose the main character, object or incident of the story or a proverb or well-known quotation that suits the story. 4. See that your composition is grammatical , idiomatic and in good simple English. Revise your work, and if necessary, rewrite it until it is as good as you can make it. 5. Please do take the help of sentence structures while constructing sentences. Model : (Paragraph) Forests - our national wealth - home of various plants - animals providing fuel, wood, pulp and timber - attract rainfall - forest areas are shrinking - converted to agricultural lands or industrial areas - Result - soil erosion conservation of forests - aforestation - Vanamahotsava. Answer: Forests form a great part of our national wealth. They are the home of various plants and animals. They provide useful things such as fuel, wood, pulp and timber. They attract rainfall. However, forest areas are shrinking on a large scale. Forest lands have been converted to agricultural lands or industrial areas. As a result of this, soil erosion occurs. It is very necessary to conserve forests. This can be done through aforestation. Vanamahotsava is a country-wide aforestation programme. This programme helped a lot to grow social forests.

COMPREHENSION J J J

STRUCTURES

STRUCTURES

S + Be + S. Compl. S + V1 + O + C S + Be + (V + ing) + O

S + Be + S. Compl. S + V1 + O + C S + Be + (V + ing) + O

He is a boy. His name is Sumanth. She is a girl. Her name is Spoorthy. He is studying in 6th standard. She is studying in 2nd standard. They are going to classes regularly. He is going to SJM English School. She is going to Deccan School. They are operating the computer. He likes comics very much. He plays cricket in the evening. He does his home work regularly. He is a very good boy.

This is a television set. This is a very useful instrument. We watch T.V. regularly. Some good programmes are telecast everyday. We like the serials very much. We watch the television for the news, songs, cinemas and other entertainment programmes. T.V. brings the whole world into our drawing room. It is a wonder box. We can watch the live relay programmes and cricket matches.

For more details please do refer the following books: 1. Applied English Course - A Practical Handbook of Spoken and Written English (Pub.: Navakarnataka Publications, B’lore. Rs. 150/-) By / - Bedre N. Manjunath 2. Word Power By / - Bedre N. Manjunath 3. Let’s Learn English By / - Bedre N. Manjunath 4. English Language Games By / - Bedre N. Manjunath 5. School Diary (Pub.: Navakarnataka Publications, B’lore. Rs. 60/-)

Read the passage / story quickly toget the general ideas. Read it again slowly to know the details. Study the questions thoroughly. Turn tothe relevant portion of the passage / story . Read them again and write neatly in your own words. J Answer in complete sentences. If the questions require one word answer then you can give the one word answer. Answers should not be lengthy. J If you are asked to give the meaning of any word you should expess the ideas as clearly as possible in your own words. J If you are required to give a title or heading to the passage /story, you can name it either after the main character,object, incident mentioned in the passage, or after some saying or proverb illustrated by the passage. 5. Give a suitable title.

COMPOSITION WITH QUESTIONS Topic : Our School 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Which school do you go to ? Is it a big or small school ? How many rooms has it got ? Has it got a library ? Does it have a staff room ? Where is the school play ground situated ? How many students are there in your school ? How many teachers are there ? What subjects are taught in your school ? Who is the Head master of your school ? Do students like him / her ? Do you like your school ? Why ?

Compiled and Edited by/-

Bedre N. Manjunatha, Transmission Executive C-3, All India Radio Employees Staff Quarters CHITRADURGA - 577 501, Karnataka State Ph. 95 - 8194 - 228074 Mob.: 94485-89089 <bedre_manjunath@yahoo.co.in.> <manjunb@sancharnet.in>

J Compiled by/ - Bedre N. Manjunatha, Author of “Applied English Course”(14th Impression) 10 [ Bedre Foundation for Non-Formal Education, Research and Training, Teachers’ Colony, Chitradurga-1. Ph.228074 [


ACTIVE VOICE & PASSIVE VOICE MADE EASY J If the verb has two “Objects” in the ‘Active Voice’, the sentence can be changed in two ways by using any one of the “Objects” as the “Subject” in the ‘Passive Voice’. J The word “by” (preposition) is mostly used before the “Object” in the ‘Passive Voice’. If the verb is followed by a prepositon in the ‘Active Voice’ itself, the same is used before “by”. J Personal pronouns change their forms when they change their position from that of the “Subject” to that of the “Object”. Subject : I We You He She It They Object : me us you him her it them J The ‘Passive ’ forms of the “Present / Past/ Future Perfect Continuous ” and “Future Continuous” are more avoided than used. J While transferring sentences from ‘Active ’ to ‘Passive ’ or vice versa, the “form” of the sentence and “the tense” never change.

PRESENT

PAST

PERFECT

IND. CONTINUOUS

INDEFINITE

J A verb is said to be in the “Active Voice” when its form shows that the person or thing denoted by the “Subject” DOES SOMETHING. J A verb is said to be in the “Passive Voice” when its form shows that SOMETHING IS DONE to the person or thing denoted by the“Subject”. RULES J The ‘Passive voice’ of a verb is formed by using the “Past Participle” form of the verb after using suitable “ Be” form verbs like “is written”, “was written”, “will be written” or “is being written”, “was being written”,“ have been written ”, “had been written”, “will have been written”, or “ are sent”, “were sent”,“will be sent”,“are being sent”,”were being sent”, “ have been sent”, “ had been sent” etc. J The “Object” of the verb in the ‘Active Voice’ takes the place of the “Subject” in the ‘Passive Voice’ and the “Subject” of the ‘Active Voice’ occupies the position of the “Object” in the ‘Passive Voice’ .

I S

+

O + Letters I S +

write V1

letters. O

+

Be + P.P. + By + S are written by me. am writing Be + (V+ing)

have written Have + (P.P.)

PERFECT

INDEFINITE

NEGATIVE

I S +

don’t write Don’t + V1

I S +

+

wrote V2

FUTURE

+

letters. O

Be + P.P. + By + S were written by me. was writing Be + (V+ing)

letters. + O

O + Be +Being + P.P. + By + S Letters were being written by me.

letters. + O

O + Have +Been + P.P. + By + S Letters have been written by me.

+

O + Letters

letters. + O

O + Be +Being + P.P. + By + S Letters are being written by me. I S +

I S

I S +

had written Have + (P.P.)

letters. + O

O + Have +Been + P.P. + By + S Letters had been written by me. PASSIVE TO ACTIVE

letters. O

Letters O +

O + Be +Not + P.P. + By + S Letters are not written by me. I have not written letters. S + Have+Not +(P.P.) + O O + Have+Not+Been+P.P. +By+ S Letters have not been written by me.

S I

+

are written Be + P.P.

by me. + By + S

+

O letters.

V1 write

Letters have been written by me. O + Have +Been + P.P. + By + S S + I

SIMPLE METHOD At first locate the main verb in the given sentence. Then ask “Who?” ( Who performed the action?) You will get the “Subject”. Now read the “Subject and Verb” together and ask “What” or “Whom” to know what is or who is involved in the action and you will get the “Object”. Now, take the “Subject” and place it at the end and bring the “Object” to the first place. Change the verb into “Past Participle”. Add suitable “be” form verb to indicate the tense and degree. If there is no answer for the questions “what / whom” then the verb happens to be an ‘intransitive’ one. The ‘intransitives’ cannot be changed into the ‘Passive Voice’. You need an “Object” to change the ‘Voice’. Samarth goes to school. ( No object) Samarth tells a story. (Object) A story is told by Samarth.

Have + (P.P.) have written

+ O letters.

I shall write S + M.Ax. + V1

+

letters. O

O + M.Ax.+Be + P.P. + By + S Letters will be written by me. I shall be writing letters. S + M.Ax.+Be+(V+ing) + O

(Passive form of Future Continuous is more avoided than used.)

I shall have written letters. S + M.Ax.+Have+(P.P.) + O

O+ M.Ax.+Have+Been+P.P. +By+ S Letters will have been written by me. IMPERATIVE

Write a letter. V1 + O

Let + O + Let a letter

Be + P.P. be written .

Don’t write a letter. Do+Not + V1 + O Let + O + Not +Be + P.P. Let a letter not be written .

1 [ Bedre Foundation for Non-Formal Education, Research and Training, Teachers’ Colony, Chitradurga-1. Ph. 228074 1 [


DIRECT SPEECH & INDIRECT SPEECH MADE EASY J When we use the exact words of the speaker, it is called the “Direct Speech.” J When we report the speech in our own words, it is called the “Indirect Speech” or “Reported Speech”.

2. Change of Personal Pronouns: When the reporter uses “I”, it refers to him. If he uses other pronouns, they refer to different persons. So there is a need to change the persons. They change as :

RULES J We have to incorporate FOUR major changes while tranforming a Direct Speech sentence into an Indirect Speech sentence.

Direct Speech Indirect Speech I Person (I / We) He / She / It / They II Person (You / You) He / She / It / They I / We / You III Person (He / She) He (.....) / She (.....) / (It / They) It (.....) / They(.....)

1. Change of Reporting Verb: Reporting verb, i.e. the verb outside the inverted commas, has to be changed depending upon the sentence within the inverted commas. (Tense of these verbs doesn’t change.) J If the sentence within the inverted commas is “Assertive” the reporting verb (said) changes as : told, replied, answered, stated, declared, narrated, described, communicated, reported etc. J If the sentence within the inverted commas is “Interrogative” the reporting verb (said) changes as : asked, questioned, enquired, inquired, interrogated etc. J If the sentence within the inverted commas is “Imparative” the reporting verb (said) changes as : requested, ordered, advised, commanded, appealed, directed, guided, etc. J If the sentence within the inverted commas is “Exclamatory” the reporting verb (said) changes as : exclaimed with joy /surprise / wonder or cried with pain / sorrow etc.

1 v

Suma said to Samarth , “Blood is red.” Suma told Samarth that blood is red. 4. Change of Nearness to Remoteness: When the reporter refers to a thing near to him it is certainly in a distance to us. So, the things which are near in the Direct Speech may become far in the Reported Speech as: Direct Speech This / That These / Those Here / There Now / Then Thus Today Tonight This week Yesterday

Suma will say to Samarth , “I write letters.” Suma will tell Samarth that she writes letters. If the Reporting Verb is in the Past Tense then the tense of the Reported Speech will change as : Simple Present to Simple Past Present Continuous to Past Continuous Present Perfect to Past Perfect PresentPerfectContinuous to Past Perfect Continuous

Simple Past

to Past Perfect

Past Continuous

to Past Perect Continuous

Past Perfect

remains

of ge to s an ness nes h C ear ne N emo R

2

Reported Spech That Those There Then So That day That night That week The day before The previous day The previous week The following day The following week

Last week Tomorrow Next week

Past Perfect

Past Perfect Continuous -”- Past Perfect Continuous

v

v

There is an exception to this rule. If the sentence is a UNIVERSAL TRUTH then the tense should not be changed. e.g.,

Suma says to Samarth , “I write letters.” Suma tells Samarth that she writes letters.

EXCLAMATORY SENTENCE

Suma said to Samarth , “Please, send a letter now. of s ge m an for Ch rb Ve

In Future Tense “Will” and “Shall” change into “Would” and sometimes in “Should”. “Can” into “Could” and“May” into “Might”. No other change.

3. Change of Tense Forms: If the Reporting Verb is in the Present Tense or Future Tense then there is no change in the tense of the Reported Speech.

IMPERATIVE SENTENCE of rb. ge Ve an g Ch ortin p Re

Suma said to Samarth , “I write letters.” Suma told Samarth that she wrote letters.

Suma

said ,

of rb. ge Ve an ing h C ort p Re

3 v

“ Oh! It is very easy now.

of ge ion an ect Ch terj In

1 v

of s ge m an e for h C ns Te

2 v

of ge to s an ness nes h C ear ne N emo R

3

v

4 v

Suma requested Samarth kindly to send a letter then.

Suma exclaimed with surprise that it was very easy then.

ASSERTIVE SENTENCE

INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE

Suma said to Samarth , “I am sending a letter now. of rb. ge Ve an ing h t C or p Re

. of oun ge n an Pro h l C na rso Pe

1

2

of s ge m an e for h C ns Te

of ge to s an ess es Ch earn nen N emo R

3

Suma said to Samarth , “Are you sending a letter now?

4

of rb. ge Ve an g Ch ortin p Re

. of oun ge n an Pro h l C na rso Pe

1

of s ge m an for Ch nse Te

2

of ge to s an ess es Ch earn nen N emo R

3

4

Suma told Samarth that she was sending a letter then.

Suma asked Samarth if he was sending a letter then.

ASSERTIVE SENTENCE

INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE

of rb. ge Ve an g Ch ortin p Re

1

2 P

v

f un. e o no ng Pro a Ch nal o ers

v

of s ge m an for Ch nse Te

v

3

of ge to s an ness nes h r C ea ne N emo R

4 v

of rb. ge Ve an ing h C ort p Re

1

2

v

P

f un. e o no ng Pro a Ch nal o ers

v

3

Change of Tense forms

Tapan said to the Head Master , “I did not lead the ox here. Braithwait said to Miss Dare , “Will you step in here?

v

v

of ge to s an ess es Ch earn nen N emo R

4 v

Tapan told the Head Master that he had not lead the ox there. Braithwait asked Miss Dare if she would step in there. EXCLAMATORY SENTENCE

IMPERATIVE SENTENCE

Head Master said to Mohan , “Bring Tapan of class V now. The Policeman said, “ Oh! It is very interesting.” of rb. ge Ve an ing h C ort p Re

1 v

of s ge m an for h C rb Ve

2 v

of ge to s an ness nes h C ear ne N emo R

3 v

of rb. ge Ve an ing h C ort p Re

1 v

of ge ion an ect Ch terj In

2 v

3

of s ge m an for Ch nse Te

v

Head Master ordered Mohan to bring Tapan of class V then. The Policeman exclaimed with surprise that it was very interesting. 12 [ Bedre Foundation for Non-Formal Education, Research and Training, Teachers’ Colony, Chitradurga-1. Ph. 228074 [


3 [ Bedre Foundation for Non-Formal Education, Research and Training, Teachers’ Colony, Chitradurga-1. Ph. 228074 1 [

What’s a Noun?

A Noun is a naming word.

My name is Sumanth. I am a student. I read newspapers. I have many books in my personal library. I love reading.

What’s a Pronoun?

A Pronoun is a word used in place of a noun.

NOUNS

NOUN NUMBERS Singular Plural Countable Uncountable

PERSONAL PRONOUNS

CONCRETE

ABSTRACT

(Can be seen, touched and smelt) Proper Common Collective Material

(Can not be seen, touched or smelt but only felt) Names of certain Things Names of certain Qualities Names of certain Actions Names of certain State Names of all Arts & Science Names of all Languages

NOUN GENDERS Masculine Feminine Neuter Common

NOUN GERUND Verbal Noun (V+ing) form of the Verb used as the Subject or Object.

I am Samarth. I have many friends. They are players. We play chess. It is a nice game. Will you join us?

NOUN CASE Nominative (Subjective) Accusative (Objective) Instrumental Dative Possessive (Genitive) Vocative

PERSONS NUMBERS

OBJ.

POSSESSIVES

I

Singular Plural

I We

me us

my, mine, to me our, ours, to us

II

Singular Plural

You You

you you

your, yours, to you your, yours, to you

III

Singualr

He She It They

him her its them

his, to him her, hers, to her its, to it their, theirs, to them

Plural

E REFLEXIV IC T A H P M &E

elf mys lves e ours self r you selves r u yo elf s m i h elf hers f itsel selves e h t m

DEMONSTRATIVE

this these

SUB.

that those

INTERROGATIVE & RELATIVE

Who Whom Whose What Which Where When Why How

INDEFINITE

some someone something somewhere sometime somebody somehow any anyone anybody anywhere anyhow anytime

DISTRIBUTIVE

every everyone everything everywhere everytime everybody each each one each thing each person none all one and all


An Adjective is a word or phrase that is used to qualify the nouns.

Hello! I am Spoorthy. This is my dog. It is cute. I buy red ribbon for this pretty dog. This dog’s name is Puppy!

What’s a Verb?

A Verb is a word which shows what the Subject is and what it is doing.

Hi! I am Akash. I am a student. I go to SVE School. I attend my classes. I am an athlete too. I play everyday. I love sports.

AUXILIARY VERBS (24 ANOMALOUS FINITES) ADJECTIVE OF QUALITY

Be M.Ax. Have Do Present Present Present Present am (not) have (not) do (not) will (not) is (not) has (not) does (not) shall (not) can (not) are (not) may (not) must (not) Past Past Past was (not) had (not) did (not) ought (not) dare (not) were (not) need (not) ------

OP - SH - A - C - O - M Opinion Shape good tall bad short neat small heavy big costly huge cheap tiny

Age new old modern ancient young aged

Colour white blue yellow red green brown

Origin Material Indian gold Western wood Eastern steel British plastic American cotton Japanese wool

M.Ax. Past would (not) should (not) could (not) might (not) --------------------used (not)

MAIN VERB FORMS HOW MANY?

a glass of a cup of 10 kilos one ton 10 m.l. 100 m.l. 1 litre 10 centemetre 100 cms. 1 metre 1 kilometre 100 miles

COUNTABLE One Two One hundred One million

DEMONSTRATIVE

DEGREES

this that these those

Positive Comparative Superlative

ARTICLES INDEFINETE

UNCOUNTABLE many a few a lot of a number of CARDINAL ORDINAL

a

an

DEFINITE

the

FINITE

HOW MUCH?

INFINITE

PAST played selected learnt kicked

P.P. played selected learnt kicked

(V1+ING) playing selecting learning kicking

(TO+V1) to play to select to learn to kick

Sing Write Speak Drink

sang wrote spoke drank

sung written spoken drunk

singing writing speaking drinking

to sing to write to speak to drink

Cut Put Set

cut put set

cut put set

cutting putting setting

to cut to put to set

PARTICIPLE (Verbal Adjectives) Spoken Written Painted Lost Typed

NON-FINITE

PRESENT Play Select Learn Kick

REGULAR

NUMBER

HOW MUCH?

IRREGULAR

QUANTITY

PECULIAR

14 [ Bedre Foundation for Non-Formal Education, Research and Training, Teachers’ Colony, Chitradurga-1. Ph. 228074 [

What’s an Adjective?


Hi friends! I am Apoorva. I go to school everyday. I run fast. My friends come to the stadium regularly. They play kho-kho nicely.

A Preposition is a word or phrase used to show position and movement in a certainb direction.

What’s a Preposition?

MANNER

ADVERBS

HOW

Varshitha drank hot tea slowly / quickly / fast. at home / in a canteen. yesterday / at 6 a.m. once / twice / often. to become fresh / beacuse she was feeling cold.

PREPOSITIONS

?

above

slowly quickly fast rapidly neatly briskly beautifully attractively

at the edge of

near

FREQUENCY

WHERE?

HOW MANY TIMES?

here there in the room in the class in the garden on the terrace on the road in Bangalore

once twice thrice four times ten times number of times often rarely

up away

up

in

h far

below

down between

TIME WHEN? now later afterwards today this week this month tomorrow next week

REASON

REASON

WHY?

WHY?

to make himself fesh. to drive away cold.

across

on

thr oug

in front of

PLACE

Hi!I am Varun. I am a painter. I paint on canvas. I have a brush in my hand. There are colour tubes on the flooor.

between

5 [ Bedre Foundation for Non-Formal Education, Research and Training, Teachers’ Colony, Chitradurga-1. Ph. 228074 1 [

An Adverb is a word or phrase or clause that is used to qualify the verb.

What’s an Adverb?

because she was feeling cold. because it was very boring.

SIMPLE

COMPOUND

at by in on to near off down out from up with through

above across after around before behind below beside between beyond inside outside within

PHRASE according to along with away from because of by reason of on behalf of in case of in course of in front of in order to in stead of on account of owing to

PARTICIPLE barring concerning considering notwithstanding pending regarding respecting


16 [ Bedre Foundation for Non-Formal Education, Research and Training, Teachers’ Colony, Chitradurga-1. Ph. 228074 [

What’s a Conjunction?

A Conjunction is a word or phrase that is used to join two words, phrases or clauses.

Hi friends! We are circus artists and magicians. We perform tricks but we cannot perform black magic. We come here and give regulard shows.

What’s a Sentence?

A Sentence is a word or group of words that gives full meaning and makes some sense.

Whaw! It is really nice. You are very kind, dear. Are there any more bouquets? Please, get me one more. I love it

JOIN

CONJUNCTIONS CO-ORDINATING SIMPLE

and but for or also What’s an Interjection?

PAIRED

either....or... neither....nor... both.....and... not only..but also.. except....that...

SENTENCES

SUB-ORDINATING SIMPLE

after because before if that

An Interjection is a word or phrase that is used to express sudden feelings and emotions.

“WH-WORDS” who whom what whose where why when how whether which

Aah! This is very heavy. I can’t lift this. Wah! This is very light. I can lift this.

Woh! Auch! Oh! Ah!

Alas! Ha!Ha! Shhh! Hush!

Shei! Ishyshy! Hey! Ho!

Hi! Thutt! Oooo! Holloa!

A SENTENCE is a grammatically self contained speech unit consisting of a word or group of words that expresses an assertion (.), a question (?), a command / request / appeal (“...”), a wish or an exclamation (!), that in writing usually begins with a capital letter and concludes with appropriate end punctuation, and that in speaking is phonetically distinguished by various patterns of stress, pitch and pauses.

Hello, Sirs! We have come here to play with you. Do you join us? How about cricket? Please, bring your bat, ball, wicket and stumps. We can start playing right now.

INTERJECTIONS O! Wow! Hurrah! Aah!

How are you, Sir? I think you are the first person to climb this mountain, aren’t you? Do you join me for coffee?

Hello! Hum! Hem! Oh God!


Essential English - A Reference Manual by Bedre Manjunath