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Typography Research

ARTIST TYPEFACE “Of all the achievements of the human mind, the birth of the alphabet is the most momentous”. Frederic Goudy

Rebecca Fisk U125153010 Module TFD1064. Design for Communication Design 2


Brief Breakdown Design a pictorial typeface to be included the Font Bureau ‘Art Range’ This is a font that will be based on art and design movements, designers and artists.

The finished design needs to be reproduced in black and white. But for promotion you will need designs in full colour.

As well as the font it is required that I design an advertisement for the new typeface. I will also need to make a type specimen page, along with a web page advertisement based on the current Font Bureau website.

* Several Design Solutions Needed

* One Final Refined Solution

Initial research must first be done, before eight individual artists are researched. From these eight artists, three must be chosen to take forward and develop. From these three a single font will be chosen to be refined as the final font.


Typography Research From my typography research I learnt that there are a lot of different names for individual parts of the letter. I order to try and remember this I created a graphic with all of the terms on it (left) and examples to help understand the term. Also, after reading the ‘Logo Font & Lettering Bible’ I learnt that the letter heights must sometimes be adjusted optically. This means that when adjusting type, letters such as ‘A,V,W’ and curved letters such as ‘C,G,’O,Q’ should be slightly above the median line, otherwise the letters look shorter than the others. This is because the points and curves of these letters only touch the median line for a matter of seconds, compared to letters such as ‘T’ that touch the median line for quite a lot of time.


Elaine Lustig Cohen Elaine Lustig Cohen is a designer of many different trades, one of which being typography. She began designing in the early 1950’s as she worked under her husband in his studio in Manhattan (Alvin Lustig). Unfortunately Alvin was blinded by diabetes, this meant that he had to dictate the type and colour preferences to his wife. This allowed Elaine to learn a lot about the design process this way. Alvin Lustig died in 1955, this meant that the studio was left to Elaine, who took over the work of the practice, which included projects such as producing scores of book covers and jackets. At the time, there were very few female American designers that ran their own studio at the time, especially at the young age of 28. Despite this, she insists that this was not a defining issue. She said that my gender may have been an issue for other designers, but not for my clients.’. Elaine is recognised as a modernist in terms of design, she studied Tulane University, and completed her BFA at the University of Southern California.


Typographer Research


Tom Lane ‘Ginger Monkey’ Tom Lane is a Bristol based designer/ illustrator/typographer. He grew up in the deep English countryside, and didn’t find his creative streak until his late teens/early twenties. He completed a BTEC in Graphic Design at the Hereford College or Art, which he called a life changing experience. He then moved to Bristol to study at the University of the West of England. After completing his studies he quickly moved into freelance design, this developed into a specialised type of design revolving around mainly lettering and illustration. In 2009/10 he said that he was still finding his feet in hand lettering, however he now has a clear cut process about his work. He learnt through experimenting.


Typographer Research


Matt Luckhurst Matt Luckhurst is a designer and illustrator, who creates beautiful typography within his illustrations. He is originally from Vancouver, Canada, but now lives in New York. He got his BA from the Alberta College of Art & Design in Calgary, and graduated from The School of Visual Arts in New York with a Masters in Design. Currently he is the design director at Collins in New York, and has been recognised by The Art Directors Club, Type Directors Club, Graphis, Design Quarterly, Print Magazine, Communications Arts, Applied Arts and more. Matt said that he has ‘a notoriously bad memory’, so he uses sketches to serve as memory banks. When he wants to develop personal work, he will flip through his sketch books in order to generate ideas and use his previous sketches. Matt also said that ‘Nothing is ever unfinished in a sketchbook. Every stoke is complete until a pencil finds it again. Things are allowed to grow organically and the page can grow and change as it pleases - I have terrible handwriting and I revel in a lack of organisation.’.


Typographer Research


Giuseppe Capogrossi Giuseppe Capogrossi is an Italian painter, and was born on March 7th 1900 in Rome. Originally, Capogrossi actually studied law, and finished his studies in 1922. However, he moved to Paris in 1927 where he familiarised himself with the current direction and trends of art by visiting studios and academies. He took great influence from Picasso, Modigliani and Renoir’s work. In 1937 Capogrossi left Paris and went to work in Umbria as a painter. After travelling his work slowly lost its representation of figures and by the 1950’s had a completely abstract look to it. On October 9th 1972, Giuseppe Capogrossi died in his hometown of Rome. There was an exhibition in the Soloman Guggenheim devoted to his works.


8 Artists Research


Giuseppe Capogrossi I began to sketch with a pencil some characters that I copied from some of Capogrossi’s paintings. I made some characters based on squares, and some without. I used felt tips, and ink to make my sketchbook drawings. I then took them into illustrator to recreate them. I really like the way these have turned out, and found it quite easy to create the letters. I think that I could make quite a successful alphabet from this artist.


Experiments


Akira Yoshizawa Akira Yoshizawa is considered to be the ‘Grandmaster of Origami’. On the 101st anniversary of his birthday Google created a ‘doodle’ to celebrate. Over his long career he created more than 50,000 origami models, and published 18 books. He was considered to be a cultural ambassador for Japan, and was thought so highly of, was named ‘Order of the Rising Sun’ which is one of the highest honours that can be attributed to a Japanese citizen. Yoshizawa invented something called ‘wet folding, this is a technique where you dampen the paper with water in order to manipulate it easier, this brings an aspect of sculpture to origami. Yoshizawa was born on the 14th March 1911 and died on his 94th birthday in 2005. He was born in Kaminokawa in Japan, and as a child taught himself origami. His book ‘Atarashii Origami Geijutsu’ included the notation for origami folds which became the standard for most origami artists. In 1954 he founded the International Origami Centre in Tokyo. Yoshizawa never wanted to sell his origami figures, he wanted to give them away as gifts to people and let organisations borrow them for exhibiting.


8 Artists Research


Akira Yoshizawa I think that the contrast in these two different origami alphabets that I tried is very interesting. However I want my font to be readable rather than being a title font, so I think that the letters on the right hand side would be better to develop on the computer. I think I will be taking this font as one of my three, as I think there are a lot of things I could do with it if I brought it into Photoshop and illustrator.


Experiments


Alfred Jensen Alfred Julio Jensen was an abstract artist, born on December 11th 1903 in Guatemala City, and died April 4th 1981 in New Jersey. After drawing from an early age, a scholarship allowed him to go and study at the San Diego Fine Arts School, this was under Eugene De Vol. After that he went to Munich to study under Hans Hofmann before he went travelling and eventually settled in New York. According to Alfred himself a meeting with Andre Masson left a lasting impression on him. This took his art from expressionist beginnings to the geometrical and abstract style that he is known for today. You can find some interesting letters and numbers within a lot of his paintings, these are references to his interest in the study of number systems and theories. These included the Maya calendar and Michael Faraday’s theories.


8 Artists Research


Alfred Jensen I again found this Artist more difficult to transcribe into a font than anticipated. I found this even when sketching from his paintings, as he is very much an abstract painter. I think I managed to get a few interesting looking letters. But I think if I were to take this further it would be with the square box letters with numbers inside them.


Experiments


Pablo Picasso Pablo Picasso was one of few artists that became a monument to himself during his lifetime, but never allowed it to effect his work. Known mostly for his painting and his sculpture, he distorted the human form to the point of monstrosity. However he was actually a gifted portrait painter. In the 50’s someone quite rightly said that Picasso’s greatness can be measured by the number of debates that he could trigger. It is claimed that along with Georges Braque, Picasso invented Cubism. There was a point in his career where him and Braque painted virtually identical pieces. Picasso’s painting ‘Guernica’ is an example of his brilliance, he was commissioned to create a large mural for the Spanish display at the Paris International Exposition. It soon became an international symbol of suffering in terms of how civilians are effected by war. Picasso was born on the 25th October 1881 in Spain, and died on the 8th April 1973 at the age of 91 in France. Picasso is one of the most famous artists in the history of Art.


8 Artists Research


Pablo Picasso After looking at some of picasso’s cubism paintings I started drawing some letter-forms in my sketchbook. I found some interesting shapes so brought them into illustrator and outlined the my favourite letterforms. Picasso uses very strong line, so I didn’t feel the need to use too much colour within the letters. I think I could create a whole alphabet based on Picasso’s work.


Experiments


Roy Lichtenstein Roy Lichtenstein is a famous American artist from the pop art movement. His most famous works are his comic strip like paintings. He was born in New York City on October 27th 1923, and died on September 29th 1997 aged 73 in New York. He also studied at Ohio State University. Lichtenstein is famous for his use of dots within his work, at the time young American artists were looking for a way to make their mark, especially with Pop Art being such a loud and colour genre of art. Lichtenstein had great respect for the masters of art such as Picasso, Mondrian and Monet. He ever created a Picasso inspired piece. It is said that Picasso was one of his heroes. Lichtenstein had a major impact on Pop Art, and alongside Andy Warhol is seen as the leading figure in the movement.


8 Artists Research


Roy Lichtenstein I didn’t have as many ideas for this font as I did for the others. However I still liked the way that it turned out after I recreated my sketches in illustrator. I think that for this to be a successful font it will need a lot more development, for example more precision in the placement of the dots.


Experiments


Piet Mondrian Piet Mondrian is famous for his geometric paintings, born March 7th 1872, Mondrian was a Dutch painter who made a great contribution to the De Stijl art movement. He is most famous for his white backgrounded paintings with black grids and geometric shapes placed on the grid in the three primary colours. A lot of people judge Mondrian for the simplicity of his paintings, however that, I believe, is where the beauty lies. It is a common phrase when looking at a Mondrian that ‘My four year old could do that’. However, the pure precision of his line work and grids are impeccable, which I think is what makes his work so original. The other thing that I think is great about Mondrians work is that you can see a Mondrian painting and instantly label it as a Mondrian. However you can then go away, and could never replicate what you had seen, as the specifics wouldn’t usually stay in your head. Modrian was said to be an expert in conveying emotion with such little detail in his minimal style of painting. He passed away in New York in 1944. ‘I think that the destructive element is too much neglected in art’ - Piet Mondrian.


8 Artists Research


Piet Mondrian Here I was experimenting firstly in my sketchbook to make a ‘Mondrian’ font. I decided that I would attempt to use the grid system that the artist uses, so there would be no diagonal lines in the letters. I started by testing out letters within a square grid, but then decided just using basic lines to make the letters would be better. After that I started experimenting with putting coloured blocks in the letters themselves. I then took this idea into adobe illustrator to try and recreate three of the letters. I think this font is quite successful, however I think it could be quite hard to read when put into full words.


Experiments


Joan Miro Joan Miro is a Spanish painter born in Barcelona on April 20th in 1893. He was branded a Modernist, and a Surrealist, and he wasn’t just a painter. He is famous for his sculpture, ceramics, collages and even tapestries. This shows how versatile Miro was. He originally went to the School of Commerce of Barcelona to try and please his father, however he ended up having a minor breakdown and also contracted typhoid fever. This led to him being confined to a bed, where he decided to become and artist. Miro travelled a lot throughout his life, meeting famous artists in Paris such as Picasso. Miro passed away at the age of 90, in 1983.


8 Artists Research


Joan Miro For this font test I again started in my sketchbook, I looked at paintings that Miro had completed and tried to take some letter forms and shapes from the paintings to create these letters. I then took it into illustrator to make a digital version. I think the Joan Miro title was quite successful, but I found it quite difficult with the individual letters to keep a uniform looking font.I think it could be difficult to make a whole alphabet for this artist.


Experiments


Stanton MacDonald Wright Stanton Macdonald-Wright was born on July 8th 1890 in Virginia, USA. His field of painting was classed as abstract modern, and was the co founder of art movement synchronism (meaning - with colour). His talent was nurtured from an early age, coming from quite a privileged background, Stanton’s father ran a seaside hotel in California. He was given private painting lessons from a young age. Stanton moved to Paris with his wife in 1907 where he studied colour theory. His first synchromist exhibition was held in Munich June 1913. This exhibition featured his work as well as the movements co founder Morgan Russell. Eventually however his attention was turned to film-making, writing and teaching at the University of California. He passed away on August 22nd, 1973.


8 Artists Research


Stanton MacDonald Wright I found this artist harder to transcribe into font ideas than I thought it would be. I think some of the letter-forms are interesting, but not quite representative of Stanton MacDonald, which is why I have not chosen this font to go forward with.


Experiments


Three Chosen Artists I chose the origami font to go forward with as it was something I am quite passionate about, and think it worked really well as a font in my tests and trials. I started by making the base letters from paper, then scanning them in. I then outlined these letters in illustrator to get my initial letter forms. I then coloured them and added some shadowed effects to get the font you see on the right. I think it needs a little more development, I think I will try putting a texture behind the font to make it richer and more interesting.


Akira Yoshizawa


Three Chosen Artists Here is the final colour version of this font, I added a paint flickered texture to it to try and make the font richer and more interesting which I think was quite successful. I also took the font into Photoshop in order to hand render the shadows with the dodge and burn tools. I also think the letter-forms in general are quite interesting, and reflects origami and the artist quite well.


Akira Yoshizawa


Three Chosen Artists This is the black and white version of the font which I think looks quite effective, as it is stark but still shows the folding patterns of all of the letters.


Akira Yoshizawa


Three Chosen Artists I also chose the Picasso font to go forward with as I found that some of the letter-forms I had developed in my testing were quite interesting. When I developed these letters further I created them in black and white to begin with, and this was the final result.


Pablo Picasso


Three Chosen Artists I then went on to develop the colour version of the font, which I think adds another dimension to it. I tried it with black outlines on the shape to begin with, then took them out to find that the font looked a lot better this way.


Pablo Picasso


Three Chosen Artists The last font that I decided to develop was the capogrossi font. This is because I really like his artwork, and wanted to make a font worthy of his work. I began developing more of the letter-forms on top of what I had already made, and came out with this black and white version. I think it looks quite cartoon like, but still definitely reflects the artists work well. I found it very interesting reflecting the shapes from his paintings in the font.


Giuseppe Capogrossi


Three Chosen Artists Next I made a solid black version, as almost all of the forms within capogrossi’s paintings that I developed the letter-forms from are also solid black. I think this makes the font really stand out, I really like this version of it.


Giuseppe Capogrossi


Three Chosen Artists Lastly I decided to make a coloured version of the font with a solid black outline, as some of the forms in capogrossi’s paintings also have a similar effect. I think it was successful, but definitely looks better in solid black.


Giuseppe Capogrossi


Final Font These are the final versions of the font, in black and white, and in full colour. I am really pleased with the way the font has turned out. I think it has definitely paid homage to the great Akira.


Akira Yoshizawa


Final Font On these pages you will find on the left, the sample sheet for the final font. This includes the light and bold version of the font, and the coloured version also working at different point sizes. On the right are the front cover ideas for the type specimen. I really like the final specimen cover that I came up with. I think it encompasses the font really well, and also shows off the finer details of the letters where the folds would be if that were a real piece of paper. Below are also some examples of the font in use on t-shirts.


Akira Yoshizawa

Thumbnails

Finished Specimen Sheet


Final Font This is the graphic I made in order to advertise the new Origami font. I tried many different types of posters, and started by trying to keep the ‘paper’ theme encompassed into the advert. However I struggled to make this work, so I took some inspiration from some typography posters that you can see below, and ended up with this really interesting looking piece. I think it is eye catching and engaging to the audience and would make you want to read the small print to know what it is about. On the right is the font placed onto the Font Bureau website, so that you can see the sample sheet in use.


Akira Yoshizawa

Artist Typeface Research Document  

Research Document for my artist typeface project at Huddersfield University.

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