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Architecture Design Studio: Air Rebecca Choong 389988

Part I. Expression of Interest 1. Case for Innovation - Architecture as a Discourse house folded by alphaville architects ford calumet environmental centre by studio gang architects studley park boathouse personal works

- Computing in Architecture flux exhibition by california college of art digital tea house by university of tokyo & columbia

- Parametric Modelling airspace tokyo by faulders studio malspensa airport proposal by atelier manferdini

2. Research Project - Matrix Experimenations - Cut experimentation - Reverse-Engineered Case-Study - Material Effects 2.1. Expression of Interest Conclusion: Competitive Advantage 2.2. Learning Objectives and Outcomes: Interim 3. Project Proposal - Form Exploration - Form Possibilities - Light Studies - Joints - Construction Methods 3.1 Learning Outcomes

Expression of Interest : Case for Innovation In an effort to help guide the development of our “Expression of Interest�, the case for innovation requires us to explore the different disciplines of architecture beginning by analyzing the contributions of our personal favourite projects to introducing us to the world of computational techniques in architecture and finally, furthering our knowledge on computational techniques by exploring the scripting and programming cultures of parametric modelling.


“With the folded wall, we give the dwelling different faces. Each time you cross through the folded wall it feels like you are entering another world3�


olded House

Alphaville Architects, 2011 Despite its size constraints and context of the site, the Folded House in Oosaka, Japan by Alphaville architects emphasizes on redefining the relationship between resident and the spaces within their home. The result is an angular three storey house with unconventional distinctive volumes that creates a dynamic experience for the residence. The division of the house utilizes the techniquse of a voronoi diagram and followed the process of beginning with a parallelogram with a partition that ran diagonally to create two spaces. Walls were then pivoted and folded and thus formed rooms that allowed a continous change in experience as one moved around the rooms of the house2. The folded nature of the house also facilitates for the natural light that filters through the house through the use of slits that are formed as a result of the position and angle of the walls. As a project, it not only offers suggestions of micro space management but also implementing a technique that would normally be reserved for facades to the house as a whole. The application of the voronoi technique to the house has also resulted in the house being reminiscent of deconstructivism with its fragmented, non-geometrical forms. Though what Alphaville has proposed is a domestic single family house, the overall intent of the house can be incorporated into the designing of Wyndham’s gateway by creating a structure that allows for different experiences for the public as they come and go from different directions.





Ford Calumet Environmental Center Studio Gang Architects, 2008

The Ford Calument Environmental Center, designed to educate visitors about the region’s industrial and natural importance, demonstrates its unconditional dedication to the region of Calument through its construction and 8 design features that are integrated into the overall building. The construction of the center was inspired by the nest making process and thus like a nest, the materials for the center was collected from things that were in abundance, nearby or discarded7. By using materials such as steel from the Calumet region and recycle glass bottles, it highlights the principles of sustainability and the possibilites of re-usable items. Not only does the centre employ sustainability principles but it also emphasizes on the natural environment of Calument by incorporating a basket-like mesh made of recycleable steel to its south -facing porch to prevent any migratory birds from colliding into the glass facade. As an environmental centre, its aim to educate its visitors goes beyond the realms of merely feeding visitors information about its site but the design and construction methods also provide an educational element to the residents and visitors - for this reason, the environmental centre has been recognized for its efforts in sustainable construction and treatment of animals. The idea of considering sustainability as a whole, as a oppose to exposing people to sustainability on one dimension, is a process that should be incorporated into the designing of Wyndham’s gateway as it doesn’t merely become a structure that improves the aesthestics of its streetscapes but also inform the public of what Wyndham as a city can offer.

“Form Follows Availability”


Boathouse for Studley Park Personal Project, 2011

The project, undertaken during Architecture Design Studio: Water, was aimed at “Learning from the Masters” more specifically, Frank Lloyd Wright. In studying and analysing the works of Frank Lloyd Wright, his formal principles were used as precedents to design the Studley Park Boathouse whilst working in conjunction with the context of the site. The boathouse incorporates Wright’s principles of horizontality and cantilevering elements as well as playing special attention to the arrangement of facilities to ensure that it adhered to Wright’s method of composition. In designing this boathouse, it not only furthers the understanding of Frank Lloyd Wright’s work but also allows for other intepretations of his principles which may result in discovering personal designing preferences. The overall intent of this studio to study a “master” architect and understand their ways of designing provides a continuous cycle of reinterpretation and discovering new skills and insight about 10 designing.

FLUX Exhibition

CCA Architects & MEDIA Lab, 2009

Designing and construction of architecture has progressed since its recognition as a proffesional practice in 1450’s, what was previously a important means of communication between client and architect - two dimensional drawings - has now been mostly replaced by innovative computational design techniques. The introduction of digital technologies, such as parametric modelling and digital fabrication, have allowed for an evolution from being a representational tool to machines that allow architects to explore the design possibilities in the digital realm before materialising it into a physical object. Parametric modelling, as its name suggests, uses parameters to create a particular design whilst digital fabrication allows designers to explore and produce more complex geometries. The Flux installation in the California College of the Arts explores both of these technologies to emphasise the integration of digital practices and design. Produced from complex parametric modelling techniques and the college’s CNC(Computer Numerical Control) router, a series of undulating structures were created with the ability to expand and contract as the volume extends down the center of nave space11. The use of parametric modelling and customised scripts also allowed for quick adjustments to be made to the structure - thickness of the ribs, twisting geometry, perforated skins - and still be ready for fabrication. The abilities and possibilities that computational design provides should be recognized and adopted in designing the gateway for Wyndham city as it can assist in creating designs in unconventional forms15. The Flux exhibition demonstrates one aspect of computational design whereby the abilities of technology enable the structure to move and is an idea that could be incorporated into the 13 gateway to create a dynamic and interactive structure

“Architecture needs to be thought of less as a set of material products & more as a range of social and professional practices that sometimes lead to buildings “14 - Richard Williams



Digital Tea House

Students of University of Tokyo and Columbia, 2009

The Digital Tea House, a workshop ran by students from Columbia and the University of Tokyo, was aimed at creating three different pavillions that formed the connection between traditional culture and technology - represented through the Japanese tea house. Each of the pavillions incorporate the elements of a traditional tea house with the aid of the computer. One of the pavillions, 130008252010, named after the tea ceremony that took place on the 25th of August 2010 on 1pm utilizes Rhino and Grasshopper to determine the interior space and the filtration of sunlight (through the sun-shading device) as they were influenced by the concept of “sabi” which goes against the Western form of achieving geometry and balance in dividing their spaces17. The pieces of the pavillion were fabricated using CNC routing, however, to prevent students from falling into the trappings of having a perception that complex computer generated design can be easily produced with no regard to cost or culture, students were limited by constraints that required them to create realistic designs.

Both aspects of the tea house - feasibility and the connection between culture and technology - are highly relatable to designing the gateway for Wyndham city. As parametric design is emphasized for the gateway, it will be important to create a link between the city’s history and culture to the gateway to avoid confusion from the public over its existance and purpose. Having constraints that force us to consider how our final projects will be assembled is important in preventing us from creating a structure that will bear no resemblance in what Wyndham represents.

“Architecture needs mechanism that allow it to become connected to culture. It achives this by capturing the forces that shape society as material to work with it”


Airspace Tokyo Faulder Studios & Sean Ahlquist, 2007 20

“Scripting, as an approach to computational design, offers access to whole new ways of exploring design, but design remains always at the core”21 The role of the computer has shifted from merely being a two dimensional documenting tool to one that allows for another realm of exploration during the design process - resulting in the emergence of various projects that have had a deeper engagement with computers and achieving outcomes that may not be possible without the aid of computers. The Airspace Tokyo, a facade built for a multi use building, a contemporary project that expresses not only the aesthetic quailties of parametric design but also its functionality. The inspiration behind the facade stems from the previous use of the site - a house surrounded by a layer of dense vegetation. The result is a four layer laser cut screen of overlapping organic patterns, intended to resemble “artificial” vegetation to recreate the notion of an intermediate space that protects the inner building from the outer urban landscape22. Sean Ahlquist, one of the designers of the facade and a digital technologist, uses parametric software to create the patterns of the facade. As these patterns are made possible with the aid of computational design, one may question whether there is creativity involved or merely a generic script used to produce variations of the same pattern. Though the Airspace Tokyo runs the risk of being labelled generic and compared to China’s water cube or other preceding parametric skins, Alqhuist manages to customize the patterns so it doesn’t just act as a facade to the building but also become functional to the inner spaces of the building. The perforated facade functions as lighting for the photography studios (all naturally lighted), a privacy screen for the portion of the building that for private residences and a weather buffer for the building – all not possible without Alqhuist’s customized scripting of the patterns. In addition, the facade goes beyond just functional and becomes an experimentation of materials as it uses aluminium and plastic composites that are normally used for billboard backing and infrastructure protective coverings – exploring not only the possibilities of parametric software but also innovative ways of using common material. 19

“Its digital tools. With them we can break boundaries, They’ve changed the way we produce, the ways we craft and given us less of a division between all areas of design”26 Elena manferdini



Malpensa Airport Proposal Atelier Manferdini, 2012

The proposal for the Malpensa Airport by atelier Manferdini features a roof of parametric surfaces at different planes. The space being designed will serve as an exhibition space and pedestrian trajectory with roof gardens on either side. Manferdini’s work explores the possibilities of computational design and materiality not only in architecture but in other disciplines such as the fashion industry and product design - designing works that begin a process of educating people about computational design in various fields that allow for further exploration. The airport proposal is no different with the aim of it being to use repeating motifs as an outlet to play with the aesthetic and structural role of computation design. Though this can be categorized as just another parametric design, the reflective roof with lace-like motifs creates light filtration that changes as time and the angle shifts - offering light and shade to different areas and a different experience for the public. The structural element of this design comes into play in the need for the roof to appear weightless and still exist within another existing structure24. As burry says, a deeper engagement between the computer and the user will result in a greater range of outcomes and this is evident in Manferdini’s work whereby the role of the computer plays dual roles in the design. Though there are no existing structures that need to be taken into consideration when designing the gateway, the computer should not just be relied upon for purely aesthetic purposes but also consider how it can be used to incorporate the structural aspect of this structure.

Expression of Interest : Cut Research Project To add another level of understanding to the practices of parametric modelling, the cut research project is introduced in which application of basic parametric modelling tools occur. The process of experimenting with the various grasshopper definitions facilitates us in reproducing a case study that has utilized parametric techniques and thus inspiring us to envisage a concept that will influence our design for the Wyndham gateway.

Matrix Experimentations The first set of matrices that were produced are a result of experimentation with different combinations of the provided definitions. The intent of these matrices were to understand the possibilities and explore the changes that were occuring as different combinations of inputs, techniques and outtputs were combined - in each of these matrices a specific input was chosen and combined with several different associative techniques . The process of exploring and creating these matrices can relate to Kalay’s “Paradigm of Design”, in this case, it relates more to the process of “puzzle making”. There was no specific goal to create a specific geometry or pattern and therefore designing becomes a process of discovery that isn’t necessarily limited by constraints that might’ve surfaced as a result of setting goals. This method may be beneficial in the process of designing Wyndham’s gateway as it can generate unique results.

“Design is a process of discovery generating insights into problems that were previously not known” - Kalay

Matrix Experimentations

After understanding the geometries that can be produced using different inputs, techniques and outputs, the process of creating matrices becomes more goal orientated in terms knowing what kind of patterns that you want to achieve - the process of “problem solving� according to Kalay. These matrices combines two different geometries and having them offset at different angles to create a non-uniform grid. Having specific intentions creates constraints whereby any alternative solutions are tailored to meet those requirements. Applying such a design process to the designing of Wyndham’s gateway can be suitable as the gateway will be designed to meet the context of the site and what they represent, however, the end design may be limited to its typology.

Cut Research Project: Fabrication A first glimpse into translating our attemps at parametric modelling into a physical model.

Cut Experimentation: Airspace Tokyo Faulder Studios & Sean Ahlquist, 2007 Faulder Studio’s Airspace Tokyo was chosen to replicate as it reflected my personal interest in the voronoi geometry, evident through the selection of past precedents. The original intention of the facade was to replicate the abundant greenery that previously sat there through digital means. However, the screen also becomes beneficial to the interior spaces as it offered a form of “protection” to the external urban landscape - creating a distinction between the oublic and private spaces. The facade not only replicates the voronoi geometries but also relies on overlapping of patterns to create a three dimensional aspect to its facade which increases the density and reinforces the site’s previous use. The pattern was achieved using the voronoi component that were driven by a set of points that were previously done on rhino and offsetting the various curves that form at different distances. Creating the layers was achieved by moving the points to create new geometry and overlapping it with the previous layer. As the faulder studio did with its facade, four different sets of geometry were overlayed in this project. This experimentation highlights the possibilities of parametric design and the ease at which a variation of outcomes could be achieved by altering different values and points. The project as a whole can be implemented in Wyndham City, not in the sense that it acts as a privacy screen but can be used as a reveal to showcase what Wyndham has to offer. Additionally, also emphasize on how computational design can create the bridge between culture and technology.

Airspace Tokyo

Material Effects

The fabricated Voronoi pattern was subjected to different experimentations to explore and demonstrate the different effects that are made possible by this form. The first of the experimentations was to explore the different possibilities of what the material had to offer and this was done by twisting and bending the sheets. The sheets were bent both in the horizontal and vertical direction and both manages to hold their form that creates a different structure, as oppose to the facade that it serves as in the Airspace Tokyo project. Though both have the flexibility to bend in different directions, the extent of the forms it can create are limited due to the geometries that are created within it. - a greater range of forms may have been achieved if the density of shapes on a sheet are reduced to create a more sturdy base. The second experimentation involved freezing the sheet of Voronoi between ice to create moulds of the Voronoi pattern within the blocks of ice. The intent in doing this was to explore the representation of the patterns using different mediums and using ice as a representation was a somewhat successful choice as it displayed the dynamic changes as the ice melted. The experimentations of the Voronoi model allows us to experience and visualize the possibilities of what it can produce and consequentially give us an indication of whether it should or should not be integrated into our final design.

Cut Research: Banq Restaurant Office dA

Between the three reversed engineer projects within the group, the Banq restaurant was chosen to fabricate as it best represented the main ideas that the group was exploring which was looking at nature, whether it’d be animal or plant life, to find new ways to create innovative and sustainable designs. Part of the reason why the Banq restaurant was chosen was because of its interior, which featured overlapping ribs that followed the services of the building - reminiscent of the contours of a landscape.

Cut Research: Banq Restaurant

The undulating forms formed the surface of our model and alllowed for explorations of dynamic changes in animal and plant life to create patterns that emulate nature’s form or function. The first exploration follows more of the form and is intended to copy the growth of coral and how it responds to light. The pattern generated is suppose to represent the growth of corals in its prefered environment and its change in colour as it responds to different light intensities. The geometry on the panel hopefully emulating this and achieving a more three dimensional form through the density created by the overlapping.

The second exploration of nature inspired patterns intends to copy the function and looks at the fur of polar bears and how it insulates heat. Polar bears have hair that have a hollowed out centre to capture heat and also sunlight that can be stored in the bear’s darker underlayer of skin - the resulting patterns are meant to emulate the heat insulation of the bear’s fur. This could be adopted in reality and translated to become solar thermal collectors to collect heat and hopefully generate some electricity. This is extremely fitting in the context of Wyndham city as it has a contract with an energy company to generate electricity from landfill gass - this could be another outlet in how Wyndham can generate electricity.

Cut Research: Banq Restaurant

Two variations of our experimentations were fabricated and the resulting geometry on each panel is intended to emulate the form and functions of the pores of animal skin - in order to generate sometthing that will be beneficial and reflective of Wyndham’s efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to nature’s forms and function, as a group, we were interested in the changes in light that these panels could produce as it is our intent in the final project to create a gateway that enables a different experience at various times of the day. The decision making process in this research project references Kalay’s paradigm of “problem solving” as our decisions were driven by specific goals that had been created as a group.

EXPRESSION OF INTEREST The past precedents along with various experimentations undertaken during our Cut research project create part of the formwork for our designs in response to the brief Wyndham City has put forward. Precedents such as the Folded House and the Ford Calumet Information Centre influences the way that I should approach a concept and a technique - by not just implementing your ideas on a single dimension as highlighted by both of these examples. The Digital Teahouse Pavillion and Airspace Tokyo also become important examples in developing a case for innovation and bridge the gap between culture and technology- an important factor to consider in developing a design for Wyndham city to prevent isolating the residents from this highly computerized gateway. In addition to researching and analysing precedents to develop a concept, the experimentation with various grasshopper definitions provided a visual aid in understanding the possibilities and creating our owm criterias to determine what we wanted to further explore. The BANQ restaurant provided a good basis in experimenting the beginnings of our group’s concept of nature and processes. Different experimentations involving pressure and various lighting conditions were undertaken to reflect the dynamic qualities abundant in “air”, what became a main focus was how light filtered and what it created with the mere change in the direction of the light. What resulted from our research and experimentations was this idea of metamorphosis, not only from the driver’s point of view but also reflect the changes in the different times of the day and the lifestyle of Wyndham’s community - emphasizing on its label as the fastest growing municipality in Victoria. What results hopefully encapsulates the dynamic, ever changing community of Wyndham that remains memorable beyond the 30 second drive past.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES As someone who has a personal preference for handrawings over the powers of the computer, the challenges in this subject was to embrace the idea of a computer driven studio. In addition, the subject also called for an unexpected design proposal to create a structure that doesn’t have an intent to be occupied rather just be viewed in passing at high speeds. This required a different kind of thinking where considerations of how spaces should be arranged are substituted with considerations of how can this be viewed from the perspective of the driver - not necessarily a negative change as it requires us to consider designing beyond just your typical commercial building. The introduction to the applications of parametric modelling through the Cut Research Project has been somewhat successful and at times restrictive. It has provided a good basis for us to explore the results of the various grasshopper definitions however, in the midst of all the exploration, there is a realization that the outcomes of geometry produced are more facade based. Though I understand that there is always the option to investigate and further your own understandings, a lack of time and a poor ability to grasp the concept of how different grasshopper commands function prove to be a bigger obstacle. However in saying so, the introduction of various skills and techniques in the world of computational and parametric design in a matter of weeks has allowed for an extremely diverse and interesting learning experience. The change in learning experiences will hopefully generate a different approach to designing and translate into a successful design for Wyndham City.

Project Proposal As with every project, the beginnings often start with the intent to create a structure that will create an influential impact on its viewers. Wyndham is no different as its brief begins with a statement to create an “eye catching structure that enriches the municipality� - leaving for an open ended exploration of the endless possibilities of what the gateway may be.

Our explorations into what the Wyndham gateway can be, began with going back and revisiting our criteria that were presented during our expression of interest - abstract before literal, dynamic relationship to the site, day & night time viewings, a dichotic experience upon entering and exiting Wyndham, relfective of the culture of Wyndham. These criteria formed a guideline for the group in the search for a form that best represented our concept of Metamorphosis. The idea behind metamorphosis was not only to emphasize on Wyndham’s title as the “fastest growing municipality in Victoria” but also capture the evolution of its hitory, its community, nature and the environment

In the aftermath of our expression of interest presentation, it was suggested that we define our own design constraints that drive our design - still following a similar approach to Bjarke Ingel’s approach in designing the 5 Pillars of Bawardi but not being so literal in the translation of any site constraints. Some of the constraints that we will have to address is undoubtedly the need to not obstruct the views of the nearby service station and also the lack of electricity on site - a constraint that might affect our aim to provide a night time viewing experience. These constraints will be addressed as we progress further into the design process of the gateway.

FORM XPLORATION An aspect of our criteria that we identified as being important in influencing the form of the gateway was its ability to identify with the culture of Wyndham. From Wyndham’s website, we saw their motto of “City, coast and country” and was something that can capture what Wyndham as a growing municipality represented today - a merging point between Melbourne and Geelong.

A reinterpretation and combination of these two forms

After establishing our focus in what our gateway should represent, our exploration of form became driven by this notion of having a structure that becomes an indicator for the city, coast and country for Wyndham. As a result, we chose to further explore these two forms not only because they are representatives of that notion but they also address some of our group’s criteria that allow us to further develop it.




We decided to further explore the triangular form with a rounded edge - believing that it’ll provide a softer and less confronting look for the viewers. Interpreting the motto of “City, Coast and Country”, we saw it as a reference to Wyndham’s growing population and saw it as an opportunity to capture the growth but also provide an informal directional indicator for the passerby’s - an indication of where they are going and where the population of Wyndham are coming from. Building on the intial triangular form, the base triangle was positioned so it was pointed towards Melbourne and Geelong. And as way of representing the shift in focus towards Wyndham’s growing population, the triangle is gradually twisted and extruded to finish with a triangle that points towards Wyndham. The two triangles become representational of the dynamics between Wyndham and Melbourne and Geelong.













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The structure doesn’t remain a solid mass as it limited our options in creating a different viewing experience during the day and night, instead it is sectioned and hollowed out to allow the sunlight to penetrate through and cast a variety of shadows during the different times of the day. The structure now also provides an illusion of moving lines that blend into the landscape as the drivers past by. In addition, the construction of a solid structure would’ve required specially manufactured pieces at specific sizes to adhere to transportation regulations. We chose to utilize the mound on site A for our gateway as it best suited our intentions in creating this structure that acts as an indicator of where the population of Wyndham are coming from. The gateway sits at 25m high to create enough of an impact on passerby’s that it is recognizable from a far.


TH POSSIBILITI S.. With the suggestion to further explore our CUT research project, we attempted to incorporate it into our structure to achieve similar shadow effects and further explore how it could add another dimension of dynamism to our gateway

The overlapping of our individual cut modules onto a solid surface to achieve a similar shadow casting effect

Instead of applying each of the individual modules to our structure, we wanted to explore how the structure were to perform if the curves itself were applied to the structure as a whole. Light studies were done for both options and found that having individual modules placed onto the structure may not be the best option as the shadows from the modules above run the risk of completely covering the ones below as each module will have to be quite large to be able to be viewed from a drivers perspective. As a result, only a single shadow is casted. The other option of having the structure follow the contours of the curves created a greater variety in shadows as the curves were a bit more subtle and less extruded. Once the curves had been applied to each layer of the structure, the intensity and variety of curves become driven by an image sampler in grasshopper. The capabilities of parametric modelling are recognized in this component of the project as we are able to produce different versions of our gateway each with a different set of curves that are driven by an image - similar to the production method in the flux exhibition where grasshopper facilitated for quick adjustments. OPTION #1 INDIVIDUAL MODULES









Of the 20 different variations that we produced, 4 were chosen as possible options for our gateway. We chose the 4 options on the basis of how it would look to the drivers passing by and taking into consideration how it would perform at during different times of the day and consequently also how it can add to the experience of the driver as they come from both directions. The general consensus of the group was to select profiles with curves that were subtly spread over the surface, avoiding those with a high density of curves that ran throughout the whole surface of the structure. The final 4 options were put through light studies by setting up a sunpath to map the light that penetrates through at different times of the day. The light studies were done through the “SetOneDaySunAnimation� command in Rhino, allowing us to set up the sun to view the gateway at 3 hour intervals.









































From the light studies, we selected a final form. Option 1 was chosen as it generated the biggest change as the sun hits it at different times of the day. In doing these light studies, we also had to address how we were going to create a viewing experience at night for the drivers. Our solution was to have light poles that run along the perimeter of the hollwed section. One of the site constraints was that there is no electricity on site, therefore these lights will have to be solar powered. The solar powered lights will work in a similar way to the installation created for the “Light in Jerusalem Festival” where solar panels are installed around the site to store energy during the day and power the lights at night.

Solar powered light installation at the “Light in Jerusalem Festival”


Additional Vray Light Studies

View from the driver’s perspective




View towards


View towards Geelong

JOINTS The joinery for the structure derives from a simple box joint that gets translated into a more complex design to suit the gateway. Each of the individual layers are slotted into ribbed structures that sit on the inside of the structure to be hidden away from view. The form of the rib structure are designed to mirror the curves of the layers itself in an effort to blend it into the structure. Six of these ribbed structure are positioned within the structures and have slots that have been specially manufactured to fit the thickness of the individual layers itself.


The construction of the gateway itself follows a similar process to an aeroplane assembly. Each layer and rib structure is to be manufactured off site in smaller segments in order to adhere to transportation regulations. Once produced, the supporting rib structure will be installed first and followed by the individual layers starting from the bottom. As each of the layers are produced in segmented pieces, they consist of a similar joinery system as above where pieces will be specially manufactured so pieces can be easily slotted into another - these joints are further reinforced with the use of riveting.

12 weeks later... At the beginning of semester, my opinions towards grasshopper and parametric modelling were somewhat wary - believing that the designs produced by various programs are often over complicated and yet generic. However, having experience the process of designing our own projects with the computer serving as the main focus has provided an insight into the approaches of parametric modelling and a shift in opinions - maybe not a wholehearted embrace of it but not a complete disregard. The most significant learning curve of this subject has been to learn about parametric modelling with no prior background knowledge of it. The process of learning it involved understanding how to operate grasshopper, which proved to be more difficult than I initially though with subjective video tutorials and manuals - though i understand the difficulties in attempting to teach such a large group of students. Initial analysis of works that utilized parametric modelling were helpful in recognizing why it was being encouraged and advocated for. The benefits of parametric modelling, which was its ability to accomodate for quick changes in design and still be efficient in producing a physical model, was recognized in our own gateway project .Our project underwent various tests to achieve its final form, all facilitated by grasshopper and its abilities to recognize the minute change in details in a definition - achieving actions that would not be otherwise possible. The work over the course of the semester has provided a good base for us to have the option of continuing on our own explorations of parametric modelling. As the architecture discourse continues, it’s important to acknowledge its evolution and the “style� of parametric modelling, as Patrick Schumacher refers to it as, will undoubtedly have a significant contribution to it. In terms of including it in future works, it may not be a significant feature in each and everyone of my works however, it would be ignorant to completely dismiss it. Thus the aim is to achieve a balance of parametric modelling and human instinct that will hopefully create works that can have the best of both worlds.

References 1. 2. Cathelijne Nuijsink, 2011, Metropolis Magazine, A House Folded, <> 3. Ted Savage, 2011, Moco Designs, House Folded by Alphaville, <> 4. 5. 6. 7 - 9. Studio Gang Architects, 2008, Ford Calumet Environmental Center, <> 10. House for George Sturges, <> 11. Sarah Owens, 2009, Califronia College of the Arts, Flux Exhibition, <> 12. 13. 14. Williams, Richard, 2005, ‘Architecture and Visual Culture’, in Exploring Visual Culture : Definitions, Concepts, Contexts, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, pg. 106 15. Kolarevic, Branko, 2003, “Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing”, New York; London: Spon Press, 16. 17. Ko & Liotta, Koan & Salvator-John, 2010, Decoding Culture Parametrically: Digital Tea House Case Studies, pg. 334 18. 19. 20. 21. Burry, Mark, 2011, Scripting Cultures: Architectural Design and Programming, Chichester: Wiley, pg. 12 22. Faulder Studio, 2007, “Airspace Tokyo”, <> 23. 24. Grozdanic, Lidija, 2012, “Malpensa Airport Proposal - Atelier Manferdini”, <> 25. 26. Manferdini, Elena, 2010, “ Aterlier Manferdini”, <>

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