letter from the editor. I sit here, one week removed from one of the most historic and contentious elections in our nation’s history. With record breaking turnout for voters, we saw democracy in action, our voices being heard. Voting is one of the most important actions we can take to be active members of change and influence in our society. Yet we sit here, watching on the edges of our seats, expecting more unrest and division across political divides. So I give you this. A magazine about what it means to be an American, to see the American culture, to experience the quintessential “American Dream.” But what is the American Dream? That’s the question of our lives, of generations to come. Is it one ideal? Many ideals? Simply an unreachable ghost philosophy that died many years ago and haunts us to this day? I don’t have the answer. But I believe the answers to this question start within these pages. We explore different perspectives and characters and movements throughout American history. We define and develop the salient culture around us, all intertwined with our history and our hopes for the future. That’s what I hope this magazine is and what it will be. I hope years down the road, even future generations will reflect on this issue and continue working toward a better future for our society and our American Dreams. I chose this photo because I have been privileged enough to receive a college educaiton, something that is typical of the traditional American Dream. I am working towards my MBA now as a graduate student, and I often reflect back on my four years of undergrad. As I dream about the coming years and my future, I dream big. I dream passionately. I dream constitently. But I recognize that access is limited and dreamers have different ways of approaching their goals. So I hope to continue to embody the ideals of creating an American Dream that is accessible and passionate for all who want to continue forward, forging new paths together to a better and brighter future.
Sincerely, Alex Luther Beaver’s Digest Editor in Chief
TABLE OF CONTENTS 4 What is the American Dream? Exploring the foundation of the American Dream
6 Column: Exploring the Evolution of the American Dream How the American Dream has changed over many decades
9 Music through the Decades: American Style Going through the history of music and it’s impact on culture
12 Pulitzer and Preserving the American Dream Profile of a writer and journalist who influenced the American Dream
20 Honoring the History of Hawai’i Influence of colonizer culture in Hawai’i’s statehood
24 Equality: Process, Progress and Preservation Major movements towards equality
30 Friend or Foe: Fast Food in America How the fast food industry influenced the US and food culture
33 The Flight of a First Generation Student Experiences and struggles in college, an aspect of the American Dream
37 International Perspectives International students’ perspective and experience with the American Dream
40 American Dreamers Where is the American Dream in contemporary culture
WHAT IS THE AMERICAN DREAM? WRITER: Jessica Li PHOTOGRAPHER: Ridwana Rahman The United States is supposed to embody the American Dream, but does it really? What is the reality in comparison to the expectations, and does the American Dream still exist today? When asked what comes to mind with the mention of “American Dream,” Isabel Nunez Perez, Associated Students of Oregon State University Student Body President and a fourth year student studying political science, answers with “the origin of how I came to be.” The roots of the American Dream lay on the basis of the Declaration of Independence, which states that “all men are created equal” and that gifted to us are the rights of “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.” James Truslow Adams first came up with the term “American Dream” in 1931 in his book Epic of America, and according to his description, it is “that dream of a land in which life should be better and richer and fuller for everyone, with opportunity for each according to ability or achievement.” This idea of the American Dream traces back to the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries when the Puritans had fled from England to pursue religious freedom in the New World. In later years, the American Dream was further accelerated by immigration into the U.S. due to its strong appeal.
were already born in the U.S. She grew up in Mexico and then moved to the U.S., and Rodriguez finds that she doesn’t fit into a certain category that is solely Mexican or American.
Rather, with her overlapping identity, she reminds herself Nunez Perez shares one such story as it relates to her own to not become lost in someone background. Her parents had “Each person has their own story and else’s dreams, but to express herself moved to the United States from truthfully and follow her own path. you’re going to find different ways Mexico because of their association Thus, Rodriguez demonstrates that in for you to grow and find your own with the American Dream and the the process of creating ourselves and opportunities it has to offer in order American Dream.” responding to adaptation, we should to create a better life for themselves - Metzin Rodriguez not forget about who we are and and their future generations where we came from. Essentially, it is Of course, this motivation applies to many others, and upon our differences that we should be proud of in contributing reflection, we realize that we are grateful for our parents and to the development and innovation of America. ancestors who helped us build up to the lives we have today. Similarly, Jennifer Macias, assistant professor of According to Metzin Rodriguez, ASOSU Vice President and a history at OSU, believes that the meaning of the American fifth year student studying bioresource research, the American Dream is different for everyone. In her research, she argues Dream experience is different for immigrants and those who that, historically, the American Dream has been thought to
be attainable by anyone through hard work and adherence to moral values. Macias also brings up the myth of the American Dream as represented in media, which denotes “a cookie-cutter house in the suburbs with a white picket fence, a happily married heterosexual couple who have two children and a dog.” Nevertheless, Macias has her own view of the American Dream. “For me as the daughter of an immigrant family, the American Dream has symbolized an opportunity to create a better future for each new generation,” said Macias via email. “My parents did everything that they could to provide me with the best opportunity to succeed, even if that meant fighting through adversity and discrimination. For them and for me, education was one of the most important tools in achieving the American Dream.” Macias argues that the reality is
that not everyone is able to achieve it, especially minority populations, due to challenges such as racism, social injustice, unequal access to education, and unequal opportunities within the workforce. This is based very heavily on her research in which Macias studies the lower likelihood of achieving the American Dream in regards to Latinos and Latinas living in the Rocky Mountain West after World War II. Rodriguez agrees with the belief that the U.S. is a land of opportunity, but says that it comes with a cost. With different ideas and immigrants come cultural clashes that are worsened by systemic racism and discrimination. Nunez Perez reasons that the discrimination is a consequence of the establishment of the U.S. as a country founded on colonialism, and it hasn’t always been accepting towards all immigrants. Despite this, though, there is still worth in the American Dream. “In my personal experience, things that I’ve studied and conversations I’ve had with people, I’ve been kind of disillusioned with the American Dream,” said Nunez Perez, “but there’s still that value, that energy and hunger to do better for yourself and your community even though there’s so many things acting against you. My parents say, you want to strive to be better and do better and provide better. That’s the thing that keeps you pushing forward.” Among the students, Nunez Perez notices the principles of the American Dream being practiced. Students work together to support one another, and student organizers keep international and immigrant students in mind and generate resources for them. The intention is that they want to see each other succeed. “OSU is committed to diversity initiatives, the success and well-being of its students, only a few key points that demonstrate the university’s commitment to the success of its students,” said Macias. One American Dream value that inspires Rodriguez is the idea that there is hope to make your dreams come true, and anything can be possible about them. She says that like a “marathon,” you might encounter failures along the way, but you overcome them eventually and keep going. “Each person has their own story and you’re going to find different ways for you to grow and find your own American Dream,” said Rodriguez.
Column: Exploring the Evolut WRITER: Zoe Sandvigen PHOTOGRAPHER: Solomon Myers If you Google what the American Dream is, a definition given by Oxford Languages appears. It reads, the American Dream, noun, the ideal by which equality of opportunity is available to any American, allowing the highest aspirations and goals to be achieved. So, by one definition, the American Dream is simply an equal opportunity given to all in the hopes to be great. When I think of a time when this term was coined though, I think of white men in tailored suits and gelled hair. I think of Chevrolet Bel Air convertibles driving past a diner with young girls on rollerskates. Housewives with hair placed up tight and a casserole in the oven. White fences. Mowed lawn. Suburban luxury and a bustling downtown. Scotch on ice and a feeling of hope and ambition. What a time that must have been. One of a society simultaneously building itself into the greatest country in the world while fostering a race war that would unknowingly bleed into our country today. When I think of the reality of the American Dream I think of turmoil. I think of a country that forgot millions of its brothers and sisters. I think of corporate white CEOs and young Black men taking out their empty liquor bottles. I think of soul music. Grit. Strength and defeat. Women raising children and male anger that can only foster from entitlement. The American Dream is a lot of things, but most importantly– dead. Well, the original notion of what it used to be at least. In 1931, writer James Truslow Adams wrote of this dream for the first time which focused more on idealism than materialism. Over the decades to come, maybe this ideology held up, but something much more precious was left behind– the right to every American to even have a dream. Brett Burkhardt is a sociology professor at Oregon
State University and he’s taken a research driven lens to discuss the American Dream as it exists today. “The American Dream (AD) typically refers to the ability of a person to exceed the social standing of his or her parents. This is ‘upward intergenerational mobility.’ So the question about the AD is really a question about whether and to what extent upward intergenerational mobility exists in the US.”
tion of the American Dream resource-poor offspring to ‘get ahead’ of their parents, which makes the American Dream unattainable for many Americans.” America is known for her beauty. Independence. Commitment to human rights, liberty and the indefinite pursuit of happiness. This is the ideology the American Dream was founded on. What needs to be flushed out though are the false perceptions that have defined the perpetuation of this fantasy. The American Dream is white. The American Dream is male. The American Dream is materialistic and helped drive our country into the economically and socially divided dystopia we live in today. Kellie Overman, a third year sociology student, gives her insight how she perceives the American Dream in today’s world. “The American Dream was definitely designed to build up white males and is part of the reason why it is so hard to attain now because it is not inclusive to all. America is a divided country. More than ever, Americans are drastically divided on social issues such as race, gender, the economy, climate change, etc. The division is so stark that it has created an increasingly volatile environment.” With this being said, Overman still believes that the American Dream exists, there are just a lot of barriers in place that keep it from being easy to achieve–even after all these years.
Burkhart also states that measuring intergenerational mobility can be done by comparing net worth from one generation to the next. However, this isn’t always the case. “In particular, African American households are much more likely than white households to be downwardly mobile, relative to white households. The pattern of wealth transmission makes it very difficult for
What the American Dream has become today is something even more beautiful and painful, but that’s because it’s working hard. Let’s circle back to the original definition, the ideal by which equality of opportunity is available to any American, allowing the highest aspirations and goals to be achieved. Since the 1930s, the climate of the US has become very different, but our values are still the same. We’re fighters for what we believe in. We’re fighting for women’s rights, the rights of minorities and immigrants, the liberation of our LGBTQ+ family, questioning our
constitution, questioning ourselves, our way of life. We are still fighting for the freedom of opportunity for all. So did the American Dream die or did it rise from its own ashes like a phoenix? We’ve always been a country of fighters. Maybe not always in the best way, but I believe our founding fathers fought because they wanted a better tomorrow. A place for our country to grow and thrive. And we have. America is beautiful in all her glory. We have pride in what we are which is why it’s so difficult to realize that maybe what we’ve become isn’t good enough anymore. Jacob Ryan is a fourth year sociology student who believes that maybe the American Dream is still alive, but has taken a new form.
“The American dream was designed to elevate a select few individuals as a template for all others to follow and aspire to be. It would be impossible for everyone to reach this state of being as that is not how the core concepts of capitalism operate,” Ryan said. What about the Black American Dream, the Native Dream, the Latinx Dream, the Women’s Dream? Until every single one of us is included within the dreams of our country it isn’t a dream, it’s a task. We are fighters and we must raise our aim once again not as enemies but as neighbors, as brothers and sisters,
“The American Dream was definitely designed to build up white males and is part of the reason why it is so hard to attain now because it is not inclusive to all.” - Kellie Overman
“I do believe the American dream is still alive today. Although, as a collective society today we are less inclined to focus purely on material possessions, the drive to become financially successful still drives many of the activities we partake in today such as going to college.” The American Dream has led us for decades like a mantra. A goal everyone keeps in the back of their mind when they’re working two jobs, spending sleepless nights studying, driving their old car until it falls apart. We work for a better tomorrow, but what about today. When I say we are a capitalist society I say Marx was right. We work ourselves into our own graves looking towards the future– but what if we never get there. The American Dream needs to be revised to take away this idea of building a better tomorrow and focus on fixing the problems of today. It’s hard to admit that our country of freedom is lived with chains around our wrists. Yes, everyone has their rights, but what the American Dream failed to mention is being white means you are many steps ahead to begin with.
We can’t blame the generations of the past. It’s impossible to know what you don’t know, and even our society today is probably clueless in the eyes of those who will come after us. But we are smart enough to know better. All of us should be squirming in our seats when we look out the window. We are a country of equality yet 244 years later, millions scream at the top of their lungs to be seen. To be treated with respect. To be heard. To be wanted. To be cared for. To be valued just as the constitution promised. The American Dream isn’t a dream anymore, but it can be. The best part about this is that we have the ability to change. We have the freedom to decide that we want something better than what’s in front of us. We are the new world, the free world, a world where justice is engraved into the foundation of who we are. So let’s not follow the American Dream–let us reinvent it–make it ours again, and make it something we’re proud of that reminds us why we traveled here hundreds of years ago.
Music Throughout the Decades: American Style
WRITER: Zoe Sandvigen PHOTOGRAPHER: Jess Hume-Pantuso
“Every aspect of American culture has been transformed in some way to fit our modern society. An important part of any culture is the art that surrounds it: music, dance, creation, imagery. One of the most defining aspects of a people is their music, and America has no shortage of it. The American Dream originated in the 1930s so we’re going to start there.”
1930s Louis Armstrong, jazz musician One of the most influential faces of jazz music and culture. His trumpet was his sword and he slayed with it. Not only this, but he was a producer, vocalist, actor and public figure.
Billie Holiday, beautiful vocalist She helped define swing music and pushed the boundaries of jazz music while incorporating new tempos and rhythmic patterns. She had an incredible career spanning 26 years after overcoming a tumultuous childhood.
Duke Ellington, American jazz composer His career spanned over six decades until his death in 1974. He was an American composer and led a jazz orchestra to a lifetime of success. A true legend.
1950s Elvis Presley, commonly known as the King
1940s Ella Fitzgerald, American jazz singer She was known for her impeccable timing and ability to improvise almost perfectly. Some even referred to her as the First Lady of Song.
Frank Sinatra, singer, producer, actor and icon of the 20th century He sold over 150 million copies worldwide, putting him up there as one of the most popular localists in history.
Perry Como, singer and TV personality Perry touched the hearts of America. His career spanned just about half a century where he recorded exclusively for RCA Victor starting in 1943.
Andre Kostelanetz, Russian-born American composer He was a popular conductor and organizer who was key in shaping the major components in contemporary orchestra music.
Chuck Berry, musician and guitarist Commonly known for coining his infamous moves of running back and forth on stage strumming his guitar. He was a singer, songwriter and pioneer of what would become modern rock and roll.
I can’t even pick three here so I’m giving you a list: The Beatles, The Rolling Stones, The
I’m talking Woodstock, LSD, David Bowie, sex, drugs and rock and roll.
Doors, Stevie Wonder, Marvin Gaye, The Temptations, Jimi Hendrix, Led Zeppelin, Pink Floyd, King Crimson, the list literally
Instead of listing artists here I want to talk about an event that changes American music and history forever–Woodstock.
goes on and on. Selfishly, this is when my favorite music starts so let’s just jump in.
Led Zeppelin, one of the greatest bands ever They’ve toured all corners of the world ten times over. Somehow four incredibly talented musicians found each other and created some of the most melodic, groundbreaking music that we could have imagined.
The Rolling Stones, equally one of the greatest bands of all time. The Beatles, you already know I don’t have to say anything else here.
Jimi Hendrix, singer, songwriter and godly guitarist He gave us heaven on earth then he left all at the young age of 27.
He single handedly shaped American culture, but it should be noted a lot of his moves and style came from African American blues artists that weren’t as recognized at the time.
Though the festival took place in August of ‘69, it shaped the decade to come. It was insanity, chaos. Masses of nudity, drugs, they caterers ran out of food, the medical tents were flooded with people– but the music. If you were anyone who was anyone, you played this festival. The most iconic performance actually came the day it ended. Jimi Hendrix was supposed to close out the festival, but due to weather conditions and a number of other things, he wasn’t able to. Instead, he played at 9 a.m. the morning after where he famously performed his rendition of the Star Spangled Banner. Something so moving, and so political it will bring tears to your eyes. And that’s all I’m gonna say about the ‘70s. Well, all that and maybe disco.
1980s Some big names you’ll recognize are
Cyndi Lauper, Madonna, Michael Jackson, Def Leppard. Michael Jackson, most iconic pop icon Madonna, pop queen
1990s Not only grunge: alternative, punk, hip hop, rap, EDM– David Bowie even made a drum and bass album.
She served us hit after hit that every teenage girl in American knew the lyrics too. She took pop and made it sexy, fresh and relevant.
We see the rise of Nirvana, Snoop Dog, the
Def Leppard, hair band
Artists from all walks of life and all genres were huge sensations. There’s not one artist to highlight because not one genre dominated. The 1990’s paved the way for what our music industry looks like today.
Tight clothes, big hair, make-up, ego, sex and sweat. The 1980s were simultaneously a decade of rock and roll, new-age rock, pop and electronic. That’s what makes it so unique.
Spice Girls, Elton John, the Notorious B.I.G, Radiohead, Britney Spears, Janet Jackson.
Present And now here we are, in the 2000’s and 2010’s. Well, 2020 now I guess. Music continues on this path of diversity. We have hundreds of genres that are recognized and created within. Now more than ever we have access to millions of songs on our phones everyday. We have the internet. We can share our music with the world and vise versa. Music has and will always be a way for people to connect and express themselves. That’s what makes it so beautiful, because it’s full of emotion. This is a small list in the grand scheme of what music has encompassed over the decades, but it has shaped our culture and it’s definitely shaped our dreams.
Pulitzer and Preserving the American Dream
WRITER: Will Hawkinson PHOTOGRAPHER: Nathan Simmons
The First Amendment, the power to free speech and a right to information, is a powerful tool that all Americans share as citizens. Joseph Pulitzer, a people’s hero in journalism, not only personifies the American Dream, but he executes the way every American should try to fight for justice. In an atmosphere of chaos that is current day America, the man stands out like a lighthouse in a storm. As a statement to his impact in American culture, the Pulitzer prize was built, encouraging journalists to strive for the truth. Pulitzer never had much. He was born in Hungary in 1847 with a handful of different health problems. Bad eyesight, poor hearing, and senses that never seemed to work. However, even with the odds against him, he found a driving sensation. He decided to fight. Volunteering for multiple military organizations, Pulitzer would be denied except for one. The only military organization that would allow an unhealthy, blind man into their service was the United States Union Army. He boarded a boat traveling to a country that was being torn in half, finding himself in the middle of the most bloody catastrophe in American history, The Civil War. The war proved to be a wicked force for the young soul. Without knowing a lick of English, he was drafted into a special European division for the Union army. This was his first experience of being discriminated against due to his immigrant status. Since these European soldiers were immigrants, they were stigmatized, stereotyped and rejected by other American soldiers. After the war, the need to be recognized by the Amerians he fought for grew in his heart. He decided that he was
not going to be put at a disadvantage because of the languages he spoke or didn’t speak. Yet again, Pulitzer found himself pursuing another fight, but this time it was a fight to prove the equality of those not born within the boundaries of America. He studied English vigorously in St. Louis, Missouri. His health disadvantages and citizenship may have undermined his social status, but Pulitzer decided that the norms of American culture, the norms of privilege, would be his mission to fight. During his studies, he made a game of chess between two different men his focus for the afternoon. After a bad move, Pulitzer critiqued one of the men’s decision and expressed reasons why that move should not have been played. The man he critiqued happened to be an editor at the Westliche Post, the leading German Daily. Apparently, Pulitzer’s willingness to speak out and criticize, a key part of his future, impressed the editor, and a job was soon offered to the young Pulitzer. And so began a career in journalism, a field in which he soared to new heights. Geri Migielicz is a winner of a Pulitzer prize and has an illustrious career in journalism. Now, she advises aspiring writers at Stanford University. When asked how important journalism is in America she expressed the absolute pertinence of the platform in itself. “Journalism is critical to a thriving democracy. Citizens need accurate and verified information in order to make decisions about voting and participate in local government. Journalism also serves an important watchdog role under the First Amendment to shed light on abuses of governmental and corporate power. In a capacity for advocacy and for framing policy, the news media performs
an important, if not formally recognized social function in democracy.” In the field of journalism, Pulitzer found the real fight. With his new career, revelations about the tainted nature of American elites came into his focus. Those who were born with everything, money, big houses, powerful jobs and grandiose social statuses taunted him. Here is a man, born with nothing but the ability to fight for what he thought was right, being met with some of the most privileged people in the country. When Geri Migielicz was asked if journalism is one of the best ways to express the First Amendment, she said in an email, “An informed citizenry is one that deeply understands issues, the law and legislative remedies to problems, most of which can be understood through reporting by a free and independent press.” Journalism was the tool to use his voice in order to find correction. During his career, Pulitzer founded a form of journalism that found a firm root, yellow journalism. Exaggeration was the name of the game, but even though it sometimes seemed too big to be true, it proved to be an effective way of showing what an event really was. Pulitzer would use this method to make the corruption in America seem bigger than it really was; however, it never discredited him because it caught the eye of the reader.
It’s even written in our Constitution that it should do so; however, because of Joseph Pulitzer, American culture changed for the better. Before him, our culture was superficial in a manner of speaking. Nobody really cared about what American elites were doing, or even how they got into power. Due to Pulitzer’s influence, a fight for balance, equality and justice entered the picture like it never had been before. Migielicz also expressed the imimportance of the first amendment in today’s tumultuous political climate. “When platforms have near monopoly power and vast, instantaneous reach, there is a responsibility that comes with that reach. A ‘hands-off’ stance on free speech affords fringe and violent groups access to far greater audiences than they would find without these huge platforms.” The American Dream is a value that every American carries within their hearts. Each dream is unique and special, creating a diverse, beautiful country. Everyone will pursue their dream in different ways, and unfortunately, some will give up. Pulitzer’s dream was never stated. There are no quotes that describe what he desired the most. Instead, we have his actions, which illustrate what he really wanted. He chose to call out those who needed to be called out, proving to Americans that every dream does not necessarily need to be materialized.
Nothing was going to change
Instead, his dream was for unless the reader found it to be a “Journalism is critical to a thriving change. As an immigrant, he knew problem. America is always about democracy. Citizens need accurate the inequality in our culture, so he “bigger is better,” and Pulitzer found ways to try to change it. His and verified information in order to dream was justice, and he used would capitalize off of this notion. Readers would find American make decisions about voting and journalism and our constitutional corruption as an outrageous participate in local government.” rights to free speech to pursue culture which had no reason for that ideal. - Geri Migielicz support. Pulitzer is the one to We live in a world full of turmoil thank for bringing foul events into and chaos. The political climate in America has become the light, bringing real change for those less privileged toxic, and fighting between this schismed country has than the ones being called out. ensued. If Pulitzer were alive today, he would fight. He Joseph Pulitzer was a man that was full of frustration, would fight for the right to free speech. He would fight for an emotion so strong that it changed the landscape of healthy discord. He would fight for knowing the truth. He American culture. Journalism always fought for the people. would fight for justice.
Fashion Fuses with Cult WRITER: Jeremiah Estrada PHOTOGRAPHER: Scott Schmidt Remember when you were a kid and you dug through your parents’ closet being amazed by some of the old clothes they have? There are lots to appreciate about fashion throughout the years by looking back on the past of what once was. The concepts in fashion’s style are practically endless: from bell bottoms to neon-colored clothing to crop tops. The times have changed and so have the clothes people have worn, and these have all evolved within the past few decades. The style trends from many years ago to today can reflect heavily on the unique culture that the United States has.
1950s The first decade we’ll take a look at is the 50s where men’s fashion moved toward a more casual style and on the flip side women approached elegant and formal types of fashion. These polar opposites included clothing for women such as dresses and matching skirt sets that were guided by a straight and slim silhouette. Menswear that took over during these years were emphasized by youth and working-class men that had pieces like velvet-collared jackets and narrow trousers. A famous fashion icon from this era was James Dean who had a brief career in film where he was seen to sport a white t-shirt, jeans and a red jacket. There was a divide in what each gender wore in this decade, but each group had unique stylistic choices to them that is still remembered today.
1960s Broad trends took over this decade across all ages and for men and women. The styles that were known to be cultivated by the ladies included ones that focused on elegance and youthfulness. Men took on themes in clothing relating to popular rock stars, military influence, and an increase in color and patterns. Women were all about the skirts, from skirt suits to miniskirts, all of which were playful additions to their wardrobes while maintaining a simple look. Menswear too became more casual and followed looks such as suits with bright colors and flared trousers. A notable fashion icon from this era was movie star Audrey Hepburn who embraced the decade’s progressive fashion and the femininity of it all. As the years went by, more hippie influence was on the horizon which ushered in items like loose-fitting clothing and tie-dye shirts.
ture throughout History
1970s The transition from the 60s to the 70s saw a bold selection of colors and patterns grab the attention of many. Women consumed glamorous looks and men chose suit types that adopted fabrics such as plaid and polyester. The decade began with a continuation of hippie wear along with the use of handmade materials and more freedom in girls’ attire. Men’s fashion had an emphasis on tall and lean figures while following bolder and brighter colors and patterns in pieces such as suits and tuxes. Mick Jagger served as a fashion icon during this time with the charm seen in his three-piece suit with a paisley shirt. The 70s was a pinnacle of fashion and a staple in the way vintage clothing is seen now.
1980s A phrase that captures this era of fashion can be simply put as “bigger means better.” Clothing from these years tended to go over the top with shoulder pads, power suits and bold colors. Stylish sportswear was embraced by women and a romantic style was adopted as well. Men’s fashion took note of the fitness craze as well along with workwear and preppy designs. Princess Diana was a well-known fashion icon in this decade with her puffed sleeves and glam embellishments which reflected on those popular trends. These years were known as the time for power dressing and it is clear to see with the boldness in many outfits.
1990s With the century coming to a close, fashion trends were becoming more casual. Staples from the 90s included oversized clothes, jeans and grunge. Minimalism was big among women with a move towards less glamorous looks and more about punk styles such as biker shorts and leggings and the desire for vintage clothing. Menswear had influence from bands and hip-hop as well as urban and dressy casual looks that could be described by outfits with khakis, untucked shirts and flannel. Child stars Mary-Kate and Ashley Olsen served as a great influence on fashion in this decade with their coordinated clothing, overalls and dresses to which many young girls looked up to them. These times had a big emphasis on casual styles while paying attention to various grunge looks.
2000s From scarf headbands to denim vests, there were a variety of trends that caught the eye of many in the fashion world. To start the century off strong, womenswear emerged with different casual looks. These included tracksuits, low rise jeans and fringe. Men followed these concepts with much leisurewear such as sweatshirts, cargo pants and sneakers. A fashion icon from this decade was pop star Britney Spears. What she brought to the table was her fearless styles like crop tops and denim dresses, often seen on the red carpet and in her music videos. Fashion during this time is remembered for its boldness while remaining relaxed.
2010s With the most recent decade of fashion in the books, these past couple years have been embodied by the influence of social media and breaking gender norms. The culture of this clothing for women included skinny jeans, rompers and athleisure. Men were seen to rock looks such as streetwear, hoodies and joggers. Fluidity in fashion started to become more common as men embraced feminine styles such as skirts and pastel colors and women took on masculinity by wearing suits and blazers. Rapper A$AP Rocky was influential for his numerous designer looks and sharp tailoring that still continues to be praised and looked up to. The minimalism and influencer culture reflects on the modern styles that are still being worn today.
In Perspective As early as the grooviness from the 70s to the eccentric styles not too long ago during the early 2000s, fashion has evolved each decade. Some looks still have similar features in simplicity and others have developed to how chic it is today. There can be a lot to learn and appreciate about our countryâ€™s culture in fashion as it continues to thrive and mature.
Art: The Language of American History WRITER: Will Hawkinson, PHOTOGRAPHER: Jacob Lagmay
Ever since the conception of the United States of America, there has always been art. Not only has art changed throughout history, but it has adapted into different forms over the course of American history in order to align itself with current events. As Danielie Di Lodovico, professor of Art History, said over email, “usually in art, the evolution of artistic language (which is not a matter of better or worse just “different”) can be seen as a step ahead from the past or a complete fracture.”
Native Americans: Before there were any colonies on the continent, Native Americans were predominant among the landscape. The art they produced was primarily geometric, and depicted tales of myth. Though they predated all other colonization, this art form is still as beautiful and relevant as it was hundreds of years ago.
The Pilgrims Arrive: Once the pilgrims found their way to the Americas, their art came with. Dark, grim, and full of spirituality, the pilgrims used art to convey what they thought of the world. Nature was viewed as an embodiment of something outside of God’s grace. Humans were created in the image of God, and nature wasn’t, so they decided to avoid it at all costs.
1850s: As time went on, different values, governmental systems and ideas came and went. Nature, which was originally viewed as evil, was now becoming a centerpiece of attention to many American artists. In the 1850’s, art movements such as the Luminism movement crafted a new perspective on nature.
1880s and Early 1990s: Even though photography was becoming a more popular form of art during the late 1800’s and early 1900’s, paintings and different forms didn’t disappear. 1912 introduced a new form of painting that has never been seen by Americans, Synchronism. Synchronism performed visual musicals via bright colors and shapes. This new form of abstract art made it look like you could reach out and touch your favorite song.
1920s: The 1920’s was called the Harlem Renaissance, a period where jazz and African American artists were starting to be put into the spotlight. This art focused on the celebration of African culture, diversity and pronounced the culture emerging from the Harlem neighborhood in New York.
1930s: Social Realism was born in the 1930’s which focused on working class people in America. Art shifted away from beauty and began to portray real-time events working as a way to bring the nation together.
1960’s to Today: The final major art movement is the minimal era, which began in the 1960’s and has lasted up until the current day. In other words, minimalism introduced the idea of simplicity, and the idea that simple things can evoke more thought or emotion rather than large, picturesque types of art. Today, art has no boundaries, no walls or locks to burden it. Whatever form that it is decided to exist as, expression is the only thing that matters. Expression has a critical role in society, and it has the power to change those who experience it.
Read and Revisit the American Dream The past is commonly documented in writing, and books bring us back in time, giving us the opportunity to eyewitness history from the stories of those before us. With this comes the profound joy and beauty of reading. The list of books below provides examples related to the American Dream, which may be different than we know it today. By perusing them, you can immerse yourself into a time when values surrounding the American Dream shaped society as we know it.
6. Revolutionary Road by Richard Yates This book follows a Connecticut couple in the 1950s, but their hopes and aspirations ultimately turn tragic as a result of their own deception and disillusion of the American Dream.
1. The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald
7. To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee
A memorable classic set in the Jazz Age of the 1920s, it reveals themes of the American Dream and class inequality through the story of Jay Gatsby, his fervent love and lavish parties on Long Island.
One of my favorite classics, this phenomenal novel of American literature tells the childhood of Jean Louise Finch in a fictional Southern town during the Great Depression. A balance of mystery, comedy, and drama, it takes on the themes of good vs. evil as well as inequality in terms of class, race, and gender.
2. Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller A 1949 stage play about the superficial success illuded to salesman Willy Loman as inzfluenced by the societal perception of the American Dream.
3. A Raisin in the Sun by Lorraine Hansberry A play first premiered in 1959 that revolves around the American Dream and calls for racial justice by depicting the struggles of an African American working class family in South Chicago.
.4. Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck Another page-turning classic, this novel illustrates the hardships of a family from Oklahoma who reevaluates their goal of the American Dream after being forced to migrate following the hit of the Great Depression.
5. Invisible Man by Ralph Ellison Published before the Civil Rights movement, this book exposes the exploitation of African Americans and addresses their individual identity as the narrator tactically fights back against the oppressors in Harlem.
WRITER: Jessica Li PHOTOGRAPHER: Ridwana Rahman
8. The Catcher In The Rye by J.D. Salinger This book addresses the complex problems of identity, depression, sex, alienation, and loss of innocence through the transition from adolescence to adulthood as experienced by the teenager Holden Caulfield.
9. Little Fires Everywhere by Celeste Ng Despite social status differences, two families in Shaker Heights, Ohio are brought together by the friendships of their children, but their bond is threatened to be torn apart due to opposing stands on a custody battle. Read on to find out more about each characterâ€™s story, the secrets that they carry, and the challenges of motherhood.
10. The House on Mango Street by Sandra Cisneros This oneâ€™s for you if you are looking for a shorter read. Crafted in a series of vignettes, it tells the story of a Latina girl named Esperanza Cordero growing up in Chicago, but be warned that there are sensitive issues such as domestic and sexual abuse and racism.
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Honoring the History of Hawai’i WRITER: Sukhjot Sal, PHOTOGRAPHER: Nathan Simmons Hawai’i. Perhaps you imagine a luau-themed party, a lei garland around your neck, clear blue waters to splash into. For many Americans, Hawai’i is first and foremost a vacation destination, a holiday resort, a tourist’s dream. This image and stereotype of Hawai’i is not only factually wrong, but insensitive to the impactful history, oppression and exploitation Hawaiians had to face after the United States overthrew the Hawaiians Kingdom and illegally forced Hawai’i to give up its sovereignty to become a state. In reality, Hawai’i has a full, complex past made up of diverse people, cultures and experiences–and though beautiful– is not necessarily a place of luxury and ease for all of its residents. For Hawaiians, like other Americans, the American dream doesn’t really exist. And if some version of this dream does exist, then it looks different for every individual and the context in which they live. Patricia Fifita lived in Hawai’i for around 15 years and is currently an instructor in Ethnic Studies at Oregon State University who identifies as a Pacific Islander with Tongan ancestry. She knows all about the struggles Hawaiians face in their daily lives, despite how the state is portrayed in the media to other Americans. “Hawai’i is incredibly diverse, weaving together a rich history of different cultures and people including the Kanaka Maoli, or the Native [Hawaiians] that originated in the islands, and settlers that arrived later through various waves of labor migration due to U.S. colonization,” Fifita expressed via email. But Fifita noted that everyday life in Hawai’i is difficult for many people and families due to this past of social, political and economic conflict and struggle that continues to present itself through the structural inequalities that persist in everyday life. “For example, the cost of living in Hawai’i is one of the highest in the nation, yet most people working— predominantly in the tourism industry—do not receive a livable wage,” Fifita said.
This is something many Americans are not aware of; most people who live in Hawai’i cannot actually afford to live a luxurious lifestyle. Many people are forced to work multiple jobs in order to make ends meet, Fifita explained, and there is a housing crisis exacerbated by outside investors seeking to own and profit off the islands and its tourism industry. “Hawai’i is also heavily militarized, so a significant portion of the islands have been carved up and restricted from public use due to military build up and installations,” Fifita said. “While Hawai’i is often referred to as a ‘melting pot’ or even a ‘multicultural paradise’, there are clear social stratifications along racial and ethnic lines.” Given the current social and economic inequalities that exist there today, Fifita added, it is especially unfortunate that the most marginalized ethnic community in Hawai’i are the Native Hawaiians, who have endured the extreme loss of life, land and culture. According to the 2019 U.S. Census, approximately 38% of Hawaiians are Asian, 26% white, 24% multiracial, and only 10% Native Hawaiians or Pacific Islander. “While each person may feel differently about it, U.S. colonization and the illegal overthrow are both major historical events and processes that have completely altered the lives and futures of the Kanaka Maoli,” Fifita said. Williama Sanchez, a Native Hawaiians, works as assistant director for Diversity Initiatives and Programs with University Housing and Dining Services at OSU. He spent the first 18 years of his life growing up in Hawai’i and also noted how Hawaiians culture itself continues to be endangered when the U.S. illegally occupied and took over Hawai’i, overthrowing Queen Liliʻuokalani. “She was imprisoned in her own home and was forced to abdicate her throne so that no bloodshed would happen in Hawai’i,” Sanchez said. “So we were forcefully overtaken by the United States, and forced to become a state.”
â€œIn actuality, achieving the American Dream is perhaps more elusive than achievable as it does not often play out the same way for individuals that [are] socially and economically disadvantaged.â€? - Patricia Fifita
If you really think about it, the U.S. government has exploited and stolen from all Indigenous people. Whether it was the Indigenous people of Hawai’i - Native Hawaiians - or Indigenous groups in the continental U.S., the rights of native people have always been infringed upon. According to Sanchez, one of the ways Native Hawaiians were forced to assimilate and forget their own heritage was by forbidding the Hawaiians language. His own grandfather was not taught Hawaiians because there was a fear of being persecuted for learning it. Luckily, one of the things Sanchez was privileged to have growing up was education at a Native Hawaiians private school, called a Kamehameha school. Created by the last princess of Hawai’i, she created these schools specifically dedicated to Native Hawaiians students, which helped Sanchez stay connected to his Hawaiians culture and heritage. Now, Sanchez believes that there is a new resurgence of Hawaiians culture and history as he has noticed things like Hawaiians immersion schools and doctorates in Hawaiians language and history becoming more common. For Morgan Louis-Soares, president of Hui o Hawai’i, doing activities like outrigger canoe paddling and hula
make her feel connected to her Kupuna ancestors and Lāhui culture. Hui o Hawai’i is a club at Oregon State University that brings together Hawaiians students and other Pacific Islanders. Louis-Soares said she loves everything about her Hawaiians culture—the hospitality, the food, the activities and the music. As someone who was born and raised on the island of O’ahu, she noted, similar to what Sanchez and Fifita said, that living in Hawai’i is difficult. “To be able to be born, raised and find comfortable living here in Hawai’i is such a blessing.” Louis-Soares explained. “I know families who were driven off their land and live in the mainland because they just couldn’t afford to live here anymore. I have had people tell me ‘You live in Hawai’i? Wow, you must be rich.’” “Hawaiians have been betrayed and hurt so many times over the years that we don’t consider ourselves as Americans—we are Hawaiians,” Louis-Soares expressed. For example, if you look up hula dancers, Louis-Soares said, she will have a coconut bra and a grass skirt on, when that is not how our traditional or even modern hula is ever portrayed. This is just one way stereotypes are harmful. Hula is a tradition, a form of storytelling, and an important part of the Hawaiian islands and culture. Real hula dancers have
a variety of different skirts, dresses, and loincloths, which are worn depending on the dance, song, and story they are trying to tell. So what does the American Dream mean to these Hawaiians?
points in life,” Sanchez explained. “I think about the analogy of a race and for many cis, white, heterosexual men, they’re starting at way more of an advantage than folks of color.”
So for Sanchez, the American Dream doesn’t really exist, and if it does in some form, then it is specific to Fifita sees the American Dream as representing a the individual and how they want to live their life, which possibility for a better life, although she said it has carried is often in direct conflict with the different meanings throughout “For me the American Dream would be to American Dream the U.S. pushes different points in history. Today, live in Hawai’i; being able [to] comfortably for. she thinks there is an assumption
support my shildren and spouse in the future.”
that the American Dream and “Individualistic mentality, right? - Morgan Louis-Soares its promise of a better life is You have to fend for yourself,” attainable by all who are willing Sanchez said. “You have to to work hard, despite their socioeconomic positioning or survive. And I don’t know if I necessarily want to survive, their ethnic identity. but I think I would prefer to thrive. And I think thriving for me means being a part of my community.” “In actuality, achieving the American Dream is perhaps more elusive than achievable as it does not often play out the same way for individuals that [are] socially and economically disadvantaged,” Fifita said. “Historically, the concept of the American Dream was based on the Westward expansion of early European settlers and Manifest Destiny.” This narrative and promise of endless possibility, Fifita said, is still deeply embedded in the idea of the American Dream and continues to largely omit the violent acts of genecide. For Louis-Soares, the American Dream is different for every individual and what they choose to make of it. “For me the American Dream would be to live in Hawai’i; being able [to] comfortably support my children and spouse in the future,” she said. “Many people in Hawai’i will work throughout high school and not go to college because they need to make money to help their family to survive. I personally love seeing people from Hawai’i go to college and achieve their goals because it shows that even though they might be struggling financially, they want to make their lives better in the future.” Sanchez views the original American Dream as an American meritocracy, where people can move up as long as they work hard and put in their dues. But this notion of it being merit-based is completely false and difficult to attain, as Fifita pointed out earlier. “We don’t realize there’s a lot of historical context that comes into play to that notion—that you can be whoever you want to be—because people are starting at different
Sanchez said that oftentimes, we are told we have to give up a part of ourselves in order to ‘make it’ and be successful in America. But he doesn’t think people of color should need to give up part of their identity to survive. “If you think about the history behind and the context in which Native Hawaiians have lived—to be continually told that your language is irrelevant to the rest of the world, that you’re told that your cultural practices, your music, your hula, your dance means nothing—is completely false,” Sanchez explained. “We need to recognize that we bring such a gift to the rest of the world, with our language, our culture and our heritage that we need to not feel ashamed about it but bring it to the forefront.” So in the end, it’s not that the American Dream doesn’t exist, per se. It’s just shifting and evolving to become something more real. Hawaiians like Sanchez, Fifita and Louis-Soares are making their own dreams - fairer, more inclusive and achievable dreams. Dreams where they don’t have to sacrifice a part of themself to succeed in society; dreams where Hawai’i has the right to self-determination; dreams where their culture and heritage can be used to inform their experience, instead of exploited or mocked. Hawaiians are not just making their own dreams, but trying to make America more just for us all, working to remove systematic barriers, and cherishing their culture all the while - so that in chasing your dream, you won’t have to lose yourself.
Equality: Process, Prog WRITER: Sukhjot Sal PHOTOGRAPHER: Jess Hume-Pantuso The American Dream is a one of the prominent factors influencing the desire for equality in the United States.. The following timeline exhibits just a few of the monumental ways Americans have advocated for equality: by protesting for months, by questioning existing systems of inequality, by questioning the law itself, by forming organizations,and by fighting for rights together, in spite of whatever hurdles came their way. For more information on these events, see our website for more.
1848: Seneca Falls Convention 1865: 13th Amendment Outlaw Slavery 1866: Civil Rights Act Grants Citizenship to Native-Born Men
1868: 14th Amendment Grants Equal Protection of Laws to Black Americans
1870: 15th Amendment Establishes Right of Black Men to Vote
1872: Women Try to Vote 1875: Civil Rights Act Grants Equal Treatment in Public Transportation, Accommodations and Service on Juries
1882: Chinese Exclusion Act 1887: Dawes Act Passed 1896: Plessy v. Ferguson
1913: Massive National Suffrage Parade: In Washington D.C, a huge national suffrage parade is held, led by Inez Milholland Boissevain.
1919: American Indian Citizenship Act 1920: 19th Amendment Gives White Women the Right to Vote
1922: Supreme Court Rules People of Japanese Heritage Cannot Become Naturalized Citizens
1923: People of Asian Indian Heritage Cannot Become Naturalized Citizens
gress, and Preservation 1922: Thind tried to claim he fell under
1952: McCarran-Walter Act Grant All
the category of being white, instead of challenging the racist laws preventing their naturalization.
People of Asian Heritage Right to Become Citizens
1924: The Society for Human Rights 1924: Indigenous People GrantedCitizenship and Right to Vote
1924: Immigration Act of 1924 1948: President Truman Ends Segregation in the U.S. Military
1950: The Mattachine Society
1954: Brown v. Board of Education 1955: Daughters of Bilitis 1955: Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott
1958: U.S. Supreme Court Rules in Favor of LGBTQ Rights for First Time
1961: 23rd Amendment Passed 1963: March on Washington 1965: Civil Rights Act 1973: Homosexuality Removed as Mental Illness
1974: First Openly LGBTQ American Elected to Any Public Office
1993: President Clinton Signs “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell” Policy
2011: ‘Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell’ Repealed 2015: Obergefell v. Hodges, Same Sex Marriage Legalized Every single fight for equality was momentous and revolutionary, a reminder that the true American Dream is individual, full of personal pain, loss and love. The great strides made by American activists of the past provide a foundation for future generations to make further progress.
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From Idea to Table, American Dishes at Home WRITER: Sarah Exner, ILLUSTRATOR: Cyan Perry Food is more than just fuel for our bodies. It symbolizes who we are and what we stand for. For Americans, that is anything from a big juicy burger to a Chicago-style deep dish pizza. For those curious about how to make these classics a little healthier, we’ve got you covered. Check out these tasty twists on classic American cuisine.
Crunchwrap Supreme Serving: 4 crunchwraps
Total Time: 30 minutes
Heat a large pan over medium heat. Add in ground beef or turkey until browned. Season with taco seasoning and use a spatula to break up the beef or turkey into small pieces. This typically takes about five to seven minutes until it is finished.
Ingredients: 1 pound ground beef or turkey 1 tablespoon avocado oil 1 package taco seasoning 8 burrito-size flour tortillas 4 tostadas OR 1 bag of tortilla chips Shredded Mexican cheese OR queso salsa sour cream OR Greek yogurt 2 avocados Shredded lettuce
While meat is cooking, put four large flour tortillas on a large cutting board. Place either tostada or tortilla chips in the center and cut around to get a smaller tostada sized tortilla. Next, place taco meat on a large flour tortilla and top with either shredded cheese or queso, salsa and sour cream or greek yogurt. Place a tostada or tortilla chips on top of your “crunch layer.” Add mashed avocado, shredded lettuce, and tomatoes on your “crunch layer.” Add the small tortilla that was cut on top of that layer and gently fold in the large tortilla to form the crunchwrap. Place the crunchwrap fold side down on a hot oiled pan on medium heat. Cook for one to two minutes on each side or until browned and crispy.
2 tomatoes diced
Chicago-Style Deep Dish Pizza Total time: 1 hours Servings: 8
Ingredients: 1 pound ground beef 1 medium green pepper 1 small onion 1 jar pizza sauce 10 slices bacon 2 packages pizza crust mix 2 cups shredded mozzarella cheese 4 ounces sliced pepperoni
Instructions: Preheat the oven to 425 degrees. Chop green pepper, onion and bacon. In a large skillet, cook beef, green pepper and onion over medium heat for eight to ten minutes or until the beef is no longer pink. Break up the beef into crumbles while cooking, then drain when done. Stir in pizza sauce and bacon, remove from heat. Prepare dough according to the package directions for the pizza crust. Press the dough into the bottom and one inch up the sides of a greased 13 x 9 inch baking pan. Add meat sauce into the pan with the crust. Sprinkle the top with cheese and top with pepperoni. Cover and bake for 25 minutes, then uncover and bake for another five to ten minutes or until the crust and cheese are golden brown.
Pulled Pork (Sandwich) Total Time: 3 hours 20 minutes Serves: 6 to 8 sandwiches
Ingredients for pork: 4 pounds boneless pork shoulder 3 tablespoons packed brown sugar 1 tablespoon smoked paprika 1 teaspoon garlic powder 1 teaspoon onion powder 1 teaspoon ground cumin Black pepper 2 tablespoons vegetable oil 12 oz lager Ingredients for the Barbecue Sauce & Sandwiches: 1 ½ cup ketchup ⅓ cup apple cider vinegar ½ cup dijon mustard ¼ cup brown sugar 2 tablespoons Worcestershire sauce Buns Instructions: To make the pork, preheat the oven to 300 degrees. Trim the excess fat from pork and cut into large pieces. In a small bowl combine brown sugar, salt, paprika, garlic powder, onion powder, and cumin. Then season with black pepper and rub all over pork.
Plant-Based Beyond Burger Total Time: 35 minutes
Heat oil in a large Dutch oven over medium heat. Working in batches, add pork and sear on all sides. Pour 12 oz lager all around the pork and cover with lid. Transfer to the oven and cook for about three hours. Remove the lid and cook until pork is very tender and pulls apart easily with a fork, about 1 to two hours longer. Remove pork from the Dutch oven and let rest.
Servings: 2 burgers
To make the barbecue sauce, use the pan drippings in
1 dill pickle
the Dutch oven. Whisk in ketchup, apple cider vinegar, mustard, brown sugar and Worcestershire sauce. Over medium to high heat, bring the mixture to a boil. Then reduce the heat and simmer until thickened for about five minutes. Shred the pork using two forks and toss the meat with about half the barbecue sauce. Add the meat to buns and add more barbecue sauce.
Ingredients: 1 yellow onion 1 roma tomato 1 romaine lettuce 1 tsp garlic powder
2 potato buns (contains wheat, milk, eggs, soy)
Wash circles 2 tablespoons sour cream two ta a sma (contains milk) one ta 2 teaspoons dijon mustard Drizzle 8 ounce Beyond Burgers occasi ½ cup cheddar cheese and pe (optional) salt an Add p 1 teaspoon sugar 4 teaspoons vegetable oil sides. to med salt & pepper Then, leaves
and dry all produce. Finely dice onion and thinly slice tomato into s. Slice pickles into circles and mince a few slices until you have ablespoons worth. Tear off a few romain leaves for the burgers. In all bowl, combine sour cream, ketchup, mustard, minced pickle, ablespoon sugar, and ¼ tablespoon garlic powder.
e oil on a large pan over medium to high heat. Add onion, stir ionally until browned, typically about 6 minutes. Season with salt epper then transfer to a second small bow. Season patties with nd pepper and heat a drizzle of oil in the pan used for the onions. patties and cook until bounce, typically 3 to 5 minutes on both Optional, top each burger with cheddar cheese and reduce heat dium until cheese is melted.
toast buns until golden brown. Fill the buns with patties, romaine s, tomato, pickles, cooked onion and sauce from the small bowl.
Chicken Sandwich (Chick-fil-a) Total Time: 40 minutes Servings: 4 sandwiches
4 chicken breast halves
½ cup mayonnaise
½ cup pickle juice
1 teaspoon dijon mustard
¼ cup water
3 teaspoons yellow mustard
½ cup milk 1 large egg Oil for frying 4 hamburger buns 1 cup flour 3 tablespoons paprika 1 teaspoon pepper
2 teaspoon barbecue sauce 2 tablespoons honey ½ teaspoon garlic powder ½ teaspoon paprika 1 teaspoon lemon juice
½ teaspoon chili powder ½ teaspoon baking powder Pickle, lettuce, tomato Instructions: To marinate the chicken, combine the pickle juice and water in a ziploc bag. Add the chicken breast halves and marinate for about 30 minutes. To make the sauce combine all ingredients in a bowl and mix well, set aside for later. Next, in a large bowl mix flour, powdered sugar, paprika, black pepper, chilli powder, salt and baking powder. In a different bowl mix the milk and egg together. Heat two to three cups of oil into a large saucepan. Dip the marinated chicken from the ziplock bags into the egg mixture first, then coat in the flour mixture. Repeat this step twice, then place the chicken into the hot oil and fry for three to four minutes on each side. Remove and place them on a paper towel to dry. Next is to assemble the sandwich! Toast the sandwich buns then add the Chick-fil-A sauce on both sides of the buns. Top with lettuce, pickle, tomato and crispy chicken.
Friend or Foe: Fast WRITER: Sarah Exner PHOTOGRAPHER: Cooper Baskins Whether it is sitting around a dining table during a holiday meal or getting a quick bite to eat on a road trip, food is the center of our world. So what does food symbolize for this generation of Americans?
brothers had no idea their little burger shack was going to turn into what we now know as the modern day fast food industry.
When asked the question, “What is American food?” a multitude of responses will arise. It depends on where someone lives in the country, what generation they are in, and even what social class they are in. One thing that all Americans can agree on, however, is the fast food industry has played a huge role in what the world considers to be American food. The most well known global fast food phenomenon was started right here in the United States of America, the infamous McDonald’s.
American cuisine forever. Back in the 1950s, this idea of “fast food” was the promise of the future and how we eat. American’s work harder and for longer hours than any other country. This fastpaced, quickly accessible food industry was the perfect creation for America’s high-stressed work habits. It has grown into more than just a food chain, but as an incorporation into the American lifestyle.
McDonald’s began in 1948, by brothers Maurice and Richard McDonald. Their main focus started with only burgers, fries and shakes but beat out their competition by selling them for half the price and in half the time. This was the start of a new hamburger joint era. It changed the way people perceived food and going out to eat because without having to rely on a waiter or waitress, this was an easy selfserved operation. The McDonald
In some eyes, the brothers were geniuses. In other eyes, the brothers corrupted the
Americans like to think that it is only the lower class who eats fast food. However, “popular thinking has been that lowincome people eat more fast food because it’s cheap, but studies don’t bear that out,” said Sarah Cunningham, professor of Anthropology at Oregon State University. In fact, it has become such an adopted lifestyle that it is the majority of the American population who purchase this fast food and who keep this industry alive. This booming industry has grown from what the McDonald brothers created to a negatively
t Food in America “The fast food industry definitely represents the ‘American Dream’ in a negative way....Since most fast food restaurants open early and end late, employees are working long, tireless hours with very little pay.” - Liz Flores viewed stereotype of American food. Americans have struggled with obesity for years now, and although fast food is not the sole reason for this, it is a strong indicator. With other restaurants following the same trend of McDonalds, like Chickfil-A and Burger King, the fast food industry has become more predominant than most other food chains. “The fast food industry definitely represents the ‘American Dream’ in a negative way,” said Liz Flores, a former employee of In-N-Out Burger, via email. From an inside perspective of one of the most popular fast food chains, she describes how her experience at In-N-Out was better than the typical fast food restaurant, with higher pay and even employee benefits. “Since most fast food restaurants open early and end late, employees are working long, tireless hours with very little pay,” Flores said. The demand that these fast food industries are asking of their employees versus the gratitude
they actually receive are slim to none. Although the fast food industry’s target market is low quality food for a low price, if an employee’s only source of income is from working long shifts at a fast food restaurant, then it would make it nearly impossible to build a good life for themselves and their families in America. The fast food industry is just one small segment of what Americans eat on a daily basis. If 100 Americans were asked what their idea of “American food” is, you’d most likely get a variety of 100 different answers. Most will probably be associated with fast food in one way or another, but others have grown up living completely different lifestyles in diverse cultures around the country. “Well, I grew up with my mom making meat and potatoes, varying forms of meat, there was always dessert, there was always milk and cereal for breakfast, said Robyn Jones, Director of Food Service & Marketing at OSU. “That was the norm. Now, I don’t think there is a norm.”
The Flight of a First Generation Student WRITER: Jeremiah Estrada PHOTOGRAPHER: Scott Schmidt Nowadays it is very common and encouraged for students to attend college, but those who are the first in their family to go to higher education face unique challenges that others may not. These new experiences are uncharted territory for first generationers meaning, there isn’t an exact roadmap for success–like any other student. Navigating it can be difficult, but success can result from the opportunity to explore different aspects of college. An example of an individual that has to juggle these types of obstacles is Griffin Puls, a third-year Forestry Engineering student at Oregon State University. He is from Junction City, Ore. and went to Marist Catholic High School in Eugene. Puls grew up with five siblings and two cousins that raised them and has lived in that area for a majority of his life. He said that it is a small private town. “We went to church there so we knew a lot of the people in the town,” Puls said. “I think there’s only like 6,000 people that live there and it’s pretty much just an agriculture town, most of it revolved around [the] farming and timber industry.” Puls received a scholarship with the Ford Family Foundation, which supports his studies at OSU. He said that this financial award is the reason that he is currently attending school. “They completely changed my life path by offering me a chance at a college education,” Puls said. “The Ford scholarship pays for 90% of unmet funds for tuition as well as room and board. Their scholarship allows me to focus on my education without worry of not being able to make rent and tuition.” Because of the scholarship, Puls is able to get the most out of his education and he was even able to buy a laptop for school with their help. Being put in the position as the first in your family
to get a higher education must be a daunting yet rewarding experience, which it is in his case. Puls said that it is a weird aspect to be a first-generation student. His original intentions were to attend a trade school because of how costly a state school is and it just wasn’t an option for him financially. His family pushed him to do the best he can in high school in order to succeed because they believed that he would be the one to attend college. Being a firstgeneration student encourages him to earn his degree to show that he can do anything. Puls’ family has a lot of impact on his life and keeps him motivated. “Four of my five siblings are younger than me,” Puls said. “I feel like my whole life I’ve been pressured to keep the bar pretty high and do the best that I can to hopefully encourage my siblings to do just as good as I do or hopefully better.” Puls said that having that many siblings really drives him to be the best that he can be. He has an older brother who he looks up to everyday and his family is the biggest reason he is still in college. He knows that he can depend on them to fall back on. The goal to have a better future is another thing that keeps Puls motivated. “My family is not super educated,” Puls said. “I think this whole opportunity for me to have a college education is pushing me to have a bigger future and to just get more opportunities.” Puls also said he views the Ford Family Foundation as a second family. They believe in him 100%, which is why they decided to give him the scholarship. He knows that he can talk to one of them if he ever has any struggles. Although Puls is able to reap the rewards of this financial assistance, there are challenges he also faces. Something that significantly opposes him is his urge to succeed with the feeling of being stuck. “The biggest challenge for me is the ‘waiting to get my life moving’ mindset,” Puls said. “I see my family
making a living from their hard work, while I am sitting in a classroom, or right now my living room. It’s difficult to be patient when I see success around me.” Overall, Puls expressed that his college experience so far has been fulfilling. His fondest memories as of now include making lots of close friends and attending Beaver games while cheering with thousands of other students. “College
is unique, but I am very glad and proud to be where I am with the people I have met so far,” Puls said. To take his mind off school and get out of the house, hobbies that Puls enjoys to do include outdoor activities like fishing and hiking. He also likes woodworking by making things in his garage and hunting during hunting season. Puls is not completely sure
about what he wants to do after college, but he knows that he wants to be involved in the timber industry which is why he is focusing on forest engineering. “I probably want to travel and get out of Oregon and get some living experience somewhere else,” Puls said. “Get my degree, start a career and then eventually hopefully end up back here in Oregon, probably like southern Oregon and support the community around here.” There can be many uncertainties when placed in the role of being a firstgeneration student. Even if there are challenges along the way, those who surround you in your life, such as family and friends, will always be there to support you. This is reflected well by the experiences Griffin Puls has shared about his life and how he has gotten to where he is today.
Makeup: Decades Defined by Crossovers
WRITER: Teresita Guzman Nader ILLUSTRATOR: Cyan Perry If you have always wondered what women your age used to wear some decades ago, maybe you have found a picture of two in old magazines and think that was such a great look. What did those women do to look so fashionable, here is a listicle of the most popular makeup trends through the years. 1950s In the 50s, it was popular to see stick foundation and mascara applied only on the upper eyelashes, although that has changed nowadays. It was very popular to see
colorful matte colors with no shimmer and rouges that were applied to the apple of the cheek. In this decade, the makeup focused on enhancing women’s lips cheeks and eyebrows with colorful tones. Lillian Carman, a second year Studio Art and Art History student at OSU, said she feels as though makeup has transitioned from more of a rigid utility use into a freeform expressive medium. “For example, in the 1950s there were so many rules on how a housewife may have worn makeup in order to make herself more presentable to others,” Carman said via email. “Nowadays no such rules are dictating who can
wear makeup, how, and for what occasion. Eyeshadow diagrams may be useful for beginners, but by no means are the standard. I for instance find lipstick to make a wonderful eyeshadow.” 1960s In the 60s, the ideal makeup style was focused on opaque eye shadows in pastel tones. Some people applied shadow using the popular cut crease technique, which is still used nowadays. “I think a slightly under-appreciated style of makeup that is due for a comeback is the mod makeup trends of the 1960s, worn by women like Twiggy and Brigitte Bardot,” Carman said. “I think this era lends itself really well to camp and exaggeration which is evident with movies like ‘What a Way to Go!’. I feel like the 60s is often disregarded for how costume-y and specific the fashion was with its bright colors, beehives, bubble flips, bold, I think there’s a lot of untapped potential in that decade.” 1980s In the 80s, the fashion made a turn. While in the 60s matte colors were the ‘look,’ in the 80s, bright colors were the new fashion. Heavy pink blush and colorful eyeshadows such as pink, purple and blue became popular. “I believe modern makeup is constantly taking aspects from older styles of makeup and modifying them. I think this revitalization is innovative because it creates looks that are both fresh and slightly recognizable,” Carman said. “An example of this would be the pencil-thin eyebrow trend of the 1980s coming back this year while being mixed with the new colorful graphic eyeliner trend. Personally, my favorite style was the harshly geometric, androgynous, and bold eyeshadows that went all the way to the temple from the 1980s à la Grace Jones.” 1990s In the 90s, many old fashion looks came back, such as the brown lipstick. The face and body glitter and rhinestones were everywhere and everyone was using them. Zahra Joseph, a fifth year Design and Innovation Management student at OSU, said through the
decades, makeup has gone from a slight enhancement to artistic ability. “I think with makeup, as with a lot of trends, certain aspects usually end up making a comeback such as the lip liner and gloss look that was popular in the 90’s and early 2000s,” Joseph said via email. “My favorite style is probably more current, which is colorful eyeshadow and lips with a more natural base.” 2000 -2020s Although many brands have the basic shades of foundation light, medium and dark, these shades do not cover all the beautiful shades of colors that our identities represent, so many companies have introduced foundations with different shades to cover a wider majority of customers, for example the 40 shades of Fenty Beauty released around 2018. “I identify as a Black woman. As far as representation, the beauty community definitely has a long way to go like most industries. Foundation ranges have been improved, but that it is mostly from the pressure of Fenty beauty releasing 40 foundation shades,” Joseph said. “Eyeshadow and lip products that work on richer skin [are] still a bit difficult to find. In addition, it is hard to find most major brands being inclusive in who they repost and include in their model campaigns and that is just the visual aspect.” Makeup trends went through a lot of changes through the ages, and while we might not be able to control that change we can enjoy the current trends and make our best effort to increase the inclusivity in the products that we consume by proactively sharing our opinion with the makeup industry. From the slick foundation in the 50s and the opaque eye shadows in the 60s, every decade had its own style. We must not forget about how in the 80s Heavy pink blush and colorful eyeshadows such as pink, purple and blue became popular. While in the 90s the makeup style was focused more towards glitter and rhinestones, and we might not see some of this fashion once again but we can see how every year more brands introduce new products to satisfy the necessities of its customers, such as when Fety beauty released 40 foundation shades.
8 Iconic Americana Films WRITER: James Fleck PHOTOGRAPHER: Solomon Myers The American Dream has inspired filmmakers since the medium’s inception, taking on new forms as each new filmmaker expresses what their dream means to them. Today, we’re looking at eight films that defined their generations.
Citizen Kane (1941) As producer, screenwriter, director and star of Citizen Kane, Orson Welles was one of the first filmmakers to show us what the medium could really do. The film features Welles as the dying Charles Foster Kane. It’s told as a retrospective on Kane’s life, chronicling his poor beginnings to his rise and fall. The film was nominated for nine academy awards, won the award for best writing, and was one of the first 25 inductees preserved in the United States National Film Registry.
12 Angry Men (1957) Made in the early years of the American Civil Rights Movement, 12 Angry Men puts us in a room with twelve jurors deciding whether a young black man is guilty of killing his father despite a lack of evidence. Eleven jurors are more concerned with getting on with their lives than the young man’s fate, leaving the twelfth with a hard choice.
To Kill a Mockingbird (1962) Based on Harper Lee’s novel of the same name, To Kill a Mockingbird follows the Finch family in the Depression-era in the South. Atticus Finch, father to two young kids, fights a losing battle for racial justice while trying to show his children a better tomorrow. Solemn and all too real, the film reminds us of how far we’ve come, and how far we still have to go.
The Godfather (1972) Arguably one of the greatest movies ever made, The Godfather shows us that even criminals have standards. When a rival wants Vito’s help selling
drugs, he’s forced to make the hard choice between his empire and his code of honor. What comes next can only be described as beautiful chaos. Three hours of your life well spent.
Trading Places (1983) A social critique cleverly disguised as a comedy film, Trading Places stars Eddie Murphy as a hustler down on his luck and Dan Aykroyd as a preppy executive. When their situations are abruptly reversed, thanks to a bet by a pair of bored brokers, they learn a new sense of perspective and respect for each other.
Pulp Fiction (1994) One of Quentin Tarantino’s many hits, Pulp Fiction stars high-caliber leads Samuel L Jackson, John Travolta, Bruce Willis, and Uma Thurman in a race to capture gang boss Marsellus Wallace’s bounty. Having every character be morally gray means there’s no clear hero or villain, giving the film great rewatch value. Violent, vulgar, and Pulp Fiction is easily one of the best films to come out of the ‘90s.
The Pursuit of Happiness (2006) Based on Chris Gardner’s memoir with the same title, Will Smith plays Gardner, a homeless salesman, as he competes for a sales job while also taking care of his son. It’s a film that falls back on the classical “self-made man” ideal of the American Dream and was nominated for an Oscar and a Golden Globe for Best Actor.
The Social Network (2010) The mostly true story of how Mark Zuckerberg changed the internet from his dorm room, The Social Network depicts the rise of Facebook and how Zuckerberg became one of the 21st century’s first major innovators. Zuckerberg is one of the modern examples of the classical ‘building something from nothing’ ideal of the American Dream, and his story draws several parallels with Citizen Kane, despite the nearly 70 year gap between their releases.
International Perspectives: Experiencing the American Dream WRITER: Teresita Guzman Nader PHOTOGRAPHER: Trey Webb The ‘American dream’ has a different meaning for everyone, for some it might mean the opportunity to find themselves in a far away land, for others it means to succeed in their career goals through hard work and for some it means to create meaningful memories and relationships in the United States.
VANIA HALIM Vania Halim, a fourth year Chemical Engineering student, is an international student from Indonesia, but she lived in Singapore for nine years and considers Singapore her home.
the OSU community have given her a sense of how wide and beautiful the world is. She is fortunate to have parents who value education to the extent that they were willing to send her across the world to pursue a degree, and that it is a priceless experience that she will always treasure and be grateful for. “When I came here, I didn’t even know what Chemical Engineering was or what I wanted to do with it. Amazingly enough, at a time when I doubted whether I wanted to stay in this major or not, I learned about biotechnology and instantly fell in love,” Halim said. “My role as an RA and student officer up to that point had really taught me a lot about myself, and I was learning more and more that my strongest motivators for any work I chose to do were the people it served.”
Growing up, she attended an American international school which shaped who she is as a student. When she graduated high school, she knew she wanted to get her “When I’ve heard the concept Bachelor’s degree in the U.S. and of the ‘American Dream,’ I’ve she chose to study at Oregon understod it to be the idea State University after being that America is a place of offered a scholarship as a scholar independence and freedom and speaker in the International where you can leave your past
Halim felt that being in the field of biotechnology she would have many opportunities to impact lives, and this feeling is what keeps her going through the tiring nights.
“When I’ve heard the concept of the ‘American Dream,’ I’ve Cultural Service Program. behind and achive anyting if you understood it to be the idea that work hard enough.” America is a place of independence “Thanks to my education in - Vania Halim and freedom where you can leave Singapore, my transition as an your past behind and achieve international student went very anything if you work hard enough,” Halim said. “This smoothly, and I’ve had a very pleasant experience in the idea certainly appealed to my younger, headstrong U.S. From my professors, I learned to see the beauty of self who so badly wanted to be ‘free’ from rules and math and physics despite (or maybe because of) the authority.” challenging coursework of an engineering degree,” Halim said via email. “Through my involvements in cultural organizations, campus ministry, research and residential education I’ve been able to meet many people and hear their stories.” Halim said both her education and involvement in
Halim used to think her family’s Chinese values, steeped in ancient philosophy, were too archaic to keep up with the ideals of freedom in the Western world. “I thought myself to be so modern for wanting to be just like Americans. And then I came here, where
I have independence in abundance,” Halim said via email. “I live alone, I manage my time and finances, and I make many of the decisions my parents had previously made for me.”
time of her arrival to the U.S., he was living in Kyrgyzstan. “Everything was so new, [and] I was scared but excited at the same time. OSU’s campus was huge and beautiful for me, at first I even had troubles with navigating there,” Matyeva. “I studied [at] INTO OSU and really liked the orientation week they organized for us, where all the international students had [an] opportunity to meet and learn from each other.”
Halim said ironically it is in the environment from the U.S. that she has grown to value family, authority and the wisdom of her elders far more than she ever has. “It’s taught me that I don’t need or want to chase the American Dream, when what matters most to me are the people who have been by my side for as long as I’ve known what it is to be alive,” Halim said.
Matyeva said most people that she met at INTO orientation are still her close friends. She said the friends that she met at INTO were also new to the country and OSU, so they helped each other with useful tips for situations that were unusual for them.
ALIMA MATYEVA Alima Matyeva, a third year Computer Science student with minors in New Media Communications and Writing, is an international student from Kyrgyzstan. She said the company that helped her to apply to universities in the U.S. suggested she applied to Washington State University, Colorado State University and Oregon State University.
“I want to believe that everyone can achieve what is called [the] ‘American Dream’ and become successful no matter whether you’re an American or someone who came from a country far away from the U.S.” - Alima Matyeva
“I was accepted to all three of them but eventually chose OSU. My high school teacher of Academic Writing was from Oregon,” Matyeva said via email. “He highly recommended me to choose OSU rather than other universities as I would have at least one friend there, [meaning him].” Matyeva said at first it was very hard for her to live in the U.S. because she didn’t know anyone in the whole country except from her high school teacher. But at the
“Sometimes I had conflicts with some people due to cultural misunderstanding: what was acceptable for me wasn’t acceptable for them and vice versa,” Matyeva said. “I learnt a lot from my freshman year and [the] next two years were easier and more comfortable for me.” Matyeva was only seventeen years old when she moved to the United States, so at first she did not have any goals except graduating with her Bachelor’s degree. After some years, her friends, classmates and professors have changed her perspective. Now she wants to learn as much as possible from her classes to create something fresh and useful for people either in the U.S. or her home country.
also a very academicallyfocused school which is good for students that want to improve their professional knowledge. He said that due to COVID-19 he has been taking all his classes remotely, which he does not enjoy.
“I’ve heard about ‘American Dream’ a lot. I agree that success can be reached after hard work, risks and sacrifice rather than just a chance, but luck can always be an essential part of life,” Matyeva said. “I want to believe that everyone can achieve what is called [the] ‘American Dream’ and become successful no matter whether you’re an American or someone who came from a country far away from the U.S.”
“[Now] there is no big difference between taking classes in Taiwan and [the United States], “ Huang said. “No club activities mean I lose a way to make new American friends. Sharing different life experiences is the most interesting thing in a friendship.”
TZU-HAO HUANG Tzu-Hao Huang, also called Chris, is a masters student in Electrical and Computer Engineering at OSU and has lived in the United States for two years.
Huang said he had heard the phrase the ‘American dream’ before in Taiwan, and that the concept of the ‘American dream’ there is a little bit different than in the United States.
Huang is an international student from Taiwan and decided to come to the U.S. because the most famous “It’s more like a dream about going to technology companies are America. In the States, I think it is more like located in the United States. everyone is equal, everyone can “In Taiwan, we would He is also curious about say that some people who succeed if they work hard.” learning from different want to immigrate to the cultures, and he would like - Tzu-hao Huang United States or find a job to learn more English, being here have an American dream,” Huang said. “It’s more one of the most spoken languages. like a dream about going to America. In the States, I “I lived in Portland for five months last year. The think this is more like everyone is equal, everyone can experience living there [was] very great! When I walk[ed] succeed if they work hard.” on the street, people say hi to me. It’s very common We all might have a different definition of what is the here, but it’s [rare] in Taiwan, so my first impression of the “American dream,” but we can all agree that people United States [has been good],” Huang said via email. have always dreamt of a land in which life should be “The best [moments I had] in Portland [was when] my better, where everyone can reach their full potential Japanese friend and I went to a brewery after class and regardless of their race, ethnicity, socio-economic enjoyed [the sun while drinking]! It [was] very chill!” Huang said studying at OSU is very stressful, but it is
status, age, and gender.
American Dreamers WRITER: James Fleck, PHOTOGRAPHER: Alex Reich The Oxford dictionary defines the American Dream as “the ideal by which equality is available to any American, allowing the highest aspirations and goals to be achieved.” Sounds nice, right? But it’s also broad, perhaps too broad. Ask any two people what the American Dream means to them, I guarantee you won’t get the same answer. To truly understand the American Dream, we first need to ask ourselves, who’s the dreamer? “I consider there not to be the American Dream, but American Dreams, plural,” said Oregon State Colonial History professor Ben Mutschler. “In my classes, I distinguish two classic kinds of dreams, represented by Chesapeake and New England.” Chesapeake’s
classical idea of the self-made man. “If you think of Thomas Jefferson and Jeffersonian Democracy... the only citizen who can truly be a good democratic citizen is someone who’s economically self-sufficient,” said OSU History professor Marisa Chappell. “That, by definition, was a white male landowner.” “In [the colonial era], the emblematic figure is Ben Franklin,” said Mutschler. “In a period where people could start to fashion themselves to transcend boundaries of class, Franklin jumps from being
a commoner to somebody who achieves gentlemanly status. He not only wants to work hard, he wants people to see him working hard.” I feel like I’ve seen that in a movie somewhere. Chesapeake’s dream is easily the most popular interpretation of the American Dream, at least in American media. “The idea was that the United States offers the opportunity for anyone to rise up and gain economic self-sufficiency,” said Chappell. “You have the Horatio Alger novels in the 19th century of ‘rags to riches,’.... [and] you’ve got real-life Alger stories like Henry Ford. That kind of mythology has real power in American society to this day.” The second dream comes from New England, based on the ideal of a city on a hill. “There’s a whole other set of dreams out there of America as a utopia,” said Mutschler. “John Winthrop, the first governor of Massachusetts, talked about a community of peril, where we’re bound together through the fact that all of us face God’s dangers. That kind of dream is a communitarian dream.” Two dreams, one focuses on personal economic success, the other on the welfare of the people. Where have I seen this before? While
“Frederick Douglass [was] one of the people who presses the United States to look at its own sins and to think about the ways the Declaration pushed Americans to live up to those ideals.” - Stacey Smith both of these dreams are noble on paper, neither take into account the elephant in the history book. Though the Founding Fathers claim “all men are created equal” and are endowed “with certain unalienable rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness,” they were slave owners. One of the first Americans to question this was Frederick Douglass.
“Baker was a civil rights activist who represented an aspect of the black freedom movement that envisioned the American Dream as a much more egalitarian and collective dream,” said Chappell. “You can think of Martin Luther King Junior’s evocation of the beloved community, that society ought to be more socially oriented.” In this day and age, we can still see how different dreams drive America.
“Frederick Douglass has a speech that he gave in the 1840s called ‘What to the Slave is the Fourth of July?’,” said OSU 19th Century History professor Stacey Smith.“He was one of the people who pressed the United States to look at its own sins and to think about the ways the Declaration pushed Americans to live up to those ideals.”
“In our presidential campaign, you’ve got different models of what the American Dream is and what we ought to do to reach it,” said Chappell. “You’ve got Donald Trump and a republicanism that’s increasingly emphasizing ethnic or racial nationalism, reserving the American Dream for particular groups of people...
Of course, you can’t talk about civil rights in the 19th century without hearing Abraham Lincoln’s name.
“You’ve got people, like Bernie Sanders, on the other side, with supporters who are saying we need social rights, social citizenship, we need as a society to come together and make sure people have access to free education and healthcare.”
“Lincoln was convinced that the United States’ founding principles were in the Declaration of Independence, and he hated the Dred Scott decision,” said Smith. “His interpretation was that the founders didn’t think all people were created or treated equally, but they realized it was an ideal to strive toward.” Post Civil War, Chappell mentions Ella Baker as another key figure in the conception of the American Dream.
At its core, the American Dream is nothing except a standard for the current age of dreamers to hold themselves to. It’s not perfect, far from it, but it’s closer now than it was in 1776, and as time passes we can hope to keep getting closer to that vision of utopia. We just need to keep dreaming.
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"The American Dream" (Vol. 6, Issue 1)