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Town Centre Campus (TCC) Eastwood Lane, Rotherham, S65 1EG Rother Valley Campus (RVC) Doe Quarry Lane, Dinnington, S25 2NF TEL 01709 362111 FAX 01709 373053 EMAIL info@rotherham.ac.uk WEB www.rotherham.ac.uk

Nail Technology Level 2

Hair & Beauty Therapy


WHY NAIL ENHANCEMENTS? From Salon Point of View • • • •

Meet growing demand Profitable Good for regular/repeat business Good for associated retail scope.

From Client Point of View • • • • • • •

Conceals broken or damaged nails Improve appearance of short nails Help overcome the habit of very short nails Protects weak nails against splitting or breaking For special occasions, e.g. weddings Possibility of having long, strong, beautiful nails permanently Fashionable. FALSE NAILS

Advantages • • • • • • •

Can be done at home Little equipment needed Application time is short Not a difficult technique Removal is easy when required Instant pre-coloured nails available, so no need to use enamel No maintenance required.

Disadvantages • • • • •

Can damage natural nail Temporary – may only last 2/3 days or hours! No nail preparation advised, so possible cause for infection Lifting Could lead to fungal infections if ill fitting or lifting of natural nail occurs.

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NAIL EXTENSIONS (Overlay on natural nail, overlay on tip, sculptured) Advantages If correctly applied and maintained regularly: • • • • • •

Long lasting Do not harm natural nail Natural looking Will not peel or shatter Little filing required for some systems Moisture not trapped during process, so little likelihood of fungal infection.

Systems Currently on the Market Gel – brushed over extension, or nail form and set with UV light source. Acrylic – powder and liquid to form hard structure. Fibreglass/silk – combination of webbing, resin and catalyst to strengthen and support tip. Others – e.g. silk dust, organic acrylics etc. Disadvantages • • • • • • • •

Nail plate must be filed before applying tip Need for maintenance for regrowth Expensive Time consuming Removal can be difficult and time consuming When removed, nails can be dull, lifeless, and ridged If fitted or nail prepped incorrectly, could lead to infection, damage If overfilling occurs, nail plate and cuticle can be damaged.

Considerations • • • •

Condition of clients own nail Contra-indications Client expectations Lifestyle factors -

time finance job family

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THE CONSULTATION The consultation is a very vital and necessary part of any treatment and extra time must be allowed when booking an appointment to ensure that the client fully understands the procedures, the aftercare and maintenance and that the end result meets with the client’s expectations. The usual format for a consultation should be as follows: 1

THE REASONS

It is important to ascertain why the client wishes to have artificial nails. The operator must ask questions and find out what has led the client to reach this decision. 2

THE PROBLEMS

The operator must find out what problems the client is having with her nails, for example nail biting, flaking and breaking, as this will help to determine the best treatment to offer. 3

CONTRA-INDICATIONS

The operator must then check for contra-indications, for example nail infections (paronychia/onychia), split cuticles, etc. Should contra-indications be apparent, it is then up to the operator to explain why artificial nails may not be applied and to offer an alternative course of remedial treatment. Should the contra-indications be of a contagious nature, for example onychomycosis (ringworm) or onychia (bacterial infection), the client must be advised to see a doctor as no manicure or nail application is possible. 4

THE PROCEDURE

Given that the client may go ahead with the application of artificial nails, the operator must decide which type are most suitable. Deciding upon this will only become final once the procedures, maintenance, aftercare and cost have been discussed with the client. 5

THE EXPECTED OUTCOME

The operator must find out exactly what the client’s expectations are in order to avoid disappointment. In many cases clients believe artificial nails to be indestructible and are not aware that breakage may still occur and that the maintenance may be costly and time consuming.

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CONTRA INDICATIONS 1.

Extreme Curvature To the natural nail upwards or downwards. They would not keep good shape as they grow and would tend to break due to the stress.

2.

Onycholysis (nail separation) If any separation of the natural nail from the nail bed extensions must be avoided. The extra length of nail would result in mechanical damage to the nail and more lifting of the nail plate from the bed. Then there could be the possibility of moisture becoming trapped and progressing into fungal or bacterial infection.

3.

Paronychia/Onychia Bacterial infection of the perionychium

4.

Thinning/Softness of the Nail Plate - Egg shell nails Very thin nails, white, more flexible than normal, very fragile and curve under at the free edge (increase in water content in plate 30% compared to the normal 18%) caused by chronic systemic illness. Fragilitis unguium -Term for nails which are weak but also brittle and break easy (high water content in plate) Onychalagia Nervosa - Term for extremely sensitive nails.

5.

Allergy to Product

6.

Bruising

7.

Warts

8.

Psoriasis of Nail Plate

9.

Diabetes Skin heals poorly, therefore susceptible to infection e.g. if file slipped and cut the cuticle. Also medication they take can create a slippery surface on nail plate.

10. Drugs Some drugs alter the surface of the nails making them slippery. Products will not stick on surface of nail plate therefore problems with lifting e.g. Anti-malarial drugs, evening primrose. Some drugs make people photosensitive and can cause unusual reactions when certain systems applied e.g. Tetracyclines. 11. Pregnancy Natural nail contains more fatImoisture therefore nails do not adhere. 12. Onychaphagy (Nail biting) If the free edge is extremely badly bitten as to show a fleshy protrusion in front of the nail plate it makes application of tips very difficult as the fleshy protrusion forces the nail extension to lift and causes stress to the nail plate.

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NAIL COSMETICS AND PREPARATIONS The following is a list of preparation used in manicure and the application of artificial nails. Nail Polish Remover

Acetone free/oil free, is recommended for artificial nails.

Cuticle Remover

A mildly acidic cream or lotion, used to dissolve excess cuticle.

Cuticle Cream

An emollient used to soften the cuticle to aid in its removal and pliability.

Cuticle Oil

Used to aid in the pushing back of the cuticle, and may be used to add sheen when buffed into artificial or natural nails.

Anti-Fungal Preparations

Used to prevent bacterial and fungal infection, often due to bacteria and dirt becoming trapped between the natural and artificial nails.

Nail Preparation Liquid

An alcohol based liquid, applied immediately before artificial nail application. It is used to ‘dry-out’ some of the moisture content of the natural nail, to ensure good bonding of the artificial nail.

Nail Glue

A very strong plastic based adhesive used to bond preformed nails onto the natural nails.

Nail Liquid

A chemical compound known as a monomer whose molecules can join together to form a polymer.

Nail Powder

A chemical catalyst used in conjunction with nail liquid (a monomer) to produce a polymer or acrylic nail structure.

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The Materials Some of the products used in salons will come under the heading of Hazardous Materials and therefore come within the COSHH regulations, which introduced a legal framework for controlling people’s exposure to hazardous substances arising from work activities. The Nail industry has many materials, which if used incorrectly, are harmful. It is important that the guidelines laid down in these regulations are followed. COSHH covers virtually all substances that have potential for causing harm to health. Products manufactured for use in salons are not generally thought of as hazardous to health if handled correctly, but a number of product ingredients do come within scope of the regulations. It is the salon owner’s responsibility to carry out an assessment of the use of hazardous products. The main purpose of this would be to identify, a) the hazard and b) the precaution being taken to ensure that any person involved with hazardous substances is aware of any ‘risks’ and how to minimise those risks. Data sheets are generally available from the manufacturers. Points to consider for assessment • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Get the manufacturer’s data sheets Follow manufacturer’s instructions exactly Dilute products according to manufacturer’s recommendations Wear protective garments and gloves if necessary Wear gloves or barrier cream for prolonged and frequent use of non-hazardous product Maintain high level of housekeeping and personal hygiene Never mix products unless recommended by manufacturer Make sure unused mixtures and empty containers are disposed of carefully and in accordance with local legislation Make sure all stock is properly rotated and never allowed to deteriorate Check that containers not in use are properly stored in accordance with manufacturer’s recommendations Never use food or drink containers to store any chemicals Store products at below room temperature in a dry atmosphere and away from direct sunlight. Heat and light contribute towards bacterial growth and chemical deterioration. Keep products, particularly aerosols, away from naked flames or source of heat If there are any signs of abrasion or soreness on you or your client’s hands, do not use any products, which may cause irritation Install fire alarms and test them regularly Keep all products and equipment out of reach of children

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SUBSTANCES ARE HAZARDOUS BY WAY OF: INHALATION INGESTION ABSORPTION CONTACT INJECTED -

breathing in from contaminated food or fingers through the skin or eyes from contact with contaminated surfaces or clothes with the surface of the skin or eyes into the body by high pressure equipment or contaminated sharp objects

Protection from Overexposure To work safely with chemicals doesn’t just happen! It takes effort attention and intelligence, chemical awareness and understanding to be a modem professional nail technician today. Occasionally we hear about ‘allergies’, ‘reactions’ and so forth relating to clients, but who do you think is the most at risk of overexposure, you or your client? Of course it’s you the Nail technician who is exposed 8-10 hours a day or even longer to chemical dust, vapours, mists and liquid. Professional nail products are formulated to be as safe as possible for you to work with, but used incorrectly a normally safe product can become hazardous FACT 1 -

No chemical in the world can be harmful unless you overexpose yourself

FACT 2 -

Every chemical has a safe and an unsafe level of exposure. Exceeding the safe level is the danger you must learn to avoid.

Over exposure is easy to avoid if you to stop the routes of entry and treat nail products with respect. • • • • • •

Ventilation (change the air with a local exhaust system) A ventilated nail desk is expensive, but the best option Better to spend your money on your safety than anything else All manufacturers states that extraction ventilation is a must Avoid getting products on yours or your client’s skin Wash hands before eating and never eat at the nail station

Adverse health effects should never happen, they only may happen if the technician misuses or abuses a product for long periods of time. If you experience these early warning signs repeatedly take action now. Your symptoms will disappear when overexposure ends. Symptoms are as follows - Headaches, nausea, coughing, itching and rashes.

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Action to be Taken •

If these alternative actions are taken quickly enough, the symptoms may go fairly rapidly. If not, the condition will worsen and the hands could become swollen and bleed and the nail plate lifted and distorted. Obviously, the chance of infection at this stage is very high and will make the whole condition even worse. It is really not worth taking the chance of reaching this stage.

Once the product has been removed, the condition may go. If the client is willing, a different system could be tried which may be successful. If the initial reaction were severe, it would be a good idea to do a patch test in the same way as lash tinting is done. There are a few products that are the most likely culprits in any system. Top of the list is liquid monomer in any acrylic system (or unreacted monomer that may be found as a sticky layer in a UV cured system); an acid-based primer is corrosive so could be the culprit if it has touched the skin; or sometimes it could be the nail adhesive, It is unlikely that the dust from a cured acrylic will have any effect nor will the dust from a light-cured material as long as there is no trace of the ‘sticky layer’. (Excess dust, however, can cause other problems so it should not be considered as safe.)

If the condition does not go within a few days or if it should worsen after the removal of all products, the client or technician should get medical advice. It is important to remember that technicians are not medically qualified and should never diagnose any condition. Instant removal of products immediately any reaction is noticed is the only safe course of action, leaving it to see if it gets better is unacceptable.

There is little point in blaming the manufacturer or seeking recourse if things go wrong. Correct labelling should show all necessary warnings and a professional technician should be aware of how to use all products correctly and safely. We all know household bleach is corrosive and will burn the skin and bleach clothes; whose fault is it when this happens with correctly labelled bottles? Early Warning Signs

• • • • • • • • •

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Safety Tips to Stop Overexposure • • • • •

• • • •

Use only small amounts of product Keep all lids on products tightly sealed when not in use Use a covered dappen dish or specialised bottle dispenser for liquid Avoid spraying mist into the air more than you absolutely need (don’t use it like air freshener) Empty bins regularly and only use metal waste bins with a lid (the lid holds in the fumes, also plastic bins retain the smell of the fumes and are hard to clean after the chemicals in use distort the plastic) Change tissue and towels and shake out dust frequently Don’t try to disguise smells with room perfume, scented candles or aromatherapy oils Avoid making them in the first place Just because a product has little or no odour does not mean it is not giving off vapours (it is). Ventilation is just as important with a low odour product Precise and accurate application of acrylic, silk, fibreglass etc prevents excessive filing therefore less dust and mist in salon environment.

CHECK THAT FILTERS YOU INSTALL REMOVE VAPOURS AS WELL AS DUST!

Safety Always protect your eyes Accidents involving the eyes are a serious danger in salons. Solvents in the eye can be very painful and may cause severe damage. Primer, wrap monomers and adhesives in the eyes are even worse. They may cause permanent eye injury or blindness. Safety glasses may be worn for extra protection. Wearing contacts in the salon is risky. Vapours will collect in soft contacts and make them unwearable. The contaminated lens can etch the surface of the eye and cause permanent damage. Remember always wash your hand before touching the eye area. Dusts Our lungs can handle a lot of dust. The body has many ways of removing and disposing of inhaled dusts. When you inhale more than the lungs can handle, however, you increase your risks. You can prevent this by using a dust mask especially if you use a drill. Small dust particles made by drills are far more harmful than small particles as a result of filing. If you do choose to wear a mask ensure they are regularly replaced otherwise they will become ineffective. Your client may wish to wear a dust mask. If it makes them feel better however they are not at risk. Inhaling dust isn’t in itself harmful, exceeding the safe level of exposure is what increases the risk.

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Protect Skin and Nails •

Chemical damage ranges from not protecting the nails and skin when using hazardous chemicals to the overuse of substances such as nail hardeners with formaldehyde, which can cause brittleness and, in the worst case allergies. Detergents and perfumed creams can be equally as damaging to the skin which could lead to dermatitis. Water is also a chemical which can damage the natural nail and skin if they are constantly exposed to it without protection. There are some professionals who need to take care when working, to use protective measures at all times from overexposure to water or chemicals. The skin and nail can be protected by barrier creams or the use of latex gloves.

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THE PREPARATION It is necessary to prepare all the requirement materials and equipment before the treatment begins, to avoid forgetting important steps. Inadequate preparation or materials may not allow the nail structure to bond sufficiently with the natural nails. It may also shorten the life of the false nails, causing disappointment to the client. The application of artificial nail structures is time consuming and interrupting the procedure will only cause unnecessary delays. The equipment and materials listed below are general to all applications of nail extensions. Additional items required to carry out the individual techniques are listed with the procedures. •

Workstation

Lamp

Waste bin (with lid)

Glass bowl plus x 3 bowls

Dappen dish

Disposable tissue

Nail wipes

Cotton buds

Orange sticks

Scissors

Tip cutters

Coarse file - (100 grit) - for reducing the length of artificial nails

Medium file - (180 grit) - for blending in the seams of artificial nails

Fine file - (240 grit) - to smooth the nail and remove any scratches

Four sided buffer - to bring the nail surface to a shine

Cuticle oil

Brush

Brush cleaner

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PREPARATION OF THE NAIL PLATE To obtain good adhesion it is important to develop a good technique and use good quality products. Preparation is the one of the most important parts of the treatment as if done incorrectly problems will occur later. To begin with you will need to have a clean, dry surface. Washing the hands and nail plate will remove surface oils and contamination, which may prevent a good adhesion. If this procedure is not carried out correctly it may lead to lifting or nail infections. It is also important to remove the true cuticle from the nail plate as this may also cause lifting. Adhesion is best when the nail plate is dry and clean. A nail dehydrator temporarily removes moisture, which interferes with adhesion. Primers are used to chemically etch the nail plate, acting like double sided sticky tape between the natural nail and the artificial structure. Care should be taken not to use too much of this product and not to touch the skin. Acid free primers are available and some systems are so advanced that the primers are not needed at all. PREPARING THE CLIENT Ensure the client is sitting at the workstation comfortably as she will be there for quite a while. Preparation for all Techniques 1.

Check visually for contra-indications.

2.

Manicure the nail in the normal way paying particular attention to the cuticles.

3.

Roughen the surface of the natural nail with the fine side of an emery board or white sanding block.

4.

Apply an anti fungal preparation to prevent any type of fungus from growing between the natural and false nails.

5.

Apply nail primer to absorb the moisture content of the nail, allowing greater bonding of the false nails.

Before commencing this treatment check very carefully for contra-indications, especially cuts and abrasions or inflammation of tissue around the nail. Any nail diseases or disorders will contra-indicate this treatment, as may any chemical allergies.

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Allergies may occur due to the over use of certain nail products. Care must be taken by the nail technician to monitor any changes of the nail wall or nail plate. These nails are particularly prone to fungal infections, which may be difficult to treat, as the fungus grows in between the natural nail and the acrylic nail. One other drawback to the use of artificial nails is the ‘snap-factor’. As these nails are very ‘hard’ they tend to shatter, often tearing into the nails bed, causing damage.

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TYPES OF NAIL EXTENSION There are several types of nail extension. More are being introduced as techniques improve and new products are found. Below is a list of the different types of artificial nail structures. Acrylic Sculptured Nails This method involves mixing a powder and a liquid together to form a strong acrylic paste. The mixture is applied to the nail plate and built up to form a nail. The nails is then set and shaped to the clients need. A drill to file the nail down is used to speed up the process. Sculptured Gel Nails This method involves using a gel. It is applied to the nail plate and built up to form a nail. The nail is then set with an ultra-violet lamp and shaped with a file to the clients need. Nail Tips/Overlays This method uses plastic nail tips applied to the nail plate. The seam area is then buffed with a file to disguise the join. Gel, acrylic or fibreglass can then be applied to the nail plate acting as an overlay for durability as described above.

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GUIDE TO SELECTING NAIL TIPS Advantages Change the shape of the natural nail. Create length to short nails. Identify the Nail Shape Look at the width, length, curvature. Flat nails – no C curve from sidewall to sidewall

C curve nail – deep sidewalls and a deep rounded curve

Arched nail – convex curve from cuticle to tip

Ski jump nail – flat nail with a free edge that curves upwards

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WHEN APPLYING A TIP Make sure that the free edge is shaped to fit the stop or well of the tip. The tip should: • • •

Only cover two thirds of the natural nail plate Fit down into the sidewall area Never overlap onto the skin

If no tip fits exactly choose a larger tip. Customise it by filling equally on both sides. Application • • •

Apply the correct amount of adhesive Butt the stop of the tip against the free edge at a 45-degree angle Roll the tip forwards and hold firmly against the nail.

Air bubbles are a sign of too little adhesive. Not applying the tip correctly. The nail will look unnatural and not wear as well. WHEN TO CHOOSE A TIP • • • • •

When there is no free edge When the hyponychium is very high When the sidewalls of the nail are low When sculpted nails have been worn without success When a form does not fit easily. BLENDING THE TIP

Benefits • • •

Gives a natural look Allows the acrylic to provide the strength Minimises thickness.

Adverse Effects • • • •

Can cause thinning of the nail plate More porous Products saturate the nail plate cause over exposure Heavy filing will weaken the tips structure.

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METHODS OF BLENDING Blend with Files Use the file with even pressure – 180 Work methodically across the entire area. Don’t work on one area for too long. Even colour and seam free results should be obtained. Seam Blenders Apply – wait for a few seconds. Remove residue and blend with a higher grit file 240. Over application can cause holes. Pre-blending with Files • •

Reduce the contact area; take the shine off the tip. Apply then finish blending take care not to go over the natural nail. SHAPING THE TIP

• • • •

This creates the entire look of your nail enhancements. Easier and less destructive to shape the nail now than when acrylic is overlayed. Take care not to file too heavy and cause breakage of the tip. If this happens re-apply another tip.

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Acrylics and Polymerization All of the three main systems in the nail industry contain monomers that are closely related. In fact all the systems are different forms of acrylic. • • •

Cyanoacrylates – adhesive, wraps and no-light gels Acrylates – UV light gels Methacrylates – UV light gels, monomer and polymer (liquid and powder Acrylics)

All of the above use the same chemical process to form a solid from a liquid or semi-liquid, this process is called POLYMERIZATION.

Points to remember: •

Never use Acetone to remove nail enhancements. Product remover is not Acetone, but has been chemically ‘buffed’ to protect the skin.

Never send clients home with professional products to remove their own enhancements. Removal is a salon service and all products are labelled ‘For professional use only’!

You are legally liable if you sell a professional product to a non-professional and an accident results.

Product remover is highly flammable. Never attempt to warm it in a microwave oven, or other heat source.

Can you think of another way to remove nail enhancements? NB it is particularly useful when removing one or two nails.

THE NATURAL NAIL MAY BE VERY WEAK AND THIN AS THEY HAVE NOT BEEN EXPOSED TO AIR, SO IT WILL BE NECESSARY TO APPLY A NAIL STRENGTHENER AND ENAMEL IF DESIRED.

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Nail Enhancement procedure for Silk/Fibreglass Natural Overlay Preparation • Consultation – Check for contra indications • Wash client’s hands/therapists hands • Spray with sanitiser • File free edge • Remove true cuticle with pusher plus • Etch nail plate with 240 white lock buffer • Wipe with lint wipe(with sanitiser spray on it) • Apply PH balance Application of fabric overlay • Apply a thin layer of resin to entire surface of natural nail • Apply 1 layer of fabric to entire nail • Cover the fabric entirely with 1 thin layer of resin ensuring no area is missed • Repeat to each nail (by this time the resin will have cured naturally) • Apply 1 layer of fabric to entire nail • Cover the fabric entirely with 1 thin layer of resin ensuring no area is missed • Spray/brush with activator to cure product • Apply 1 layer of resin to entire nail – Repeat to all nails – Spray with activator Finishing Techniques • Apply small amount of cuticle oil to each nail Optional– Use 180 if the surface is very uneven to smooth and shape nail (check appearance of barrel, apex and face of nail) then use a 240 block buffer. • Use 240 block buffer to smooth nail • Use a way buffer to create shine. Start off with coarse side, work through to smooth side

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Nail enhancement procedure for silk/fibreglass nails with tips

1. Sterilising the nail

2. Buffing the nail to remove shine

4. Cutting the nail tip

5. Blending the seam

7. Applying adhesive

10. Buffing the nail to a shine

3. Applying the nail tip

6. Applying silk/fibreglass

8. Spray with activator

9. Apply cuticle oil

Completed silk/fibreglass nail extension

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Nail Enhancement procedure for Silk/Fibreglass nails with nail tips Preparation • Consultation – Check for contra indications • Wash client’s hands/therapists hands • Spray with sanitiser • File free edge • Remove true cuticle with pusher plus • Etch nail plate with 240 white lock buffer • Wipe with lint wipe(with sanitiser spray on it) • Apply PH balance Tip Application • Select appropriate tips • File sides of tip to fit natural nail if necessary • Using tip cutters reduce the contact area by 50% • Pre-blend the tip • Apply a thin layer of resin to entire surface of natural nail • Apply 1 bead of tip glue – spread over contact area – blot excess off if necessary • Apply tip at 45 degree angle then rock and press for 10 seconds until fully adhered with no air bubbles • Use a damp wipe to remove excess glue • Cut free edge with tip cutters and file to shape • Blend contact area using 180 black file and a 240 white block buffer Application of silk/fibreglass • Remove excess dust with either a nail brush or damp wipe • Apply 1 layer of fabric to entire nail • Cover the fabric entirely with 1 thin layer of resin ensuring no area is missed • Repeat to each nail (by this time the resin will have cured naturally) • Apply 1 layer of fabric to entire nail • Cover the fabric entirely with 1 thin layer of resin ensuring no area is missed • Spray/brush with activator to cure product Optional – apply a strip of fabric to the stress area, apply resin – spray with activator • Apply 1 layer of resin to entire nail – Repeat to all nails – Spray with activator • Apply 1 final layer of resin to entire nail – repeat to all nails – spray with activator Finishing Techniques • Apply small amount of cuticle oil to each nail Optional – Use 180 if the surface is very uneven to smooth and shape nail (check appearance of barrel, apex and face of nail) then use a 240 block buffer. • Use 240 block buffer to smooth nail Production of this material is attributed to Rotherham College of Arts and Technology Revision 1 Creative Studies\Hair & Beauty\08-09-2119 L2 Nail Technology

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•

Use a 4 way buffer to create shine. Start off with coarse side, work through to smooth side

PROCEDURE FOR FIBREGLASS NAILS REPAIRS Lifting or Cracking Around the Cuticle Area Infill the nail as in the maintenance procedure with resin or fibreglass. Chip or Crack in the Free Edge Remove the nail tip completely by buffing and soaking in acetone. Reapply it using the application technique. Free Edge Broken Off Remove the nail following the above technique. MAINTENANCE PROCEDURE FOR FIBREGLASS/SILK EXTENSIONS Ask your client to return to the salon 2/3 weeks after application. 1.

Cleanse the hands and nails.

2.

Check hands for contra-indications, if nail enamel is on the nails remove this with non-acetone nail enamel remover.

3. 4.

Carry out the appropriate cuticle work if necessary. Buff away any loose or lifting fibreglass/silk working carefully on the join where the nail has grown up the nail plate.

5.

Once the join is invisible buff the whole of the nail plate to remove the shine with a fine grit nail file.

6.

Apply resin to whole nail area and spray with activator. If the growth is too much you may have to fill the regrowth area with fibreglass/silk overlapping the old application slightly and then repeat with resin and activator.

7.

Once the nail is level apply resin to the whole nail and spray with activator.

8.

Buff the nail to create a smooth, shiny surface.

9.

Apply cuticle oil.

10. Enamel if required.

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HOME CARE ADVICE Artificial nails of both types are like natural nails in that they still snap and split if mistreated. The client should be made aware of this, as many believe false nails are indestructible, the same care should be taken as for natural nails, as damage to false nails can lead to extensive nail bed injury. Clients should be instructed to: a

Not to bite or chew nails (can also damage teeth!)

b

Wear gloves when doing housework.

c

Treat as carefully as natural nails. Do not use as tools.

d

Not immerse hands for prolonged periods in any type of oil (take care with body oils and moisturisers).

e

If damaged, contact salon - do not attempt repair (except refixing pre-formed nail).

f

Never attempt home removal. Professional removal only.

g

For sculptured gel nails remove enamel with acetone nail enamel remover and or acrylic, fibreglass and pre-formed nails, acetone free remover ONLY, as acetone will remove the whole pre-formed nail.

h

Do not cut nails, they will shatter - file only.

i

Be careful of naked flame – flammable.

j

Always wear basecoat – Artificial nails discolour easily.

k

Return for infill’s every 2-3 weeks.

l

If using a sunbed – apply a base coat to prevent yellowing.

m

Apply cuticle oil to the skin and nails daily to prevent brittleness.

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ARTIFICIAL NAIL STRUCTURES

Contra Actions After a false nail has been removed the natural nail will be soft for 24hrs. This is because the nail contains moisture, which has been trapped under the nail structure and unable to evaporate. Once the natural nail is exposed to the air again, the moisture will evaporate and the nail will return to normal. Onychomycosis or Pseudomonas (Fungal or Bacterial Infection) Can result if you do not seal the artificial nail around the edges, have poor hygiene techniques or an air pocket is present. Loss of Nail Can be due to incorrect application e.g. air pocket, during pregnancy or when taking medication. A Friction Burn May occur if you don’t constantly change direction when filing (Ring of Fire). Headaches and Drowsiness Can be due to the methacrylic vapours, ensure you are taking all precautions to prevent over exposure to vapours. Allergies or Sensitivity Can be caused by prolonged use of adhesives and other products. You may notice: • •

A slight redness and swelling in the cuticle area. Possible aching nail bed.

Later stages are: • • • •

Finger pads and cuticle become tender and hot and sensitive to touch. Reactions occur immediately after application and last a few hours to a few days. Reactions get more violent with each treatment, the cuticle wall will become dry and peel. Severe cases develop into sores, scabs and pus.

If any of the above happens remove immediately and wait until all symptoms have cleared. With the clients agreement you may wish to try a different system.

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Onychomicosis I Candida Tinea Ungium (Fungal infection) Extremely contagious fungal infection. The condition can be yellow/brown or white/grey patches. Large areas of white that start at the free edge extend to the cuticle area. The nail plate can soften and a smell can be present. If the condition is not correctly treated the nail bed can become infected resulting in permanent damage. Treatment No nail treatment. Refer to G.P for treatment (usually via oral drug or topical cream) Pseudomonas (Bacterial infection) A bacterial infection often found in between the nail plate and a lifted overlay due to incorrect application or aftercare/homecare. This is the ideal environment for bacterial growth -warm dark, moist and debris (food source). The bacteria creates a by-product, a pigment called Pyocyanin which is green in colour or black if neglected. Treatment Remove nail overlay then soak the natural nail in tea tree oil, 5% bleach solution or alcohol for several days to destroy the bacteria present. The bacteria will be destroyed but the green dye will still be present. The artificial nail may be reapplied over the discolouration. The client will have to persevere with the discolouration until it grows out. Dark enamels will disguise. Mechanical Damage • • • • • •

Over buffing on natural nail when blending Over preparing natural nail - Dehydration Pulling off the artificial nail - Splitting Over buffing overlay - Friction burn Clipping stubborn artificial nail product incorrect removal Drill - incorrect use and overuse

Chemical Damage • • • • •

Over exposure - Not adhering to COSHH Allowing chemicals to touch the skin - Primer Flooding natural nail with too much product -(Over exposure of product – Allergy Oncholysis) Over buffing - creating dust Burning - Careless use of primer/activator

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CAUSES OF LIFTING Lifting of products can be caused by many different things, but usually is a result of inadequate preparation and sanitisation of the nail plate. Can you list possible cause of lifting? • • • • • •

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Glossary

Activator

Speeds up a reaction, is used to accelerate the setting process if the resin.

Apex

The High point which is just above the stress area.

Catalyst

A catalyst is a chemical that speeds up or slows down a chemical reaction.

Curing

Curing is the hardening or setting process of a liquid to a solid.

Contact area

The well area of the tip just above the stop area.

Dehydrate

To remove water or dry out.

Initiator

A molecule that starts a reaction.

Molecule

A molecule is a chemical in its simplest form.

Monomer

Is often referred to as the liquid/powder system(acrylic)

Polymerisation

Is the setting that takes place when a monomer(liquid) and a polymer(powder) are mixed together

Primer

Substance that makes the nail plate more compatible with certain overlays.

Sculptured Nail

Paper or metal aids to extend the nail beyond the free edge.

Solvent

Substance capable of dissolving another substance

Wrap

The term used in the fibreglass system for the material used to overlay natural nails.

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Level 2 Nail technology  

N5 booklet