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PRE-LISTENING • Have you followed U.S elections? Do you have an opinion on it? What are you feeling towards it? I followed U.S. elections as a good international relations student. I believe that this election was very important for the Americans because they had the chance to show to the world that they wanted some changes are their government. This doesn’t mean that the change is going to be big, not even that there will be a change, but what is important is that they want it. • Do you think Hillary would have been a better choice? I believe that Hillary could not demonstrate the change in the American people , they couldn’t see the government policies changing with her in power. So I think that Obama was a right choice. • Do you think Obama really represents a new era in terms of international politics? I think that Obama may change some things concerning international politics , and being aware of this the other presidents may see his decisions with better eyes. Everyone is betting on him, is up to him be the change in the world. • Have you listened to Obama’s Victory speech? Yes, I did. In fact, I listened the hole speech. • Summarize David Crystal’s ideas on Obama’s style. Do you agree with Crystal’s analysis? Why (not)?


Key words

Match the words and phrases on the left with the definitions on the right. 1. cast her ballot 2. generation 3. slavery 4. struggle 5. pressed on 6. despair 7. tyranny 8. hoses 9. reclaim 10. cynicism

1 a. try very hard to solve a problem or change a situation 4 b. continued to try 7 c. cruel and unfair use of power over other people 10 d. no trust in other people 5 e. voted 2 f. about 30 years; long enough for a family of children to grow up 8 g. long rubber pipes to direct water onto plants, fires (or people) 3 h. a system where people are forced to work for their ‘owners’ without pay 1 i. great sadness, no hope 9 j. get back something you have lost or left behind

Now listen again. Confirm the meaning from the context where the words are used.


As you listen, number these ideas in the order you hear them.

__4_ The first moon landing

__1__ a very old black woman’s life experience

__3_ surviving the war

__5_the birth of the Internet __7 uniting the American people __6___electronic voting __2_ creating employment

3. Listen again to check, and note down clues in the speech that helped you to decide. The clue that helped me to decide was my knowledge about historical facts, so as I listened I made a historical line of her life and the things that happened during her life.

INTEGRATED SKILLS PROJECT PART 2 Reading PRE-READING • Why do politicians write speeches? Politicians write speeches because they need to inform the electors about the changes that they want to make, the way that they will act in their government, it is a way of making contact with the electors. • Who watches/listens to political speeches? Why? I believe that everyone should listen to the political speeches, but as you now is not what happens. The people who what this speeches are another politicians, social students, and people interested in the political agenda. • From your background, what are some of the common contents included in political speeches? There are common but important items like healthy policies, education, economia, international relations. • Can you think of the typical form (organizational pattern) of political speeches? How do they start, develop and end? I believe that the first step is to recognize the problems that the society is facing , and after talk about the problems the politician will propably talk about the solution that he has for the problem , and convince the electors that his solution is the best one. The exercises below are to be done based on the transcript of the speech reproduced here. Transcript of the final part of the speech: 1 This election had many firsts and many stories that will be told for generations. But one that’s on my mind tonight is about a woman who cast her ballot in Atlanta. She’s a lot like the millions of others who stood in line to make their voice heard in this election except for one thing – Ann Nixon Cooper is 106 years old. 2 She was born just a generation past slavery; a time when there were no cars on the road or planes in the sky; when someone like her couldn’t vote for two reasons – because she was a woman and because of the colour of her skin. 3 And tonight, I think about all that she’s seen throughout her century in America – the heartache and the hope; the struggle and the progress; the times we were told that we can’t, and the people who pressed on with that American creed: Yes we can. 4 At a time when women’s voices were silenced and their hopes dismissed, she lived to see them stand up and speak out and reach for the ballot. Yes we can. 5 When there was despair in the dust bowl and depression across the land, she saw a nation conquer fear itself with a New Deal, new jobs and a new sense of common purpose. Yes we can. 6

When the bombs fell on our harbor and tyranny threatened the world, she was there to witness a generation rise to greatness and a democracy was saved. Yes we can. 7 She was there for the buses in Montgomery, the hoses in Birmingham, a bridge in Selma, and a preacher from Atlanta who told a people that “We Shall Overcome.” Yes we can. 8 A man touched down on the moon, a wall came down in Berlin, a world was connected by our own science and imagination. And this year, in this election, she touched her finger to a screen, and cast her vote, because after 106 years in America, through the best of times and the darkest of hours, she knows how America can change. Yes we can. 9 America, we have come so far. We have seen so much. But there is so much more to do. So tonight, let us ask ourselves – if our children should live to see the next century; if my daughters should be so lucky to live as long as Ann Nixon Cooper, what change will they see? What progress will we have made? 10 This is our chance to answer that call. This is our moment. This is our time – to put our people back to work and open doors of opportunity for our kids; to restore prosperity and promote the cause of peace; to reclaim the American Dream and reaffirm that fundamental truth – that out of many, we are one; that while we breathe, we hope, and where we are met with cynicism, and doubt, and those who tell us that we can’t, we will respond with that timeless creed that sums up the spirit of a people: 11 Yes We Can. Thank you, God bless you, and may God Bless the United States of America.

4. Scan the text to find phrases that mean the following. 1.voted (two phrases in para 1) a. cast her ballot b. stood in line to make their voice heard 2.only about 20 years after the slaves were freed (para 2) just a generation past slavery 3.continued to try (para 3) the struggle 4.statement of belief (para 3) Creed 5.go and vote (para 4) reach for the ballot 6. great sadness in the dry areas (of America in the 1930s) (para 5) despair in the dust bowl 7. everyone was in danger from enemy powers (para 6) tyranny threatened the world 8. long rubber pipes used to direct water onto plants (or people) (para 7) Hoses 9. give our children a good education (para 10) open doors of opportunity for our kids 10. make people wealthy again (para 10) restore prosperity

STYLE 5. Obama’s speech uses a lot of literary devices to have an impact on the listener. Which of the following devices does he use? Which do you think he uses most often? I think Obama uses alliteration, repetition for effect, rhythm (the rhythm he gets by using alliteration and parallel structures), parallel structures, and he includes the listener in the speech. I think that he uses the alliteration frequently, and include the listener in almost every phrase. a. alliteration (using several words together that begin with the same sound) b. repetition for effect c. rhythm d. rhyme e. Parallel structures (e.g. He went to work, she stayed at home.) f. direct appeal to the listener: using you and imperatives g. including the listener, using we and our 6. Parallel structures naturally create a sense of rhythm. Obama uses a lot of these in the extract. One from paragraph two has been given as an example. See how many more you can find. (If there is more than one space for one paragraph, there is more than one example.)

paragraph 2

examples No cars on the road or planes in the sky because she was a woman and because of the colour of her skin

3 4

heartache and the hope; the struggle and the progress when women’s voices were silenced and their hopes dismissed stand up and speak out

5 despair in the dust bowl and depression across the land New Deal, new jobs and a new sense of common purpose 7 She was there for the buses in Montgomery, the hoses in Birmingham, a bridge in Selma 8 A man touched down on the moon, a wall came down in Berlin, a world was connected through the best of times and the darkest of hours 9 10

if our children should live to see the next century; if my daughters should be so lucky to put our people back to work and open doors of opportunity for our kids

that while we breathe, we hope to restore prosperity and promote the cause of peace where we are met with cynicism, and doubt INTEGRATED SKILLS PROJECT PART 3 WRITING 7.

Internet search

Obama makes a lot of historical references. What do you know about the topics in the table below? Look them up on the Internet, and see what you can find out. Just make very short notes.

The dust bowl

The dust bowl was a period of time, around 1930-1936 when dust storms caused serious ecological and agricultural problems to the United States.

The New Deal

The New deal was an economic program , that the USA president Franklin Delano Roosevelt developed to fight against the Great Depression.

The buses in Montgomery

The Montgomery Busses were a racial segregation , white people who boarded the bus took seats in the front rows, filling the bus toward the back. Black people who boarded the bus took seats in the back rows, filling the bus toward the front. Eventually, the two sections would meet. Some people protested against it in the Montgomery Bus Boycott. The fight for American civil rights as the right to vote for black people, in 1965.

A bridge in Selma A preacher from Atlanta The hoses in Birmingham

Birmingham received national and international attention as a center of the civil rights struggle for African-Americans. The movements in the 50’s and 60’s were repressed with tear gas, attack dogs, fire hoses, and arrests.

Why do you think Obama refers to all these events? Obama refers to all of those events to remember the listeners all the fight , all the struggle that the American people had to suffer to be in this position today, and also remember them what they have accomplished in civil rights, especially electing a black president. 8.

Interpretation 1. What words would you use to describe this speech? Depressing, hopeful, inspiring, exhausting, artful, convincing, energizing?

In could use many words to describe this speech, but none of them will describe it in the right way. The speech was unique, special , hopeful, inspiring. The speech also raise the expectations about Obama’s government. 2. Do you think Obama will be less or more patriotic than Bush?

I believe that Obama will be less patriotic than Bush, I hope that he will think more about the world than the USA. 3. Do you think he will take American forces out of Iraq and Afghanistan? What makes you think this?

I think that it is a very difficult subject, and even Obama don’t know what to do. I believe he will try to take American forces against Afghanistan , but it would take more time, money, and energy than he thinks. 4. Do you think he will increase or decrease public spending on the poor? What makes you think this?

I believe that he will wait until this crisis pass to decide what to do. The way his government showed in the last few months it is possible that he will continue to spend, and even to increase public spending with the poor.

5. Do you think he will be a good president? Why / why not?

I believe that he will never be the president that people hope him to be. It is easy to see how people putted all of their hopes in Obama, the expectation is very high. But it doesn’t mean that he will not be a good president. Obama created a hope in the whole world and I believe that this hope will help him to accomplish some measures with other presidents.

9. Now that you have studied Obama’s victory speech detailed, it is time to think of Brazil’s this year election. You have to write an OPINION ESSAY, respecting the tips studied previously, on ONE of the following issues.


No matter who wins the election, the government will follow the path opened by Lula.


As a follower of Lula, Dilma is the best option because she will keep the foreign affairs policies inaugurated by Lula, which have proved to be efficient.


Serra is the best option because it is time we changed from left to right, politically speaking

Your essay must have 400-800 words and you must base your argument on facts, events and statistics. Give examples, discuss details, connect ideas and try to be reader-friendly, i.e. keep to the topic you’ve chosen and develop your arguments in a way that each idea links to the next one smoothly.

The name does not matter.

The president in Brazil is elected for a four-year term by the people. And this year the Brazilian people have to elect their president one more time. There are two major candidates, José Serra and Dilma. Their proposals for the country and the people are a little bit different assuming that Serra is from a “right party” and Dilma is from a “left party”. I am inclined to believe that no matter which president people choose the government policy will stay the same.

The question that is on every mind that worries about economic, social and political agenda in Brazil is “who is going to win this election? And what does it mean?” It is quite obvious that no one can have the exactly answer, but it is the right and the duty of the people to question themselves about it , and to question their candidates about what they are going to do once they are in government. It does not mean that what they tell they are going to do will be actually done. I am not convinced that a change is going to happen even if Serra ascends to the power. Brazilians today’s president, Lula use a lot of social programs created by the former president Fernando Henrique Cardoso. One example is the Bolsa-Família , this social program used to be Bolsa-Escola on FHC government. The economic agenda didn’t change enough in the last 8 years. Lula basically continued FHC policies, changed a few names, and made the people believe that the “left” was doing some changes.

It is also important to notice that Brazil is nowadays an important actor in world scenario. What does that means? It means that all the big changes that we do in our country effect the whole world. Our international relations will not change drastically enough. There is a possibility that Dilma will continue to increase Brazil-Iran relations, but it does not mean that Serra will end with this.

I firmly believe that the president to be elected will not be able to change in a abrupt way the changes that need to be made for our country to grow even more. We cannot forget that Brazil has a multiparty system, with such numerous parties that often no one party has a chance of gaining power

alone, and so they must work with each other to form coalition governments. These coalitions also make difficult big changes in political scenario.


projeto sobre o discurso de barack obama