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EXPRESSION OF INTEREST JOURNAL

STUDIO AIR

BIANCA CHRISTENSEN 635300 TUTORS: MIKE + ZAC

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a b c

EXPRESSION OF INTEREST

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CASE FOR INNOVATION A.1 ARCHITECTURE AS A DISCOURSE

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A.2 COMPUTATIONAL ARCHITECTURE

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A.3 PARAMETRIC MODELLING 13 A.4 COMPUTATIONAL ARCHITECTURE 19 A.5 CONCLUSION 21 A.6 LEARNING OUTCOMES 22


INTRODUCTION

BIANCA CHRISTENSEN Currently I am in my final year of the Bachelor of Environments, majoring in Architecture. I have just transferred to the University of Melbourne from Queensland University of Technology where I grew up on the sunny Gold Coast. It was here that I was first introduced to digital architectural theory and tools, such as AutoCAD, Revit, Sketch up and so on. Last year, within studio, I began to explore the program Blender. This was utilized as a tool to explore four dimensional diagramming and experimentation using parameters (such as pedestrian traffic) and particle simulations to generate a building form. Precedent work that was examined, emulated and interrogated was the various approaches used by Greg Lynn, Zaha Hadid, Ali Rahim and Ross Lovegrove.

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PART 1

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EXPRESSIONS OF INTEREST

CASE FOR INNOVATION

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PART A: CASE FOR INNOVATION

A.1

ARCHITECTURE AS A DISCOURSE architecture as cultural investment There is no simple answer to the question ‘what is architecture?’, yet it appears to be a constant battle by authors, critics, artists, architects (and the list goes on) to define it. It could be suggested that architecture is purely a building to provide shelter... However, this would suggest little ambiguity and defining it wouldn’t be a problem. Thus, it could be suggested that this difficulty could stem from the idea that ‘architecture is as much a philosophical, social or professional realm as it is a material one’1

meanings and concerns that architectural form can encompass.2

This ‘Case for Innovation’, is going to add to the disciplinary discourse of architecture by discussing the role of architecture as a cultural investment. In particular, the idea of governing bodies using public and cultural buildings as a way to increase cultural and social capital and in turn economic capital of buildings and even cities as a whole. This idea comes from the following quote from the article “Architecture and The literature that all these ideas and opinions Visual Culture” by Richard Williams: encompass, contribute to the ongoing conversations and debates that is: Architecture as a An immense amount of spectacular new Discourse. architecture has been built in the past two decades, a product of the desire on

Architectural discourse has largely been surrounded by the discourse of form and in particular style. This suggests that this large debate has been concentrated at a superficial level and thus not exploring the deeper

the part of social and political authority of update the public realm in the context of unprecedented prosperity.3

1 Richard Williams, ‘Architecture and Visual 2 Neil Leach, ‘Rethinking Architecture: A Reader in Culture’, Exploring Visual Culture: Definitions, Concepts, Cultural Theory’, Routledge (1997), xiii Contexts. Edinburgh University Press, (2005), 102 - 116 3 Williams, ‘Architecture and Visual Culture’ p. 102

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FIGURE #: FRANK GEHRY SKETCH OF THE GUGGENHEIM BILBAO

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THE GUGGENHEIM MUSEUM BILBAO 5

FRANK GEHRY


A.1 ARCHITECTURE AS A DISCOURSE This sculptural like structure known as the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, was designed by renowned architect Frank Gehry. This project is the definition of architecture as a cultural investment. The city of Bilbao, Spain, successfully achieved their goals through utilising this building as a means to restructure the former industrial site.1 The building became a catalyst for the urban and economic regeneration of the entire city, which prior to opening the museum in 1997, was a cultural backwater.2 Gehry was determined to push the boundaries against his views of post-modernism and thus designed an architectural form that never appeared to be static. His concept was about fish and the way they appeared to be in constant motion when he drew them.3 He achieved this through utilising audacious curves and sculptural forms.

majority of visitors being international tourists.5 Due to the success of this project there has been many assumptions played out about using signature architecture by architects such as; Frank Gehry, Norman Foster, Renzo Piano, Rem Koolhaas, Daniel Libeskind and Zaha Hadid, guarantee successful urban and economic regeneration, this being known as “The Bilbao Effect”.6 It can be argued that using signature architects, just by being them, will raise awareness of the projects initially - whether or not it is good or bad architecture.

The building has been under constant critique of whether it was or wasn’t the reason of the social, cultural and economic growth that Bilbao exploded with once the museum opened its doors. However, numbers tend not to lie. Before the introduction the Guggenheim, the city had a small arts museum that attracted less than 100,000 visitors a year, very few being tourists. 4 Whereas, the Guggenheim hosts around one million visitors per year, with the 1 Beatriz Plaza, ‘The Return on Investment of the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, (2006) p 452. 2 Phaidon, ‘Buildings that changed the world - The Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao’, http://au.phaidon.com/ agenda/architecture/articles/2012/november/23/buildingsthat-changed-the-world-the-guggenheim-museum-bilbao/ [accessed 04 April, 2013]. 3 Phaidon, ‘Buildings that changed the world - The Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao’. 4 Beatriz Plaza, ‘The Return on Investment of the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao’, p. 453.

5 ‘The Guggenheim Bilbao museum, art and avantgarde’ , (2013), http://www.spain.info/en/reportajes/ museo_guggenheim_arte_y_vanguardia_en_bilbao.html [accessed 26 March, 2013]. 6 Beatriz Plaza, ‘The Return on Investment of the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao’, p. 453.

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LONDON AQUATICS CENTRE ZAHA HADID ARCHITECTS

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Designed for the London 2012 Olympics, the London Aquatics Centre was designed to provide a legacy that would out-live the events entity and become a place for the public. In order to make this a viable outcome, Hadid designed the building to be able to be transformed. The building was to have it’s ‘wings clipped’, and replaced with glass facades, shedding 85 percent of the spectator seating used for the games.1

A.1 ARCHITECTURE AS A DISCOURSE

The concept behind the form was inspired by the ‘fluid geometry of water in motion, creating spaces and a surrounding environment in sympathy with the river landscape of the Olympic Park’.2 The swooping roof, was generated by sight-lines for spectators for the duration of the Olympics. As the Olympics were always going to draw great numbers of tourism to the area, the question arises if having signature architecture increased the interest generated during and post-games? It could be argued that it has, because not only was it a landmark in Olympic history, it was also designed by a renowned architect. This means that it has become a tourism destination through multiple avenues whilst also becoming a place for the community to use. However, in terms of the success post-Olympics, further time is needed to analyse the site.

The above images represent the ‘wings’ that were only intended for the duration of the games, whereas the image on the opposite page shows the building in legacy form.

1 Architectural Record, ‘Aquatics Centre Zaha Hadid Architects’, (2012), 200(6), p. 1. 2 Zaha Hadid Architects, ‘London Aquatics Centre’, (2012), http://www.zaha-hadid.com/architecture/london-aquatics-centre/ [accessed 29 March 2013]

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PART A: CASE FOR INNOVATION

A.2

COMPUTATIONAL ARCHITECTURE COMPUTERIZATION VS. COMPUTATION Currently the use of computers in design, is dominated by many utilising it as just a tool. Another way to represent drawings that were conceptualized by a designer and then entered, manipulated and stored on a computer system. 1 This is the idea known as ‘Computerization’. Although this process has had many benefits to the design and construction industry, it is the shift towards computation that will have the significant advantages. Computation, is the idea that computers and software can be used in both the design and manufacture of the built environment. 2 1 Kostas Terzidis, ‘Algorithmic Architecture’, Elsevier, (2006), p.xi 2 Jan Knippers, ‘From Model

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However, Bryan Lawson suggests that ‘“CAD might conspire against creative thought{...}” by encouraging “fake” creativity’. 3 Personally, I disagree with this idea. I believe that when computation is used correctly, it is a tool that can be utilised in making designers rethink the way they design through new constraints and exportations that could possibly increase creativity. Computation can help produce numerous outcomes that may not have been thought about. Possibly due to constraints such as time and a focus on the personal Thinking to Process Design’, Architectural Design, (2013), 83(2), p.77. 3 Bryan Lawson, ‘Fake and Real Creativity using Computer Aided Design: Some Lessons from Herman Hertberger’, Proceedings of the 3rd Conference on Creativity and Cofnition, ACM Press, (1999), p. 174-197.

attachment a designer may have through the effort they have pursued. It is a new tool that can be utilised as part of the design process, a alternative approach to problem solving, which after all is the basis of all architectural explorations. `


The above image is of the Computational Design Research Pavilion, designed by Achim Menges in 2010. It’s purpose was to design an innovative structure that demonstrated the latest developments within material-orientated design, simulation and production processes. The project utilises computation as a generation of form that directly responds to the physical behaviour and material characteristics. 1 1 EVolo, ‘Computational Design Research Pavilion’, ICD-ITKE, (2011), http://www.evolo.us/architecture/ computational-design-research-pavilion-icd-itke/ [accessed 01 April 2013]

AN EXAMPLE

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THEMATIC PAVILLION SOMA The Thematic Pavilion in South Korea was designed by SOMA for the 2012 Expo in Yeosu. It was essential for the building to become an iconic landmark that was fully integrated into the urban context and surrounding nature.1 As it was designed for the World Expo, 2012, it could be suggested that the design needed to generate more cultural and economic capital for the city of Yeosu. Thus, an innovative structure was required to capture people’s attention and in order to achieve this SOMA utilised computation in terms of design and fabrication.2 The idea behind this building was to use computation to generate from but concentrating on the structural aspects. It was this aspect that allowed the buildings concept to be achieved. That concept being, to represent the endless surface to the ocean and it’s depth. And thus, the form plays with the horizontal and vertical, twisting them and letting the outer shell define the interiors.3

1 SOMA, ‘Thematic Pavilion EXPO 2012 Yeosu, SouthKorea’, (2012), http://www.soma-architecture.com/index. php?page=thematic_pavilion&parent=2 [accessed 01 April 2013]. 2 Jan Knippers, ‘From Model Thinking to Process Design’, (2013), 83(2), p.77. 3 SOMA, ‘Thematic Pavillion EXPO 2012 Yeosu, SouthKorea’. (2012”.

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Further to this, computation allowed the kinetic facade of this project to be possible. It is comprised of 114 louvres, that are up too 14 metres in length and are elastically deformed through compression and tension (to open and close the louvres). 1

1 Jan Knippers, ‘From Model Thinking to Process Design’, (2013), 83(2), p.76


A.2 COMPUTATIONAL ARCHITECTURE

Above: the kinetic facade of the building, showing the open to close stages. Above/middle: the kinetic facade slightly open. Right: The way the fibre glass kinetic facade operates, through the use of tension of open and close the lourves.

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PART A: CASE FOR INNOVATION

A.3

PARAMETRIC MODELLING One way designers can utilise computation, is through the use of parametric modelling. Not necessarily a new concept, parametric design is becoming more apparent in the built environment. One reason that this has occurred is due to the designer wanting more flexibility within computation. Thus allowing the designer to be able to make changes without the constant ‘re-do’ of deleting and/or redrawing to produce variations in designs.1

all partial truths but are opinions and thus not an appropriate form of a definition. I agree with Davis’ idea of defining parametric modelling according to Weisstein’s mathematical definition: set of equations that express a set of quantities as explicit functions of a number of independent variables known as ‘parameters’2

Parametric modelling encompasses so many different elements that it cannot be conceptually defined as being a specific ‘thing’. When Daniel Davis gave his lecture in week three, he suggested that many people define parametric modelling in a variety of ways, such as ‘parametric is change’ and ‘parametric is design’ and so on. These bold statements have 1 Carlos Roberto Barrios Hernandez, ‘Thinking parametric design: introducing parametric Gaudi’, Digital Design Studies, (2005), 27(3) p. 309-324.

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2 Eric Weisstein, ‘CRC Concise Encyclopaedia of Mathematics’ , Chapman & Hall/CRC


The two images below are of the rope and weight tension/ compression models that Guadi used. Expressively showing that parametric design is not just a computational tool,

Now, through the application of these parameters and furthermore algorithms, designers become the ‘programmer’ and have the ability to generate and control multiple outcomes with less effort. I believe that parametric design is currently a driving force for architecture and consequently to stay ‘relevant’ in the industry one must utilise this tool. Not just as a way to be able to possibly save time, but to also create the most innovate forms that operate successfully as a building. As it is currently at the forefront of technology in the industry these types of buildings are becoming the new ‘signature architecture’ that can be used as a cultural investment. These types of buildings also tend to develop the most controversy as most either love or loathe the designs. Yet, this controversy generates more discussion and knowledge of the buildings. It could suggested that parametric modelling increased cultural and economic attributes even before computers existed. An example of this, is Gaudi’s Sagrada Familia, where he used a physical model of rope and weights (the parametric aspect) to create form through tension and then reversing for the arches and vaults to work in compression. This cultural building has high volume of international and local visitors and as it is still in construction, will continue to be a generation of economic and cultural capital for the city.

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BURNHAM PAVILION 15

UNSTUDIO


A.3 PARAMETRIC MODELLING

Parametric digital models, exploring the potential designs that could be generated.

The pavilion at night, showing the engagement with people and with the city beyond.

The Burnham Pavilion by UNStudio is an example of how parametric design can increase urban, cultural generation. This pavilion was designed to be an urban activator to encourage local and international visitors to the site, Millennium Park in Chicago. The purpose was to connect people with the site and each other through being able to explore within and around the project. 1

the city and park grid, with the edges of the pavilion following this geometry. Through using cities geometry, the rigid grid and the diagonal streets, UNStudio utilised these as the parameters to be able to explore multiple potentials for the overall design. Whilst also creating fluidity through the form, with a geometry that may not have been otherwise explored.

UNStudio placed a particular emphasis on the specifically of the site, exposing the relationship between the existing rigid geometry, whilst also introducing a floating and multidirectional space. The design originated with the orthogonal setup of

The design that was chosen, frames views of the park and city in a specific way that aligns the parameters used.

1 UNStudio, ‘Burnham Pavilion’, (2009), http://www. unstudio.com/projects/burnham-pavilion [accessed 30 March, 2013.]

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RIBBONS OPEN-AIR THEATRE MAKOTO SEI WANTANBE The Ribbons Open-Air Theatre was basically an ‘extension’ to an existing outdoor theatre in a city park in Taiwan. The idea was to produce something noticeable and renowned in a way to regenerate the existing site. Wantanbe, expresses that his wave-like ribbons utilised algorithmic design, although no special software was developed for the project. He further suggests that the project is successful if the functions that are held within are expanded into the city and he believes that these ribbons are what allows this to happen1. Connecting the city and theatre and making them one. Through utilising algorithmic exploration, Wantanbe produce multiple versions using the same concept of ‘ribbons’ to generate the optimal result. I believe that if he had not 1 Philip Jodidio, ‘Ribbons Open-Air Theatre’, Public Architecture Now, Tachen (2010) p. 402-405.

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utilised this tool, he would not have explored further and changed parameters in a way that completely changed the final result. Thus, the building may not have been as successful in his intention to connect the city and the theatre as one, whilst maintaining its own identity. This is showing the relationship between design and the success of a building to generate a higher cultural capital and in turn investment. Just like many of the other projects explored, people when interested, will travel to see a building of innovation even if they may not be interested in what the built form encompasses inside (exhibitions and so on).


A.3 PARAMETRIC MODELLING

Far Above: the three explorations of parametric design that Wantanbe explored. Above: the built structure of the Ribbons Open Air Theatre and the way it connects to the city and engages cultural vitality.

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PART A: CASE FOR INNOVATION

A.4

ALGORITHMIC EXPLORATIONS

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Grasshopper is one program that allows us to explore algorithmic functions that allows designers to produce multiple solutions within minutes. The reason I have shown this image, even though it is one of the most simplistic definitions that can be done in Grasshopper, is due to the fact that it takes a matter of seconds. Three lofted examples, all completely different, however all began in the same form. Thus, best representing what algorithmic design can achieve. The image represents just three potential outcomes, however, the possibilities are endless and potentially it makes me question - how do you know when best to stop the exploration? Could having this power of nearly infinite possibilities be a negative impact? However, I believe that parametric design for the use of the Gateway Project Competition, will be a great tool to explore multiple options for designs that will challenge people’s perceptions of to what innovative forms can be produced. Thus, generating that element of controversy to spark intrigue and become a ‘signature architecture’.

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PART A: CASE FOR INNOVATION

A.5

CONCLUSION It is becoming more and more evident that architecture is being employed to be utilised as a cultural investment. This is being seen in many public architecture projects, where governing bodies are employing the architecture to become one of the main reasons, never mind what the building actually holds, to draw in visitors and thus economic viability. The projects that were explored are evident that using this approach is becoming more successful, through using ‘signature architecture’. At present this ‘signature architecture’ is parametric design. I believe that it has the highest potential to create innovative forms that produce quality architecture. It tends to generate much controversy, as many either will love or loathe the project, which will add to the cultural investment of the project itself. As seen in the case studies, the potential for the projects to overlap each section is quite significant. And many of the topics could be explored in much greater detail. In order for the Gateway Project Competition to be innovative, it needs to explore parameters of different ways to alter geometry of the form. The most optimal solution would be chosen once as many possibilities are tried and tested. From the case studies presented, an interesting form is vital in creating cultural and economic capital that will not only have its intended purpose, but to also have people want to go out of their way to visit the site out of pure intrigue.

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PART A: CASE FOR INNOVATION

A.6

LEARNING OUTCOMES Since the beginning of this semester, my knowledge of the way computation differs from computerization has expanded immensely. The idea that being able to control the program through algorithmic exploration, is something that I had not thought about but makes perfect sense. Being able to manipulate to that extent produces much more of a creative process. Yes, you face new constraints, but this just adds to the test of your ability to problem solve. In past projects, I found I was very limited because I couldn’t quite test the ideas I had in my head on paper or through computerization and due to this I found my projects lacked innovation.

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PART 23

b


EXPRESSIONS OF INTEREST

DESIGN APPROACH 24


PART B: EOI II: DESIGN APPROACH

B.1

DESIGN FOCUS GEOMETRY The Wyndham City Council seeks to enhance the physical environment of the Western Interchange through the introduction of a visual arts component that will become the Western Gateway. It’s purpose is to encourage ongoing interest and reflection beyond first glance and thus have people return to the site1.

As a parametric approach, Grasshopper allows for the execution of these geometric explorations in a magnitude of variations. It also makes it possible to evaluate the buildability/ fabrication of forms without having to test solely on physical models and the use of mathematics. Thus, allowing to develop the most optimal form and increasing To achieve these desired outcomes, the group time efficiency for fabrication (even if a variety decided to focus our design approach through of models is being t ested). the use of geometry. Overall geometry begins to explore such elements as ruled surfaces, For the Expression of Interest for the Western paraboloids, minimal surfaces, geodesics, Gateway Design Project, geometry as a relaxation and general form finding and parametric approach will allow for the also booleans. In their individual ways, each integration of visual art, design and structure. of these geometric explorations can allow Thus, also allowing the incorporation of the for the optimization of structure, materials, teams discourse of Cultural Investment. performance and construction. 1 Wyndham City, ‘Western Gateway Design Project’. http://app. lms.unimelb.edu.au/bbcswebdav/pid-3815738-dt-content-rid-10327484_2/ courseABPL30048_2012_SM1/Project/Project%20Document%20-%20COMMENTED. pdf

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Three such examples of architectural design/ installations that explore geometric aspirations through a parametric approach include Matsys’ Gridshell (2012), Lava’s Green Void (2008) and Skylar Tibbits’ VoltaDom (2007). Each of these projects have achieved a similar overall goal. This being, optimising structure, material and/or efficiency while minimising waste and having a strong visual impact in terms of aesthetics. Matsys’ Gridshell was produced at the 2012 Smart Geometry Conference during a ‘gridshell digital techtonics’ workshop. This project explored paramteric plug-ins that included Grasshopper, Kangaroo and Karamba. The intention of this workshop was to utilise these tools and intensley explore how the physical properties of materials (in this case timber laths) can be embedded within parametric design1. Gridshell is a geometric example as it utilises geodesic curves. This not only creates a visually appealing design but expresses its structure through its skin. Thus, minimising waste and maximising it’s architectural presence in space. It also challenges the notion that timber can only be used for straight applications.

1 Smart Geometry 2012, ‘Sg 2012 Material Intensities - simulation, energy, environment’ - Gridshell Digital Tectonics. (2012). http://smartgeometry.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=134%3Agridsh ell-digital-tectonics&catid=44&Itemid=131

IMAGE #: Matsys’ Gridshell - Final built outcome

IMAGE #: Matsys’ Gridshell - Rendered protoype, varies to final outcome as it has another lattice over the structure.

Geodesic geometry can be systematically broken down into each step and thus allows the designer to take control of variations and scalability in material, bending, multiple forms and compositions.1 1 Aaron Grey. ‘Gridshell Fabrication: Parametric Analysis’ (2011). http://www.aaron-grey.com/archives/560

IMAGE # AND # SOURCED FROM http://matsysdesign.com/2012/04/13/sg2012-gridshell/

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IMAGE #: Green Void / Lava

IMAGE #: Green Void/ Lava from below looking into circle component at the bottom of the installation. Shows the material which is a 2-way stretch woven fabric.

As opposed to Gridshell, Green Void by LAVA considers geometry as minimal surface combined with geometry relaxation. This resulted in a form that can generate space out of a lightweight material that requires minimal adjustments onsite and can be installed within a short time frame1. This was only made possible through the use of parametric design according to LAVA.

LAVA was able to accomplish a new way of considering sustainable practice. This was in regards to optimal efficiency in material usage, construction weight, fabrication and installation time2. This further allowed LAVA to create maximum visual impact due to the sheer size, form and also colour. These principles in relation to parametric design, are what allow geometry to be a successful approach in achieving a set of goals such as LAVA expressed Through utilising geometry such as minimal in this project. surface and parametric design and fabrication, 1 Baraona Pohl , Ethel. “Green Void / LAVA” 16 Dec 2008. 2 Baraona Pohl , Ethel. “Green Void / LAVA” 16 Dec 2008. ArchDaily. Accessed 12 May 2013. <http://www.archdaily. ArchDaily. Accessed 12 May 2013. <http://www.archdaily. com/10233 com/10233

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IMAGE # AND # SOURCED FROM http://www.archdaily.com/10233/green-void-lava/


B.1 DESIGN FOCUS Skylar Tibbits considered a different approach again to the idea of geometry in their formation of VoltaDom. It was an installation that occurred in the FAST Arts Festival of 2007, which as the name suggests required fabrication to be fast.

first glance which is one of Wyndham City’s goals through this Gateway Project.

Again, the structure optimises space and minimises materials due to using parametric design to achieve developable surfaces from complex curves for ease In terms of geometry, the form considers modular in fabrication1. This possibly would not have been vaulted domes that are reminiscent of designs achieved without the use of parametric design tools. such as Gaudi’s. This was achieved through the use of paraboloid geometry tesselated to create a The project is as much a research into materials and passageway. fabrication as it is a sculptural piece of art. The project has two very different views internally 1 Grozdanic, L. ‘VoltaDom Installation/ Skylar Tibbits + SJET (2011). http://www.evolo.us/architecture/voltadom-installationand externally. Creating appeal and interest beyond skylar-tibbits-sjet/

IMAGE #: VoltaDom/ Skylar Tibbits, internal view of vaulted domes.

IMAGE #: VoltaDom/ Skylar Tibbits, external view - creates intrique to what it could be - questions the ideas of is it just a sculpture., what is inside and so on. IMAGE # AND # SOURCED FROM http://www.evolo.us/architecture/voltadom-installation-skylar-tibbits-sjet/

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B.2

CASE STUDY 1.0 MATSYS GRIDSHELL

To begin the process, I simply started altering the numbers of integers and the numbers in the shift lits.

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To further understand the potential of parametric design, the definition of Matsysâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Gridshell was provided. This allowed for the exploration of how a definition can be altered in numerous ways, exploring multiple design iterations that could possibly lead to completely new outcomes.

Geodesics are a fluid, intriquing geometric exploration that could possibly be used to create an interesting sculptural design that optimises efficiency. Using parametric design the engineering of geodesic curves is allowed to be considered and fabricated especially when using a material such as timber.

Gridshell, as discussed in B.1 Design Focus, relies The following matrix will explore multiple iterations on geodesic curves to create its form over a relaxed and different approaches to the geodesics and also to surface for general form finding. the form.

Continued altering the numbers of integers and the numbers in the shift lits.

Added a third geodesic curve

To give the geodesic curves depth I first attempted to offset the curves and then join them. I hit a dead-end here and opted to use pipes to create the depth and give the Gridshell physical properties.The radius of these pipes was also altered.

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Same as above porcess however, explored multiple changes to number inputs and vary from flattened to non-flatterend.

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B.2 CASE STUDY 1.0

On the rebuilt curves, I applied a â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;populate 3D gridâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; and then applied delanay edges, which resulted in the first outcome. I then decided to flatten this component and achieved the iterations that follow. These give a highly textured surface that completely alters to the original.

Applied a Voroni component to the rebuilt cureves

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B.2 CASE STUDY 1.0

The iterations to the left have had a extruded hexagonal grid applied to the surface of the form found by geodesic curves. Utilising a honeycomb would allow this shape to be developable in regards to the structural integrity of the hexagon shape.

The iterations to the left consider a facade type approach through the application of a range of offseted circles with a point charge added to determine the radius of these points in regards to the proximity of the point charge

A tri-grid was applied to the surface which I then extruded to give the form depth. This approach would work in the instances where the grids are joined but more consideration would be needed in regards to the form finding.

The images above are of the basic original form with an extruded surface to create a depth and were extruded along each axis to see the varations that could be achieved.

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B.3

CASE STUDY 2.0 REVERSE ENGINEER : CANTON TOWER Designed by ‘Information Based Architecture (IBA)’, Canton Tower’s purpose was to challenge the idea of the ‘masculine’ skyscraper. This was achieved by designing a building that would be defined by smooth, slender, gracious forms that mimic the figure of a women 1. Furthermore to this idea, IBA utilised geometry in a way that expresses structure as an intricate design, yet maintaining a simple overriding identity, thus allowing IBA to explore and produce new forms through parametric design tools. In particular, they wanted to utilise these tools to increase the ability for a greater degree of complexity and freedom2. The overall form, volume and structure all relies on two ellipses, one at the top and one at the bottom. It is through the ‘twisting’ of these ellipses in relation to one another that allows for the resultant outcome, producing a ‘waist’ and desnsification for the building3. This building was chosen as a precedence for our project as it also adds to the discourse of architecture as Cultural Investment. Even though not the direct client, Guangzhou Government wanted a building that would become a symbol that represents and rejuvenates the centre of Canton (a few centuries old). In addition to this, they believe that Canton has been successful in this and also in attracting international visitors to the area as Canton Tower is not only a TV tower but also allows for other activities such as sightseeing due to the iconic scale of the building4.

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1DesignBoom, ‘information based architecture: canton tower’ (2011). http://www.designboom.com/architecture/information-based-architecture-canton-tower/ 2DesignBoom, ‘information based architecture: canton tower’ (2011). http://www.designboom.com/architecture/information-based-architecture-canton-tower/ 3 ”Canton Tower / Information Based Architecture” 19 Nov 2010. ArchDaily. Accessed 13 May 2013. <http://www.archdaily.com/89849> 4 ‘Canton Tower - Design’ “Canton Tower / Information Based Architecture” 19 Nov 2010. ArchDaily. Accessed 13 May 2013. <http://www.archdaily.com/89849>


ABOVE: IMAGE #: Canton Tower / IBA expressing the feminine form and sheer scale. RIGHT: IMAGE #: Canton Tower / IBA - Internal view of structure expressing the inheritant structural qualities of the

IMAGE # AND # SOURCED FROM http://www.archdaily.com/89849/canton-tower-information-based-architecture/

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REVERSE ENGINEERING PROCESS

STEP 1: Create original form. STEP 2: Generate Surface, which STEP 3: Create poin Create two ellipses to create was chosen as a strip surface to surface with same form allow for pattern to be applied this case allowed for formed at these poin

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B.3 CASE STUDY 2.0

nts on the strip distance and in rectangles to be nts

STEP 4: Create big triangles as a pattern to represent the structure.

STEP 5: Create smaller triangles on the large triangle surface. Again to produce a pattern that represents a geometric form and aesthetic qualities.

This model became the groups starting point for the exploration of the design for the following technique development. However, I felt like this model did not represent the geometry of the original Canton Tower effectively. From here I took a step back and revisted this process.

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REVERSE ENGINEERING PROCESS When I first considered the form, it reminded me of Matsys Gridshell. Therefore for my first attempt of re-creating Canton Tower I considered the use of Geodesics. The definition that was created was basically the exact same as the definition for Gridshell. However, the curves were created to represent the form of the tower. The first step used three curves, which I used ellipses to replicate the original - with a larger one being at the bottom, a small one at the waist and a top one rotated in relation to the bottom one. These curves were then lofted together and the subdivided, arcs applied, rebuilt curves and then finally inputted into geodesics with shift lists applied. Although the final outcome represented Canton Tower well, I didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t believe it did the parametric model justice as it didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t invlove twisting to create a waist and thus densification

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B.3 CASE STUDY 2.0

ABOVE: Around Step 3 of the process, shows some similar elements to the orginial Canton Tower. RIGHT: The resultant geodesic curves, shows how the itteration doesn’t ‘twist’ in the correct form and the diagonals do not cross in the same way as Canton Tower does

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REVERSE ENGINEERING PROCESS - ORIGINAL

The above diagram represents the process that IBA used to develop the form, I wanted to mimic this process in order to produce a similar result.

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B.3 CASE STUDY 2.0

42


REVERSE ENGINEERING PROCESS - OUTCOME

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STEP 1

STEP 2

STEP 3

A cylinder was created

The top circle was altered To the top ellipse a rotation

Each circle along the surface

through creating two circles

to an ellipse to contour and was applied to create the

(similar to the idea of a floor),

through grasshopper (one

represent the tower more ‘waist’through twisting.This

was given its own plane and

at top and one at bottom).

correctly. This required hasproducedadensification

rotated through a vertical (z)

Thiswasloftedtogetherand

re-inputting ‘step one’ that mimics more closely to

component. This allowed

the surface was subdivided

componentstocontinue.

for the circles to be angled

theoriginalCantonTower.

STEP 4

to produce the array of

throughout. I also found

circles along this surface.

that each ‘circle’ had to be

Once this information had

connectedtotheoneabove

been exploded to, the lines

as I could not produce a

connecting the top and

definition that continously

bottom were able to be

ranthrougheachpoint.

produced


B.3 CASE STUDY 2.0

STEP 5

STEP 6

To provide the cross

Toprovideathird-dimension

diagonal bracing, similar

which also considers the

to the previous step, I was

built form, I applied pipes

unable to have these lines

along the structure, with the

continuously running from

main having a larger radius

the top to bottom ellipses.

compared to the diagonal

To provide the diagonal

cross-bracing.

component I used a shift list withtheinteger1toproduce

FINAL

this.

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REVERSE ENGINEERING FINAL OUTCOME

ABOVE: IMAGE #: Photograph of Canton Tower / IBA taken from ground level looking straight up the tower RIGHT: A diagram of the resultant outcome of the reverse engineering process. Looking at a similar view as the above image

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IMAGE # SOURCED FROM http://www.designboom.com/architecture/information-based-architecture-canton-tower/


B.3 CASE STUDY 2.0

The definition created from the process of reverse engineering has produced a very similar structure and form to that of the original project. With the structure and twist being a prominent feature. However, some differences that were noticed were the scale, which could have possibly been fixed through widening the top and bottom ellipses and through increasing the height of the building. This would thus increase the structural members that would be required and would make the model more realistic to that of the original form. Also, as I was unable to allow the curves to be continous (in regards to structural qualities) it thus lacks that complete desired smooth form. Another difference noticed was that the twist is in the opposite direction and also the arrayed circles needing a depth and not to have a â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;floorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; appearance to them.

SIMILARITIES + DIFFERENCES 46


B.

TECHNIQUE D

ALTERNATIVE

The iterations above looked at brep meshes and alteration of curves and planes, whereas the iterations below look at circles being applied to the surface and then offset and then created into surfaces themselves. This would provide a different approach to the facade of the tower, where the simplicity of the structural form would be lost. Further development in these forms looked at how a point attractor would change the radiusâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; of the circles in a direct relation to a specific point rather than having to alter these individually perhaps if not using a parametric design software.

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B.4

DEVELOPMENT

E ITERATIONS

Exploration of altering radius and properties of top ellipse. I Then looked at createing the structural properties on each surface in the same way. This manipulation was further developing the weaknesses in my reversed engineered definition. The images below give a birds eye-view of the tower looking at iterations in regards to circles polygons and so on.

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GROUP’S EXPLORATION RETURN TO VOLTADOM As VoltaDom by Skylar Tibbits was also explored during Case Study 1.0 through other group members, we believed that the idea of a geometric form produced onto a surface would allow for an interesting aesthetic outcome.

not have much of a geometric expression in regards to structural optimization and so on. Thus, as a group we decided to explore a lofted surface between a curved form and a static linear curve. This created a an interesting wave like surface that we wanted to apply similar principles of VoltaDom. Meaning we wanted to apply Euclidean geometry to vary the surface and to create an interesting form with affects in light and shadow.

This idea was combined with the utilisation of the reversed engineered ‘Canton Tower’ of Part B.3. For this to be allowed we tried to use the model from Canton Tower (that was produced as a group in early stages) to create a sculptural tunnel ... that could possibly become part of this The images to the right represent a range of Gateway Project. different geometries applied to the constructed surface. The triangle that we chose to proceed in In the beginning it was decided to test the strip developing was due to its interesting directional component that we had achieved in the reversed component, structural integrity and play with engineered project (explored in B.5) and cut light and shadow. in half and changed from a vertical axis to a horizontal one. This idea was decided to be very simplistic and

I te ra t i o n s o f Vo l t a D o m when applied to a three dimensional surface.

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B.4 TECHNIQUE DEVELOPMENT

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GROUP’S EXPLORATION CHOSEN ITERATION TO DEVELOP

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B.5

TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES MATERIALISATION + FABRICATION

PROTOTYPE 1 This was the very first protype we created and tested. Which was literally, the exploration of the strip surface we created during Case Study 2.0 (but cut in half and made into a tunnel).It was about exploring the idea of structural optimisation and developable surfaces. It was just as much this as it was an exploration of how to unroll surfaces into rhino to develop a â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;patternâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; that could be sent to a laser printer and thus created through two-dimensional surfaces. As a structural component, the model has potential however, the elements do not correlate to one another and feel disjointed and not optimising structure as effiently as it could be. It also lacks a geometric form about it.

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PROTOTYPE 2 This is the model that we produced to help us represent our final out come. It explores the idea of triangles being tesselated over a surface, which helps to achieve the desired outcome of pattern, iconic scale and a play with light and shadows. However, there were difficulties in developing a two-dimensional output of the desired result which has resulted in this model. This model explored a way to use digital fabrication of a two dimensional material. Thus, this lost the design intent of the structure being not only a structure but also a sculpture in the sense of scale and visual art. It was decided that this model actually was a injustice to the model as it had no sense of th variations in triangles and the depth of each individual module. This model also lost the sculptural surface that was developed as each triangle was an individual module.

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B.6

TECHNIQUE PROPOSAL THE GROUPS PROPOSAL

EXIT DETAIL

BIRDSEYE VIEW EXIT DETAIL LOOKING SPECIFICALLY AT THE JAGGERED EDGES THAT JUXTAPOSE THE SMOOTH FORM THAT IS THE ENTRANCE OF THE TUNNEL

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ENTRANCE VIEW

THE ENTRANCE EXPRESSES THE SMOOTH FORM THAT JUXTAPOSES TO THE EXIT WHICH IS VERY APRUBT

SIDE VIEW

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ARGUMENT

In the previous step of this project ... ‘Case for Innovation’ .... each group member explored a topic that contributed to the discourse discussion of architecture. These topics included: 1. Architecture as consumption, production and thus a field of visual culture 2. Architecture is a philosophical, social and professional realm, not just a simple material one 3. Architecture as cultural investment Through further discussion and analysis we decided to continue with the argument of ‘architecture as cultural investment. We chose to utilise geometry as our design focus (as stated in Part B.1) as it is an advantageous approach for this freeway art project. It has the means to express the attributes that Wyndham City Council wanted to achieve through this project .... such as iconic scale, visual art component and creating a statement that would contribute to discourse as a whole. In particular, geometry as a design approach in association with parametric design tools offers aspects such as: - Potential to minimise material waste, while maximising physical space - Expose/ externalise the structure within the exterior envelope - Create interesting and innovative forms and patterns from simple geometries - Ease in fabrication

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B.6 TECHNIQUE PROPOSAL These Rhino models explore the potential the model has in creating interesting patterns through light and shade. The triangular modules point in the direction of travel, further constructing a notion of the high speed the driver will be travelling. However the pattern produced by the light and shade, point in the opposing direction which iterates the idea of reflecting back on what has been seen. When creating the design, we took to the idea of how it may act at night, without any electrical power source to light it. This is where the twisting of each individual module occurs in a way that when a cars light bounces on the surface light may reflect in an interesting outcome highlighting certain aspects of the design.

AFFECT

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A possible solution to connecting the triangular modules is through a T-Joint connection. This was later discovered to be an inefficient method for construction.

SLEEVE FOR T-JOINT TO INSERT SLIGHTLY LARGER THAN T-JOINT PLATE TO ALLOW FOR MOVEMENT - ONCE MODULAR TRIANGLES

JOINED GAPS WOULD BE FILLEDWITH SILICONE

T-JOINT PLATE WELDED TO MODULES AT FABRICATION STAGE

HOLES FOR BOLTS TO ATTACH TO ONCE INSERTED INTO OTHER MODULE UNDERNEATH THERE IS 2 HOLES WHERE BOLTS CAN BE INSERTED AND ATTACHED TO T-JOINT OF OTHER

DETAILS 59

MODULE


B.6 TECHNIQUE PROPOSAL

MATERIAL IDEAS

For this design, galvanised steel would be the chosen material for this project. This is due to it’s lightweight capabilities and also the modules would be able to be welded together. It would also allow the idea of reflection at night to be attempted with further testing. The idea of galvanised steel also links the ‘Seeds of Change’ project that became a symbol of Wyndham.

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61


APPROACHING

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The algorithmic sketches on this page were a way to learn how to use expressions and evaluations in a way that can alter the original design. In particular these expressions are used in relation to point charges and the fields are evaluated in order to achieve this effect. However, the idea of expressions and evaluation functions can be utilised with many other inputs/ outputs in order to have further control of the complexity of forms and structures.

B.7

ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES 63


B.8

LEARNINGOBJECTIVES+OUTCOMES The mid-semester presentations provided constructive feedback to our design proposal. Beginning with the question to ask ourselves ‘why a tunnel?’. When considering gateway engineering projects, as a group we automatically thought to using a tunnel. However, challenging this norm opens up the possibilities immensely for the design outcomes.

a structure that challenges the idea of engineering. As the goal was to create a self-supporting structure and in-terms of this particular design it would need to be considered in much more depth if it was to be fabricated. As Gwyll suggested ‘either make it developable in regards to your goals, or purposely design it with the intention to piss-off engineers everytime they see it through using It was also suggested that we parametric design to find a way to reconsider the idea of geometry, build it’. as the groups focus was on using Ecludian geometr y in order to Furthermore to this idea it is necessary create a ‘strong’ structure. However, that our group really considers utilising geometry in its fullest extent that the design needs parametric would allow us to achieve our goals design tools for the purpose of this of optimal efficiency of structure, exploration and subject. Meaning, form and materialisation in a higher that we need to push the extents degree of success. of the parametric design tools to create something that absolutely Another thought that was suggested requires parametric tools for it’s form, by the panel of experts was to structure or buildability to be found. reconsider the purpose of creating

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Finally, the feedback iterated that as our argument involves ‘cultural capital’ the design either needs to be inheritant to Wyndham and only Wyndham and if replicated elsewhere would not have the same effect. OR do we push it further and make the proposal become the inheritant quality that creates its own ‘cultural capital’ similar to that of Canton Tower / IBA and The Guggenheim - in Bilbao. This is where the idea of the ‘folie’ came to forefront, similar to those that Bernard Tschumi desined in his project of ‘Parc de la Villette’ . Here he created a park that was based on ‘culture’ rather than the typical notion of ‘nature’1. The idea of the folies was to have structures built but with the only intention that they provide space and act as decoration.

create the Western Gateway. The idea is to start with either a simple geometry and manipulate it in ways that will totally alter the resultant design. We will be able to achieve this only through the use of parametric tools. Where similar to the idea of a matrix, we will be able to show the process of change from one form to another in an intriguing way that will challenge the idea of art and design. It was also suggested we could approach this idea with the intention of being an egotistical artist that wants to show their process of how they achieve their outcome. Pushing this idea that it will take on the notion of becoming a cultural investment within itself for Wyndham. It will still be necessary to incorporate our goals for using geometry in a more successful way than we have for this proposal.

Further to this feedback in the mid-semester presentations, we were able to discuss further ideas with our tutors who sparked the idea of a ‘drive-through art gallery’. Here we could create a series of geometric sculptural installations that act as pieces in an art gallery. With the added dimension of speed, which challenges the idea of the process through an art gallery that wants the patrons to stay as long as possible to contemplate and understand the pieces. It has been decided to explore the idea of having about 7 sculptural folies that will 1Tschumi ‘Parc de la Villette’ . http://www.tschumi.com/projects/3/

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ABOVE: IMAGE #: ONE OF THE FOLIES IN PARC DE LA VILLETE

IMAGE # SOURCED FROM http://www.webdesignstuff.co.uk/hp005/essays/


B.8 LEARNING OBJECTIVES + OUTCOMES

OBJECTIVE 1.

manipulation. However, a further comparasion and The proposal itself may not development of a matrix would be an appropriate choice for make this objective achieved in the Western Gateway Project a higher regard. however through discussion we were able to understand the OBJECTIVE 3. limitations and shortcomings of the design. Furthermore, the Through utilising digital three design may not be appropriate dimensional models we were but our arguments for geometry able to effectively fabricate and cultural investment allowed a three dimensional physical for a sophisticated design model out of a two dimensional approach. material, However we did approach fabrication issues OBJECTIVE 2. were discussed in section B.5. However, a further exploration Through the manipulation of of the realistic materials and a variety of definitions it was fabrication methods needs to be demonstrated that a variety of addressed and this in turn will design possibilities could be allow us to analyse the affect in generated through parameter more depth.

OBJECTIVE 7. Through the process of alterning a given geometry and also reverse engineering a precedent project it was demonstrated that I can successfully utilise Grasshpper as a parametric design tool. OBJECTIVE 8. Through the constant iterations and development of parametric definition construction I have demonstrated self-learning a b i l i t i e s . H o w e v e r, I h a d difficulties with utitilising the program efficiently for most of the duration of the project.

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CFI_635300_BiancaChristensen