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America’s Past

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America’s Past Student Journal

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America’s Past Student Journal Welcome to your Social Studies Alive! Student Journal This journal is your place to read, reflect, and create. It works hand in hand with your online access. In each lesson, you’ll find: • • • • •

Preview Activity Vocabulary Activity Hands-On Activity Reading Show What You Know Activity

In addition, look for the Activity Online Online callouts throughout the journal. These indicate that additional activity directions and interactions are online. Every lesson also includes opportunities to dive deeper online, including: • • • • •

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CONTENTS

Unit 1  America’s Geographic Setting

1

Use geographic skills to answer Geography Challenge questions. Explore how Native Americans adapted to the environment and match collections of photographs to different cultural regions. Examine artifacts to learn about motives for exploration and then play the Routes of Exploration Adventure Game. Conduct an inquiry to figure out what an old map reveals about the Age of Exploration.

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Geography of the United States..................................... 7 What can geography teach us about the United States?

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Native Americans and Their Land.................................. 31 How did Native Americans adapt to different environments in North America?

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Native American Cultural Regions................................ 47 How and why did Native American cultural regions differ?

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How and Why Europeans Came to the Americas........ 71 What did explorers take to and from the Americas during the Age of Exploration?

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Routes of Exploration to the Americas......................... 87 What were the effects of European exploration in the Americas?

Unit 2  Colonial Times

113

View European art depicting life in the early English settlements. Compare and contrast six early English settlements and read about diverse historical perspectives. Conduct a deep study of primary sources related to the history of enslavement of Africans in the Americas. Visit exhibits depicting government, religion, and society in colonial Williamsburg. Conduct an inquiry to determine how geography affected the development of colonial America.

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Early English Settlements............................................119 What challenges faced the first English colonies?

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Comparing the Colonies.............................................. 135 How were the three colonial regions alike and different?

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Slavery in the Americas............................................... 153 What was the impact of slavery on Africans?

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Life in Colonial Williamsburg....................................... 169 What were key parts of life for Southern colonists in the 1700s?

Unit 3  The American Revolution

197

Analyze the cause and effects of events leading to tension with Great Britain. Conduct a debate between Loyalists and Patriots. Study drafts of the Declaration of Independence and re-write key passages in everyday language. Experience the Revolutionary War through a game of tug-of-war. Conduct an inquiry to determine how the relationship between Great Britain and its American colonies frayed to the point of snapping like a rope.

10 Tensions Grow Between the Colonies and Great Britain.................................................................. 203 What British actions angered the colonists in the 1700s?

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To Declare Independence or Not................................. 225 What were the arguments for and against colonial independence from Great Britain?

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12 11 The Declaration of Independence................................ 243 What are the main ideas in the Declaration of Independence?

13 11 The American Revolution............................................. 259 How did the colonists win the American Revolution?

Unit 4  Civics and Economics in America

275

Create a graphic organizer to show how the U.S. government functions. Perform mini dramas related to violations of a citizen’s rights under the Bill of Rights. Study the civic values of early leaders and use them to create a community improvement plan. Complete puzzles related to economic concepts. Conduct an inquiry to determine how the Constitution and Bill of Rights provide Americans a foundation for success.

14 The Constitution........................................................... 281 12 What are the key features of the U.S. Constitution?

15 The Bill of Rights........................................................... 301 What are the basic rights and freedoms of the American people?

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Our Role in Government.............................................. 317 What does it mean to be a citizen of the United States?

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Shaping America’s Economy....................................... 335 How did the Founding Fathers create the economy we use today?

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Unit 5  Manifest Destiny to Today

351

Solve six historical challenges that will reveal a clue about manifest destiny. Create and perform skits about groups of people in the American west. Piece together puzzles and discuss major events that led to the Civil War. Solve a mystery and study rich primary sources related to the Civil War. Conduct an inquiry to determine how technology has transformed the United States.

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Manifest Destiny and Settling the West..................... 357 How did the expansion of the United States affect people inside and outside the country?

19 The Diverse Peoples of the West................................. 377 What drew new settlers to the western part of the United States in the 1800s?

20 The Causes of the Civil War.......................................... 395 16 12 What factors helped drive apart the North and the South in the mid-1800s?

21 The Civil War.................................................................. 411 14 What factors contributed to the outcome of the Civil War?

22 The Modern United States........................................... 429 14 How has life in the United States changed since industrialization? Maps.......................................................................447 Glossary..................................................................451 Credits....................................................................458

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A Whole New Way to Experience Social Studies Inquiry-Based Unit Structures Each unit starts with an intriguing storyline and compelling question that piques students’ interest and drives instruction throughout the lesson. They are encouraged to draw upon and apply previous knowledge and also use outside resources and Social Studies Stories to expand their answer.

Student-Centered Activities Each lesson utilizes at least one of TCI’s unique, hands-on strategies to get students thinking, moving, and asking big questions. Students are inspired to learn more and engage in fun activities, which they can access both online and in the Journal.

Culturally-Responsive Content Meaningful standards-aligned content with opportunities for making personal connections and participating in an inclusive classroom environment.

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Online Resources Ready-to-teach presentations, activities, complete student resources, customizable assessments and more at your fingertips!

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute


Unit 1

America’s Geographic Setting Use geographic skills to answer Geography Challenge questions. Explore how Native Americans adapted to the environment and match collections of photographs to different cultural regions. Examine artifacts to learn about motives for exploration and then play the Routes of Exploration Adventure Game. Conduct an inquiry to figure out what an old map reveals about the Age of Exploration.

1 Geography of the United States.................................................7 2 Native Americans and Their Land.............................................31 3 Native American Cultural Regions............................................47 4 How and Why Europeans Came to the Americas....................71 5 Routes of Exploration to the Americas.....................................87

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute

Unit 1 America’s Geographic Setting

1


Unit Inquiry Project

1

Gathering Visual Evidence

List five things you notice about this map.

List three land masses you recognize. How is North America shown?

What might this map have been used for?

2

Unit 1 America’s Geographic Setting

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Developing the Compelling Question Unit Storyline A world map created in 1507 by German mapmaker Martin Waldseemuller is a close duplicate of the map scholars believe Christopher Columbus used to plan his voyage across the Atlantic. The map clearly shows the Caribbean islands but depicts the rest of North America as a gigantic island—most likely Japan. As Columbus sailed west across the Atlantic, he hoped to find a direct trade route to Japan and the rest of Asia. What he found, instead, were the Americas, two huge continents filled with many different people and exciting natural resources.

Unit Compelling Question What does the 1507 Waldseemuller map reveal about the Age of Exploration? List three questions you have about the Unit Storyline and Compelling Question.

1.

2.

3.

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Unit 1 America’s Geographic Setting

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3

Collecting Evidence

After you complete each lesson, return to this table and answer the questions. You will be gathering key information that will help you complete the Unit Inquiry Project.

Lesson

4

Supporting Questions

1 Geography of the United States

What are the two continents in the Western Hemisphere? Where are they in relation to Asia?

2 Native Americans and Their Land

Where did the first inhabitants of North America live? How did they use and adapt the land?

3 Native American Cultural Regions

Which Native American cultural regions were most affected by early European exploration and why?

4 How and Why Europeans Came to the Americas

What were European explorers looking for? How did maps of the early 1500s reflect their understanding of world geography?

5 Routes of Exploration to the Americas

What does the map Columbus used for his initial journeys reveal about his understanding of world geography and his motives for exploration?

Unit 1 America’s Geographic Setting

What I Learned

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4

Building Additional Content Knowledge

Gather and evaluate additional sources to answer the Unit Compelling Question: What does the 1507 Waldseemuller map reveal about the Age of Exploration? You may conduct outside research or use these readings from Social Studies Alive! America’s Past Social Studies Stories: • • • • •

Where Geography Meets History Recording Lakota History Four Young Native Americans Changes in Europe Spur Exploration Who Wins Florida?

Source Title(s)

Additional Evidence

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute

Unit 1 America’s Geographic Setting

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5

Constructing an Argument

Write a sentence answering the Unit Compelling Question: What does the 1507 Waldseemuller map reveal about the Age of Exploration? This is called a claim. Then provide at least two pieces of evidence to support your claim. Your evidence can come from the activities you did in class, the readings you completed in your Student Journal or Social Studies Stories, or additional research that you conducted.

Claim:

Evidence:

6

Taking Informed Action

Decide how you want to share what you learned. You could make a poster, a digital presentation, or a video. You might share your presentation with your classmates or with adults in the community.

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Unit 1 America’s Geographic Setting

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Lesson 1

Geography of the United States What can geography teach us about the United States?

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute

Lesson 1 Geography of the United States

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Introduction Before you study the history of the United States, you need to know about our country’s geography. The word geography comes from two Greek words—geo, meaning “Earth,” and graph, meaning “describing.” Geography describes our physical world and how we interact with it. Geographers study Earth and its land, features, and people. Thinking like a geographer can help us locate places, find out how bodies of water affect people, and better understand landmasses, climate, and where plants grow. Geographers also study how our physical surroundings affect us. For example, they look at the reason why mountains make it hard for people to move from place to place. They might also study how certain climates affect where people choose to live. Learning about the geography of the United States will help you better understand our country’s history. In this lesson, you will learn some geography skills for reading maps. First, you will learn what a globe is and how you can read it. You will then learn about latitude and longitude, so you can find a location on Earth. Next, you will learn about geographic terms that will help you describe different bodies of water and landmasses. You will learn about the different regions of the United States and the different physical features, climates, and vegetation of these regions. You will even learn about how geographers and scientists create maps so that we can understand these different and diverse places. With this knowledge, you can think like a geographer and discover more about the United States.

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Lesson 1 Geography of the United States

Vocabulary climate compass geography globe government landform latitude longitude physical feature vegetation

The United States has many different geographic features. The Rocky Mountains are one example of these features.

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Preview Activity Think of the geography of the United States an an enormous stage upon which our nation’s history unfolds. Give three ways our nation’s geography might have affected the way people lived in the past.

Activity Online

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Lesson 1 Geography of the United States

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Vocabulary Activity Activity Online

Fill in the blanks with the correct vocabulary words. Vocabulary Word Bank climate latitude

compass longitude

A landmass and a body of water are each an example of a .

is a A tool for finding directions. is a A sphere that is a model of Earth and most accurately represents it.

globe physical feature

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.

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A is a physical feature on Earth’s surface such as a mountain or a plain.

Draw a line to connect each vocabulary word to its definition.

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geography

the study of our physical surroundings and how humans interact with it

government

the type of plants in an area or region

vegetation

the organization that makes the laws in a country, state, or community and has the power to enforce them

Lesson 1 Geography of the United States

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute


Hands-On Activity Activity Online

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Directions: Global Map Skills 1. Read Sections 1–2. Learn how to read maps and use latitude and longitude. 2. Practice using globes, maps, and latitude and longitude. Follow the directions on the interactive slides. 3. Complete Geography Challenge A. For each card, use the projected map to find the correct location(s) on the map in your Activity Notes. Label the location and write the question number next to it. Then have your work checked and get another card. 4. Debrief as a class. Present a card and its answer to the class. Check your map.

Directions: Mapping the United States 1. Read Section 3. Create a political map of the United States. Label all 50 states and capitals. 2. Read Section 4. Then practice identifying physical features. Use the interactive diagrams in the slides. 3. Read Sections 5–9. Complete Geography Challenge B. Repeat the same process as in Geography Challenge A. 4. Debrief as a class. Present a card and its answer to the class. Check your map.

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Lesson 1 Geography of the United States

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Earth is a sphere, or something that is shaped like a ball. Most maps that show Earth’s surface are flat. But a globe is a type of map that is a sphere, and so it provides a more accurate picture of our planet.

The Hemispheres

Maps, like a globe, are important because they help people understand geography, or the study of the world around us and its people. People can use a globe to find places around Earth. The most northern point on Earth is the North Pole, and the most southern point is the South Pole. No matter where you are on Earth, north is always in the direction of the North Pole, and south is always in the direction of the South Pole. When you face north, east is to your right, and west is to your left. These four directions are the main points on a compass. These directions are called cardinal directions. Points in between the cardinal directions are called intermediate directions. These directions include northeast, northwest, southeast, and southwest. Many maps have a symbol that shows all or some of these directions. This symbol is called a compass rose. An imaginary line circles Earth halfway between the North Pole and the South Pole. This line is called the equator, and it divides Earth into two half-spheres called hemispheres. The half of Earth north of the equator is the Northern Hemisphere, and the southern half is the Southern Hemisphere. Another special imaginary line runs from the North Pole to the South Pole. It forms half of a circle that divides Earth into two equal parts. This line is called the prime meridian. On the world map, half of the world is to the east of the prime meridian. This half of Earth is called the Eastern Hemisphere. The half of Earth that is to the west of the prime meridian is called the Western Hemisphere. Which hemisphere do you live in?

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Lesson 1 Geography of the United States

Northern Hemisphere

Equator

Southern Hemisphere

Western Hemisphere

Eastern Hemisphere

Prime Meridian

1. Understanding the Globe

The equator splits Earth into the Northern and Southern hemispheres. The prime meridian splits Earth into the Western and Eastern hemispheres.

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute


World Map: Continents and Oceans 120˚W 80˚N 80˚N

80˚W

60˚W

20˚W

40˚E

ARCTIC OCEAN

80˚E

120˚E

160˚E

Arctic Circle Arctic Circle 60˚N 60˚N

EUROPE NORTH AMERICA

40˚N 40˚N Tropic Cancer Tropic of of Cancer

20˚N 20˚N

ASIA

ATLANTIC OCEAN PACIFIC OCEAN

0˚ 0˚

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Equator Equator

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SOUTH AMERICA

Tropic Tropicof of Capricorn Capricorn

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INDIAN OCEAN AUSTRALIA

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A globe also shows us that we live on a watery planet. In fact, water covers almost three-fourths of Earth’s surface. Most of this water is the salt water SSA5_SE_1.2a of oceans, which areMagenta the largest Black Cyan Yellow bodies of water on Second Proof Earth. There TCI14 are 08 five oceans on Earth, and they are all different sizes. Which ocean is the largest? From largest to smallest, the oceans are the Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and the Arctic Ocean. As you can see on the world map, all five oceans are connected.

This map shows the seven continents and five oceans of Earth. The prime meridian is marked by this statue. It is located in Greenwich, London.

These oceans surround large masses of land called continents. There are seven continents on Earth. Like the oceans, each continent is a different size. Can you name all the continents? In order from largest to smallest, they are Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe, and Australia. Looking at globes and world maps can help you understand where oceans and continents are positioned on Earth.

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Lesson 1 Geography of the United States

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The Global Grid North Pole

Geographers begin to study a place by finding its absolute location, or exact “address” on Earth. To do so, they use two types of measurements, called lines of latitude and longitude. With these lines, they can pinpoint any place on Earth. Distances between these lines are measured in degrees (°).

75˚N 60˚N 45˚N 30˚N

15˚N

Equator 15˚S

The lines that run east and west around Earth are called parallels of latitude. These imaginary lines show how far north or south a place is. The distance between parallel lines is always the same.

P ri m e M e ri d i a n

15˚W

45˚W

30˚W

60˚E

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South Pole

Meridians of Longitude North Pole 75˚N 60˚N 45˚N

15˚W

60˚E

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15˚N 75˚E

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Lesson 1 Geography of the United States

North Pole

30˚E

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Parallels of Latitude

30˚E

The lines that run between the North Pole to the South Pole are called meridians of longitude. These imaginary lines show how far east or west a place is from the prime meridian. These lines are half-circles. They are not parallels because they are not always the same distance apart. They are farthest apart where they cross the equator. All lines of longitude meet at the poles.

South Pole

15˚E

Other parallels of latitude have special names. The Arctic Circle is located at 66.5° north latitude, also written as 66.5° N. The Tropic of Cancer is at 23.5° N. The Antarctic Circle is located 66.5° S. The Tropic of Capricorn is at 23.5° S. Find these special lines on World Map: Latitude and Longitude. These lines also separate areas of Earth that receive different amounts of sunlight throughout the year. The closer a line of latitude is to the equator, the more sunlight a place can receive throughout the year.

45˚S

15˚E

The starting point for measuring parallels of latitude is the equator. The equator is halfway between the North Pole and the South Pole. It is at 0° latitude. All places located north of the equator are north latitude, and all places located south of the equator are south latitude. The places farthest from the equator are the poles. The North Pole is at 90° north latitude, and the South Pole is at 90° south latitude.

30˚S

2. Understanding Latitude and Longitude

15˚S 30˚S 45˚S

South Pole

Latitude and Longitude

Parallels of latitude and the meridians of longitude split up Earth. You can locate any place on the globe by using latitude and longitude.

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute


World Map: Latitude and Longitude 150˚W

120˚W

90˚W

60˚W

30˚W

30˚E

75˚N

90˚E

60˚E

120˚E

150˚E

ARCTIC OCEAN Arctic Circle

60˚N

45˚N 30˚N

NORTH AMERICA Tropic of Cancer

EUROPE ASIA

ATLANTIC OCEAN

15˚N

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PACIFIC OCEAN Tropic Tropicof of Capricorn Capricorn

AFRICA Equator

SOUTH AMERICA

30˚S

N

45˚S

60˚S

Prime Meridian

W

SOUTHERN OCEAN

PACIFIC OCEAN

E S

INDIAN OCEAN 0 0

2,500 2,500

AUSTRALIA

5,000 miles

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Antarctic Circle 75˚S

SSA5_SE_1.3b The starting place for measuring longitude is the Black Cyan Magenta Yellow Third Proof prime meridian, or first meridian. It is numbered 0°. TCI14 12

All lines to the east of this line are east longitude, and all lines to the west of this line are west longitude. There is one line that is the same distance east and west of the prime meridian. This line, at 180° longitude, is exactly halfway around the world from the prime meridian. Together, these two lines—180° longitude and the prime meridian—form a circle that divides Earth into the Eastern and Western hemispheres.

ANTARCTICA

People can use maps like this to determine coordinates all around the world. Can you find the equator and the prime meridian?

To note the location of a place on Earth, first name its latitude, including north or south. Then name its longitude, including east or west. For example, one location on Earth’s surface is at 30° N, 90° W. These numbers and directions are called a set of coordinates. What continent would you be on if you were at these coordinates?

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Hands-On Activity Notes Activity Online

Geography Challenge A For each question on the Geography Challenge A Cards, label the answer on the map and write the question number. 75˚N

60˚N

45˚N

30˚N

15˚N

15˚S

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75˚S

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5,000 miles

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120˚E 150˚E

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3. Political Geography of the United States In addition to finding the “address” of a place using latitude and longitude, a location can be identified by its political name. The United States is on the continent of North America. In land area, it is the world’s third largest country. Today, the United States is made up of 50 states, which you can see on a political map. People create states to support their needs. To do this, each state has its own government. The government of each state is found in its state capital. States also have borders. Some borders are made by physical features such as mountains and oceans. For example, the Gulf of Mexico is the southern border of Louisiana. People can also create borders. People in states next to each other may decide on a latitude or longitude line to be the border.

Geographers often break the United States into areas called regions. Based on this political map, which region do you live in?

Regional Map of the United States 0

50˚N

400 miles

CANADA

Alaska

DA

NA

CA

0 400 kilometers

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Washington

PACIFIC OCEAN

Montana

North Dakota

E

W

Minnesota

Oregon Idaho Wyoming

WEST

130˚W

Nevada

PACIFIC OCEAN 125˚W

California

120˚W

Pennsylvania Ohio Illinois West Utah Virginia Colorado Virginia Kansas Missouri Kentucky North Carolina Tennessee Arkansas South Oklahoma Arizona New Mexico SOUTHEAST Carolina Mississippi SOUTHWEST Georgia

Hawaii

0

MEXICO

150 miles 150 kilometers

115˚W

New York

Michigan

Iowa

Indiana

Texas

Louisiana

95˚W

0

Maine

NORTHEAST

Wisconsin

MIDWEST

Nebraska

PACIFIC OCEAN

0

South Dakota

Vermont

S

150

New Hampshire Massachusetts

Rhode 40˚N Island Connecticut New Jersey Delaware Maryland 35˚N

70˚W

ATLANTIC OCEAN

Alabama

90˚W

30˚N

Florida

Gulf of Mexico

25˚N

300 miles

0 150 300 kilometers 85˚W

80˚W

75˚W

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Hands-On Activity Notes Activity Online

Label all 50 states and their capitals. SSA4_ISN_2.a Black Cyan Magenta Yellow Second Proof TCI13 26 W

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4. Describing Water and Landforms Geographers study physical features of Earth. A physical feature is any landmass or body of water that is a part of Earth’s surface. Geographers have certain names for different features. Most of Earth’s water is in the five oceans. In fact, only a tiny amount of Earth’s water is not in the ocean. Most of Earth’s water is salt water. A smaller body of salt water is called a sea. Sometimes part of a sea or an ocean cuts into a mass of land over many years. When a portion of the sea is surrounded by land but has a small opening, it is called a gulf. An example is the Gulf of Mexico, along the southeastern part of the United States. A bay is similar to a gulf, but it is usually smaller. Another body of water is called a lake. Most lakes are surrounded by land on all sides, but sometimes a river drains into a lake. Most of Earth’s lakes are bodies of fresh water.

This illustration shows many different physical features found on Earth. Which of these physical features are in your area?

Water and Landforms mountains

valley

source

lake river

tributary

plain hill

gulf

bay peninsula

delta

cape

mouth sea island

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Water also flows in rivers. A river’s source is where it begins. A river’s mouth is where it empties into a larger body of water, such as an ocean or a lake. A smaller stream that runs into a river is called a tributary.

These four pictures show different physical features. Can you name the different physical features that you see?

Geographers use specific terms to describe the physical features of the land. A physical feature on Earth’s surface is called a landform. One type of landform is called a plain. Plains are land areas that are mostly flat. They cover more than one-third of the world’s land and exist on every continent. Another type of landform is a mountain. Mountains rise above the surrounding land and usually have steep sides. A row of connected mountains is called a mountain range. A smaller area of land that rises above the surrounding land is called a hill. Hills are often not as steep or tall as mountains, however. Between ranges of mountains or hills are low areas called valleys. Geographers can describe a valley by its shape. Some valleys have a U-shape, while others have a V-shape. Glaciers carved out many of these valleys thousands of years ago. Sometimes an area of land has water around it. Land that has water surrounding it on three sides is called a peninsula. A cape is a piece of land that juts out into the water and is usually smaller or narrower than a peninsula. Unlike a peninsula or cape, an island is completely surrounded by water. Many islands are found in oceans, but some islands can be found in the middle of rivers, lakes, seas and gulfs. Another type of landform is a delta. A delta is formed when soil is deposited at the mouth of a river, and it is usually shaped like a triangle, or a bird’s foot.

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Hands-On Activity Notes

1. peak

As your teacher asks each question, draw a line to the water or landform, and then number and label it. An example has been included for you.

Activity Online

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute

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5. Physical Features in the United States From space, you would see mountain ranges that run from north to south in North America. In the West region, the Rocky Mountains, or Rockies, stretch about 3,000 miles from northwestern Canada to New Mexico in the United States. The Appalachian Mountains are the largest range in the eastern United States and extend more than 1,500 miles, from Canada to Alabama. The Sierra Nevada range is also in the West and is about 400 miles long. While viewing North America from space, you would also see large areas covered by plains. The biggest of these areas is the Great Plains in the Midwest region.

The Rocky Mountains are a major physical feature of the United States.

There are more than 3.5 million miles of rivers and streams in the United States. The largest river in the nation is the Mississippi River. The Mississippi runs 2,340 miles from Minnesota to the Gulf of Mexico. In the southwest, the Rio Grande forms much of the U.S. border with Mexico.

This map shows the physical features of the United States. You can use the key to find out which physical feature is most common in an area.

Physical Features of the Continental United States 500 miles

250

v Ri

er

0

e

ren c

Law S t.

S

io 40˚N

U

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IN

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O

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er

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CH

IA

er Riv

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ar e Ont L ak ie Er ke La

Ohio Riv

p

PA

LA

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P

G

F U L

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Gulf of Mexico

de ran

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r ive i R

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sour M is

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ke

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Miss ouri River

O

W

R

N 125˚W

95˚W

90˚W

75˚W 85˚W

25˚N

80˚W

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6. Climate in the United States Regions of North America have many different types of climate. Climate is used to describe aspects of weather that can be measured over a long period of time. Temperature, rainfall, and wind are all parts of climate. The geography of an area, including its landforms and bodies of water, and its latitude can affect the climate there. Some areas have a hot and dry climate. Parts of the Southwest region, for example, can get very hot during the summer. The Rocky Mountain system prevents the cool and humid air from the Pacific Ocean from getting to some of these areas. Because of this, it sometimes only rains a few times a year there.

These two areas have different types of climate. The city has a wet climate, while Monument National Park has a dry climate.

Other areas have a hot and humid climate. The Gulf of Mexico brings warm wind and moist air to parts of the Southeast region. These breezes help make the area hot and humid because they bring warm temperatures, storms, and rainfall. The northern areas of the United States are often colder and dryer than the southern parts. Areas in the West, especially around the Rocky Mountains, are cold because of elevation, or the distance above sea level. The higher the elevation, the colder the temperature is. Parts of the Northeast, Midwest, and West often have a cold and wet climate. For example, the Great Lakes and the Atlantic Ocean bring cooler temperatures to the Northeast region. Cool winds bring moisture to the area, which can cause rain and snow.

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7. Vegetation in the United States Climate and physical features may limit where a plant can grow, so plants that are found in one region might not grow in another region. The different types of plants, or vegetation, that can be found varies throughout the United States. Forests are one type of vegetation region. Forests are very common in the United States, and there are many different types of forests in North America. Some of these forests have trees with long needles instead of leaves. Forests with these types of trees are common in northern parts of the United States. Other forests have trees with large leaves that change colors when seasons change. Large forests with these trees can be found in the lower Northeast and the Southeast regions. Tongass National Forest in Alaska is over 16 million acres, which is about the size of the state of West Virginia. Another type of vegetation region is called grassland. Short and tall grasses that are used to cold and hot temperatures grow here. Grasslands are common in the Midwest region. In fact, the Great Plains are an example of very large grasslands that are spread across most of the states in the middle of the United States. This area also receives rain, allowing farmers to live and grow food here. Many large animals, like bison, also live in the grasslands. The Gulf Coastal Plain in the Southeast region is a large area of flat land. Coastal plains are lowlands that sometimes experience flooding. These floods bring rich soil down from the mountains, making the land better for farming. These low lying areas of the Gulf Coastal Plain are called swamps, marshes, and wetlands.

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There are many different types of vegetation. This redwood forest and the Everglades are two areas with very different types of vegetation.

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute


8. Geography Affects Where People Live North America has many different physical features, climates, and vegetation zones. These geographic features often affect where people choose to live and how they live at that place. Physical features influence where people live. For example, because it is easier to build houses and buildings on flat lowlands, people are more likely to live in lowlands. Places like mountains can be hard to build on, so many people might not live in an area with mountain ranges. People are also more likely to live near bodies of water like oceans, gulfs, or lakes. Many people depend on the water for food or to trade with other people, so over one-third of people in the United States live near a coast. Climate also affects where people choose to live. Many people prefer to live in areas with some rain and warm temperatures. These areas are often good for growing crops, so people often can produce enough food in those areas to eat. Places that have extreme weather can be very difficult for people to live in. Deserts are one area that have extreme climate. The dry and hot climate of the desert often makes growing food difficult. People living there have to get water from other places to help their crops grow or to drink because there is very little rain. For example, Las Vegas, Nevada, is located in the Mojave Desert. Las Vegas gets very little rain each year, so it has to get most of its water from the Colorado River. These people must get much of what they need from other places. Because people cannot easily live in the desert, they might choose to live somewhere else.

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute

Places near the coast tend to be more populated. New York City is located close to the ocean and is the largest city in the United States.

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Vegetation also affects where people live. Many people prefer to live near vegetation that they can use in their daily lives. For example, vegetation might be important to some people because it provides them with food. If there are few plants in an area, less people might live there because there wouldn’t be enough food for everyone to eat. Other types of vegetation also affect where people live. Many people might choose to live near forests. Forests provide people with materials they need to create buildings and homes for themselves. If people cannot get what they need from the plants around them, they might choose to live someplace else. Sometimes the geography of a place can change quickly. In 2005, Hurricane Katrina brought very strong winds to the city of New Orleans, Louisiana. The storm caused massive amounts of damage to the city and changed the environment. Structures that protected New Orleans from water were destroyed during the hurricane and caused many parts of the city to flood. Buildings and homes were destroyed as a result. The geography was changed because of the storm as well. Some of the land around the city washed away, causing the Gulf of Mexico’s shoreline to grow closer to the city. People who had lived in this area would not be able to rebuild their homes. Over 100,000 people left to find a new place to live because of the event. Many houses were destroyed during Hurricane Katrina. After the hurricane, many people moved to new places.

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Average Temperature in the United States C A N A D A N

W S

E

40°N

70°W

ATLANTIC OCEAN

Average Temperature Fahrenheit

PACIFIC OCEAN

120°W

110°W

Gulf of Mexico

M E X I C O

90°W

0 0

250 250

9. 5_AP_SE_1_9_21I Creating Maps

First Proof People who design and create maps are called 12/05/14 cartographers. Sometimes they make maps based on TCI28_2

what they can see, such as making a physical map by observing the water and landforms in an area. Other maps, such as climate maps, are made from data that is collected by taking measurements. For example, scientists may measure how hot a place is over several months or years. From this data, they can create a climate map showing average temperatures. Population maps are also created from measurements. Mapmakers might collect data by counting how many people live in a certain area. They could then use these numbers to create a map comparing the largest cities in the United States.

80°W

500 miles

100°F 30°N 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

500 kilometers

This climate map shows different temperatures around the continental United States. What is the average temperature where you live? This table shows population data collected by the government of the United States. It can be used to make a population map. City

Population

New York, NY

8,336,817

Los Angeles, CA

3,979,576

Chicago, IL

2,693,976

Houston, TX

2,320,268

Phoenix, AZ

1,680,992 Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2019

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Hands-On Activity Notes Activity Online

Geography Challenge B For each question on the Geography Challenge B Cards, label the answer on the map and write the question number. 125˚W 120˚W 120˚W 115˚W

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150 300 miles

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30˚N

25˚N

75˚W 90˚W

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Summary In this lesson, you learned that geography is vital to where we choose to live and how our physical surroundings affect our lives. You also used globes and maps to learn about U.S. geography. Geographers use special tools, like maps, to study Earth. A globe has the same shape as Earth. It displays physical features such as oceans and continents. A compass shows directions. Lines of latitude and longitude help us to locate places on Earth. There are many different types of maps, including political maps, physical maps, and climate maps. Cartographers use data to create these maps. Geographic terms such as mountain and ocean describe Earth’s landforms and bodies of water. In this lesson, you used these terms to study geographic features of our country. These features affect where people choose to live. You learned how these physical features, including mountains, plains, and rivers, played a key role in the history of the United States.

Show What You Know Draw a map of your area that shows at least three local physical features. Make sure to fill in the title, map key, and compass rose. Title:

Map Key

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Use the maps in this lesson to estimate your community’s latitude and longitude.

Explain one way that the physical features on your map affect your local area. Then explain another way that geography impacts where you live. Be sure to consider your area’s climate, vegetation, extreme weather, or economic activities.

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Lesson 1 Geography of the United States

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Lesson 2

Native American Origin Stories Storytelling has always been important to Native Americans. In some tribes, members would meet in a kiva and share stories or reenact them during spiritual ceremonies. They told stories to entertain one another and teach about their beliefs and ways to of life. They Howtodid Native Americans adapt different used stories to explain and record their experiences for North America? future generations.

Native Americans and Their Land environments in

One kind of story Native Americans passed down through the years was the origin story. These kinds of stories explained how Earth and its people came to be. The Hopis (HO-pees) are a Native American group who live in the Southwest, in what is now the state of Arizona. The following is a Hopi origin story.

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Introduction In this lesson, you will learn about the first people to live in North America. You will find out where they came from and the places that they settled in. Descendants of these people still live in North America today. There are almost 600 self-governing groups living in the United States today. Each of these groups is unique. There is not a universally accepted term to describe these first Americans. Some refer to themselves as Native American, while others prefer American Indian. In Canada, First Nations is often used. Throughout this program, we will refer to tribes by their specific names. And when discussing multiple groups at the same time, we’ll use the more commonly accepted term Native American. Most Native Americans tell stories that explain where their ancestors came from. These stories have been passed down for many years. This lesson includes an example of one of these stories.

Vocabulary adaptation environment kiva migration natural resource origin story

This Native American made his belongings. What do you think his clothes and gear are made from?

Many scientists believe that these early people first moved from another region. They came from the continent of Asia to North and South America, traveling into many parts of the American continents over hundreds of years. These early people settled in different locations around the Americas. You will read about the various places in which Native Americans lived and see why they had different ways of life. By staying in the same regions for many years, tribes became very skilled at living off the land. There were different environments on this continent that the first Americans settled in. You will learn about four kinds of environments and why each environment presented different challenges to the indigenous, or native, peoples and how groups found ways to overcome these problems. As an example, you will take a close look at the Inuit (IN-oo-it) in the ice fields of the Arctic. Why might this environment be challenging to live in?

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Lesson 2 Native Americans and Their Land

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Native American Origin Stories Storytelling has always been important to Native Americans. In some tribes, members would meet in a kiva and share stories or reenact them during spiritual ceremonies. They told stories to entertain one another and to teach about their beliefs and ways of life. They used stories to explain and record their experiences for future generations. One kind of story Native Americans passed down through the years was the origin story. These kinds of stories explained how Earth and its people came to be. The Hopis (HO-pees) are a Native American group who live in the Southwest, in what is now the state of Arizona. The following is a Hopi origin story.

Hopi Origin Story In the beginning, Earth was damp and dark. There were no animals or birds. At first, the people lived happily inside Earth. After a while, however, their caves became too crowded. People began to argue with one another. The worried chief agreed that his people needed to leave Earth’s dark inside. The chief’s advisors made a mockingbird that found a hole at the top of Earth and flew around the world. When the bird came back, he reported that life above them was very different. The chief’s advisors grew sturdy plants that reached like a ladder to a hole in Earth’s crust. The chief guided his people up the plants to Earth’s surface. Once there, the people did not know where they should settle, so they set out in different directions. They traveled east, west, north, and south until they found good land upon which they could grow crops and build villages. This is how it all began for the Hopis.

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute

This is a kiva recreated in an Arizona museum. The Hopis shared stories in kivas. Hopi artists Michael Kabotie and Delbridge Honanie painted the murals on the walls.

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Preview Activity Activity Online

Here is a fifth grade Hopi student today with his older brother. The older brother is about to enter a kiva with his brother and retell the origin story. What will he say? Summarize what happened first, second, third, and fourth in the story.

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Lesson 2 Native Americans and Their Land

1st

2nd

4th

3rd

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute


Vocabulary Activity Activity Online

Fill in the blanks with the correct vocabulary words. Vocabulary Word Bank adaptation migration

environment natural resource

kiva origin story

Corn is a

Binoculars are an occurs when people

grown on Earth.

The Hopi tribe used a for meetings and ceremonies.

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute

move from one place

that allow us to see far

to another.

distances.

The Hopi chief led

Your

his people to Earth’s

is everything that

surface in their tribe’s

surrounds you.

.

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Hands-On Activity Activity Online

Explore different environments and learn how the Inuits adapted their daily lives.

Directions: Encountering Environments 1. Read Sections 1–2. Learn about the first people in North America and the different environments they lived in. 2. In your Activity Notes, complete the table about each environment. 3. Read Section 3. Learn how the Inuits adapted to the harsh Arctic environment. 4. Take on the role of an interviewer to learn about an Inuit family’s experience. You will be assigned to look at the perspective of an Inuit daughter, father, or mother. 5. Work with your group to answer your assigned person’s responses in your Activity Notes. Use the text. Conduct outside research if time allows. 6. Share your responses with the class. While classmates are presenting, make sure to fill in the other columns of the chart in your Activity Notes.

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1. Migration Routes of the First Americans Today, most scientists agree that the first people in North America came from Asia. This migration is estimated to have taken place during the last ice age, at least 15,000 years ago. An ice age is a long period of time during which large areas of Earth’s surface are covered with thick sheets of ice. The last ice age began about 2.6 million years ago and ended about 10,000 years ago. During the last part of the ice age, about 25,000 years ago, a land bridge connected Asia and North America across what is today the Bering Sea. Most scientists believe that the first Americans came from Siberia, which is a region in northeastern Asia. The people living in this region followed and hunted big game, such as mammoths (large, elephant-like animals), bison (also called buffalo), and caribou (reindeer).

Scientists think that the first Americans used these migration routes. They came from Asia to North and South America at least 15,000 years ago.

Scientists believe that these large animals crossed the land bridge, eating grass along the way. Small groups of Siberian hunters may have followed the animals, reaching North America after a long time. Other Siberians may have moved southward along the west Migration Routes to North and South America 120°E 140°E 160°E 180° 160°W 140°W 120°W 100°W 80°W 60°W coast of North America in small boats. For hundreds of years, early Americans hunted big game. The animals likely led the hunters south through North and South America, with groups of people settling in areas along the way. Others kept moving until they reached the southern tip of South America. The paths they took to reach their new homes are called migration routes.

Siberia

BERING SEA

60°N

ASIA

NORTH AMERICA

PACIFIC OCEAN

ATLANTIC OCEAN

Equator

SOUTH AMERICA

N Glaciers during the last ice age

W

Land area during the last ice age Possible coastal route Present-day shoreline

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20°N

20°S

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Possible land bridge route

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40°W

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2. Native Americans and the Environment

Grasslands

After the last ice age, there was a change in the climate that affected the plants and animals found in each area. Different areas each have their own environment. Sunlight, air, water, land, animals, insects, and plants are parts of an environment. A variety of environments appeared across North America following the ice age. Over time, early Native Americans settled in environments that differed greatly from one another. One feature of an environment is its climate. The climate supports certain kinds of vegetation. Animals that can live in the climate and eat the plants thrive. An environment also has natural resources, which include soil, water, trees, and minerals such as copper. Things that people and animals eat, like nuts, berries, and other wildlife, are natural resources, too.

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Deserts

In each place, people survived by changing their ways of life. They used what was around them in nature to build homes, make clothes, and get food. Their homes and clothing were made to fit the climate. Look at the four natural environments shown here. What do the images tell you about the climate, vegetation, and natural resources of each environment?

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© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute


One environment Native Americans lived in was grasslands. Some grasslands in North America get only enough rain to support different types of grasses since most trees and bushes need more water to survive.

Mountains

A second type of environment Native Americans settled in was the desert, which gets very little rain. People living in desert areas often dig wells and ditches to get enough water for drinking and for raising crops. Some Native Americans lived in the rainy and snowy mountain regions of North America. While forests of pine, fir, and spruce often grow below the highest points, the tops of mountains have little or no plant life. Other groups settled in the Arctic ice fields, which are near the North Pole. Here, huge sheets of ice cover the land for most of the year.

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Arctic Ice Fields

Most Native Americans chose areas that were rich in natural resources. These environments had mild climates and plenty of food and water. Even though life was hard in places such as the desert of the Southwest and the icy Arctic region, some groups stayed in such regions where resources were scarce. Here are four types of environments that Native Americans settled in. Which of these environments would be the most challenging to live in? © Teachers’ Curriculum Institute

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Hands-On Activity Notes Activity Online

Complete the table with information about each environment. Grasslands

Deserts

Natural resources

Climate

Draw a symbol for the environment

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Lesson 2 Native Americans and Their Land

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Mountains

Arctic Ice Fields

Natural resources

Climate

Draw a symbol for the environment

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3. Native Alaskans Adapt to the Environment Indigenous groups adapted their way of life to what they found in the area around them. Each group found ways to use nearby natural resources wisely, which helped the people survive in their environment. However, in areas with few resources, life proved to be difficult.

An Inuit family sits in front of a camp at Plover Bay near Northern Alaska. Inflated sealskins hang from the wooden poles on the tent frame.

One group that lived in a harsh environment was the Inuits, who are also known as Eskimos. They built their culture in present-day northwestern Alaska as well as in northern Canada and Greenland. These places are part of Earth’s Arctic region. The Arctic ice fields have long, cold winters and land that is frozen most of the time. The Inuits had to adjust to their harsh environment. They hunted and fished animals such as whales, walruses, seals, caribou, polar bears, Arctic foxes, squirrels, salmon, and birds. These adaptations were necessary for the Inuit to survive.

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The Inuits did not waste any part of the animals that they caught. They ate the meat, burned animal fat for fuel, and sewed animal skins together to make clothing, blankets, and tents. They used bones to make dogsleds and to support tent frames, and they also carved them for tools such as knives and harpoons, or long spears. The Inuits even learned to fill sealskins with air to make floats. They attached the floats to harpoons that they used to hunt walruses and whales. These floats helped to tire out the animals when they tried to escape by diving underwater. To build shelters, the Inuits used the materials that they found around them. In the summer, they made tents by stretching the skins of caribou or seals over driftwood. Sometimes they used whale bones to support the roof. They placed heavy stones at the bottom of a tent to keep it in place. In the winter, they built houses, called igloos, out of snow and ice. To keep warm, the Inuits dressed in animal skins and furs. To protect their eyes from the bright glare of the sun shining on snow and ice, they wore snow goggles. Snow goggles were made from bone or wood and had narrow openings to look through.

This young Inuit man wears traditional snow goggles made from driftwood to protect his eyes.

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Hands-On Activity Notes Activity Online

You have the opportunity to interview members of this Inuit family. Use this table to record the responses they give you. Daughter

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Mother

Father

What is it like to live here?

What do you do to keep warm?

What types of animals do you hunt and fish?

What are your family’s clothes made from?

What kind of food does your family prepare?

How did you make your home?

How else does your family use the animals you catch?

What kind of tools do you use?

What is the weather like?

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Summary In this lesson, you learned about the first people who came to North America. They passed down stories about their history and way of life. To learn more about these people, you first looked at migration routes, then studied where the first Americans chose to live, and finally looked closely at how one group adapted to its environment. According to most scientists, the first Americans migrated from Asia to our continent during the last ice age. Native Americans are the descendants of these first Americans. Where the first people in the Americas settled, they adapted to the environment. The Inuit tribe served as a good example of this. You learned about the climate, vegetation, and natural resources of four different environments. Native groups in different environments each had their own unique challenges to overcome. For thousands of years, groups of Native Americans were the only people in North America. The things they made from their environment have helped us learn about their lives.

Show What You Know For a long time, Native Americans did not write. They told stories about their history, and sometimes they made drawings to keep records. For example, the Lakotas lived on the Great Plains and painted pictographs (symbols) on hides to record key events. Create a symbol for each term in this word bank and draw it on the bison hide. When you have finished, share your artwork with other classmates and see if they can interpret the symbols you created.

Word Bank adaptation

natural resource

migration

kiva

environment

origin story

Flip the page

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Lesson 3

Native American Cultural Regions How and why did Native American cultural regions differ?

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Introduction Suppose you were one of the first people to settle the grasslands in North America. There are few trees around you, but there is plenty of grass. Many animals, such as bison and deer, also roam the land. How do you find food in this environment? What can you use to build shelter? By the 1400s, Native Americans had a variety of cultures, or ways of living. They adapted their cultures to their environments. Recall that the Inuits lived in a cold, icy environment. They used the resources around them to hunt for food and keep warm. But North America has many types of environments. In this lesson, you will find out how different environments affected the way Native Americans lived in the past. Historians learn how different Native American groups adapted to their environment by looking at objects that Native Americans made. Each group made clothes, tools, and other things they needed. They used natural resources found in their environments. For example, Native Americans living near forests made wooden boxes to store food. Hopis living in the desert, however, kept food in pots made of local clay. These objects reveal how the people who made them lived.

Vocabulary artifact cultural region culture gorge mesa nomadic

The Native Americans in this painting live in the Southwest part of North America. How did the environment affect their way of life?

Historians also look at where these objects were found in North America. They do this to determine areas where similar cultures developed. There are different ways to describe the areas, but one way is to divide them into seven regions. This lesson explores how each of these seven regions influenced the way Native Americans lived. What is the environment like in each region? How did Native Americans adapt their lifestyles to live in their surroundings?

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Developing Native American Cultures Grasslands, deserts, mountains, and Arctic ice fields are some environments found in North America. How did these environments affect how Native Americans lived? Native Americans settled throughout the land and lived in different environments. The map of North America divides the continent into seven regions, each with a distinct environment. For example, the Northwest Coast has dense forests, heavy rainfall, and abundant marine life. But the Great Plains offers treeless grassland, harsh winters, hot summers, and many land animals.

Native American Cultural Regions of North America ARCTIC OCEAN

180°

20°W

80°

N

60°W

160°W

°N

60

PACIFIC OCEAN

N

40°

N

140°W

W

ATLANTIC OCEAN E

S

120°W

CaliforniaIntermountain Eastern Woodlands Great Plains Plateau Northwest Coast Southeast Southwest

Gulf of Mexico 20°N

Each Native American 0 group developed its own 0 culture, or way of living. Religion, language, and traditions are all part of a group’s culture. So are what 5_AP_SE_3_1_2I First Proof a group eats, lives in, or wears. Native American groups 12/08/14 living in the same environment developed similar TCI28_4 cultures that suited their surroundings. For example, groups that lived in the dry deserts of the Southwest often built cliff dwellings and learned to farm with little water. However, groups that lived thousands of miles northeast in the Eastern Woodlands often built homes and canoes from trees around them.

500

100°W

1,000 miles

80°W

500 1,000 kilometers

As Native Americans settled throughout North America, they developed their own cultures. This map divides the continent into regions of similar Native American cultures known as cultural regions.

Historians and geographers call the areas where similar cultures developed cultural regions. Each region differs in climate, physical features, and natural resources.

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Climate greatly impacts culture. During brutal winters, Native Americans of the Plateau built homes underground. Historians know this because of the artifacts they discovered in the Plateau region. Artifacts are human-made objects, such as underground homes, that help us understand how the people who made them lived. Artifacts in warmer climates, like in the Southwest region, suggest that some tribes were nomadic, or moved from place to place. They had two sets of homes and would move based on the season to escape the heat. Physical features such as mountains, plains, and rivers influence culture. For example, Native Americans in the Southeast had to adjust to the swampy ground there. They built their homes three feet above the ground to avoid water damage. Native Americans living in the Plateau settled near rivers, which they relied on heavily for water and fish. Natural resources affected the cultures of Native Americans, too. Important natural resources, such as timber, wildlife, soil, and water, influenced what Native Americans ate and used to build shelters. Groups living in the Eastern Woodlands made shelter out of timber, while groups living in the treeless Great Plains used animal hides to make tepees.

Native American groups lived off of nearby natural resources. This particular village settled near forests and fertile soil to build homes from timber and farm crops.

Artifacts, such these pieces of pottery, are man-made objects used to study the past.

Agriculture in a cultural region is affected by how much water there is. Some cultural regions lack water, while others have ample rainfall. Native Americans in regions with enough rainfall farmed more than those in dry regions. Tribes in dry regions relied on hunting and gathering. Each cultural region had a different environment. You will read about how Native Americans in each cultural region lived.

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Preview Activity Activity Online

Label each Native American cultural region on the map.

Word Bank California Intermountain

Eastern Woodlands

Great Plains

Northwest Coast

Southeast

Southwest

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Plateau

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Vocabulary Activity Activity Online

Fill in the blanks with terms from the word bank to complete this story. Vocabulary Word Bank artifact gorge

cultural region mesa

culture nomadic

Nastas and Tahoma’s Great Adventure Two Navajo brothers, Nastas and Tahoma, dreamed of leaving home to follow life. So

the seasons in search of adventure and to live a

.

one day, they left their family home in the Southwest with steep sides and then

They hiked through a deep up to a

with a flat top. By then, it was getting cold and , or way of life,

dark. They longed for their people and

they left behind. Hot food and a warm blanket sure would be great now! Suddenly, they found an

in the grass at their feet. It was

a piece of pottery with a painted crow on it. It was a sign! They would follow the crow and race back home. Would dinner be waiting?

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Hands-On Activity Activity Online

3

2

4

7

8 6

12

10

11 Match collections of photographs and artifacts to seven different Native American cultural regions.

Directions: Investigating Native American Cultural Regions 1. Read Sections 1–7. Learn how tribes in different areas of North America used and adapted to their environments. 2. Visit a collection and examine its artifacts. Look at one of the Activity Cards. Does the collection on the Activity Card remind you of a specific cultural region? Re-read the text if needed. Look for clues in the images. 3. Determine which region the collection matches, and complete the corresponding Activity Notes. Record the letter of the collection, and provide three pieces of evidence for why you connected that collection to the cultural region. See if you can identify all seven collections!

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1. Native Americans of the Northwest Coast The Native Americans of the Northwest Coast cultural region lived on a narrow strip of land along the Pacific Coast. This region was south of the Inuits’ ice fields and stretched from present-day Alaska to present-day California. Dense fir, pine, and cedar forests grew right to the ocean’s shore. Many people settled on the flat, rocky beaches. The climate here was mild, but the area received heavy rainfall most of the year. Many tribes, including the Tlingits, Chinooks, and Kwakiutls (kwah-kee-YOO-tels), adapted to life here, and some of their descendants still live in the region. Wildlife was plentiful in the area. Fish, especially salmon, filled the streams. Migrating whales swam up and down the coast. Deer, elk, mountain goats, bears, and wolves lived in the forests. The Kwakiutls used wood from the forest for housing. They built huge wooden structures that served as homes for several families. Outside homes they placed totem poles. On these cedar poles, the Kwakiutls carved figures of animals, humans, and spirits. These carvings told about important events in the family’s history and indicated the family’s social position.

The Oregon coast is part of the Northwest Coast cultural region. Native Americans of the Northwest relied on the thick forests and local wildlife to meet their needs.

Tribes in the Northwest Coast, such as the Tlingits and Kwakiutls, used trees from the environment to carve totem poles like the one shown here.

Clothes made from cedar bark protected Kwakiutls from the wet climate. Women wove the bark’s soft inner core into warm, waterproof coats and hats. Kwakiutls also used cedar bark to make rope. They used this rope for fishing nets and to hold together fish traps made from willow trees. They shaped each trap like a cone. Salmon swam into the cone and could not escape.

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Hands-On Activity Notes Northwest Coast Cultural Region Write the letter of the collection you think corresponds with the Northwest Coast cultural region on the label below.

Activity Online

Collection

Cite three pieces of evidence for your decision. Evidence statement 1:

Evidence statement 2:

Evidence statement 3:

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2. Native Americans of the California‑Intermountain Region The California-Intermountain cultural region ran inland from the Pacific coast of California. It contained the Sierra Nevada, a high mountain range, and reached into the Great Basin. This region had many kinds of environments. For example, the Great Basin is a desert. It has extreme heat and cold and limited rainfall. Native Americans in this area were nomadic, moving on after using up available food, such as rabbits, insects, and berries. Many tribes, including the Shoshones and the Paiutes, made this region their home and continue to live there today. Unlike the Great Basin, this part of California has a mild climate and a variety of environments, each rich in natural resources. Huge redwood trees covered the coastal mountains. Oak trees, grasses, and berries grew inland. There were many deer, rabbits, and birds. Streams were filled with fish. Clams and other shellfish were found along the seashore. Among the tribes who lived here were the Miwoks and the Pomos (PO-mos).

The California cultural region contains many different environments. Along the coast, huge redwood trees cover coastal mountains.

The Pomos lived along the California coast and also a short way inland. Coastal Pomos used trees, such as redwoods, to build their homes. They piled thick pieces of bark against a center pole. These homes looked like upside-down ice-cream cones. The Pomos made beads from the seashells and used them as money. Artisans made the beads from clamshells. They broke the shells into pieces that they shaped into beads and strung the beads on cords that looked like necklaces. Pomos used resources to make useful and artistic things. For example, they wove beautiful baskets from roots, grasses, bark, and small willow shoots. These artifacts were decorated with shells, beads, and feathers.

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Hands-On Activity Notes California-Intermountain Cultural Region Write the letter of the collection you think corresponds with the California-Intermountain cultural region on the label below.

Activity Online

Collection

Cite three pieces of evidence for your decision. Evidence statement 1:

Evidence statement 2:

Evidence statement 3:

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3. Native Americans of the Southwest The driest cultural region was the Southwest. It stretched from the present-day southwestern United States to present-day northern Mexico. In this region, there were mountains, mesas, canyons, and deserts. These places received little rainfall, and they often had extreme temperatures. Days were scorching hot, and nights were freezing cold. There were long, hot summers and short, mild winters. This climate supported few trees or plants. Some of the Native Americans who lived here, like the Apaches, were nomadic. Others, like the Hopis, lived in villages and learned to farm with little water. They raised crops like corn, beans, squash, and cotton. The geography affected how people lived. The Anasazis, believed to be ancestors of the Hopis, lived in this region about 2,000 years ago. At first, they made houses of stone and adobe, a type of clay that hardens like cement. Later, they built similar homes against and inside cliff walls called cliff dwellings. Because there were few trees, their descendants, the Hopis, also made homes of stone and adobe. They built apartment buildings called pueblos, which stood up to four or five levels high. People moved from one story to another by ladder. Hopi women owned property, including buildings and land. Daughters inherited property from their mothers.

The Anasazis adapted to their environment by building homes in the stone cliffs of the Southwest. Survival in the Southwest was a challenge. Sparse rainfall prevents the growth of many trees and plants, but the Anasazis learned to farm with little water.

Hopi women wore cotton cloth in the summer. They used plants to make colorful dyes and embroidered designs on their clothes. The men wove the cloth for blankets and clothing. The Hopis cooked, served, and stored their food in clay pots. They decorated these pots with black geometric designs and images of animals.

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Hands-On Activity Notes Southwest Cultural Region Write the letter of the collection you think corresponds with the Southwest cultural region on the label below.

Activity Online

Collection

Cite three pieces of evidence for your decision. Evidence statement 1:

Evidence statement 2:

Evidence statement 3:

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4. Native Americans of the Plateau The Plateau cultural region lay between the Cascade and the Rocky mountains. This region included parts of what is now the northwestern states and British Columbia. It has flatlands, rolling hills, and gorges. Summers are hot, and winters are very cold. Like the Southwest, rainfall is light. But the Plateau region gets water from the large Columbia and Fraser rivers, which are fed by rainfall and melted snow in the mountains. Many tribes, such as the Nez Percés (NEHZ PERS), Spokanes, and Yakamas (YA-kuh-muhs), previously called Yakimas, lived here and still do today. Various types of plants and animals survived on the plateau. Forests grew near the mountains. Other areas had only thick grasses, berries, or camas, a type of lily. The camas root was an important food source for people on the Plateau. Some deer and bear roamed the forests, jackrabbits lived in drier sections, and fish filled the rivers.

The Plateau cultural region features flatlands, rolling hills, and steep gorges. Large rivers provide water to groups living in the area.

Yakama artifacts show the culture that developed as people adapted to the harsh climate and available resources. For instance, the Yakamas built their winter homes partly underground to escape from the cold. Each home was a circular hole, three to six feet deep, with a grass-mat roof. To help keep heat inside, the Yakamas covered the mat with earth. The Yakama women wove local grasses into clothing, such as basket hats. These hats were cone-shaped but flat on top. The women decorated them with designs. To harvest foods such as camas and other roots, the Yakamas developed a digging stick. They used a hardwood stick that was curved and pointed at one end and attached a short handle of animal horn or bone to the other end. The women pushed a digging stick under a root and then lifted it out of the ground.

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Hands-On Activity Notes Plateau Cultural Region Write the letter of the collection you think corresponds with the Plateau cultural region on the label below.

Activity Online

Collection

Cite three pieces of evidence for your decision. Evidence statement 1:

Evidence statement 2:

Evidence statement 3:

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5. Native Americans of the Great Plains East of the Plateau lay the Great Plains cultural region. This region extended from the Rocky Mountains to the Mississippi River Valley. From north to south, it stretched from present-day Canada to present-day Texas. Among the many tribes who lived in the region were the Cheyennes (shy-ANS), Pawnees, Comanches (koh-MAN-chees), and Dakotas (da-KOH-tahs), and some remain there today. The Great Plains region has bitter cold winters and hot summers. In the 1400s, it was mostly treeless grassland. Many animals lived there, including pronghorn antelope, deer, and bears. To Native Americans, the most important creature on the plains was the bison. The Western Dakotas considered the bison sacred because it was so valuable to them. They used parts of this animal to make many things they needed to survive. Bison were an important source of food. The Dakotas also made their homes, called tepees, from bison hides. To build a tepee, women sewed the hides together and then constructed a cone out of long poles and covered the cone with the hides. On the outside of the tepee, men painted scenes from daily life.

In the 1500s, the Dakotas began to use horses to move their camps and to hunt bison. From the bison, the Dakotas got food, shelter, and clothing.

In addition, the Dakotas used bison hides to make warm blankets to wear in winter. They decorated the flesh side of the hides and placed the fur side next to their skin. The Dakotas also recorded important events by painting winter counts on hides. Warriors even made shields from bison hides. Men painted their shields with scenes from their dreams. They believed these images came from heaven and protected them from harm. They also decorated their shields with fur and feathers.

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Hands-On Activity Notes Great Plains Cultural Region Write the letter of the collection you think corresponds with the Great Plains cultural region on the label below.

Activity Online

Collection

Cite three pieces of evidence for your decision. Evidence statement 1:

Evidence statement 2:

Evidence statement 3:

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6. Native Americans of the Eastern Woodlands The Eastern Woodlands region stretched east from the Mississippi River to the Atlantic Ocean. It ran south from the Great Lakes to the Ohio Valley. Native Americans settled among its hills and valleys and along its seacoasts, where some of their descendants still live. Most tribes spoke either Iroquois (EER-uh-kway) or Algonquian (al-GOHN-kwee-in). Iroquois tribes included the Mohawks and the Senecas. The Mohegans and the Delawares were two Algonquin (al-GOHNkwin) tribes, or tribes that spoke Algonquian. The area has four seasons, including cold winters and hot summers. Lots of rain helps fill streams and rivers. Birch, oak, and maple trees grew in woodland forests, which were home to animals such as turkey, deer, and beaver. The Algonquins used trees from the region’s forests to build their homes, called wigwams. Winter wigwams were larger than summer wigwams and were used for years. For wigwams, the men bent small trees into a dome-shaped frame and tied them together. Then women covered this frame with birch bark or mats made from plants.

In the Eastern Woodlands, dense forests of birch, oak, and maple trees protected deer, beaver, and other wildlife. The Algonquins made houses and canoes from the trees.

The Algonquins used animal skins, such as deer hides, for clothing. Algonquian tribes kept warm by wearing capes made of wild turkey feathers, which they made by sewing together overlapping feathers. The Algonquins made fast, light canoes from several types of trees. They built a cedar frame, covered it with birch tree bark, sewed the bark together with spruce roots, and used maple wood to hold the boat’s sides together. A man could carry this kind of canoe from one stream to another.

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Hands-On Activity Notes Eastern Woodlands Cultural Region Write the letter of the collection you think corresponds with the Eastern Woodlands cultural region on the label below.

Activity Online

Collection

Cite three pieces of evidence for your decision. Evidence statement 1:

Evidence statement 2:

Evidence statement 3:

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7. Native Americans of the Southeast The Southeast cultural region reached south from the Ohio Valley to the Gulf of Mexico. It ran east from present-day Texas to the Atlantic Ocean. This territory included river valleys, mountains, coastal plains, and swamps. In both dry and wet areas, the weather was usually hot. Many tribes, such as the Creeks and the Choctaws, lived in the Southeast cultural region. In the 1700s, the Seminoles (SEH-meh-nols) came to live in the Everglades swamplands of southern Florida. These swamps are very hot and steamy. Shallow streams crisscross the land and tall, razor-sharp saw grass rises from the waters. Giant ferns, cypress, and palmetto trees grow in the humid jungle. Deer roam the forests, and fish, alligators, and snakes lurk in the swampy waters. Several Native American groups, mostly Creeks, lived in what are now Georgia and Alabama. In the 1700s, members of these tribes moved south into Florida, which was under Spanish rule. Over time, people from other tribes arrived and this group became the Seminoles. In the 1800s, escaped slaves from the United States also joined this tribe. The Seminoles had a culture suited to swamplands. They built their homes, called chickees, on wooden platforms three feet above the ground. Wooden posts supported a slanted roof made of palm tree leaves. To allow breezes to blow through, the chickee had no walls, which was a good design for the hot climate.

Razor-sharp saw grass grew in the Everglades swamplands of the Southeast. The Seminoles adapted to the challenges presented by swampy environment.

The swampy terrain of the Southeast cultural region forced Seminoles to adapt to their environment. The Seminoles built homes called chickees to avoid water damage.

The swampy environment sometimes forced Seminoles to wear clothing that was unusual for a warm climate. For example, to protect their legs from sharp saw grass and mosquitoes, Seminoles wore leggings made out of deer hides. To move along the shallow streams, the Seminoles built flat-bottomed dugout canoes from tree logs. They hollowed them out with stone and bone scrapers.

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Hands-On Activity Notes Southeast Cultural Region Write the letter of the collection you think corresponds with the Southeast cultural region on the label below.

Activity Online

Collection

Cite three pieces of evidence for your decision. Evidence statement 1:

Evidence statement 2:

Evidence statement 3:

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Summary In this lesson, you learned how many Native Americans lived hundreds of years ago. You used a map to locate the seven Native American cultural regions and learned how each region’s environment created challenges for people living there. You also learned how they adapted to these challenges and how the environment influenced their culture. Native Americans in each cultural region used local natural resources to make artifacts such as homes, clothing, tools, and art. In the forested Northwest, the Kwakiutls built wooden homes. In the dry Southwest, the Hopis made homes of clay. People of the California-Intermountain cultural region used beads from the coast as currency. Each group adapted to its environment. Where Native Americans lived influenced what they wore, the type of housing they built, and the food they ate. In the cold Plateau winters, the Yakamas built their homes partly underground. In the hot and humid Southeast, the Seminoles built houses without walls.

Show What You Know You are going to identify similarities and differences among three Native American cultural regions of your choice. Select the three Native American cultural regions you will examine, and label them on the map.

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Complete the chart. Write three facts that are unique to each of the three cultural regions you chose. Then, write three ways in which the three cultural regions are similar. Name of Cultural Region 1

Name of Cultural Region 2

Name of Cultural Region 3

Unique to Region 1

Unique to Region 2

Unique to Region 3

1.

1.

1.

2.

2.

2.

3.

3.

3.

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Similarities Among the Three Regions 1.

2.

3.

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Lesson 4

How and Why Europeans Came to the Americas What did explorers take to and from the Americas during the Age of Exploration?

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Introduction A team of scientists search a sunken ship on the ocean floor. The ship has been there for centuries. How did it get there? What objects will the scientists find? This ship may be one of many that set sail across the Atlantic in the late 1400s and in the 1500s. Europeans wanted spices and silks from Asia, but only a few countries controlled this trade. To share in this business, other countries began sailing unknown seas, looking for their own routes to Asia. What they found instead were the American continents. You have learned about the first people to settle in North America. In this lesson, you will learn how and why Europeans set out for these lands, which they called the New World. Of course, this was not a new world to the Native Americans who had lived there for thousands of years. Also, other groups, such as the Vikings, had previously come to the Americas, but they did not create lasting settlements.

Vocabulary Age of Exploration the Americas astrolabe cash crop explorer

Underwater scientists investigate the remains of a sunken ship.

Christopher Columbus was one of the explorers who sailed to North America looking for a route to Asia. He set out on his expedition in 1492. Other explorers followed Columbus and sailed to the Americas. They used navigation tools to help them cross the ocean and brought back items of value. Sometimes, ships were lost at sea. Scientists studying sunken ships look for artifacts that tell us about the explorers’ expeditions. They use tools such as sonar, which uses sound waves, to detect sunken objects and a grid to create location references. As you read this lesson, picture yourself examining the objects on a sunken ship. What clues would these objects give you about how and why Europeans came to the Americas?

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Preview Activity Think about taking a trip with your family. In the space below, describe:

Activity Online

• where you would go • why you would want to go there • what tools you would use to find and navigate in your destination Then discuss your trip with a friend. What would it be like to travel without the tools you described? What would motivate you to take a journey into the unknown?

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Vocabulary Activity For each vocabulary term, write a description in your own words. Use complete sentences. Vocabulary Term

Activity Online

Description

Age of Exploration

the Americas

astrolabe

cash crop

explorer

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Hands-On Activity Activity Online

Examine objects from an explorer’s ship. Then categorize artifacts as navigation tools, motives for exploration, or new products from the Americas.

Directions: Exploring a Sunken Ship 1. Team up with your partner. You and your partner will be underwater research scientists retrieving artifacts from a sunken ship. 2. Select roles and complete a dive. Take turns switching roles between the diver and the research scientist. • Divers: You will dive in and retrieve an artifact. Discuss the questions on the back of the artifact. • Research scientists: You will find the section in which the artifact is discussed. Read that section with your partner and complete the Activity Notes. 3. After each dive, check your work and return the artifact to where you found it. Continue until you have found all the artifacts and completed all of your Activity Notes.

Directions: Categorizing Artifacts 1. With your partner, use evidence and reasoning to categorize your assigned artifact. Consider all three categories around the room. If called on, explain which category matches your artifact and justify your choice. 2. Complete your table. Use what you learned from the text to categorize all of the artifacts. 3. Debrief as a class. Come to a conclusion as a class and check your answers. © Teachers’ Curriculum Institute

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1. Ocean Crossing The European Age of Exploration began in the late 1400s when countries looked for new trade routes to Asia. In the late 1400s and in the 1500s, explorers crossing the Atlantic needed a way to stay on course. They had no landmarks to guide them in the open sea. They used astrolabes to find their position. An astrolabe is a circular piece of metal with marks around its edges. A bar attached to it can be rotated about the center as a pointer. A sailor would hold the astrolabe by a loop at the top and then tilt the bar so that it lined up against the sun, the North Star, or another known star. He would measure the latitude of his ship by measuring the angle of the star above the horizon (where Earth and the sky meet). The angle would tell him how far north or south the ship was from the equator. Astrolabes enabled explorers to sail accurately by day or night.

During the Age of Exploration, navigation tools helped explorers sail across the Atlantic Ocean to the Americas. Explorers used an astrolabe to find their position in the open sea.

2. Directions European explorers used another tool for figuring out direction—a compass. People still use this tool today. A compass has a magnetic needle balanced on a small metal post, which the needle can spin freely on. The needle’s point is attracted to the powerful magnetic field that lines up close to the North Pole. So, the compass needle always points north. During the Age of Exploration, if a ship’s navigator knew which direction was north, he could find the other directions. South is the opposite of north. When facing north, east is to the right, and west is to the left. A compass did not tell the navigator where he was, but it did show which direction the ship was heading, even when it sailed through fog or in total darkness. Without this tool, it may have taken Europeans much longer to reach the Americas.

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Explorers used a compass to figure out cardinal directions and more accurately map their routes.

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Hands-On Activity Notes Where did you find this artifact? Explain how it was used by explorers.

Activity Online

Draw what you imagine the middle of this compass might look like according to the reading. Explain why this tool was important to explorers.

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3. Maps There are many types of maps. Nautical charts, which map the ocean, show such features as rocky shores and safe ports. Navigational maps show wind and ocean currents. European explorers carried these maps and maps of the places to which they journeyed. Mapmakers in Europe got new information from sailors, explorers, and scientists. They added these details to their maps. In the 1400s, mapmakers knew that the world was round, but before Columbus sailed, they did not know about the Americas. No one realized how wide the Atlantic Ocean was. For centuries after Columbus’s trip, maps of the Americas still had many blank spots because they had not been explored yet by Europeans. They showed places that remained unknown. Often, maps also had drawings of imaginary sea monsters, such as undersea dragons or serpents.

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This map is very old. How did mapmakers hundreds of years ago get their information about the world?

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Hands-On Activity Notes This is a map from the Age of Exploration. Complete the map by drawing both North America and South America.

Activity Online

Why do you think only part of the eastern coastline of North America and South America was drawn?

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4. Claimed Lands During the Age of Exploration, European rulers wanted to spread their power to the Americas. Sometimes they paid for explorers’ ships and crews. These explorers carried flags or banners to honor their kings and queens. Spanish ships often flew a flag that showed a cross. Their flags also had the letter F for King Ferdinand and a Y for Queen Ysabel (Isabella in English). Once explorers reached a land unexplored by Europeans, they planted a flag to claim, or take, that land for their country. Flags have always been symbols of the power of countries and their rulers. And more power was what King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella wanted for both themselves and their country. Gaining more land and natural resources in the Americas would strengthen their kingdom of Spain.

5. Religious Beliefs Christianity began in the Middle East. It spread through Europe almost 2,000 years ago during the time of the Roman Empire. Later, Europeans spread this religion to other parts of the world.

Columbus and his sailors planted the flags of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella when they arrived in the Americas. They planted them to claim the land for Spain. European explorers brought along Bibles to convert people to Christianity. This one was written in Latin and published in 1455.

In the 1500s, explorers from Europe were Christians. Many carried a Bible with them. The Bible contains the stories and teachings of the Christian faith and has two parts. The Old Testament contains writings from the Jewish religion, while the New Testament contains writings by the followers of Jesus Christ. Originally, Christians in Europe belonged to the Roman Catholic Church, but beginning in the early 1500s, some joined Protestant churches. Many believed that all people should share their beliefs. Catholic rulers sent priests and armies to other lands, including lands claimed by explorers. Part of their mission was to convert people to the Catholic Church.

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Hands-On Activity Notes Fill in the speech bubbles with what Columbus and a Native American might be saying in this drawing.

Activity Online

How did explorers help spread Christianity?

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6. Wealth Europeans measured wealth in gold and silver. They made their most valuable coins from these metals. In the late 1400s, Spain had just fought a costly war. So, its king and queen wanted to increase their country’s supply of gold and silver. They hoped that the explorers they sent to the Americas would bring back these precious metals. In parts of Mexico and South America, the Spanish found gold and silver. They enslaved native peoples and forced them to work in gold and silver mines. The Spanish turned the gold and silver ore from the mines into bars, coins, and other valuable objects. Ships carried these riches back to Spain.

7. New Foods

This gold doubloon was used in Spain as currency until the 19th century. Native peoples in the Americas introduced European explorers to corn and to beans in cacao pods. Corn became especially popular in Europe.

Some of the most valuable things explorers found and brought back were new foods. These are natural products, not artifacts. Historical records tell us about them. For example, native peoples from all over the Americas grew different types of corn. They roasted it, boiled it, popped it, and ground it into flour. The explorers liked this new food. It was as healthful and had as many uses as wheat, but its seeds were bigger and tastier. New foods from the Americas changed what people ate around the world. Some vegetables that came from the Americas include potatoes, sweet potatoes, beans, and squash. Fruits such as tomatoes and pineapple were first grown in the Americas too. As these foods spread, people began to eat a more healthful diet. Populations grew in many places in Europe. Do you like chocolate? Cacao, from which chocolate is made, was also first grown in the Americas. Native peoples there used cacao in drinks and in medicines.

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Hands-On Activity Notes Why did the Spanish enslave Native Americans and force them to dig for gold in mines?

Activity Online

Draw and label six new foods the Spanish brought back from the Americas. 1

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8. Cash Crops

Early explorers saw a tall, leafy plant called tobacco, which grew throughout the Americas. Native Americans dried its leaves. Some smoked the dried leaves in pipes or cigars, and others chewed tobacco or inhaled it as a powder, which Europeans called snuff. In most tribes, few women used tobacco, but many men were addicted to it. They thought tobacco was good for their health. Tobacco was part of religious and peacemaking ceremonies for many tribes. Explorers took tobacco back to Europe. Some Europeans thought it was a medicine, and many became addicted to it. Tobacco grew quickly in popularity and was in great demand. It grew well in the Americas, so European settlers would plant large fields of tobacco there and sell the crop to Europeans. Tobacco became a valuable cash crop. The money earned from tobacco sales helped buy goods from Europe.

Tobacco is an American cash crop that many Europeans soon became addicted to. Tobacco farmers grew crops in the Americas and shipped them back to Europe to be sold.

Hands-On Activity Notes Record two fascinating facts you read about this American plant.

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Activity Online

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Hands-On Activity Notes Circle the category that best fits each artifact. Give evidence from the text to support your choice. Artifact

Category Motives

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Evidence

Products

Technology Motives

Products

Technology Motives

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Technology Motives

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Technology Motives

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Technology Motives

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Technology Motives

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Summary In this lesson, you read about artifacts that might have been found on ships that sank during the Age of Exploration. These objects give us clues about how and why Europeans came to the Americas. These artifacts include navigation tools that sailors at that time used. These tools helped guide explorers as they sailed across the Atlantic Ocean. The artifacts also help explain why explorers set out for the Americas. They wanted to spread Christianity while gaining new lands and wealth for themselves and their countries. You also read about the valuable cargo of American plants that explorers brought back to Europe. People in Europe soon began to eat new foods, such as corn and potatoes. As tobacco became popular, it was grown as a cash crop to be sold to Europeans for large profits. The Americas were rich with resources, and the explorers were determined to bring many of them back home to Europe.

Show What You Know In a well-written paragraph, develop a claim that answers this question: What was the biggest motive for European exploration? Provide at least two pieces of evidence from the reading, the activity, or outside research.

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Lesson 5

Routes of Exploration to the Americas What were the effects of European exploration in the Americas?

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Introduction Some Europeans sailed to the Americas to spread religion. Others came to claim new lands and wealth for their countries. In this lesson, you will learn why eight explorers came to the Americas and how they affected the native peoples there. In 1492, Christopher Columbus landed on a Caribbean island and claimed it for Spain. He did not know that he had reached the Americas. While Columbus did not find many riches on his journey, his expeditions opened up a trade route that changed the history of the world. More Spanish explorers followed and planted Spain’s flag on other lands in the area.

Vocabulary colony conquistador contagious disease East Indies Northwest Passage

This is a map of the Americas, which Europeans called the New World, written in Spanish from 1519.

Explorers from England, France, and the Netherlands came, too. Some looked for a faster sea route from Europe to Asia through North America. Although they never found it, each explorer did claim North American land, including Canada, Mexico, and Florida, for the countries that sent them. Were these explorers great men? They did accomplish a lot. They found new trade routes, helped mapmakers draw more accurate maps of the world, and opened the way for settlers. However, they also caused harm. They fought with Native Americans who opposed them. They enslaved tribes and forced them to work in mines and on farms. The Europeans also carried diseases that spread quickly among native people. Each explorer had his own motives and took a different route to the Americas. What was the impact of each expedition?

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Preview Activity Think about these five areas that might impact an explorer’s journey. Answer each question in the numbered area of the image.

Activity Online

1. Royal Charter. How might an explorer get a sponsor for an expedition? 2. Setting Sail. How does an explorer prepare for life at sea? 3. Land Ho! How might the natives respond to an expedition’s arrival? 4. Discoveries. What might an explorer find? 5. Never Forgotten. How might an explorer be remembered?

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Vocabulary Activity Use these words to finish the sentences annotating this historical map of the world.

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Vocabulary Word Bank colony

conquistador

East Indies

Northwest Passage

contagious disease

Virginia was a

Europeans looked for the in this part of North America.

Hernán Cortés was the who defeated the Aztecs in Mexico.

in North America founded by Great Britain.

The first European explorers who landed in the Caribbean thought they had found the .

Over 90 percent of the native peoples of the Americas died of brought to the Americas by Europeans.

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Hands-On Activity Activity Online

Assume the role of a European explorer and play an exciting educational game. Try to gain riches, make new discoveries, and survive on the open sea!

Directions: Routes of Exploration Adventure Game 1. Your teacher will put you into one of eight groups. 2. Your group will be assigned an explorer. Read about your explorer. Record what you learned in your Activity Notes. 3. With your group, set out your game board. Notice the five adventures, the treasure chest, and the place to answer Bonus Treasure questions. 4. Your teacher will introduce each adventure by showing a slide. Each adventure has three possible outcomes. 5. Roll a die. What you roll will determine what happens in your adventure. Match the die number to the color. Will you get green, blue, or red? 6. Count your coins. Look at your game board to see whether you earned or lost coins. Keep track of your coins by putting them into the treasure chest on your game board. 7. Be prepared to answer Bonus Treasure questions. Place a coin on the correct answer on your game board. If you get the correct answer, amass bonus coins in your treasure chest!

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1. Christopher Columbus Christopher Columbus was born in 1451 in Genoa, a busy seaport in Italy. As a child, he read about Marco Polo, who had journeyed to Asia by land and sea in the late 1200s. He brought back stories of the riches and customs of China and the East Indies. Columbus wanted to see these faraway lands. He later became a conquistador (kahn-KEES-tah-dor). When Columbus was about 14, he became a sailor and traveled south along the coast of Africa and north to Ireland. He also sailed to Iceland. Viking sailors from Norway had already explored Greenland and the eastern Canadian shores, but Columbus and others did not know about these voyages.

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Nations in Europe wanted to find better trade routes 5_AP_SE_5_1_2I to obtain spices and silks from Asia. The Portuguese Second Proof tried to reach Asia by sailing around the southern TCI28_9 tip of Africa. However, in the 1400s, people knew less about the geography of the world than is known today. Columbus believed that Earth was much smaller than it is and that it had only one ocean. He thought he could reach Asia faster by sailing west across the Atlantic. Columbus asked the king of Portugal to pay for his trip, but the king turned him down. His advisers thought that the route around Africa was shorter. Finally, after almost eight years, Columbus convinced Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand of Spain to help him. They gave him three ships and about 90 men. In return, Spain wanted Columbus to return with riches and the claim to new lands where it could spread Christianity. On August 3, 1492, Columbus left Spain with his three ships—the Niña, the Pinta, and the Santa Maria. They sailed southwest past the Canary Islands and then west across the Atlantic Ocean. Early on October 12, a sailor saw an island with dense green forests and many streams of water.

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Columbus named the island San Salvador, which means “Holy Savior” in Spanish. He claimed it for Spain. Friendly people greeted him. The ancestors of these people had lived in the Americas for thousands of years. Columbus, however, called them Indians because he thought that he had reached the East Indies. Some of the islanders guided him to the island of Cuba. There, he found people wearing gold ornaments and pearls, similar to those worn by the people of San Salvador. For three months, Columbus searched for gold and spices. In 1493, he sailed back to Spain, with some gold ornaments and Native American captives. The queen and king agreed to pay for more voyages. Columbus promised to bring them “as much gold as they need . . . and as many slaves as they ask.” Columbus made three more trips, with his final trip in 1504. He explored more islands near Cuba and the coasts of Central and South America, but he found little gold. When he died in 1506, he still did not know that he had reached the Americas.

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On October 12, 1492, Columbus stepped on land and claimed for Spain an island he named San Salvador. The people he encountered were peaceful, their only weapons being small wooden spears.

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However, his trips opened up a trade route that changed the history of the world. Later, Spanish explorers did find gold. They also found the perfect climate for growing cash crops such as sugarcane. To get enough crops and minerals to trade with Europe, early Spanish settlers forced Native Americans to work in fields and mines. Soon, Europeans had colonies in the Americas, and trade between Europe and the Americas grew. Animals and crops from one side of the Atlantic were introduced to the other side. Sailors also brought ideas from one land to another. Even diseases crossed the ocean. Today, we call this flow of goods and ideas between the Americas and Europe the Columbian Exchange, in honor of Columbus—the man who started it all. In the United States, Columbus Day is one of ten federal holidays recognized nationwide. But some states and local areas now instead choose to celebrate it as Indigenous Peoples’ Day. Why do you think this might be?

Bartolomé de Las Casas was a Spanish priest who was appointed “Protector of the Indians” by the Spanish Crown. He wrote a famous book about the cruelty of the Spanish against the Native Americans.

The primary source below shares one perspective. After hearing reports about Columbus’s discovery, Bartolomé de Las Casas joined other Europeans who planned to settle in the Indies. He received land in the Caribbean. After witnessing how life changed for Native Americans when Europeans arrived, he later returned to Spain to try to demand better treatment for indigenous, or native, peoples.

The Devastation of the Indies: A Brief Account . . . the Spaniards still do nothing save tear the natives to shreds, murder them and inflict upon them untold misery, suffering and distress, tormenting, harrying and persecuting them mercilessly. We shall in due course describe some of the many ingenious methods of torture they have invented and refined for this purpose, but one can get some idea of the effectiveness of their methods from the figures alone. When the Spanish first journeyed there, the indigenous population of the island of Hispaniola stood at some three million; today only two hundred survive . . . —Bartolomé de Las Casas, 1542

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Hands-On Activity Notes Complete the information about Columbus. Select the correct symbols, complete the timeline, draw his route of exploration, and list your favorite fact.

Personal Background

Activity Online

Route of Exploration

Soldier Sailor Nobleman Merchant

Motives

Spread Christianity

Find route to Asia

Find riches Sponsor

Dates 1490

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– Year exploration began

England

Netherlands

Spain

France

Year exploration ended

Impact

Favorite Fascinating Fact Claimed land

Spread disease

Killed Native Americans

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Established settlement

Updated maps

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2. John Cabot The opportunity for new trade interested many explorers in addition to Columbus. Giovanni Caboto, known as John Cabot in English, was a young merchant, or shopkeeper, in Venice, Italy. He was also a skilled navigator who wanted to explore the world. He had seen the spices and silks that traders brought from Asia and wanted to take part in this trade. Like Columbus, he thought the best way to get to Asia was to sail west.

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In 1496, King Henry VII of England W E gave Cabot permission to explore any “unknown land.” Cabot set out to find a S 15˚N 75°W faster and safer route to the East Indies. 90°W 120°W 105°W When he left Bristol, England, in May 1497, Cabot had only one small ship and John Cabot traveled along this route 18 men. They traveled around the coast during his first voyage in 1497. of Ireland and then west across the Atlantic. They sailed north of Columbus’s route to avoid land claimed 5_AP_SE_5_2_5I by Spain. Second Proof On June 24, Cabot reached the eastern coastTCI28_10 of present-day Canada. He claimed the land for England. He saw thick green forests and plenty of fish but no rich Asian cities. Cabot sailed back to England and told the king that he had reached Asia and would soon find its wealth.

John Cabot stands on his ship’s deck as he leaves what is now Labrador, Canada. He believed he had reached Asia and claimed the land for England.

The following year, Cabot sailed back to North America. On this try, he may have explored as far south as Chesapeake Bay, near present-day Maryland. Historians do not know what happened to Cabot. Some say he was killed in a shipwreck, and others say he returned to England and died soon after arriving. Like Columbus, Cabot never knew that he had reached a continent unknown to Europeans. But his voyage helped open the way for English settlers to North America.

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Hands-On Activity Notes Complete the information about Cabot. Select the correct symbols, complete the timeline, draw his route of exploration, and list your favorite fact.

Personal Background

Activity Online

Route of Exploration

Soldier Sailor Nobleman Merchant

Motives

Spread Christianity

Find route to Asia

Find riches Sponsor

Dates 1490

1550

1600

1650 1700

– Year exploration began

England

Netherlands

Spain

France

Year exploration ended

Impact

Favorite Fascinating Fact Claimed land

Spread disease

Killed Native Americans

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Established settlement

Updated maps

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3. Juan Ponce de León When Columbus made a second voyage to the Americas in 1493, many believe a young soldier named Juan Ponce de León (wahn pahnss duh lee-OHN) went with him. Once Ponce de León arrived in the Americas, he settled on a Caribbean island named Hispaniola (today divided into the countries of Haiti and the Dominican Republic). There he became a military captain under the governor. As early as 1506, Ponce de León explored an island named Borinquen (soon to be renamed Puerto Rico). There he heard many stories about gold. Hoping to discover this gold, Ponce de León led soldiers to conquer the island. He and his men killed many native people. Later, Spain’s King Ferdinand made him governor of the island.

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Juan Ponce de León explored along this route.

5_AP_SE_5_3_7I Ponce de León soon heard of a magic fountain on Second Proof another island. Stories told of a “fountain of youth” TCI28_11 whose waters were said to make people young again. In 1513, Juan Ponce de León sailed Ponce de León asked permission to search for this to Florida in search of a “fountain island. He wanted the glory of finding such a of youth.” wonderful location.

In 1513, Ponce de León set sail. After a month, he reached a coast with palm trees, sweet-smelling flowers, and beautiful birds. He landed around Easter, known as Pascua Florida (Feast of Flowers) in Spanish. Ponce de León named the land Florida and claimed it for Spain. He sailed up and down the coast but did not find the fountain of youth, so he went back to Puerto Rico. In 1521, he returned to Florida to start a settlement with 200 men. The Native Americans there resented the invasion. They attacked, and an arrow struck Ponce de León. Wounded, he sailed to Cuba and soon died. He never knew that Florida was not an island but part of a vast continent.

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Hands-On Activity Notes Complete the information about Ponce de León. Select the correct symbols, complete the timeline, draw his route of exploration, and list your favorite fact.

Personal Background

Activity Online

Route of Exploration

Soldier Sailor Nobleman Merchant

Motives

Spread Christianity

Find route to Asia

Find riches Sponsor

Dates 1490

1550

1600

1650 1700

– Year exploration began

England

Netherlands

Spain

France

Year exploration ended

Impact

Favorite Fascinating Fact Claimed land

Spread disease

Killed Native Americans

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Established settlement

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4. Hernán Cortés

Cortés’s Route

The Spanish heard stories of a rich Mexican empire ruled by the Aztecs, a powerful Native American group. In 1519, Hernán Cortés (hehrNAHN kohr-TEHZ), a Spanish nobleman living in Cuba, sailed to Mexico in search of wealth. Cortés arrived at a time when the Aztecs expected one of their gods, Quetzalcoatl (kwet-zul-kuh-WAH-tul), to return. Stories say that the Aztec emperor, Montezuma II, thought Cortés might be this god and sent him gifts of gold. This made Cortés eager to conquer the Aztecs.

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Cortés marched to the Aztec capital. After a week, he took the Aztec emperor Montezuma II prisoner.

The Spanish now ruled Mexico, which became part of New Spain, Spain’s territory in North America. The Aztec Empire lay in ruins. An Aztec poet wrote a sad poem about his people: We are crushed to the ground; we lie in ruins. There is nothing but grief and suffering in Mexico and Tlatelolco, where once we saw beauty and valor.

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Hands-On Activity Notes Complete the information about Cortés. Select the correct symbols, complete the timeline, draw his route of exploration, and list your favorite fact.

Personal Background

Activity Online

Route of Exploration

Soldier Sailor Nobleman Merchant

Motives

Spread Christianity

Find route to Asia

Find riches Sponsor

Dates 1490

1550

1600

1650 1700

– Year exploration began

England

Netherlands

Spain

France

Year exploration ended

Impact

Favorite Fascinating Fact Claimed land

Spread disease

Killed Native Americans

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Established settlement

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5. Jacques Cartier In 1521, Spanish explorers reached Asia by sailing around the southern tip of South America. Europeans now knew that the Americas lay between Europe and Asia, but they still thought that China was not far beyond the west coast of North America. King Francis I of France hoped to reach China’s riches by sailing across North America. But no one had yet found such a water passage. In 1534, the French king sent an experienced sailor and navigator, Jacques Cartier (zhahk cahr-TYAY), to find the Northwest Passage, a faster sea route from Europe to Asia through North America. Cartier sailed west to Newfoundland, in present-day Canada, and entered a large gulf through a strait, or a narrow waterway between two large land areas. He claimed the surrounding land for France. Just before returning to France, he saw a waterway leading west. The next year, King Francis sent Cartier back to map the waterway. Cartier reached its mouth on the Catholic feast day of Saint Lawrence, so Cartier named the river the Saint Lawrence. With Native American guides, he sailed as far as present-day Quebec, until his ship could go no farther. He visited a Native American village and brought some of its chiefs back to France. They told the king of great riches farther west. In 1541, the king sent Cartier and a large group of settlers on a third voyage, to set up a French empire in North America. After enduring a harsh winter, Cartier and the settlers gave up and returned to France in 1542. Still, Cartier had staked France’s claim in North America. Over 60 years later, New France had its first permanent settlers.

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Jacques Cartier meets with Native Americans for the first time at what is now Montreal, Canada. Native Americans helped Cartier navigate the nearby waters. Jacques Cartier followed this route along the Saint Lawrence River.

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Hands-On Activity Notes Complete the information about Cartier. Select the correct symbols, complete the timeline, draw his route of exploration, and list your favorite fact.

Personal Background

Activity Online

Route of Exploration

Soldier Sailor Nobleman Merchant

Motives

Spread Christianity

Find route to Asia

Find riches Sponsor

Dates 1490

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England

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Spain

France

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Impact

Favorite Fascinating Fact Claimed land

Spread disease

Killed Native Americans

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Established settlement

Updated maps

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6. Francisco Vásquez de Coronado Spain’s rulers gained wealth and power from lands in Mexico and South America. They wanted lands in North America, too. In 1540, hundreds of Spanish conquistadors marched into North America. Their commander was Francisco Vásquez (VAHS-kehz) de Coronado. Coronado had come to the Americas to seek glory and wealth. He was a nobleman, but his brother had inherited most of the family fortune. Coronado’s rich wife, along with the viceroy, or governor, of New Spain, paid for Coronado’s expedition. A priest had told Coronado about one of the Seven Cities of Gold in Cibola (present-day New Mexico). The Seven Cities were said to have as much gold as the Aztec Empire once had. Coronado led his army to Cibola. He found Native American pueblos but no gold. Scouts looked further. They found the Grand Canyon and the Rio Grande valley but no gold. Then Coronado listened to a tale told by a Native American. The story was about a land where boats with golden eagles sailed past trees hung with golden bells. To find this land, Coronado marched across the plains to what is now Kansas, but again, he found no gold. Angry, he had the Native American killed. Coronado returned in disgrace to New Spain in 1542. He was later charged with bad leadership and the mistreatment of Native Americans. However, the expedition was successful for one of the priests who traveled with him. He returned to Kansas to spread Christianity.

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Lesson 5 Routes of Exploration to the Americas

Francisco Vásquez de Coronado and his men searched for one of the Seven Cities of Gold in Cibola. The promise of wealth and power motivated explorers like Coronado to come to the Americas. Between 1540 and 1542, Francisco Vásquez de Coronado took this route through what is now Mexico and the American Southwest.

Coronado’s Route 0

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45˚N

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105°W

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Hands-On Activity Notes Complete the information about Coronado. Select the correct symbols, complete the timeline, draw his route of exploration, and list your favorite fact.

Personal Background

Activity Online

Route of Exploration

Soldier Sailor Nobleman Merchant

Motives

Spread Christianity

Find route to Asia

Find riches Sponsor

Dates 1490

1550

1600

1650 1700

– Year exploration began

England

Netherlands

Spain

France

Year exploration ended

Impact

Favorite Fascinating Fact Claimed land

Spread disease

Killed Native Americans

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute

Established settlement

Updated maps

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7. Henry Hudson England kept searching for a northern sea route to Asia, as did the Netherlands. In 1609, the Dutch East India Company in the Netherlands hired Henry Hudson, an English sea captain. Hudson set out to reach China by sailing around the northern shores of Europe, near the Arctic Circle, but his crew grew tired of ice and cold. Soon the crew rebelled, so Hudson agreed to change course and sail west across the Atlantic instead.

Hudson’s Route 0

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While sailing along the Atlantic coast W E of North America, Hudson and his men entered a narrow harbor. From there, S 15˚N 75°W Hudson saw a gigantic body of water 90°W 120°W 105°W leading north. Believing that this was the Northwest Passage, Hudson sailed up the On his first voyage, in 1609, Henry waterway. When the water became too shallow for his Hudson sailed up a river now named boat, Hudson realized that it was only a river. (Today, the Hudson River. this is called the Hudson River.) But his voyage5_AP_SE_5_7_15I gave the Netherlands a claim in North America. By 1624, the Proof Second Henry Hudson’s first voyage gave the Dutch had settled in the Hudson Valley. TCI28_15 In 1610, English merchants paid Hudson to cross the Atlantic again. Reaching Canada, Hudson sailed farther north. He passed through a long, narrow strait into a large body of water, and he was sure that he had reached the Pacific Ocean. But, sailing down the coast, he found no opening. Then the waters froze, trapping the ship for the winter. In fact, Hudson had not reached the Pacific. The large body of water was a bay, which is now called Hudson Bay.

Netherlands a claim in North America. Hudson thought he had discovered the Northwest Passage. But instead he sailed to what is now the Hudson River in New York.

In the spring of 1611, the crew rebelled once again. This time, they set Hudson, his son, and seven others afloat in a small boat. Hudson was never seen again, but his voyage did give England a claim to eastern Canada.

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Hands-On Activity Notes Complete the information about Hudson. Select the correct symbols, complete the timeline, draw his route of exploration, and list your favorite fact.

Personal Background

Activity Online

Route of Exploration

Soldier Sailor Nobleman Merchant

Motives

Spread Christianity

Find route to Asia

Find riches Sponsor

Dates 1490

1550

1600

1650 1700

– Year exploration began

England

Netherlands

Spain

France

Year exploration ended

Impact

Favorite Fascinating Fact Claimed land

Spread disease

Killed Native Americans

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute

Established settlement

Updated maps

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8. Robert de La Salle In the 1600s, the French began to settle on their land claims. In 1666, Robert Cavelier de La Salle, a French nobleman, sailed to New France. As a fur trader along the Saint Lawrence River, La Salle learned Native American languages and explored the Ohio River. The Native Americans told him about a great river that flowed south all the way to the Gulf of Mexico.

La Salle’s Route 0

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30˚N La Salle dreamed not only of personal N wealth but also of a French empire of W E trading posts, forts, and settlements. King Louis XIV of France liked La Salle’s plan, S 15˚N 75°W but the king wanted La Salle to pay for 90°W 120°W 105°W the journey himself, so he had to borrow money to finance his expedition. In 1681, Robert de La Salle explored the La Salle set out in a canoe to travel down Mississippi River. the Mississippi River. When he reached the mouth of the Mississippi River, he named the vast region5_AP_SE_5_8_17I he had crossed Louisiana, for the French king. Second Proof TCI28_16

In 1682, Robert de La Salle claimed the Mississippi River and the lands around it for France. He named the region Louisiana after King Louis XIV of France.

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La Salle then planned to establish a sea route from France to the Mississippi River. He went to France and received the king’s permission. In 1684, La Salle sailed to North America with more than 200 settlers. After spending six months crossing the Atlantic, the ships missed the mouth of the Mississippi River and landed 500 miles to the west. La Salle founded a colony there, on the coast of what is now Texas. However, he continued to search for the mouth of the Mississippi River. During his final search, his men mutinied and killed him. The remaining settlers were killed, died, or taken captive. Despite this, La Salle had given France a claim to the entire Mississippi Valley. La Salle, along with other European explorers, journeyed to the American continents to claim land for his country. In the map European Routes to the Americas, you can trace the route each explorer took. Many other Europeans would also travel across the Atlantic to develop settlements in the Americas.

This map shows the routes of eight European explorers who journeyed to the Americas. Many of them left to claim land for their country.

European Routes to the Americas Christopher Columbus-1st trip John Cabot Juan Ponce de León Hernán Cortes Jacques Cartier Francisco Vásquez de Coronado Henry Hudson-1st trip Robert de La Salle

Hudson Bay

60°N

EUROPE

NORTH AMERICA

40°N

ATLANTIC OCEAN

PACI F IC OCE AN 20°N

0 0

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Caribbean Sea

1,000 2,000 kilometers 140°W

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AFRICA

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5_AP_SE_5_8_18I Second Proof TCI28_17

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Hands-On Activity Notes Complete the information about La Salle. Select the correct symbols, complete the timeline, draw his route of exploration, and list your favorite fact.

Personal Background

Activity Online

Route of Exploration

Soldier Sailor Nobleman Merchant

Motives

Spread Christianity

Find route to Asia

Find riches Sponsor

Dates 1490

1550

1600

1650 1700

– Year exploration began

England

Netherlands

Spain

France

Year exploration ended

Impact

Favorite Fascinating Fact Claimed land

Spread disease

Killed Native Americans

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Established settlement

Updated maps

Lesson 5 Routes of Exploration to the Americas

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute


Summary In this lesson, you learned about eight early European explorers of the Americas. Each had their own reasons for coming to the Americas. Some came in search to riches. Others came to claim land for their countries or to spread religion. Europeans also wanted a trade route that would be a shortcut to Asia’s riches. Columbus sailed west and reached land. Other explorers soon followed and thought that they had reached Asia. Eventually, however, they realized that this land was actually a different continent. Some explorers, such as Cartier and Hudson, kept searching for a fast route to Asia. But the real wealth for European countries was the American land they claimed. Native Americans suffered greatly as a result of European exploration. The explorers fought against tribes who opposed them. Native Americans were often enslaved. In addition, Europeans brought contagious diseases that killed many Native Americans.

Show What You Know Choose one of the explorers you learned about from the text and the Routes of Exploration game, and write an “I Am”-style poem about him. In your poem, make sure to: • teach your readers the most important things about your chosen explorer • use at least eight words in each line • be descriptive and paint a picture with your words When it is time to share, do not read the name of your explorer and see if your classmates can figure it out!

Flip the page

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He is

He hoped

He asked

He worried

He saw

He discovered

He is remembered He is

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Lesson 5 Routes of Exploration to the Americas

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America’s Past Explore the content in these units: Unit 1: America’s Geographic Setting Activity Online

Unit 2: Colonial Times

Unit 4: Civics and Economics in America

Unit 3: The American Revolution

Unit 5: Manifest Destiny to Today

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