Page 1

Regions of Our Country

Log in at www.teachtci.com for more resources.



Program Components Bring Learning Alive! TCI offers programs for elementary, middle, and high school classrooms.

Bring Science Alive! Social Studies Alive! History Alive! Geography Alive! Government Alive! Econ Alive! www.teachtci.com

Student Journal The colorful, easy-to-use, print consumable Student Journal combines standards-based content and rich activities to support student learning.

800-497-6138

Activity Cards The Activity Cards are laminated, reusable handouts for lesson activites that engage students in analyzing powerful images, graphs, maps, and primary sources..

Teacher and Student Account Lesson Guides, customizable assessments, video lessons, learning games, and more are at your fingertips.



Regions of Our Country Student Journal

Name:


Regions of Our Country Student Journal Welcome to your Social Studies Alive! Student Journal This journal is your place to read, reflect, and create. It works hand in hand with your online access. In each lesson, you’ll find: • • • • •

Preview Activity Vocabulary Activity Hands-On Activity Reading Show What You Know Activity

In addition, look for the Activity Online Online callouts throughout the journal. These indicate that additional activity directions and interactions are online. Every lesson also includes opportunities to dive deeper online, including: • • • • •

Lesson Games Vocabulary Cards Slideshows Videos and songs Primary Sources and more!

Sign in at www.teachtci.com to see all resources.


CONTENTS

Unit 1  Discovering the Social Sciences

1

Think like a social scientist by sharing and analyzing artifacts. Use geography skills to recommend theme park locations. Interpret primary sources to learn about the experiences of different groups in the United States. Conduct an inquiry to discover how the social sciences can help explain your region.

1

The Four Core Social Sciences................................ 7 What do social scientists do?

2

Exploring Regions of the United States.............. 27 How do geographers study the regions of the United States?

3

The Peopling of the United States....................... 53 How have different groups contributed to the United States?

Unit 2  The Northeast

75

Take a cinematic tour of the Northeast. Experience population density and create comic strips depicting life in cities compared to rural areas of the Northeast. Conduct an inquiry to investigate your questions about the Northeast.

4

A Tour of the Northeast......................................... 81 What are different parts of the Northeast like?

5

Population Density and Life in the Northeast........................................................105 How do people live in the Northeast?

ii

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute


Unit 3  The Southeast

125

Take a tour of the Southeast through the lenses of the four social sciences. Create titles and captions for videos of geography in the Southeast. Conduct an inquiry to investigate your questions about the Southeast.

6

A Tour of the Southeast...................................... 131 What factors have shaped the culture of the Southeast?

7

The Effects of Geography on Life in the Southeast...................................................... 153 How has geography helped shape daily life in the Southeast?

Unit 4  The Midwest

169

Take a self-directed tour of the Midwest, collecting clues along the way to solve a puzzle. Research agricultural changes from 1800 to present and use charts and graphs to share your findings. Conduct an inquiry to investigate your questions about the Midwest.

8

A Tour of the Midwest..........................................175 Why do we call the Midwest “America’s Heartland”?

9

Agricultural Changes in the Midwest.................197 How has farming changed in the Midwest over time?

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute

iii


Unit 5  The Southwest

217

Construct a diorama of the Southwest that illustrates different perspectives of people living there. Create a storyboard for a video trailer promoting a documentary series on the importance of the Colorado River. Conduct an inquiry to investigate your questions about the Southwest.

10

A Tour of the Southwest..................................... 223 How have geography and history shaped life in the Southwest?

11

A Case Study in Water Use: The Colorado River.............................................. 249 How do people depend on the Colorado River and share its water?

Unit 6  The West

271

Complete a scavenger hunt while touring the West. Help solve a case of stolen landmarks as you learn about cities across the West region. Conduct an inquiry to investigate your questions about the West.

12

A Tour of the West................................................ 277 What are the features that have drawn people to the West?

13

Cities of the West................................................. 299 What attracts people to the cities of the West?

iv

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute


Unit 7  Inquiry: Studying Your State

325

Create and play a trivia game about your state’s geography. Become an archivist of your state’s history, from early settlement to today, as you prepare a showcase of primary sources. Collect and tag images showing economic concepts in everyday life. Create an escape room game where players must know about your state’s government to win. Conduct an inquiry to answer your own questions about the area where you live.

14 The Geography of Your State.............................. 331 How has geography influenced life in your state?

15 The History of Your State..................................... 347 How can you learn about your state’s history?

16 The Economy of Your State................................. 363 What do you need to know to understand your state’s economy?

17 The Government of Your State............................ 379 How does your state’s government work? Maps.......................................................................397 Glossary..................................................................403 Credits....................................................................408

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute

v


A Whole New Way to Experience Social Studies Inquiry-Based Unit Structures Each unit starts with an intriguing storyline and compelling question that piques students’ interest and drives instruction throughout the lesson. They are encouraged to draw upon and apply previous knowledge and also use outside resources and Social Studies Stories to expand their answer.

Student-Centered Activities Each lesson utilizes at least one of TCI’s unique, hands-on strategies to get students thinking, moving, and asking big questions. Students are inspired to learn more and engage in fun activities, which they can access both online and in the Journal.

Culturally-Responsive Content Meaningful standards-aligned content with opportunities for making personal connections and participating in an inclusive classroom environment.

vi

Online Resources Ready-to-teach presentations, activities, complete student resources, customizable assessments and more at your fingertips!

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute


Unit 1

Discovering the Social Sciences Think like a social scientist by sharing and analyzing artifacts. Use geography skills to recommend theme park locations. Interpret primary sources to learn about the experiences of different groups in the United States. Conduct an inquiry to discover how the social sciences can help explain your region.

1 The Four Core Social Sciences...................................................7 2 Exploring Regions of the United States...................................27 3 The Peopling of the United States...........................................53

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute

Unit 1 Discovering the Social Sciences

1


Unit Inquiry Project

1

Gathering Visual Evidence

List five interesting details you see in this image.

What country does the map show? Why might it be split apart into five sections?

Where do you see something related to history? Geography? Economics? Civics?

2

Unit 1 Discovering the Social Sciences

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute


2

Developing the Compelling Question Unit Storyline The United States map you see here is split into five regions. A region is an area that shares similar features. Each region is named after its location in the United States. Throughout this program, you’ll study these regions to learn about their history, economics, civics, and geography.

Unit Compelling Question How can the four core social sciences help us learn about our region of the country? List three questions you have about the Unit Storyline and Compelling Question. 1.

2.

3.

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute

Unit 1 Discovering the Social Sciences

3


3

Collecting Evidence

After you complete each lesson, return to this table and answer the questions. Record key information that will help you complete the Unit Inquiry Project.

Lesson

4

Supporting Questions

1 The Four Core Social Sciences

What is the study of economics? Geography? Civics? History? What is one way that each relates to your region?

2 Exploring Regions of the United States

What are the five regions you’ll study throughout this program? Which region do you live in? How could you split your own state into regions?

3 The Peopling of the United States

What makes the United States diverse? Did all Americans come to the United States at the same time and under the same conditions?

Unit 1 Discovering the Social Sciences

What I Learned

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute


4

Building Additional Content Knowledge

Gather and evaluate additional sources to answer the Unit Compelling Question: How can the four core social sciences help us learn about our region of the country? Conduct research to find at least one interesting piece of information about your own region’s economics, geography, civics, and history. You may also use these readings from Social Studies Alive! Regions of Our Country Social Studies Stories: • Clues from Cahokia • The Mighty Mississippi • New York City: Layers of the Past Source Title(s)

Additional Evidence

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute

Unit 1 Discovering the Social Sciences

5


5

Constructing an Argument

Write a sentence answering the Unit Compelling Question: How can the four core social sciences help us learn about our region of the country? This is called a claim. Then provide at least two pieces of evidence to support your claim. Your evidence can come from the activities you did in class, the readings you completed in your Student Journal or Social Studies Stories, or additional research that you conducted.

Claim:

Evidence:

6

Taking Informed Action

Decide how you want to share what you learned. You could make a poster, a digital presentation, or a video. You might share your presentation with your classmates or with adults in the community.

6

Unit 1 Discovering the Social Sciences

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute


Lesson 1

The Four Core Social Sciences What do social scientists do?

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute

Lesson 1 The Four Core Social Sciences

7


Introduction Why are some people rich and others poor? How can studying the past help us live better today? These are the kinds of questions that social scientists ask. Social scientists study the ways people live in groups. Their field is called social science. Some social scientists study small groups, such as families, and others study large groups, such as nations. Think about some other examples of groups that a social scientist could study. Your class is an example of a small group, and your school is a larger group. Some social scientists may study the groups in schools. How do people spend their money? What physical features lie around us? How do political leaders use their power? What happened in the past? By asking and answering these questions, social scientists learn about the economy, geography, politics, and history of the groups they study. Social scientists want to understand why people behave as they do. To find out, they watch people, ask questions, and study written records, such as legal documents, letters, and news stories.

Vocabulary economy geography history political science

Social scientists study how people live in society. They do so by searching for clues and asking questions.

They also study artifacts, which are things people have made. Your clothes are a kind of artifact, and so are all the things you carry in your backpack. Items in your classroom like a globe, pencil, and desk are artifacts, too. What would a social scientist learn about you by studying these artifacts? You might be surprised by the answer!

8

Lesson 1 The Four Core Social Sciences

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute


Preview Activity Answer each question with a complete sentence.

Activity Online

Economics Why do you think it is important to study how much things cost?

Civics Why do you think it is important to study how governments make rules?

Geography Why do you think it is important to study maps and know what the world around us is like?

History Why do you think it is important to study what the past was like?

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute

Lesson 1 The Four Core Social Sciences

9


Vocabulary Activity Activity Online

Write the name of the social science next to its definition.

Vocabulary Word Bank history

Social Science

geography

economics

political science

Definition the study of the natural and human features of Earth’s surface and its climate and life-forms

the study of governments and how they work

the study of the past

the study of the way people in a community use resources to meet their needs and wants

10

Lesson 1 The Four Core Social Sciences

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute


Hands-On Activity Activity Online

Create a web diagram about the social sciences. Find and share artifacts from home that represent economics, geography, civics, and history.

Directions: Discovering the Social Sciences 1. Read Sections 1–4 and complete your Activity Notes with a partner. Add words, symbols, or pictures around each social science term in your Activity Notes. 2. Follow your teacher’s directions to create three sticky notes and place them on the Activity Cards around the room.

Directions: Sharing Social Science Artifacts 1. Read Section 5. Learn about the types of questions social scientists ask. 2. Find one small artifact in your home for each social science subject. Answer the questions in your journal about your four artifacts. Then place them in a small paper bag. 3. Follow your teacher’s directions to share your artifacts with the class. © Teachers’ Curriculum Institute

Lesson 1 The Four Core Social Sciences

11


1. Economics You find a dollar in your pocket. Should you spend it on a snack or save it for a new comic book? You might think that no one cares about how you choose to spend your money, but that is not true! Some social scientists are economists. They are very interested in the choices people make about money every day. Economists study the economy of a city, state, or country. An economy is the way people in a community use resources to meet their needs and wants. We all need food, clothing, and shelter, and we all want things that we don’t really need. You may want a new game, and your parents may want a new car. In the economy of the United States, a variety of resources meets people’s needs and wants. Economics is the study of how people make, buy, and sell things. Economists want to know how people decide what to make and what to buy. Think of yourself as an economist. You are studying how families decide what to buy. What artifacts might help you? Here are a few ideas: • • • • •

price tags receipts coupons advertisements items your family bought recently Analyzing prices is one way to study an economy. An economist might examine a shopping receipt to learn about spending habits.

12

Lesson 1 The Four Core Social Sciences

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute


2. Geography You are on a trip somewhere new. Nothing looks familiar. You don’t recognize the countryside, the buildings, or even the people. You begin to feel a little lost. Finally, you ask yourself, Where am I? You could use some help from another social scientist called a geographer. Geographers study geography. Geography is the study of Earth. Geographers like to know where places are on a map. They study Earth’s surface to find out what physical features lie around them. They also study the climate and plant and animal life. Geographers use maps and globes to show the features of our planet’s surface. Land, water, plants, and animals are part of nature, so they are called natural features. Towns, roads, bridges, and dams are built by people, so they are called human features.

Learning to use maps is an important part of thinking like a geographer. Geographers also study how humans impact and are impacted by Earth.

The United States has a great range of natural and human features. It has mountains, deserts, rivers, and lakes. Our nation has large cities filled with people and buildings. It has tiny towns, miles of highways and roads, and vast empty spaces. Think of yourself as a geographer. You are studying the natural and human features of your community. These artifacts and natural objects might help you in your studies: • • • • • •

maps weather records newspaper articles buildings wildflowers birds’ nests

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute

Lesson 1 The Four Core Social Sciences

13


3. Civics You are riding your bike down the street when—bam!—your front wheel hits a pothole and you fall to the ground. As you pick yourself up, you grumble, “This is dangerous! Who’s in charge of fixing the streets, anyway?” This is just the type of question a political scientist might ask. Political scientists study civics to learn how citizens interact with each other, society, and their governments. They want to know how people get the power to run a city, state, or nation. They also look at how the people in charge use their power. Political science is the study of governments. All groups—even families—have some sort of government. A government is a system for deciding what is best for the group. Its job is to make and carry out rules and laws. These rules help people live together in peace. Governments also supply things people need. Your local government provides things that you need, such as schools and safe streets. Suppose a political scientist is visiting your town. What artifacts might interest him or her? Here are a few ideas: • • • •

election advertisements stories about government information about how and where to vote newspaper articles about laws Political scientists study all types of government. City councils like this one are an example of local government.

14

Lesson 1 The Four Core Social Sciences

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute


4. History Your class takes a field trip to the cemetery. Your assignment is to make a rubbing of a tombstone and report on it to the class. When you read the tombstone, you think, “I wonder how many people buried here were related to this person.” Now you are thinking like a historian. History is the study of the past. Human beings have been around a very long time so we have a lot of past to study. Historians, however, are most interested in the last few thousand years, which is when people began leaving written records. The first question historians ask is What happened in the past? To find out, they study all kinds of artifacts, including records made by people in the past. Once historians know what happened, they ask other questions to help them interpret or understand the past, such as Who took part in these events? How did these things happen? and Why did they happen this way? Suppose you have been asked to write a history of your family. What artifacts would help you? Here are some suggestions: • • • • • •

This old school photograph is an artifact that might interest a historian. What do you think a historian could learn from this photo? How might the students in this picture differ from the students in your class?

birth certificates baby books family photos letters diaries family treasures

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute

Lesson 1 The Four Core Social Sciences

15


Hands-On Activity Notes Add at least four words, symbols, or pictures around each social science

Activity Online

to help you remember what it is.

Economics

Geography

16

Lesson 1 The Four Core Social Sciences

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute


Civics

History

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute

Lesson 1 The Four Core Social Sciences

17


5. Thinking Like a Social Scientist Now that you know more about social scientists, can you start thinking like one? In order to think like a social scientist, you must first ask questions about what you are studying. Try this experiment: Choose one object from your desk or backpack to study, and ask yourself, What kind of social scientist would be most interested in this artifact—an economist, a geographer, a political scientist, or a historian? What would that person want to know about this artifact—who made it, how much it cost, where it came from, or something else? One class of fourth graders tried this experiment with a pair of shoes. To their surprise, the shoes turned out to be a rather interesting artifact. The students found out that all four types of social scientists could study the shoes that the class chose. The class broke up into four different groups, and each group came up with questions that one type of social scientist would ask about the pair of shoes. Read each group’s results.

18

Lesson 1 The Four Core Social Sciences

The objects in your backpack are artifacts. What kinds of questions would a social scientist ask about them?

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute


Social Scientist Questions An economist might ask these questions: 1. How much did the shoes cost to make? 2. How much did you pay for them? 3. Why did you choose to buy these shoes instead of another pair of shoes? A geographer might ask these questions: 1. Where were these shoes made? 2. What route did the shoes travel from the factory to your shoe store? A political scientist might ask these questions: 1. Are there any laws about making these shoes, and did the shoemaker follow them? 2. Who was in charge of buying this pair of shoes? A historian might ask these questions: 1. How have shoes changed over time? 2. What is the history of these shoes? Who made them and when, and why? What has happened to these shoes since they were made?

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute

Lesson 1 The Four Core Social Sciences

19


Hands-On Activity Notes Activity Online

Economics Artifact Find an artifact that an economist would want to study. (Examples: advertisements, receipts, coupons) Why did you select this artifact?

Why would an economist find this artifact interesting?

Geography Artifact Find an artifact that a geographer would want to study. (Examples: maps, wooden salad bowl, shell bracelet) Why did you select this artifact?

Why would a geographer find this artifact interesting?

20

Lesson 1 The Four Core Social Sciences

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute


Civics Artifact Find an artifact that a political scientist would want to study. (Examples: election advertisements, newspaper articles) Why did you select this artifact?

Why would a political scientist find this artifact interesting?

History Artifact Find an artifact that a historian would want to study. (Examples: old photographs, magazines, coins, stamps) Why did you select this artifact?

Why would a historian find this artifact interesting?

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute

Lesson 1 The Four Core Social Sciences

21


Summary As you have learned, the social sciences are the study of how people live in groups. Some social scientists study small groups like families, and others study large groups like nations. Social scientists want to understand why people behave as they do. To find out, they watch people, ask questions, and look at written records and other artifacts. Economists are interested in the choices people make about money, so they look at what people make, buy, and sell. Geographers want to know what lies around them, so they examine human and natural features. Political scientists study governments, so they explore political power. Historians study the past, so they analyze items like old letters and photographs to learn what happened in the past. Social scientists help us understand society, past and present. There is a lot more to learn.

Show What You Know Choose two of the four social sciences and complete their associated writing or drawing activities.

Economics Activity Write a short story about ways you could make your own money.

22

Lesson 1 The Four Core Social Sciences

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute


Geography Activity Decide which state you might like to live in when you are an adult. Draw a map of the state. Under the map explain why you might want to live in this state.

Civics Activity Write a note to your principal in which you suggest an improvement to your school grounds. In your note, explain why your opinion should matter.

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute

Lesson 1 The Four Core Social Sciences

23


History Activity Create a timeline of your mother, father, or guardian’s past. Draw a horizontal line from left to right to represent the person’s life. On this line, include at least five important events that most explain who the person is today—for example, the day someone was born. For each event, draw a short vertical (up-and-down) line to mark when it happened, and label it with the year it occurred. Put the events in the order in which they happened, with the first one farthest to the left. Write a brief description of each event.

24

Lesson 1 The Four Core Social Sciences

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute


STUDY YOUR STATE

The First People in Your State Long ago—before your state had highways, buildings, and stores—its first people lived there. Like your community, they had transportation, homes, and ways to get food and other goods. What was life like for the first people in your state? Social scientists, such as archaeologists and historians, look for answers to this important question. They look at artifacts, and they research the history of different places. You can learn about your state’s first people by doing research in the library and on the internet. To learn about the lives of the first people, you need to find out: Who were the first people in your state? There may have been several groups, so choose one to learn about. For example, the Chinook people were one of the first groups to live in what are now the states of Washington and Oregon. Next, think of other supporting questions about the first people. For example, you might ask, What kind of natural resources were nearby? and What kind of homes did they live in? Write several questions about your state’s first people on index cards. You will try to answer these questions through research.

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute

Write one supporting question on each index card. Research each answer and write it below the question.

Lesson 1 The Four Core Social Sciences

25


Find Answers! Now, perform research to learn how the first people lived. Use sources that are both online and in books. For example, you might read the website of an organization that writes about the group’s history. Write down facts on the index cards that will help answer your questions. As you research, save or draw pictures of artifacts.

You will create a poster by researching facts and pictures of the first people that lived in your state. For instance, you might use this image of a Chinook house if you live in Washington.

Use your research to answer this question: Did natural resources affect the first people in your state? Write an explanation, and support it with your research. Include your pictures of artifacts. For example, the Chinook made houses out of trees from the nearby forests. They also hollowed out trees to make canoes. They traveled on the Columbia River, and the river and ocean provided fish to eat. Draw a poster explaining the ways the people used natural resources. Display your poster in the hall for other students to see. Then create a digital presentation to show and discuss with your family. 26

Lesson 1 The Four Core Social Sciences

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute


Lesson 2

Exploring Regions of the United States How do geographers study the regions of the United States?

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute

Lesson 2 Exploring Regions of the United States

27


Introduction Because Earth is so large, geographers divide it into regions to study. A region is an area with common features that set it apart from other areas. The United States can be divided into regions, too. One way to do this is by grouping states with similar features into five different regions. In this lesson, you will learn how geographers study regions. Geographers have identified five major themes, or topics, to help them organize the study of geography. Maps are useful for understanding these five themes of geography: • Location: Where is this place located? What is it near? • Place: What is this place like? • Human-environmental interaction: How does this place affect the people living here? How do the people who live here affect this place? • Movement: How do people, goods, and ideas move to and away from this place? • Regions: What features about this place set it apart from other places?

Vocabulary basin coastal plain global grid inland line of latitude line of longitude map key plateau region scale special-purpose map

Try answering the questions above about your school. Now you are thinking like a geographer. Keep thinking that way as you read more about the regions of the United States.

You can use maps to explore different regions in this country.

28

Lesson 2 Exploring Regions of the United States

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute


Preview Activity Draw an outline around the region in which your state is located.

Activity Online

Regional Map of the United States 0

50˚N

400 miles

CANADA

Alaska

DA NA CA

0 400 kilometers

N

Washington

PACIFIC OCEAN

Montana

North Dakota

E

W

Minnesota

Oregon Idaho Wyoming

WEST

130˚W

PACIFIC OCEAN 125˚W

MEXICO

150 miles 150 kilometers

Michigan

Iowa

120˚W

Hawaii

0

New York

Pennsylvania Ohio Indiana Nevada Illinois West Utah Virginia Colorado Virginia Kansas California Missouri Kentucky North Carolina Arkansas Tennessee South Oklahoma Arizona New Mexico SOUTHEAST Carolina Mississippi SOUTHWEST Georgia Texas

115˚W

Louisiana

95˚W

0

Maine

NORTHEAST

Wisconsin

MIDWEST

Nebraska

PACIFIC OCEAN

0

South Dakota

Vermont

S

150

New Hampshire Massachusetts

Rhode 40˚N Island Connecticut New Jersey Delaware Maryland 35˚N

70˚W

ATLANTIC OCEAN

Alabama

90˚W

30˚N

Florida

Gulf of Mexico

25˚N

300 miles

0 150 300 kilometers 85˚W

80˚W

75˚W

Which activities5_AP_SE_1_4_12I are you able to do in the region where you live? Think of at Second Proof/resize TCI28_1 least three activities that you can do. For example, are you able to go skiing, rafting, or swimming?

Draw a picture of one of the activities that you are able to do in your region.

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute

Lesson 2 Exploring Regions of the United States

29


Vocabulary Activity Activity Online

Write the term next to its definition. Vocabulary Word Bank basin coastal plain global grid

Term

inland line of latitude line of longitude

map key plateau region

scale special-purpose map

Definition an imaginary line that runs between the North and South Poles; also called a meridian an imaginary line that runs east and west around the globe; also called a parallel the grid formed by crisscrossing lines of latitude and longitude on a map a map that shows just one kind of information, such as population an area that shares similar features an explanation of what the symbols on a map stand for a diagram that shows the relationship between the distances on a map and real distances on Earth low, flat land that runs along a coast a bowl-shaped landform that is lower than the surrounding land not bordering an ocean or a large body of water by an ocean a high, flat landform that rises steeply from the land around it

30

Lesson 2 Exploring Regions of the United States

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute


Hands-On Activity Activity Online

Learn the basic skills of a geographer and use those skills to answer questions about different regions. Use special-purpose maps to figure out where to build recreational parks in different regions.

Directions: Building Basic Geography Skills 1. Read Sections 1–6. Learn about different features of maps and globes. 2. Take a map quiz. Test your knowledge of maps and globes. 3. Practice map skills. Explore different regions of the country with your partner and answer questions about each region.

Directions: Building Recreational Parks in Different Regions 1. Read Sections 7–12. Learn about different regions in the United States. 2. Get into groups of four. Assign each member a specific job: Project Manager, Elevation Expert, Population Expert, or Rainfall Expert. 3. Read through the different recreational parks and their criteria. Note the important requirements, such as elevation, population, and rainfall. 4. Examine each geographic region. Each expert should examine the appropriate special-purpose map to determine if the location works. 5. Find the best park for each geographic region. Complete the chart by listing a recreational park for each region, its coordinates, and two reasons why the location works. © Teachers’ Curriculum Institute

Lesson 2 Exploring Regions of the United States

31


1. Location and Direction

North Pole

Every place has its own location. A location is the site where something can be found. People describe locations in many ways. You might describe the location of your home by talking about what it is near. This is the relative location of your home. Or you might use your street address. This is the exact location of your home. Geographers use globes and maps to show the locations of places on Earth. Globes are round like Earth. They are useful when you want to know where places are on the planet. When you need to see where many places are all at once, maps can be more useful. Maps show all or part of Earth on a flat surface. To use a map, you need to know the four cardinal directions. North is the direction toward the North Pole. When you face north, your back is facing south. East is to your right. West is to your left. On a map, the letters N, S, E, and W stand for the cardinal directions.

South Pole SSA4_SE_2.2a CyanPole, Magenta If you face Black the North you Yellow are facing Second Proof north. If youTCI13 face07 the South Pole, you are

facing south.

The intermediate directions are halfway between the cardinal directions. Northeast, for example, lies halfway between north and east. The other intermediate directions are southeast, southwest, and northwest. On a map, the letters NE, SE, SW, and NW stand for the intermediate directions. Most maps use a compass rose to show directions. A compass rose sits on a map, with N pointing toward the North Pole. This tells you which way on the map is north. Why is it important to know your directions?

If you get lost, you can use a map and a compass to find your way. Once you know one cardinal direction, you can determine the other three.

Directions on a Map

32

Lesson 2 Exploring Regions of the United States

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute


Hawaiian Islands Kauai

22˚N

H A W

Niihau

A I I A

Kaula

S

Lanai

S

Oahu

I

L

21˚45'N

E

W

A

Maui

N

0

158˚15'W

10

158˚W

Airport

D

N

S

W

E

Hilo

Hawaii 21˚15'N

20 miles 20 kilometers

State capital

20˚N

H3

Honolulu 10

S

H1

0

City

Highway

Kahoolawe

PAC I F I C OCEAN

21˚30'N

H2

Molokai

Honolulu N

H1

N

Oahu 160˚W

PACIFIC OCEAN

PAC I F I C OCEAN

157˚45'W

0 0

100 miles

50 50

100 kilometers

158˚W

SSA4_SE_2.2 and Symbols 2. Scales Black Cyan Magenta Yellow Second MapsProof never TCI13 08

show sizes and distances as they really are. They are always much smaller than the part of Earth they represent. A short distance on a map represents a much greater distance on Earth.

156˚W

154˚W

Maps like this one use scales and symbols. According to the map key, where is the airport on this map?

The scale of a map shows the relationship between map distances and real distances. A map’s scale can be shown in many ways. The most common is a line scale. The scales on the Hawaiian Islands map show two measures of distance. One is for miles, the other is for kilometers. Maps use symbols to show other kinds of information. A symbol is anything that stands for something else. Sometimes symbols look like what they stand for. For example, mapmakers often use tiny airplane symbols to stand for airports. Color is another important map symbol. The color blue usually stands for water. Mapmakers often use different colors to show separate states or countries. Mapmakers use a map key to explain their symbols. (A key is also called a legend.) The map key tells what each symbol stands for. Look at the key on this map. What does the star stand for? © Teachers’ Curriculum Institute

Lesson 2 Exploring Regions of the United States

33


3. Lines of Latitude Suppose you want to describe the exact location of a place on Earth. To help you do this, mapmakers invented a system of imaginary lines around the globe. Some of these lines run east and west around the globe. They are called lines of latitude. Lines of latitude are also known as parallels because they are always the same distance apart. Lines of latitude tell us how far north or south of the equator a place on Earth is. The equator is a line of latitude. It divides Earth into two halves. They are called the Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere. Because the United States lies north of the equator, it is in the Northern Hemisphere. The equator is the starting point for measuring latitude. It is labeled 0°, or zero degrees. Parallels north of the equator are labeled N. The North Pole is 90°N. Parallels south of the equator are labeled S. The South Pole is 90°S. Lines of latitude measure between 0° and 90°N or 90°S. The closer a parallel is to the equator, the smaller its number of degrees. The closer it is to one of the poles, the greater its number of degrees. Do you live closer to the North Pole or the equator?

North Pole

A boat’s location on the ocean can be pinpointed using imaginary lines. These are called lines of latitude and longitude.

75°N 60°N 45°N 30°N 15°N 0° Equator 15°S

South Pole 34

30°S 45°S 60°S

Lesson 2 Exploring Regions of the United States

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute


4. Lines of Longitude Lines of longitude tell us how far to the east or west we need to go to locate a place. Look at this map. It shows lines circling Earth. Lines of longitude run north and south between the North and South poles and are called meridians. Unlike lines of latitude, meridians are not parallel to each other. All meridians meet at the North Pole and the South Pole. The distance between meridians is greatest at the equator. That distance shrinks as you move from the equator to the poles. Can you find the line that is labeled prime meridian on the map? This imaginary line divides the world into the Eastern Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere. Because the United States lies west of the prime meridian, it is in the Western Hemisphere. The longitude of the prime meridian is 0°. Lines of longitude west of the prime meridian are labeled W. Lines of latitude east of the prime meridian are labeled E. Lines of longitude measure between 0° and 180°. The closer a meridian is to the prime meridian, the smaller its number of degrees. The farther it is from the prime meridian, the greater its number of degrees.

Prime Meridian

15°W

30°W

45°W

75°E 60°E

45°E

30°E

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute

15°E

75°W 60°W

North Pole

South Pole

Lesson 2 Exploring Regions of the United States

35


5. The Global Grid

North Pole North Pole

Mapmakers combine lines of latitude and longitude to form a grid. A grid is a set of crisscrossing lines. The grid below is called a global grid because it covers all of Earth.

75˚N 60˚N

Prime Meridian

15˚W

30˚W

75˚E 60˚E

45˚E

15˚N

30˚E

75˚W 60˚W

30˚N

15˚E

Using the lines of latitude and longitude on the global grid, you can locate places anywhere in the world. Let’s find New Orleans on the map below. It is 30 degrees north of the equator, or 30°N. It is also 90 degrees west of the prime meridian, or 90°W. Geographers call the degrees of latitude and longitude a set of coordinates. You state latitude first, then longitude. New Orleans’s coordinates are 30°N, 90°W.

45˚W

45˚N

0˚ Equator 15˚S 30˚S 45˚S

South Pole South Pole

The city of Uíge (weej), Angola, is located at 8°S, 15°E. To find this location, put your finger on the map where the equator and the prime meridian meet. Move your finger east to the 15°E meridian. So far, so good.

SSA4_SE_2.6a Black Cyan Magenta Yellow Second Proof TCI13 11

Now you have a problem. The 8°S parallel is not marked on this map. You know, though, that 8°S must lie between the equator and 15°S. If you move your finger along the 15°E meridian to the spot halfway between these two parallels, you will find the city you are looking for. Lines of latitude and longitude help us locate places.

The Global Grid 180˚ 165˚W 150˚W 135˚W 120˚W 105˚W 90˚W

75˚W 60˚W

45˚W 30˚W

15°W

15°E 30˚E

ARCTIC OCEAN

45˚E

60˚E

75˚E

90˚E 105˚E

120˚E

135˚E 150˚E

165˚E

60˚N

NORTH AMERICA

30˚N 15˚N

PACIFIC OCEAN

New Orleans

EUROPE

SOUTH AMERICA

15˚S

45˚S

N

60˚S

City

W

E S

Uíge

INDIAN OCEAN 0 0

AUSTRALIA 2,500

5,000 miles

2,500 5,000 kilometers

SOUTHERN OCEAN

ANTARCTICA

75˚S

36

PACIFIC OCEAN

AFRICA Equator

30˚S

ASIA

ATLANTIC OCEAN

Prime Meridian

45˚N

Lesson 2 Exploring Regions of the United States SSA4_SE_2.6b

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute


Elevation in the United States 180˚ 170˚W

ARCTIC OCEAN

0

150

300 miles

0 150 300 kilometers Mt. McKinley

0 0

W

Elevation Feet Meters 10,000 5,000 1,000 0 Below sea level

E S

PACIFIC 400 miles OCEAN

150˚W 400 kilometers

N

CANADA

140˚W

6,200 3,100 600 0

4 135˚W 5˚N

40˚N

70˚W

130˚W

35˚N

PACIFIC OCEAN

0 0

30˚N

120˚W

125˚W

160˚W

ATLANTIC OCEAN

PACIFIC OCEAN

20˚N 150 miles 150 kilometers

75˚W

Gulf of Mexico 115˚W

110˚W

MEXICO

95˚W

90˚W

85˚W

80˚W

This special-purpose map shows the elevation of the United States. Use the elevation key to find the highest areas in the country. What is the elevation where you live?

SSA4_SE_2.7 Black Cyan Magenta Yellow Second Proof TCI13 13

6. Kinds of Maps Geographers make different kinds of maps for different purposes. Maps that show natural features are called physical maps. Physical maps show landforms, such as mountains, valleys, and plains. They also show bodies of water, such as rivers, lakes, and oceans. Other maps show human features. For example, a political map shows cities, capitals, states, and countries. Special-purpose maps show just one kind or type of information. Rainfall maps, for example, show how much rain falls in different parts of the world. Population maps show how many people live in different areas. Language maps show what languages people speak in different places. One example of a special-purpose map is an elevation map of the United States. Elevation is the height of the land above the ocean. The surface of the ocean, called sea level, is at zero elevation. The highest point in North America is Denali, or Mt. McKinley, in Alaska. Its elevation is 20,320 feet. What does the map show about your state’s elevation? © Teachers’ Curriculum Institute

Lesson 2 Exploring Regions of the United States

37


Hands-On Activity Notes Complete the table. Answer each question about the different regions.

38

Region

Question

Northeast

Along which line of longitude would you find location A?

Southeast

Which three locations are very close to 80°W?

Midwest

Which state is north of Wisconsin and Ohio?

Southwest

Which location is west of location Q?

West

Which state are you in if you are at 45°N, 120°W?

Lesson 2 Exploring Regions of the United States

Activity Online

Answer

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute


7. Regions in the United States Now that you know how to read maps, you can use them to study different areas in the United States. Certain areas may have similar characteristics. An area that shares similar features is called a region. Geographers can divide the United States into many different regions. In this map, the United States has been divided into five regions. They are the Northeast, Southeast, Midwest, Southwest, and West. As you can see on the map, each region has a different group of states. In which region is your state located? Each region is named after its location in the United States. For example, suppose you are standing in the middle of this country with a compass. In which direction can you find Florida? If you use your compass, you can see that Florida is toward the south and east. So, Florida and the states around it are in the Southeast region. The other four regions are also named after where they are found in the United States. Find the regions on the map. How would you describe their locations? Regional Map of the United States 0

50˚N

400 miles

CANADA

A AD

Alaska

N CA

0 400 kilometers

N

Washington

PACIFIC OCEAN

Montana

North Dakota

E

W

Minnesota

Wyoming

WEST

130˚W

PACIFIC OCEAN 125˚W

MEXICO

150 miles 150 kilometers

Iowa

120˚W

Hawaii

0

New York

Michigan

Pennsylvania Ohio Indiana Nevada Illinois West Utah Virginia Colorado Virginia Kansas California Missouri Kentucky North Carolina Arkansas Tennessee South Oklahoma Arizona New Mexico SOUTHEAST Carolina Mississippi SOUTHWEST Georgia Texas

0

150

Institute

New Hampshire Massachusetts

Rhode 40˚N Island Connecticut New Jersey Delaware Maryland 35˚N

70˚W

ATLANTIC OCEAN

Alabama

90˚W

30˚N

Florida

Gulf of Mexico

25˚N

300 miles

0 150 300 kilometers 85˚W

115˚W

5_AP_SE_1_4_12I Second Proof/resize TCI28_1 © Teachers’ Curriculum

Louisiana

95˚W

Maine

NORTHEAST

Wisconsin

MIDWEST

Nebraska

PACIFIC OCEAN

0

South Dakota

Vermont

S

Oregon Idaho

This map shows five regions in the United States. How do these regions differ?

80˚W

75˚W

Lesson 2 Exploring Regions of the United States

39


Other than location, how else do these regions differ? Often part of what makes a region special is an important natural feature, such as an ocean coast, a chain of mountains, a desert, a series of lakes, or a great river. The West region, for example, borders the Pacific Ocean, while the Northeast region borders the Atlantic Ocean. The features in a region can affect the people living there. For example, the Midwest is mostly made up of flat plains covered with rich soil. So, many people who live there are farmers. People can also affect the environment in good ways and bad. Farmers in the Midwest, for instance, might protect the environment by growing crops on terraces to prevent erosion. But they might also use pesticides that can pollute soil. Climate also varies from region to region. In the Southwest, winters are mild, but in the Midwest and Northeast, winters are harsh and snowfall is common. Climate also affects how people live. It shapes how we dress, what we eat, and how we spend our spare time. Each region also has its own history and way of life. People in different regions eat different foods. They celebrate different holidays. They wear different kinds of clothing. They tell particular stories and honor special heroes. People interact with their environment. For example, there are many farmers who grow corn on the flat plains of the Midwest.

40

Lesson 2 Exploring Regions of the United States

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute


8. The Northeast The Northeast region is located close to the Atlantic Ocean. There are 11 states in this region. You can see these states on this map. Despite its many states, the Northeast region is the smallest region. With big cities such as New York City, Boston, and Philadelphia, the Northeast region is the most densely populated region in the United States. The region includes a variety of landforms. A low, flat plain known as a coastal plain runs along the coast of New Jersey, Delaware, and Maryland. The Coastal Plain has sandy soil and marshy land. The Appalachian mountain range runs through the entire region. This range has many forests. Large rivers flow out of these mountains. The rivers that flow east cut across the Coastal Plain to the Atlantic Ocean.

This is what fall looks like in Vermont, a state in the Northeast region.

The Northeast region has a different climate than the other regions in United States. The climate of a place is the kind of weather it has over many years. Temperature, rainfall, and wind conditions are parts of climate. In the Northeast region, winters are long and cold. Snowstorms are common. Summers are warm and sometimes can be hot. This map shows the Northeast region in the United States. It is the most densely populated region.

The Northeast 0

300 miles

150

0

150

300 kilometers

CANADA

Maine

N

Conne

New York

S

T

rie

New Hampshire

N

eh squ ann

Maryland

Potomac River

AI

A

AS CO

40˚N

PL

P

TA

L

A

P

Massachusetts

New Jersey

Delaware 75˚W 75˚E

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute SSA4_SE_2.8a Black Cyan Magenta Yellow

S

ATLANTIC OCEAN

Rhode Island Connecticut

a

Su

L

A

C

H

IA

N

Pennsylvania

Ri ver

M

eE

Lak

E

W

.

Hudson River

Lake Ontario

cticu t

Rive r

Vermont

Feet

65˚W 65˚E

Elevation Meters

10,000 5,000 1,000 0 Below sea level

6,200 3,100 600 0

70˚W 70˚E

Lesson 2 Exploring Regions of the United States

41


.

TS M

West Virginia

ive oR

IA

N

r

South Carolina

A O

Mobile River

Mississippi

ATLANTIC OCEAN

C

ve Ri r

ST

r ve Ri

Georgia Alabama

Louisiana

Feet Florida

0

150

300 miles

150 300 kilometers 90˚W

85˚W

E

W S

30˚N

75˚W

Elevation Meters

10,000 5,000 1,000 0 Below sea level

Gulf of Mexico

0

N

AI

Sa v

PL

PP A

35˚N

N

AC

AL

North Carolina

L

r

r ve

h na an

ve

Tennessee se s

nsa

Te nn e

Arkansas

Arka

i eR

Virginia

H

Kentucky

Potomac River

A

Ohi

i sR

Like the Northeast, the Southeast is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean on the east. The Appalachian mountain range and Coastal Plain found in the Northeast also extend into the Southeast. Which states in the Southeast region include these features?

The Southeast

d Re

Just south of the Northeast region is the Southeast region. This region is composed of 12 states and includes big cities like Atlanta and Miami. The Southeast does not have as many big cities as the Northeast, but the two regions do share a number of features.

Mis siss ipp iR ive r

9. The Southeast

6,200 3,100 600

0

80˚W

SSA4_SE_2.8b Black Cyan Magenta Yellow Second Proof TCI13 15

The Southeast has other features, too. The Gulf of Mexico, for example, with its warm ocean water lies to the south of the region. The Southeast also has forests, beaches, swamps, and rivers. One of those rivers is the Mississippi River, which is one of the largest rivers in the United States. The Mississippi River starts way up north in Minnesota and flows south more than 2,300 miles before emptying into the Gulf of Mexico.

This is a map of the Southeast region of the United States. How many features do you recognize in this region?

The Southeast region has a mild winter climate. Winters there are usually warmer than in the Northeast. Summers are hot and humid. Humid means damp or moist. Wetlands and swamps are common in the Southeast region.

42

Lesson 2 Exploring Regions of the United States

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute


10. The Midwest The Midwest is one of the regions that lies in the center of our country. There are 12 states in the Midwest region. The largest city in the region is Chicago, which is the third largest city in the United States. The Midwest is an inland region. This means it does not border any ocean. However, the Great Lakes form part of the Midwest’s northern border. The five Great Lakes are Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario. These lakes are so large that they hold one-fifth of all the fresh water on Earth. Most of the Midwest region is flat plains. The Central Plains and Great Plains are covered with some of the best soil on Earth. That soil makes the Midwest an important farming region. The region is known for growing crops such as corn, soybeans, and wheat.

The Midwest region has some of the best conditions for farming in the United States.

The Mississippi River also runs through the Central Plains. It is a busy water highway that connects to the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean. Many boats and barges travel on this river. The climate varies greatly by season in the Midwest. Winters are bitter cold, and snowfall is common. However, summers are hot and humid. This is a map of the Midwest region. What do you notice about the water features in this region?

The Midwest 105˚W

100˚W

95˚W

90˚W

85˚W

80˚W

75˚W

CANADA North Dakota

La

Minnesota

ke Superior

La

Lake Michiga

CENTRAL PLAINS

N

Michigan

ke La

Indiana

ie Er

E

W S

Ohio

ve Ri

r

kansas R Ar

er iv

Missouri

35˚N

0 0

150

300 miles

300 kilometers

©Black Teachers’ Curriculum Institute Cyan Magenta Yellow Second Proof TCI13 16

Lake Ontario

Illinois

Kansas

SSA4_SE_2.9a

k

uron

er Riv

tte R r ive

i

Pla

40˚N

Iowa

PLAINS

Nebraska

Wisconsin

p ip

ri R

South Dakota

Mi ssi ss

eH

Missou

n

AT G R E iver

45˚N

io Oh

Feet

Elevation Meters

10,000 5,000 1,000 0 Below sea level

6,200 3,100 600 0

Lesson 2 Exploring Regions of the United States

43


110˚W

105˚W

100˚W

95˚W

No r th

Arizona

COLORADO PLATEAU

ka ns Ca as Riv na dian Rive er Ca r na dia n Riv er

New Mexico

35˚N

Oklahoma Red River

6,200 3,100 600 0

MEXICO

d ran

10,000 5,000 1,000 0 Below sea level

Colorado R ive r

G Rio

S Elevation Feet Meters

er Riv

E

Texas

Ri v er

W

Peco s

e

0 0

CO AS

r G

an de

os az Br

N

o Ri

One of them is Texas, the second largest state in the United States. The coastal plain extends from the Southeast into Texas, and the Gulf of Mexico borders the state. Texas also has three of the ten most populated cities in America. One of those is Houston, the largest city in the Southwest region and the fourth largest city in the country.

115˚W

Ar

The Southwest region is positioned just south of the Midwest region. The Southwest is made up of only four states.

The Southwest

Colo rad o River

11. The Southwest

150

L TA

PL

AI

N 30˚N

Gulf of Mexico 300 miles

25˚N

300 kilometers

Plains cover the eastern part This is a map of the Southwest region of the SSA4_SE_2.9b of the Southwest. Farther west, the land to Yellow Blackrises Cyan Magenta United States. What features does it share Second Proof form the Colorado Plateau. A plateau is a high, TCI13 17 with other regions? flat landform that rises steeply from the land around it. Most of the Colorado Plateau is crisscrossed by many deep canyons. The largest and most famous is the Grand Canyon, which is in Arizona. The Grand Canyon is carved by the Colorado River, which is the second longest river in the region behind the Rio Grande. The Southwest region has a dry climate with high temperatures. In the summer, it is not uncommon for the temperature to reach triple digits in some places. Winters are cooler, but snow is rare.

It is difficult for many plants to grow in the dry climate of the Southwest region.

44

Lesson 2 Exploring Regions of the United States

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute


12. The West The West region is to the west of the Midwest and the Southwest. It borders the Pacific Ocean. The West is made up of 11 states. One of the states is Alaska, which is the biggest state in the United States. Another state is California, which is the most populous state. California’s biggest city, Los Angeles, is the second most populous city in the country. Mountain ranges stretch across much of the West. The Rocky Mountains begin far to the north in Alaska. From there they stretch south through Canada, Montana, Idaho, Wyoming, and Colorado. The Great Basin lies to the west of the Rockies. A basin is a bowl-shaped landform that is lower than the land around it. Ranges of mountains circle around the Great Basin.

This map shows the West region of the United States. Based on the scales, which state is the largest in the region?

The West 135˚W 135˚W

130˚W 130˚W

125˚W

6,200 3,100 600 0

160˚W 160˚W

PACIFIC OCEAN 0

75 150 miles

0

150 kilometers

Hawaii

COAS T RA CAS CAD NGES ER AN GE

S

100˚W

Utah Co

r lo

50˚N

souri River

Montana

ton ows Yell

v er e Ri

45˚N atte Ri Pl ve

North

GREAT BASIN

95˚W

Wyoming

Nevada

San Joaquin River

Mis

o ad

r ve Ri

INS

10,000 5,000 1,000 0 Below sea level

Snake Riv

River

E NG RA

Elevation Meters

Idaho

A AD EV AN RR

PACIFIC OCEAN

SI E

140˚W 140˚W

0 150 300 kilometers Feet

Oregon

KLAMATH MTS. Sacramento

300 miles

150

E

COAST

0

Columbia River

TA UN MO

PACIFIC OCEAN

150˚W 400 kilometers 150˚W

0

105˚W

CANADA

Y CK

W S

200 400 miles

110˚W

RO

CANADA

170˚W 170˚W

0

115˚W

Washington

N Alaska

120˚W

r

hP

latte

Rive

Sou t

140˚W 140˚W

ARCTIC OCEAN

er

145˚W 145˚W 180˚ 180˚

r

40˚N

Colorado

Arkan sas River

California 35˚N

20˚N 20˚N

MEXICO

SSA4_SE_2.10a Third Proof TCI13 18

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute

Lesson 2 Exploring Regions of the United States

45


There are several mountain ranges along the Pacific coast. The Coast Ranges are mountains that seem to rise right out of the Pacific Ocean. The Cascade Range and the Sierra Nevada are further inland. (Sierra Nevada means “snowy range” in Spanish.)

Oregon’s Willamette Valley lies between the Coast Range mountains and inland mountains. The soil here is rich enough to plant many crops.

Between the Coast Range mountains and the inland mountains are two rich farming valleys. One is California’s Central Valley. The other is Oregon’s Willamette Valley. Hawaii is also mountainous. Volcanoes formed its islands long ago. A volcano is an opening in Earth’s surface through which hot, melted rock and ash may pour out. As the liquid rock cools, it forms a cone-shaped mountain.

46

Lesson 2 Exploring Regions of the United States

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute


Hands-On Activity Notes Activity Online

Swingin’ Amusement Park

Aquarium and Sea Life Park

Must be located somewhere where there is over 250 people per square mile and no more than 64 inches of rain falls annually

Must be located by an ocean or gulf where the population is greater than 250 people per square mile and no more than 96 inches of rain falls annually

Highland Skate and BMX Park

Roarin’ Whitewater Rafting Park

Must be located at an elevation no higher than 5,000 feet where the population is greater than 50 people per square mile and no more than 32 inches of rain falls annually

Must be located on a river along a path with at least two elevation ranges, in an area that gets 32−96 inches of rain fall annually

Wild Slide Water Park

Winter Wonderland and Ski Park

Must be located somewhere that gets no more than 32 inches of rain falls annually and that has a population of 250 per square mile or more

Must be at least 5,000 feet in elevation and have a population of no more than 49 people per square mile

Zippin’ Zipline Park

Sunset Trampoline Park

Must be located at an elevation of at least 1000 feet, in a forested area with a population density of no more than 49 people per square mile

Must be located somewhere with a population density of at least 50 people per square mile and an elevation no higher than 599 feet

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute

Lesson 2 Exploring Regions of the United States

47


Complete the table by choosing the best park for each region. Provide the coordinates and at least two reasons why that park works well in the region.

Region

Park

Coordinates

Two reasons why this location and region work

Northeast

Southeast

Midwest

Southwest

West

48

Lesson 2 Exploring Regions of the United States

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute


Summary You now know that there are different kinds of maps. Some maps show locations of places around the world. Lines of latitude and longitude help us find exact locations of places and measure distances north to south and east to west. Map scales also help us measure distances from place to place. Did you remember to think like a geographer as you looked at the maps of each region? As you read about each region of the United States, you considered the five themes of geography: location, place, human-environmental interaction, movement, and regions. You looked at physical maps of each region to see where a place is located and what it is like. There are many other kinds of maps, including special-purpose maps. To compare climates around the country, you might use a climate map. A product map might show what each region grows or manufactures. Which region do you live in? How is it different from the others? Each region of the United States varies by location, natural features, climate, and way of life.

Show What You Know Find a recreational park in the United States and fill in the information about it. You can choose from any of the types of parks listed. Name of Park: Type of Park:

Location of Park (Region):

❏ Whitewater rafting ❏ Trampoline park

Latitude/Longitude:

❏ Skate and BMX park ❏ Aquarium and sea life park ❏ Winter activity and ski park

Average Rainfall:

❏ Amusement park ❏ Water park

Elevation:

❏ Zipline park Population Density:

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute

Lesson 2 Exploring Regions of the United States

49


Draw a quick sketch of one interesting feature of this region.

Give at least two reasons why this region is well-suited for this type of park. Use evidence from special-purpose maps to back up your answer.

50

Lesson 2 Exploring Regions of the United States

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute


STUDY YOUR STATE

Regions of Your State You have read about the regions of the United States. A region is an area with common features that set it apart from other areas. In your state, there may be a region with mountains or valleys. Another region may be by an ocean or river. Knowing your state’s regions can help you understand how natural features affect the people who live there. New Jersey’s government hired geographers To explore different regions of your state, first to create a map like this. It shows high and make a large outline of the state. Gather sources low places as well as regions. You can find that can help you label your map with physical similar maps on government websites, which features and region names. These sources might include maps from books or online. For example, are usually reliable sources. if you live in New Jersey, you might find maps and useful photographs Regions of New Jersey on New Jersey’s state government High Point website. 40 miles 0 20 WAWAYANDA MOUNTAIN

s

41˚N

n

a

KITTATINNY MOUNTAIN

RAMAPO MOUNTAINS

d

40 kilometers

n Va d ll R ey id ge

20

ig

h

New York o

n

t

H

la

P

HUNTERDON PLATEAU

m

New Jersey

S

r

n

40˚N

ai

r

ve

Pl

wa

i eR

E

W

as

ta

l

D

d

N

Pennsylvania

ela

ie

AT LA NTI C O CE A N

o

Now label the regions on your map. In New Jersey, the regions are called: Valley and Ridge Region, Highlands, Piedmont, and Coastal Plains. The region names come from the state’s landforms, such as mountains, valleys, plateaus (Piedmont), and waterways.

0

C

On your map, label major bodies of water, mountains, and other big landforms. Label the neighboring states. Label your community on the map. Add any additional land features that you know about.

74˚W

Elevations Feet Meters 550 1800 900 270 90 300 30 100 0 0

Delaware

Delaware Bay

39˚N

75˚W

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute

Lesson 2 Exploring Regions of the United States

51


Regions and Their People Now let’s use your map to learn how people live in the region. Read about your state’s regions in books and internet articles. For each region, answer questions that help you understand how the region’s features affect the people who live there. Are there mountains, farmland, forests, lakes, or rivers? Is it near an ocean or far inland? What do people do for a living? Do they use the land for fun activities?

Every year, more than 600,000 containers arrive at Port Newark in the Piedmont Region. They travel on ships, trucks, and trains. They take products all over the world.

In New Jersey, for example, people in the Piedmont region built highways, railways, and shipping docks by the Atlantic Ocean. Transportation near this body of water affect jobs. Many people work at jobs that move products over land and water. The Coastal Plains region includes the Jersey Shore by the Atlantic Ocean. People built boardwalks and amusement parks by the shore. They enjoy the sandy beaches. Write a few paragraphs about your region. Tell how natural features affect how people live. Share this information with your classmates. 52

Lesson 2 Exploring Regions of the United States

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute


Lesson 3

The Peopling of the United States How have different groups contributed to the United States?

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute

Lesson 3 The Peopling of the United States

53


Introduction The United States is a nation with many different places and features, like mountains and rivers. But the United States is much more than the geography of the land. A nation, like the United States, is a place where people live together under one government. People who live in the United States are very different from one another. Look around your school. Do your fellow students look the same way or eat the same types of foods? Do they all speak the same language at school or at home? Do their families all share the same way of life? For many schools, the answer is, “No.” The United States is a nation where people from many different backgrounds live together. These people come from many parts of the world. They come to the United States for many reasons.

Vocabulary the Americas colony culture democracy diverse immigrant

America has many different types of people in it. Some may speak different languages and live a different way of life.

In this lesson, you will learn about people from five parts of the world who came to our country. You will learn about how and why these different people first came to America, and you will see how everyone in this country has contributed to it in a special way.

54

Lesson 3 The Peopling of the United States

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute


Preview Activity Follow these steps to annotate the poem below: • Circle words in the poem that make you think of images. • Draw simple symbols representing those images around the poem. • Draw lines to connect the words to the images you drew.

Activity Online

The New Colossus Not like the brazen giant of Greek fame, With conquering limbs astride from land to land; Here at our sea-washed, sunset gates shall stand A mighty woman with a torch, whose flame Is the imprisoned lightning, and her name Mother of Exiles. From her beacon-hand Glows world-wide welcome; her mild eyes command The air-bridged harbor that twin cities frame. “Keep, ancient lands, your storied pomp!” cries she With silent lips. “Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me, I lift my lamp beside the golden door!”

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute

Lesson 3 The Peopling of the United States

55


Vocabulary Activity This lesson has several vocabulary words that express big concepts. Sometimes people use symbols to quickly represent concepts. Write the word below the symbol it best matches.

Activity Online

Vocabulary Word Bank the Americas democracy

1

colony diverse

2

Created by Adrien Coquet from the Noun Project

culture immigrant

3

Created by Nikita Kozin from the Noun Project

Created by Setyo Ari Wibowo from the Noun Project

4

Created by john melven from the Noun Project

5

6

Created by HeadsOfBirds from the Noun Project

Created by yosef from the Noun Project

56

Lesson 3 The Peopling of the United States

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute


Hands-On Activity Activity Online

Analyze primary source quotes, songs, speeches, and poems to learn about different groups who came to the United States.

Directions: Native Americans­—In Their Own Words 1. Read Section 1. Learn about the first Americans. 2. Look at the photograph and click the button to read the caption. 3. On the next slide, listen to a reading of the primary source. Read along in your Activity Notes. 4. Listen again with your eyes closed. What images do you see? Discuss with your group. 5. In your Activity Notes, record four images you “saw” in the primary source. 6. Discuss with your group: What does this primary source reveal to you about this group’s experience in the United States? Then share with the class. Repeat the steps above for the remaining activities:

• Latino Americans­—In Their Own Words • European Americans—In Their Own Words • African Americans—In Their Own Words • Asian Americans—In Their Own Words © Teachers’ Curriculum Institute

Lesson 3 The Peopling of the United States

57


1. The First Americans Arrive Archaeologists agree that the first Americans arrived long ago. But they have different ideas about exactly how and when people came to North America. For many years, most scientists believed that the first people in the Americas came from the continent of Asia about 11,500 years ago. At that time, Earth’s climate was much colder than it is today. Much of Earth’s surface was covered with ice. This long cold period is known as the ice age. During the ice age, snow piled up that created huge sheets of ice called glaciers. Because so much water was in the form of ice, the level of the oceans went down. A narrow strip of seawater between Asia and North America disappeared. This left a bridge of land between the two continents. Scientists believed that herds of animals wandered onto this land bridge, looking for food. Hunters from Asia may have followed them and crossed the land bridge to North America. Years later, the seawater once again covered up the land bridge. More recent discoveries have led some scientists to think that people may have arrived in the Americas even earlier. At least 15,000 years ago, people with boats may have moved along the Pacific coast of Alaska and northwestern Canada and then south. Over time, people spread throughout North and South America. Native Americans— also sometimes called Americans Indians—are the descendants of these first Americans. A descendant is someone who is related to a particular person or group from the past. 58

Lesson 3 The Peopling of the United States

Native Americans lived in groups, each with its own language and customs. Today, there are nearly 600 self-governing tribes in the United States.

Many scientists believe that early Native Americans crossed a land bridge into North America. Other people believe that they came by boats from Asia.

Possible Early Routes to the Americas 120°E

140°E

160°E

180°

160°W

140°W

120°W

100°W

80°W

60°W

40°W

60°N

NORTH AMERICA

ASIA

40°N

PACIFIC OCEAN

ATLANTIC OCEAN 20°N

0 1,000 2,000 miles 0

2,000 kilometers

Equator

SOUTH AMERICA Glaciers during the last ice age

20°S

N

Land area during the last ice age Land bridge route Coastal route Present-day shoreline

SSA4_SE_3.2a Black Cyan Magenta Yellow

W

E

40°S

S

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute


Hands-On Activity Notes Activity Online

After reading and listening to the excerpt from Chief Seattle’s speech, draw an image that relates to some part of the speech in each of the four circles. Chief Seattle’s Treaty Oration Youth is impulsive. When our young men grow angry at some real or imaginary wrong, and disfigure their faces with black paint, it denotes that their hearts are black, and that they are often cruel and relentless, and our old men and old women are unable to restrain them. Thus it has ever been. Thus it was when the white man began to push our forefathers ever westward. But let us hope that the hostilities between us may never return. We would have everything to lose and nothing to gain. Revenge by young men is considered gain, even at the cost of their own lives, but old [men who stay] at home in times of war, and mothers who have sons to lose, know better.

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute

Lesson 3 The Peopling of the United States

59


2. The Spanish Settle the Americas In 1492, an explorer named Christopher Columbus set sail west across the Atlantic Ocean believing that he would reach Asia. Instead, he landed on a Caribbean island. Columbus returned to Spain, but he left some men behind to start a colony for Spain. More Spanish people followed Columbus’s route to the Americas. These Spaniards began colonies on islands in the Caribbean Sea and in North and South America, often near where Native Americans lived.

Mexican vaqueros, or cowboys, wear large-brimmed hats to protect them from the sun. Americans created the cowboy hat based on this type of hat.

One of the largest Spanish colonies was in Mexico. From Mexico, settlers moved into what is now the United States. They built towns, churches, and forts in the areas we know as Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, California, and Florida. Today, Mexico, all the countries to its south, and the many islands in the Gulf of Mexico are called Latin America. Most people who were born in Latin America or whose ancestors were born there are called Latinos. An ancestor is a relative from a past generation. Some Latinos have lived in the United States for many years, while others have just arrived. Many have come from Mexico, Cuba, and Puerto Rico. Area of Spanish Settlement in North America

Spanish settlement by 1750 Modern-day border 140°W

40°N

N E W California

N

30°

Arizona

New Mexico

AT LA N T I C OCEAN

Texas

PA C I F I C OCEAN

Florida

0

120°W

250

90°W

500 miles

0 250 500 kilometers

60

Mexico

60°W

20°N

Gulf of Mexico 130°W

S

Spanish colonies spread north from South America through parts of the United States. They built towns, churches, and forts throughout this area.

110°W

Lesson 3 The Peopling of the United States SSA4_SE_3.4 Black Cyan Magenta Yellow

80°W

70°W

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute


Hands-On Activity Notes After reading and listening to the corrido about Gregorio Cortez, draw an image that relates to some part of the corrido in each of the four circles.

Activity Online

El Corrido de Gregorio Cortez A warrant for Cortez’s arrest was issued throughout the state: “Bring him in dead or alive, he is wanted for murder.” Gregorio Cortez said, with his soul ablaze: “I’m not sorry for killing him, self-defense is justifiable.” The Americans were coming as fast as the wind, because they would earn a reward of 3,000 pesos. The hound dogs were coming, following his trail, but catching Cortez was like reaching for a star. Gregorio Cortez said: “Why do you even try? You can’t even catch me, with those hound dogs.” By the corral of the ranch they surrounded him. There were more than 300 men, but he jumped through their ring. When the sheriffs arrived Gregorio turned himself in. “You can take me only on my terms, no other way.”

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute

Lesson 3 The Peopling of the United States

61


Settlers from England began colonies on the eastern shore of North America. Between 1607 and 1733, the English built 13 colonies there. These colonies hugged the Atlantic Coast from Maine to Georgia. The 13 English colonies attracted settlers from many parts of Europe. Many of these people were poor and came to find land or work. Others were searching for freedom to follow their religion or to gain wealth. All hoped to start new lives in a new land. In 1776, the 13 English colonies broke away from England. Together, they formed a new nation called the United States of America. The new nation continued to welcome immigrants from Europe. An immigrant is a person who comes from some other place to live in a country. European Americans are immigrants from Europe or descendants of European immigrants.

50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

y an

m er

G

d

lan

Ire

d ite om Uningd K

ly

Ita

e

nc

a Fr

European Americans come from many countries. Each group brings different languages, customs, and foods to the United States.

At first, most of the immigrants came from western Europe. Later, others came from eastern and southern Europe. Each group added to America’s diversity, or mix of peoples.

Some people came to America so they could freely practice their religion. These pilgrims from England settled in what is now Massachusetts. 62

Lesson 3 The Peopling of the United States

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2016 American Community Survey

The Spanish were the first Europeans to colonize North America, but other Europeans soon followed. The French started a colony in Canada. Russians began a colony in Alaska. Dutch settlers built a colony in what is now New York.

Largest European American Populations in the United States, 2016

Millions of People

3. More Europeans Come to America


Hands-On Activity Notes After reading and listening to the poem by Walt Whitman, draw an image that relates to some part of the poem in each of the four circles.

Activity Online

A Promise To California A promise to California, Also to the great Pastoral Plains, and for Oregon: Sojourning east a while longer, soon I travel toward you, to remain, to teach robust American love; For I know very well that I and robust love belong among you, inland, and along the Western Sea; For These States tend inland, and toward the Western Sea--and I will also.

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute

Lesson 3 The Peopling of the United States

63


4. Africans Arrive in America In 1619, a ship arrived in the colony of Virginia. The ship’s captain traded 20 Africans, taken from their homes in Africa by force, for food. Within a few decades, more Africans were enslaved, brought to the colonies, and sold. Slavery is a system in which people own and sell other people. By 1600, the practice of buying and selling people was common in much of the world. The Spanish and Portuguese enslaved Africans and brought them to Brazil, Cuba, and Puerto Rico as early as 1550.

Martin Luther King Jr. was one of the leaders of the movement for equal rights in the 1960s. He helped bring equal rights for African Americans in the United States.

For almost 250 years, traders used force to bring hundreds of thousands of Africans to this country. Most were enslaved and sold. They worked on farms raising tobacco, rice, and cotton. For this work, they received no pay. Enslavers viewed them as property rather than as people who worked for them. They often treated the people who they enslaved very harshly. Slavery became part of life in the American South. But outside the South, fewer people enslaved Africans, and others opposed slavery. The fight over slavery finally led to the American Civil War in 1861. When the war ended in 1865, the practice of slavery was stopped. But the struggle by African Americans to be treated like other Americans was just beginning. Where Slavery Occurred Before the Civil War 40˚N

Pennsylvania Nebraska Territory

W

Iowa Illinois

Utah Territory

New Mexico Territory

Unorganized Territory

Tennessee

Mississippi Alabama

N

0 95˚W

0

Gulf of Mexico 250

250

E

W S

Florida

200,000–300,000 people enslaved

Lesson 3 The Peopling of the United States

ATLANTIC OCEAN

Georgia

Louisiana

100,000–200,000 people enslaved

SSA4_SE_3.8 Black Cyan Magenta Yellow

35˚N

South Carolina

Texas

Over 300,000 people enslaved M E X I C O

Maryland

North Carolina

Arkansas

0–100,000 people enslaved

64

Delaware

Kentucky

Missouri

120˚W

Areas without slavery

New Jersey

Ohio Virginia

Kansas Territory

California

W

Indiana

90˚W

85˚W

30˚N

75˚W

25˚N

500 miles

500 kilometers

Most African Americans that were forced into slavery lived in the southern states. But other states had slavery as well.

80˚W

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute


Hands-On Activity Notes After reading and listening to the poem by Paul Laurence Dunbar, draw an image that relates to some part of the poem in each of the four circles.

Activity Online

We Wear The Mask We wear the mask that grins and lies, It hides our cheeks and shades our eyes,-- This debt we pay to human guile; With torn and bleeding hearts we smile, And mouth with myriad subtleties. Why should the world be over-wise, In counting all our tears and sighs? Nay, let them only see us, while We wear the mask. We smile, but, O great Christ, our cries To thee from tortured souls arise. We sing, but oh the clay is vile Beneath our feet, and long the mile; But let the world dream otherwise, We wear the mask!

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute

Lesson 3 The Peopling of the United States

65


5. Asians Come to America People from Asia came to the United States for many different reasons. In 1848, after the discovery of gold in California, many Chinese immigrants traveled to the United States. Not all Americans welcomed the Chinese gold-seekers. But many admired how hard they worked. Other people from Asia came to the United States for work. As Americans moved west in the late 1800s, they had big dreams. They wanted railroads to cross the country. They wanted to build new farms and factories. But to make these dreams come true, Americans needed workers. So the word went out across Asia: send workers!

Many people from China came to the United States to find gold. Some of these people chose to stay and live here.

Between 1850 and 1882, many Chinese came to the United States to work. Some saved their money and later returned to China. But others stayed in the United States for good.

Asian Americans come from many different Immigrants also came from Japan, Korea, countries. Each group brings new things, like Vietnam, and the Philippines. Some immigrants different kinds of food, to the United States. went to Hawaii to work in the sugar fields. Others worked on farms and in factories on the West Asian American Populations Coast. One Japanese immigrant in the United States, 2019 (Estimated) wrote this poem about going to the Other Asian Chinese United States: Go with me to foreign lands Across the ocean. Instead of finding fortune, however, most of the Asian immigrants found hard lives. They worked long hours for little pay. Their bosses often treated them roughly. Still, most of the immigrants stayed in their adopted land, as Asian Americans.

(24%)

Japanese (4%)

Korean (8%)

Vietnamese (10%) Indian (22%)

Filipino (16%) *Percentages have been rounded and do not total 100 percent.

66

Lesson 3 The Peopling of the United States

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 2019 Data Profiles

groups (15%)

Huge dreams of fortune


Hands-On Activity Notes After reading and listening to the poem carved on a wall at Angel Island by a Chinese immigrant, draw an image that relates to some part of the poem in each of the four circles.

Activity Online

Poem 43 Imprisoned in the wooden building day after day, My freedom withheld; how can I bear to talk about it? I look to see who is happy, but they only sit quietly. I am anxious and depressed and cannot fall asleep. The days are long and the pillow cold; who can pity my loneliness? After experiencing such loneliness and sorrow, Why not just return home and learn to plow the fields?

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute

Lesson 3 The Peopling of the United States

67


6. Contributions of Immigrants The United States is a diverse country made up of many different groups of people. People come from around the world. Their contributions make this country a special place. Immigrants come to the United States for many reasons. Sometimes they want to leave a country because of push factors. Push factors are problems that drive people away from their homes, such as wars or unfair laws. They may also want to leave because there isn’t enough food or jobs for everyone who lives there. Immigrants also come to the United States because of pull factors. Pull factors are things that a new place offers that draws people in. For example, some immigrants come to the United States looking for jobs. Others come here because they want to live in a democracy. Life for immigrants in the United States is sometimes challenging. They may face discrimination. They may be offered unfair wages in the workplace or be made fun of. However, immigrants may also find more opportunity here. They may be able to get better jobs and provide a better life for their children. Some immigrants in the United States become successful politicians, artists, or business executives.

68

Lesson 3 The Peopling of the United States

Immigrants may find success in the United States. In 2016, Adriano Espaillat (left) became the first Dominican elected to Congress, while Kenyan-Mexican artist Lupita Nyong’o (right) won an Academy Award in 2013.

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute


Everyone in the United States contributes to its diverse culture. Immigrants bring with them their way of life. As you look around, you may notice different food, languages, and traditions—all of which make up American culture. Many immigrants in the United States start and run restaurants, often serving food that have roots in other places. Ramen shops serve noodle soups that come from Japan. Some Mexican bakeries sell conchas, a type of sweet bread. Think of a meal you enjoy. What culture does it come from? Like food, language is an important part of culture. Most people speak English in the United States. Because our country is so diverse, many words from other languages find their way into English. Banana and tote are West African words, while potato and hurricane come from Taino culture. Think of the name of your state or city. Which language does it come from? There are many traditions that make up the diverse culture of the United States. Jazz festivals and gospel choirs grew from African American music. Holidays like Valentine’s Day and St. Patrick’s Day originated in Europe. Think of a tradition you and your family celebrate. Do you know which culture it comes from?

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute

People can share their traditions with parades. Some Asian Americans celebrate Lunar New Year with a dragon dance, while some Cherokee celebrate the Cherokee National Holiday by wearing traditional clothing.

Lesson 3 The Peopling of the United States

69


Inventions, like the light bulb, airplane, and phone, were created by European Americans.

Chinatowns, like the one in San Francisco, California, can be found all across the United States.

0 0

300

600 miles

300 600 kilometers

40˚N 70˚W

130˚W

N

35˚N

E

W

PACIFIC OCEAN

S

30˚N

120˚W

125˚W

ATLANTIC OCEAN 75˚W

Gulf of Mexico 0 0

0

50 100 miles 100 kilometers

150

70

Lesson 3 The Peopling of the United States SSA4_SE3.11b Black Cyan Magenta Yellow

25˚N

0 150 300 kilometers 95˚W

The Spanish built missions like this one across the Southwest. Missions are churches and surrounding settlements.

300 miles

Native Americans grew corn in the Americas. Corn is now one of the major goods grown in the Midwest.

90˚W

85˚W

80˚W

Musicians first played the African American style of music we call jazz in New Orleans. Jazz music is still popular today.

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute


Summary The United States is a nation made up of people from many different places. Some made the journey thousands of years ago before the country was founded. Other people arrived just yesterday. We all came to this land from another place. The people in this nation find themselves here for different reasons. The ancestors of Native Americans may have followed animals they hunted to a new land. Some people here are immigrants who came seeking freedom and opportunity. Others are the descendents of African people who were enslaved and brought here against their will. Still others found themselves here after fleeing war and hunger. People are still coming to the United States. Many new immigrants are from countries in Latin America and Asia. But people also move here from other parts of the world. All the people in this country help shape its culture. They contribute to its food, language, and traditions. They make it a richly diverse place to live.

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute

These people have something in common. They are all Americans.

Lesson 3 The Peopling of the United States

71


Show What You Know Activity Online

Families move from place to place. Some move inside the same city. Some move to other countries. But they are all hoping to improve their lives. In the star below, draw a small picture of your family. Around the star, add words and symbols for each of the categories.

Then, on a separate sheet of paper, turn your words and symbols into a six-line poem, song, or speech about your family. How your family cares for one another

Where your family lives

Ho

w

yo

ur

fam

ily

pla

ys

tog

ts

a ye

eth

er

r he

to

t ge

il

m

a rf

ow

u yo

H

72

m ro f ed ov sm a h ily am rf u yo e r he W

Lesson 3 The Peopling of the United States

Ho

w

yo

ur

fam

ily

rem

em

be

rs

th

ep

as

t

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute


STUDY YOUR STATE

Settling in Your State You just read about the diverse backgrounds of the people in the United States. Your state is probably diverse. Some people may have recently arrived from other countries. Others may have lived here all their lives, but their grandparents or great-grandparents arrived from another part of the world. So, why do people live in your state? People from other parts of the world bring their culture with them. Does your state have restaurants that serve Chinese, Indian, or Mexican food? Those recipes came from other countries. Different cultures affect other parts of your state, too. For instance, if you live in Colorado, the name of your state comes from Spain. Spanish explorers saw red rocks by a river and named the river Colorado, which means “the color red.” People move to states for many different reasons at different times in history. For example, in the mid-1800s, Colorado attracted thousands of gold-seekers after gold and silver were discovered. Today, people come for jobs in oil and gas production or to live by the Rocky Mountains.

Many people settled in Colorado during the mid-1800s once gold and silver were discovered. This is just one of many reasons people settled in this state.

Do research and find out why people have moved to your state. Start by writing questions, such as: Did people come for certain kinds of jobs? Is the scenery or climate a big attraction? Make a list of questions you want to answer. © Teachers’ Curriculum Institute

Lesson 3 The Peopling of the United States

73


Move Here! There are many places to find answers to your questions. You can interview a neighbor or family member. Or you can go to a library and read diaries by people who moved there. Remember that these sources will give you just one person’s point of view. For other viewpoints, you can look at websites about your state and in history books. Take notes like the ones shown here. Now prepare a sales pitch to encourage someone to move to your state. Construct an argument that gives reasons why your state is a great place to live. Start with the question: Why should you move to my state? Write strong statements to persuade people. Do research for facts that will support your statements. For example, if people move there for jobs in a certain field, find out how many people got jobs in that field last year. If mild weather is important, list the average number of sunny days or the average temperatures each season. If your state has fun things to do, find exciting photographs to share. These are all ways to back up your argument with supporting evidence. Make posters that help you make your point. Present your sales pitch to your classmates.

74

Lesson 3 The Peopling of the United States

Once you have found answers to your questions, prepare a sales pitch. Include information about why people moved to your state.

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute


ctivity Online

Regions of Our Country Explore the content in these units: Unit 1: Discovering the Social Sciences Unit 5: Southwest

Unit 2: Northeast

Unit 3: Southeast

Unit 4: Midwest Unit 7: Inquiry: Studying Your State

Unit 6: West

Sign in at www.teachtci.com for more resources Reading Support Spanish

Play

Games Highlighting

Main Ideas

Add Note

Even More Maps

Biographies

Primary Sources