History Alive! The Ancient World: Student Edition (Front Matter Only)

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Student Edition

Program Components Student Edition The Student Edition provides a rich knowledge base of concepts, and guides students through their learning.

Interactive Student Notebook Students complete graphically organized notes and develop personalized responses in their Interactive Student Notebooks.

Print Lesson Guide


Print Lesson Guides allow for teachers to prepare for their lesson with ease from anywhere.

Placards are laminated, reusable handouts for lesson activities that engage students in analyzing powerful images, graphs, maps, and primary sources.

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Ready-to-Teach Slideshows Differentiation Tips Enrichment Options Inquiry Projects Printable Materials

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Video Content Lesson Games Vocabulary Cards Biographies Primary Source Readings Student Edition Text

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Videos Online

Online Teacher Edition and Student Resources •


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Summative Assessments Formative Assessments Test Builder Tool Toolkits Literature Readings Citizenship Resources

Video content is directly related to the content introduced in the book to reinforce key ideas.

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unit Foundations of History


Unit Opener Geography Challenge 2 Inquiry Project 4 Lesson 1 Investigating the Past Through Inquiry 6 How do social scientists interpret the past? Lesson 2 Themes of World History 24 What are the themes of world history? Lesson 3 Early Hominins 36 What capabilities helped hominins survive? Lesson 4 From Hunters and Gatherers to Farmers 46 How did the development of agriculture change daily life in the Neolithic Age? Unit Closer Studying Sources 54 Timeline Challenge 58


unit The Rise of Civilization


Unit Opener Geography Challenge 62 Inquiry Project 64 Lesson 5 The Rise of Sumerian City-States 66 How did geographic challenges lead to the rise of city-states in Mesopotamia? Exploring Biographies – Detecting the Past: Clues from Archaeology

Lesson 6 Ancient Sumer 78 Why do historians classify ancient Sumer as a civilization? Investigating Primary Sources – How Did the Different Social Classes of Sumer Interact with One Another?

Lesson 7 Exploring Four Empires of Mesopotamia 92 What were the most important achievements of the Mesopotamian empires? Lesson 8 Ancient Persia and Its Context 102 What can we know about ancient Persia? Lesson 9 The Achievements of Ancient Persia 122 In what ways did ancient Persians influence the world around them? Lesson 10 Early Civilizations in the Americas 148 What do we know about the ancient civilizations in the Americas? Unit Closer Studying Sources 164 Timeline Challenge 168 viii

unit Ancient Egypt and the Middle East


Unit Opener Geography Challenge 172 Inquiry Project 174 Lesson 11 Geography and the Early Settlement of Egypt, Kush, and Canaan 176 How did geography affect early settlement in Egypt, Kush, and Canaan? Lesson 12 The Ancient Egyptian Pharaohs 184 What did the pharaohs of ancient Egypt accomplish, and how did they do it? Exploring the Social Sciences – The Egyptian Mummy Project

Lesson 13 Daily Life in Ancient Egypt 196 How did social class affect daily life in ancient Egypt? Investigating Primary Sources – What Was It Like to Be a Scribe in Ancient Egypt?

Lesson 14 The Kingdom of Kush 214 How did location influence the history of Kush? Lesson 15 The Origins of Judaism 220 How did Judaism originate and develop? Lesson 16 Learning About World Religions: Judaism 230 What are the central teachings of Judaism, and why did they survive to modern day? Unit Closer Studying Sources 238 Timeline Challenge 242


unit Ancient India


Unit Opener Geography Challenge 246 Inquiry Project 248 Lesson 17 Geography and the Early Settlement of India 250 How did geography affect early settlement in India? Exploring Connections to Today – Saving the Ganges

Lesson 18 Unlocking the Secrets of Mohenjodaro 264 What can artifacts tell us about daily life in Mohenjodaro? Lesson 19 Learning About World Religions: Hinduism 274 What are the origins and beliefs of Hinduism? Lesson 20 Learning About World Religions: Buddhism 284 What are the main beliefs and teachings of Buddhism? Investigating Primary Sources – What Are Different Ways Buddhist Principles Were Passed Down?

Lesson 21 The First Unification of India 296 How did Ashoka unify the Mauryan Empire and spread Buddhist values? Lesson 22 The Achievements of the Gupta Empire 302 Why is the period during the Gupta Empire known as a “golden age”? Unit Closer Studying Sources 314 Timeline Challenge 318


unit Ancient China


Unit Opener Geography Challenge 322 Inquiry Project 324 Lesson 23 Geography and the Early Settlement of China 326 How did geography affect life in ancient China? Lesson 24 The Shang Dynasty 338 What do Shang artifacts reveal about this civilization? Lesson 25 Three Chinese Philosophies 348 How did Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism influence political rule in ancient China? Lesson 26 The First Emperor of China 358 Was the Emperor of Qin an effective leader? Exploring Perspectives – China’s Great Walls

Lesson 27 The Han Dynasty 370 In what ways did the Han dynasty improve government and daily life in China? Lesson 28 The Silk Road 380 How did the Silk Road promote an exchange of goods and ideas? Investigating Primary Sources – How Did Geography Affect Travelers Along the Silk Road?

Unit Closer Studying Sources 394 Timeline Challenge 398


unit Ancient Greece


Unit Opener Geography Challenge 402 Inquiry Project 404 Lesson 29 Geography and the Settlement of Greece 406 How did geography influence settlement and way of life in ancient Greece? Lesson 30 The Rise of Democracy 412 How did democracy develop in ancient Greece? Lesson 31 Life in Two City-States: Athens and Sparta 418 What were the major differences between Athens and Sparta? Lesson 32 Fighting the Greco-Persian Wars 430 What factors influenced the outcome of the Greco-Persian Wars? Lesson 33 The Golden Age of Athens 440 What were the major cultural achievements of Athens? Investigating Primary Sources – What Do Dramas of Ancient Greece Reveal About Its Society?

Lesson 34 Alexander the Great and His Empire How did Alexander build his empire?


Lesson 35 The Legacy of Ancient Greece 462 How did ancient Greece contribute to the modern world? Exploring the Social Sciences – Painting the Gods


Unit Closer Studying Sources 474 Timeline Challenge 478

unit Ancient Rome


Unit Opener Geography Challenge 482 Inquiry Project 484 Lesson 36 Geography and the Early Development of Rome 486 How did the Etruscans and Greeks influence the development of Rome? Lesson 37 The Rise of the Roman Republic 494 What were the characteristics of the Roman Republic, and how did they change over time? Lesson 38 From Republic to Empire 500 Did the benefits of Roman expansion outweigh the costs? Lesson 39 Daily Life in the Roman Empire 512 How did wealth affect daily life in the Roman Empire? Investigating Primary Sources – Why Did Gladiators Fight?

Lesson 40 The Origins and Spread of Christianity How did Christianity originate and spread?


Lesson 41 Learning About World Religions: Christianity 538 How are Christians’ lives shaped by the beliefs and practices of Christianity? Lesson 42 The Legacy of Rome in the Modern World 546 To what extent does ancient Rome influence us today? Exploring Connections to Today – Lessons from Pompeii

Unit Closer Studying Sources 562 Timeline Challenge 566 Resources 568


Journey Through a TCI Inquiry-Based Unit Immerse students in history with TCI’s inquiry-based units. Each unit in this program will guide students through the inquiry process, providing opportunities to engage in research projects and to develop arguments around primary sources. Additionally, each lesson in the unit offers guiding questions that facilitate class discussion and debate, stunning images for students to investigate, and rich written and visual primary sources. UNIT 3


Follow the steps below to complete a Guided Inquiry during this unit. Use the activities and disciplinary sources to build your knowledge and gather evidence. Then construct an argument that answers the compelling question. STEP 1 Developing Questions

Compelling Question How did ancient civilizations affect each other? Staging the Question


Using Disciplinary Sources to Build Arguments


Inquiry Project


Geography Challenge

Find a picture of a pyramid from ancient Egypt. Find a picture of a pyramid from ancient Kush. Discuss: What is similar about the pyramids? What is different? Why might two different civilizations both build pyramids? How might they have interacted with each other?

Supporting Question 1

Each unit includes an inquiry project to guide discovery of the content and tie together the lessons in a meaningful way.

What do we know about ancient Egypt? Lesson: The Ancient Egyptian Pharaohs

Activity “Visit” monuments along the Nile River to learn about four ancient Egyptian pharaohs and their important accomplishments. (Classroom Activity)

Sources Source A: "Ancient Egypt and Its Rulers" (Reading - Section 1) Source B: "The Egyptian Mummy Project" (Reading - Exploring the Social Sciences) Source C: "Analyzing Images of Pharaohs" (Online Reading - Explore)

Formative Task List three facts that historians think we know about Egypt. Then explain how archaeological techniques have changed over time.

Supporting Question 2 How did Egypt influence Kush? How did Kush influence Egypt? Lesson: The Kingdom of Kush

Activity Analyze and bring to life images representing four key periods in the history of the Kingdom of Kush. (Classroom Activity)

Sources Source A: "Kush's Early Interactions with Egypt" (Reading - Section 1) Source B: "Through the Eyes of a Historian: Herodotus Writes About Kush" (Online Reading - Primary Source) Source C: "Something Borrowed: Kush Transforms Egyptian Ideas" (Online Reading - Explore)

Formative Task Write two paragraphs. In the first, explain the main ways that Egypt influenced Kush. In the second, explain the main ways that Kush influenced Egypt.

Video-based Geography Challenges kick off each unit by introducing students to a region and inspiring questions about the region.

174 Unit 3

3 TCI’s Lessons Each lesson offers multiple approaches to learning. Whether teachers use the Classroom Activity, Video Activity, or Text with Notes, they’ll cover the same content.



Timeline Challenge Each unit ends with a Timeline Challenge, an activity in which students practice their timeline and cause-and-effect skills to order major events from the unit.

Summative Assessments


Each lesson and unit comes with a TCI-created summative assessment, which fully assesses student mastery of content and skills. The test is ready to take, but teachers can edit and customize the test to meet the needs of their classrooms.

4 Dive Deeper Each unit includes a variety of print and online resources to go in-depth with primary sources, literature, and high-interest readings directly related to the content.

Exploring Biographies


Unit Inquiry Projects Each unit in History Alive! has an optional Inquiry Project that outlines an inquiry-focused pathway through the unit. Students develop questions, use disciplinary sources to build arguments, communicate their conclusions with evidence, and then take informed action.


Four types of unit-level inquiry are included throughout the program: Structured, Guided, Embedded Action, and Student-Directed. Each Inquiry Project begins with a compelling question and an activity to set the stage for inquiry.


Follow the steps below to complete a Structured Inquiry during this unit. Use the activities and disciplinary sources to build your knowledge and gather evidence. Then construct an argument that answers the compelling question. STEP 1 Developing Questions

Compelling Question How much are we able to know about the first human civilizations? Staging the Question


Using Disciplinary Sources to Build Arguments

Supporting Question 1 What are ways that we can learn about the past? Lesson: Investigating the Past Through Inquiry

Activity Play the role of detectives of the past to discover and interpret clues about how prehistoric humans lived. (Classroom Activity)


Sources Source A: "Detectives Who Study the Past" (Reading - Section 1) Source B: "Library and Information Literacy Skills" (Online Reading - Explore)

Formative Task Develop a historical question and then plan a simple inquiry to find out something about the past. (Notebook - Processing)

Supporting Question 2

Carefully sequenced supporting questions provide a roadmap for using sources to build the necessary disciplinary knowledge. Each supporting question includes a hands-on activity, a list of primary and secondary sources, and a formative task.

Choose an item on or near you. What does the item say about you? How might someone living a thousand years in the future interpret this item?

How do social scientists use artifacts to draw conclusions about ancient civilizations? Lesson: Ancient Sumer

Activity Analyze artifacts to find evidence of the characteristics of civilization in ancient Sumer. (Classroom Activity)


Unit 2

Sources Source A: "How Did the Different Social Classes of Sumer Interact with One Another?" (Reading - Investigating Primary Sources ) Source B: "The Hero of Sumer: King Gilgamesh of Uruk" (Online Reading - Literature)

Formative Task Write a paragraph explaining how artifacts help explain ways that social classes in ancient Sumer interacted with each other. (Notebook - Investigating Primary Sources)

Each supporting question is tied to a TCI lesson that students can use to gather additional information. The lesson title is identified here.


Supporting Question 3 What limitations do social scientists face when analyzing artifacts about ancient civilizations? Lesson: Ancient Persia and Its Context

Activity Play a game based on the experience of archaeologists studying ancient Persia. (Classroom Activity)

STEP 3 Communicating Conclusions with Evidence


Taking Informed Action


Formative Task

Source A: "Archaeological Dig and Administrative Records" (Handouts A–E)

Fill in a table analyzing the various ways we can know about ancient Persia and the strengths and limitations of each one. (Notebook - Processing)

Source B: "Ancient Persia and Its Context" (Reading - Sections 2–3) Source C: "Darius’s Right to Rule" (Online Reading - Primary Source)

Summative Task Argument

Construct an argument with evidence that addresses the compelling question: How much are we able to know about the first human civilizations?


Find or draw contemporary artifacts as evidence of civilization today. Describe to what extent future historians might be able to draw conclusions about our civilization today based on these artifacts. What limitations might they face?

Every Inquiry Project culminates in a written argument answering the compelling question. An optional Extension supports differentiation of the summative task.

Taking Informed Action Understand Research a place today where human or natural causes are threatening artifacts.


Assess Brainstorm solutions for how artifacts in this location could be saved.

Citations in parentheses show the specific location in the TCI lesson to find the activity, source, or formative task. Some activities and tasks, particularly in Guided and Embedded Action inquiries, will be independent of the TCI lessons, as they extend the lesson or require research.

The Taking Informed Action section provides ways to connect history to today and take action on important issues.

Act Create an ad (video, audio, or poster) that explains the need to protect artifacts (locally or globally).


Inquiry Project Go online to complete the activities, readings, and tasks. Fill out the corresponding prompts for each step in your print or online notebook.

The Rise of Civilization



Flexible Lesson Options Flexibility is key to the development of this program. Teachers can choose any of the approaches for any lesson and know that they’re covering the key content of the chapter.

Classroom Activities develop skills and content knowledge through hands-on learning, meaningful classroom discussion, and more. Every activity begins with a Preview that connects to prior knowledge and closes with a Processing activity to demonstrate understanding of the content.

Video Activities bring key ideas from the text to life in meaningful videos. Then a series of quick activities gauge understanding and provide opportunities to engage with the content.

Reading and Notes are embedded in the first two options but are also robust enough to stand alone. With carefully crafted questions, critical thinking is embedded in every lesson.


Videos, Perspectives, and Primary Sources

Every unit starts with a Geography Challenge video that provides a virtual tour to introduce each region, bringing ideas from the book to life. Easy-to-use Video Activities provide opportunities to interact with the big ideas of each lesson.

Explore rich online readings that allow students to encounter multiple perspectives, analyze primary sources, connect with literature, explore biographies, and more with carefully crafted text and questions to reflect on the content of each reading.

Primary sources are embedded throughout the program, including photographs, documents, and more.



Watch for this purple box throughout this book. It will guide you to additional online resources.


Investigating Primary Sources Each unit in History Alive! has a four-page Investigating Primary Sources feature that engages and challenges students to analyze a variety of sources. These focused inquiries guide students to answer a compelling question by building an argument supported with evidence. Here are some highlights that show how Investigating Primary Sources engages students’ curiosities. The title frames an engaging, compelling question that guides the entire piece. Students later build a claim that answers this question.

A bold introduction paragraph sets up the compelling question and the sources that students will explore.

Investigating Primary Sources What Do Dramas of Ancient Greece Reveal About Its Society? Just as people in today’s society are entertained by movies and television shows, ancient Greeks flocked to open-air theaters to enjoy actors performing in plays. How were these dramas put together? And what were these plays about? You will examine four primary sources related to Greek drama. Then you will create a claim about what Greek dramas reveal about that society.

This bas relief was found in Pompeii, Italy, and now resides in a museum in Naples. It shows a scene from the ancient comedy Andria, which is about a father who arranges a marriage for his son who has already chosen his own bride. Ancient Greek drama tells us about the society at the time.


In ancient Greek drama, unlike today’s entertainment, there were no lights, cameras, or microphones. There was a stage at the bottom of a bowl-shaped theater and thousands of seats around it. Scenery was painted on canvases, while actors—men only—wore masks that depicted their emotions. The scenes made audiences laugh, cry, and examine their own lives. There were three main categories of Greek plays. Comedy made fun of people’s foolishness. Tragedy, on the other hand, portrayed serious themes such as love or disappointment, making the audience think about emotional and moral situations. Satyr plays were short, comic scenes inserted between acts of a tragedy and made fun of the play’s characters, the playwright, and other people. When playwrights finished writing, they selected actors and designed scenery. The artifact pictured is a carved bas relief tablet from the 2nd century b.c.e. showing a scene from an ancient comedy called Andria. The author, Publius Terentius Afer, was a Roman comic writer who adapted Andria from a Greek drama. His play was first performed in 166 b.c.e. Identify the musician, the actors’ masks, and the scenery on the tablet. Based on this artifact and the caption, what can you learn about ancient Greek drama and ancient Greek society?

Lesson 33

Playwrights often wrote plays about the Greek gods. For example, Prometheus Bound is a famous Greek tragedy about one of the original Greek gods, Prometheus. Some scholars believe it was written by the poet Aeschylus after 458 b.c.e. It was first created as a poem and later revised into full sentences. Picture the scene: Prometheus is chained to a steep cliff. He is being punished by Zeus, the ruler of all gods. Zeus wanted to destroy humankind, but Prometheus saved them by giving them the gift of fire. In this scene, another god, Oceanus, has come to visit Prometheus during his punishment. Prometheus is recounting all he has done for humankind. What situations is Prometheus describing in this excerpt? What does the text tell you about the kinds of activities in Greek society at that time? Based on this excerpt, how would you describe the relationship between ancient Greeks and their religion and gods? How were drama and religion connected in ancient Greece?

Prometheus Bound “[Mankind] neither knew how to construct houses of brick with their fronts to the sun, nor yet the art of working in wood . . . but pursued all their occupations without discernment, until I explained to them the risings of the stars and their mysterious settings. Besides, I first discovered for them numbers, the highest of inventions; and the structure of a written language; and Memory, the mother of the Muse, effective in every art. And I was the first who bound in harness animals made obedient to the yoke; and, in order that they might prove, by their strength, the substitutes for mortals in the greatest toils, I taught the steeds to be guided by the rein in chariots, the ornaments of wealth and luxury. And no one before me invented the bark of the mariner, that traverses the sea with its canvas wings. . . . if any one was assailed by disease, there was no specific against it . . . but the sick fell away through want of medicine, until I taught them to compound soothing restoratives, by which they might be able to repel all maladies . . . But, in a few words, you shall learn at once the extent of my benefits: there is no art among men that is not derived from Prometheus.” —Aeschylus, after 458 b.c.e.

The Golden Age of Athens

Each section provides wellresearched background related to the primary sources and their historical contexts. This content can be used to help support students’ claims.


A Greek Tragedy: Prometheus Bound

Each page concludes with a set of supporting questions that help students pursue the main question.


Textual primary sources are easily identifiable. Students are challenged and asked to analyze these primary sources, and to use their analysis in a supported claim.

Another Greek Tragedy: The Persians

Here is an excerpt from another play by Aeschylus. He was one of the most famous writers of Greek tragedies and won several awards at Athens’s major drama competition, the Great Dionysia, held every March. This play, Persians, won the first-place prize in 472 b.c.e. as part of a three-play trilogy. Unfortunately, the other two plays have been lost. Aeschylus was a Greek soldier in the Greco-Persian Wars. When he returned home, he wrote Persians, which takes place in Susa, Persia. In this scene, the royal family is anxiously awaiting news about the recent battle between Persia and Greece. Finally, a messenger arrives and describes the battle.

The Persians “A Grecian ship first began the attack . . . At first, indeed, the torrent of the Persian forces made head against the attack; but when their numerous ships were crowded together in the Straits, and no aid could be afforded to one another . . . the Grecian ships with no unskilful tactics bore down upon them, encompassed in a circle . . . and the sea could no longer be discerned, being covered with the wrecks of the ships and the slaughtered bodies of men . . . and every ship rowed away in disorderly flight, as many as belonged to the armament of the Barbarians. But the Greeks kept striking and hacking them . . . with the fragments of the oars and the splinters of the wrecks . . . till the eye of dark night broke off the combat. But I could not fully unfold to you the multitude of our evils, not even though I should describe them in order for ten days: for be well assured of this, that never in one day did so great a number of men perish.” —Aeschylus, prior to 472 b.c.e.

In this scene, what does the messenger tell the Persian royalty about the battle? Based on this excerpt, what can you understand about the relationship between Persia and Greece in ancient times? What do you learn about the military of ancient Greece? How does the fact that the author was a Greek soldier affect the play? How might it have been different if the playwright had been a Persian soldier? Why would a Greek audience enjoy this play?

452 Lesson 33

Students are invited to observe images of artifacts, portraits, and more to better understand the content. Captions highlight important details of the accompanying image.

Winning a drama competition brought great fame and respect to a playwright. Playwrights took their work very seriously, as did the audiences, so it is no wonder that playwrights insisted on many long hours of preparation and practice before a performance. This ancient vase from 425–375 b.c.e. shows details of the preparation for a satyr production in Athens. The vase was found in southern Italy. The details on the vase give viewers a glimpse of how preparation for a performance may have looked. In the top center image, we see two Greek gods. Not only were gods the subjects of many plays, they also were thought to attend the plays. In the far top right corner, two actors are conversing before the play begins. The left actor is dressed as Heracles, a kind and very powerful son of Zeus (also known by the Roman name Hercules). At the bottom of the vase, we see a musician, singers, and dancers holding their masks and practicing lines. What does it tell you about Greek society that these dramas were so well prepared? Why would ancient Greeks create competitions for their dramas? What does that say about the society? Why were poets and playwrights so highly respected in Greek society? Review the four primary sources. Prepare a claim about what drama of ancient Greece reveals about its society, supporting your claim with evidence from the primary sources. You may want to note what additional information or sources would be helpful to provide several viewpoints.

This ancient vase depicts scenes of actors, dancers, and musicians practicing for a play. Everyone worked hard to give an excellent performance, which reveals something about the importance of drama in Greek society.

The Golden Age of Athens


Every feature ends with an activity that requires students to think critically and answer the compelling question.


Supporting Literacy Through Social Studies History Alive! has literacy instruction built into the Student Text, Interactive Student Notebook, and Activities. The following key points emphasize integration of literacy in social studies instruction. Reading Comprehending Informational Text

Text written at grade level invites all students to engage with rich, informative content. Online supports include the option to see the main ideas, leveled text online, and meaningful visuals, making the text accessible to all learners.

Vocabulary Development

History Alive! scaffolds the learning of social studies and history vocabulary by presenting the words and phrases in context but offering succinct definitions in the margins and glossary. Students record information based on text structure and historical perspective in their Reading Notes.

Analysis of Primary and Secondary Sources

Analysis of both primary and secondary sources takes place throughout lessons, through both written and visual literacy skills.


Writing Writing from Sources

History Alive! requires students to write for different purposes, including to develop claims that are supported with evidence. In inquiry activities, students are often asked to construct written arguments to persuade others to accept a conclusion or proposal. They construct their claims using precise language and social studies vocabulary.

Toolkits for Skill Building

In addition to embedded opportunities to practice writing, skillsbased toolkits are offered online to further develop literacy skills.

Diverse Writing Opportunities

History Alive! provides many writing opportunities, including to explain main ideas and justify reasoning. Guided writing exercises allow for writing practice in a variety of formats with clear rubrics and guidelines.

Speaking and Listening Collaboration

Classroom Activities provide opportunities for students to collaborate with clearly defined roles and tasks that allow all students to actively contribute to group projects.

Civil Discourse

Structured prompts and clear guidelines provide opportunities for active listening and participation in evidence-based discussions.


Considerate Text History Alive! engages students and helps them read text that is more complex and at a higher level. That’s because our writers wrote it as “considerate text,” which is another way to say that it makes readers want to read it. Considerate text is well written and well organized. Here are some ways TCI’s student text is considerate of all levels of readers.

Short sections, each with an informative title, create an organized structure that helps readers understand and remember the main ideas. Important new social studies words are in bold and blue type. These words are defined in the margin and in the glossary.

Ancient Egypt had three periods of stability and unity under the rule of pharaohs. Historians call these periods the Old Egypt Kingdom, the Middle Kingdom, and the New Kingdom. The Old Kingdom lasted from about 2700 to 2200 b.c.e. During this time, early pharaohs set up a strong central government. They also had great pyramids built as tombs for themselves. Some historians call this time the Age of the Pyramids. The Middle Kingdom (about 2000 to 1800 b.c.e.) is sometimes called the Period of Reunification because it followed years of chaos and disunity. During this era, Egyptians enjoyed many This map shows some of the sites great achievements in literature, art, and architecture. of great monuments built during The New Kingdom (about 1600 to 1100 b.c.e.) is often called Egypt’s three periods of stability Egypt’s Golden Age. During this time of peace and stability, under the pharaohs. ancient Egypt’s power reached its height. Rulers, like Thutmose Important Monument Sites in Ancient Egypt III, expanded the empire far up the Nile River into modern-day 30°E Sudan and into the Levant, which is the coastal region at the eastern 0 400 miles 200 end of the Mediterranean Sea. 0 200 400 kilometers Mediterranean Sinusoidal (Sanson-Flamsteed) Projection Religion played a central role Sea CANAAN in Egypt’s social and political Dead Sea order. Pharaohs were believed to be gods. They owned all the land SINAI Cairo Giza PENINSULA and were responsible for their people’s well-being. They were EGYPT kings, generals, and religious leaders, all combined. During the Old Kingdom, only Dayr al-Bahri pharaohs were thought to enter Karnak an eternal afterlife, so their tombs were built to last. Many objects were buried with the pharaoh for Abu Simbel use in the next world. Old Kingdom (2700–2200 B.C.E.) The pharaohs directed the Middle Kingdom 20°N building of other monuments to (2000–1800 B.C.E.) N glorify their power. Let’s learn New Kingdom KUSH (1600–1100 B.C.E.) more about these structures W E and the pharaohs who ordered City S their creation. pharaoh a ruler of ancient


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Thoughtfully selected large images illustrate the main ideas and support visual learners.

1. Ancient Egypt and Its Rulers

Academic vocabulary words are bolded in black and presented with a clear context.


AW_SE_08_03.eps Ancient Egypt Black Cyan Magenta Yellow Second Proof 12 186 Lesson TCI18 15

Captions for photos, illustrations, tables, and graphs reinforce the main idea of the section and provide details that guide students’ interpretation of the graphics.

When Khufu became pharaoh, he began construction on the Great Pyramid. How it was built remains a mystery.

Section introductions help link the new section to the last section.

2. Khufu: The Pyramid Pharaoh The pharaoh Khufu (KOO-foo) ruled from about 2551 to 2528 b.c.e., during the Old Kingdom period. Today, he is best known for a famous pyramid built during his reign. Not much is known about Khufu. Some stories describe him as a cruel, harsh ruler. Others say that he was powerful but kind. Historians do know that Khufu helped establish the pharaoh as a central authority. For example, he maintained strict control over Egypt’s food supply. He oversaw the harvest and the storage of extra grain. He also controlled a large network of government officials who enforced his laws. Khufu emphasized his supreme power by declaring himself a god. Khufu and other Old Kingdom pharaohs had pyramids built as tombs for themselves and their families. Khufu was responsible for the building of the Great Pyramid at Giza, one of the wonders of the ancient world. The Great Pyramid sat at the center of a huge complex of temples, statues, monuments, and smaller tombs. It was made of more than 2 million stone blocks, perfectly fitted together. Inside, tunnels led to several burial chambers. The king’s chamber had six roofs to hold up the weight of the stone layers above it. Building the Great Pyramid was an amazing feat. No one knows exactly how the Egyptians constructed it, but it took about 20 years to complete. Khufu had strict control of the project, organizing thousands of workers. The finished pyramid was a timeless monument to Egyptian engineering.

This three-inch-high ivory statue of Khufu was discovered during the excavation of a temple in 1903. It is displayed in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.

The text is written in a clear and engaging way without figurative language. Each section ends with a conclusion that wraps up the main ideas.

The Ancient Egyptian Pharaohs


Single-column text makes the content easier to read. Paragraphs end at the bottom of the page instead of continuing onto the next page.


Universal Access TCI is designed to reach all learners. Here are some resources teachers can use in their classrooms.

Select Reading Level

Main Ideas

Add Note

Reading Tools Digital text-to-audio, main ideas, and note-taking tools support reading. Show Highlights


Save Text to Drive

Enrichment Opportunities Students engage with primary sources, review literature, and study biographies of historical figures.

Visual Discovery

Experiential Exercise


Problem Solving Groupwork

Writing for Understanding

Response Group

Multi-Modal Teaching Strategies

Social Studies Skill Builder

Six distinct teaching strategies support comprehension using a variety of skills, allowing all students to actively engage in the content.

Differentiating Instruction Each lesson comes with modifications for English learners, learners reading and writing below grade level, learners with special education needs, and advanced learners.

Multi-Media Delivery Content is delivered using a combination of writing, visuals, activities, videos, and games to make content accessible to all learners.

Quicker Coverage and Deeper Coverage Pacing can vary from lesson to lesson, and year to year. Suggestions for quicker coverage or deeper coverage are provided for each lesson.