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The Cost of Eating in BC 2009 Low-income British Columbians can’t afford healthy food

December 2009


Why do dietitians publish The Cost of Eating in BC report? The purpose of the report is to bring attention to the fact that not all residents of British Columbia have enough money to purchase healthy food. The facts in BC: • The 2009 monthly cost of the nutritious food basket for a family of four is $872 • A family of four on income assistance would need more than 100% of their income for shelter and food only • Food and shelter costs have increased significantly over the past decade, while income assistance rates have remained virtually unchanged and minimum wage has not increased • Unemployment is rising. October’s jobless rate was 8.3%, the highest it has been since September 2003. Youth, particularly aboriginal youth, and women had the greatest increases in unemployment1 • The number of clients receiving income assistance and expected to work increased by 52% from September 2008 to September 2009. The number of dependent children in families receiving assistance increased by more than 20% over the same period2 • Many people with low income face challenges purchasing healthy foods. In urban centres the high cost of housing leaves little money left for food; in geographically isolated communities there may be a limited variety of healthy foods and food is often much more expensive than in urban centres • Almost 90,000 people visited a food bank in BC in March 2009, the highest number on record and a 15% increase over 2008.3 This is greater than the population of Kamloops. Dietitians of Canada, BC Region and the Community Nutritionists Council of BC have been conducting food costing for almost a decade. The purpose of this activity is to gather evidence that can be used to build food security for all British Columbians, especially those living on a low income – the citizens most vulnerable to food insecurity and health inequities.4 The cost of a nutritious food basket as a proportion of income is a measure of affordability of healthy food, and an indicator of food security at the individual and household levels. Health authorities in BC have recently endorsed the cost of food as one indicator of food security.5

“Income-related food security is an important public health issue in Canada and is a key social determinant of health. Food security is essential for healthy eating – without consistent economic access to sufficient nutritious food, healthy eating cannot be achieved, increasing the risk of poor health.”6

2


The poverty rate, using Statistics Canada low-income cut-offs after tax, for children in BC fell to13% in 2007, yet remained the highest in the country. The rate for children living in families headed by lone-parent females was 37% – over one in three. The poverty rate for all individuals and families in BC was 11% in 2007, also the highest in the country.12

The most significant barrier to healthy eating is inadequate income.7 Once fixed costs such as shelter and utilities are met there may be little money left for food. In many low-income neighbourhoods food is more expensive and a shortage of grocery stores makes access to fresh and healthy food more difficult.8 For residents of geographically isolated communities, of which many are First Nations, access and affordability are further compromised by a limited local supply of food and additional costs for travel to purchase food. While most British Columbians have incomes that support them to buy healthy food, a disturbing percentage live in poverty, a condition that is strongly associated with both food insecurity and poorer health. “People with low incomes are less likely than those with higher incomes to get the nutrients they need for good health and are less likely to enjoy diets that are consistent with healthy eating in Canada.”9 They spend less on food and eat fewer servings of fruit, vegetables and milk products.10 They are also more likely to die earlier and to suffer more illness than Canadians with higher incomes.11

How is the cost of food determined? A standard basket of food is priced in randomly selected grocery stores. This data is then pooled to obtain an average cost. The National Nutritious Food Basket is a tool developed by Health Canada that describes 67 food items and the quantities that represent a nutritious diet for a variety of individuals. Each spring, dietitians working in public health collect prices for all the food items and the prices are then pooled to obtain an average cost for the basket. In 2009 food costing was conducted in 134 randomly selected grocery stores throughout the province. The basket contains basic food items that require preparation. It does not include take-out or restaurant meals, nor does it account for any special dietary needs, cultural or other food preferences. It does not include any non-food items such as household or personal care supplies. The basket does not take into account any costs associated with its purchase. For families living in urban neighbourhoods well serviced by grocery stores these additional costs may be minimal. For those living in remote rural and many First Nations communities, buying the contents of the food basket locally may not even be possible. Travel costs can add significantly to the cost of the basket, even for those who live in communities situated relatively close to an urban centre, particularly if public transit is not available.

Laxgalts’ap, located about 140 km north of Terrace, is a community of 500-600 people in which there is no grocery store. Residents must travel to Terrace to shop at a full service grocery store; for someone without a vehicle, getting a ride adds $40-$50 to the bill. The community of Atlin, about 1,265 km from Terrace, does have grocery stores, but limited food variety and high prices. Residents typically do major grocery shopping in Whitehorse, a five-hour return trip. 3


What is the cost of a healthy basket of food for a family of four living in BC in 2009? The monthly cost of the nutritious food basket for a family of four is $872. The cost of the basket in BC is the average cost, weighted by population, of the basket in each health region as shown in Figure 1. The actual cost of food varies from community to community within each region.

How affordable is healthy food for British Columbians? Individuals and families with low incomes, especially those receiving income assistance, do not have enough money to buy healthy food. Table 1 illustrates several scenarios in which the cost of the food basket is compared to the disposable income of a number of households. • A family of four on income assistance would use 49% of their income to buy the food basket. • A family of four with one earner in a low-wage job would use 34% of their income to buy the food basket. • A family of four with one earner and median income1 would use 19% of their income to buy the food basket. 12006

BC median income, the most recent year for which data is available.

On average, $16.05 in BC will purchase: Figure 1 Cost of Food Basket All BC $872

Northern Health $876

4L milk

one loaf of bread

454 grams (1 lb) of apples

4.54 kg (10 lbs) of potatoes

In a small remote community in northern BC the same food items cost $34.85 or 117% more.

Vancouver Coastal Health $919 Interior Health $835

Vancouver Island Health $858

4

Fraser Health $862


Table 1 also shows the proportion of disposable income required for shelter. Shelter represents a monthly fixed cost; other expenses, including food, must come out of the post-shelter budget.13 For those families and individuals with low incomes, especially those receiving income assistance, there is not enough money left to purchase healthy food, or pay for other living expenses. • A family of four on income assistance would use 107% of their income for shelter and food. • A family of four with one earner in a low-wage job would use 64% of their income for shelter and food. • A family of four with one earner and median income would use 48% of their income for shelter and food. “A generally accepted rule of thumb for affordability is that a household should spend less than 30 percent of its gross income on housing.”14 Table 1 shows shelter as a proportion of disposable income. For those families and individuals receiving income assistance, disposable income is essentially gross income. As shown in Table 1 they require from 58%, for the family of four, to 100%, for the older single woman, of their income for shelter. For the family with one earner in a low-wage job, assuming the family is eligible for the provincial Rental Assistance Program, shelter is approximately 29% of gross income (30% of disposable income). Shelter for the family with median income is approximately 22% of gross income (29% of disposable income).

“It’s so hard to buy food; I have only $7 left (for the month) after the rent is paid.” – Mom, Healthiest Babies Possible, Duncan

Table 1 Cost of food as a proportion of disposable income for seven scenarios* Monthly income and costs

Family of 4, income assistance

Single parent, Single older Young pregnant 2 children woman, income woman, income income assistance assistance assistance

Single man, disability assistance

Family of 4, low-earned income

Family of 4, median income

Disposable income

$1,773

$1,724

$649

$694

$949

$2,458

$4,491

Cost of shelter

$1,028

$1,028

$648

$648

$648

$740

$1,293

% income required for shelter

58%

60%

100%

93%

68%

30%

29%

Cost of food**

$872

$659

$219

$274

$323

$872

$872

% income required for food

49%

38%

34%

39%

34%

35%

19%

– $127

$37

– $218

– $228

– $22

$846

$2,326

What’s left after shelter and food

*See Table 3 for details regarding scenarios, income and costs **See Table 4 for the monthly cost of the food basket for various age and gender groups

5


Are food costs rising? The cost of food is increasing making it more difficult for British Columbians with low incomes to buy healthy food. Since it was first published, The Cost of Eating in BC report has demonstrated an upward trend in the cost of the food basket.15 A direct comparison of this year’s basket price to previous years’ is not appropriate, as the contents of the basket changed in 2008 to reflect current nutrition recommendations and purchase patterns of Canadians. It is appropriate however to view it along with past years as an indicator of affordability of nutritious food. Statistics Canada reports that consumer prices for food increased in BC by 1.9% from October 2008 to October 2009.16 They also rose each year from 2004 to 2008 for a total increase of almost 12% to October 2009.17 Higher food costs are making it even more challenging for people with low incomes to purchase enough healthy food.

“We have to choose to eat healthy food or pay bills. We choose healthy food as much as we can, so our phone and internet have been disconnected.” - Sabrina, single mom of 7 year old, receiving disability income.

Rents in BC are also rising. Apartments with three or more bedrooms had an increase in average rent of 4.2% from the spring of 2008 to that of 2009, following an increase of 5.5% the previous year.18 In the spring of 2009 Vancouver had the highest average monthly rent for a two-bedroom apartment in a Canadian major centre.19

The majority of poor children in BC live in families with some earned income. Over half (55.7%) live in families where at least one adult has the equivalent of full-time full-year work.22 In 2009, 12% of food bank clients reported employment income; 31% of those assisted by food banks were children.23

At the same time costs for food and rent are going up, unemployment is increasing and more people are relying on income assistance, a last resort “social safety net”. Income assistance rates, however, have remained virtually unchanged. For example, the support portion of income assistance (for non-shelter costs) for the reference family of four has remained at $401 since the first report was published in 2001. Table 2 shows the cost of the food basket as a proportion of the support allowance, clearly demonstrating the allowance is inadequate to purchase healthy food. The shortfall becomes even more pronounced when considering that the shelter allowance is inadequate to cover rent (see Tables 1 and 3). Paying the rent requires dollars from both the support allowance and child/family tax benefits, further reducing money available for food and other necessities like school supplies, clothing and transportation.

Table 2 Cost of food as a proportion of the support allowance for the reference family of four, 2001-2009

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Family of 4, income assistance

2009

2007

2006

2005

2004

2003

2002

2001

Support allowance

$401

$401

$401

$401

$401

$401

$401

$401

Cost of food

$872

$715

$653

$654

$632

$648

$629

$626

Cost of food as % support allowance

217%

178%

163%

163%

158%

162%

157%

156%


Little has changed for most recipients of income assistance. The most significant increase in the support allowance for the scenarios described in Tables 1 and 3 is for the single male receiving disability assistance. While the support allowance in this instance has increased by 15% since 2001, an individual in this situation would still need to use 61% of his support allowance to purchase the food basket. Almost one fifth (19%) of food bank recipients in BC reported “disability-related income supports” as their income source.20 Minimum wage in BC has also not increased despite higher costs for food and shelter. It remains at $8.00 per hour, unchanged since November 2001, at which time it was the highest in the country. It is now the lowest and insufficient to bring a full-time, full-year earner above the poverty line.21

What can the BC government do to ensure that more British Columbians have enough money to purchase healthy food? Establish a poverty reduction plan that supports more BC residents to secure decent housing and buy healthy foods. A recently released study shows that BC’s population is the healthiest in the country.24 However, when only low-income populations are considered, the health of British Columbians is no better than that of residents of other provinces and Quebec becomes the healthiest province.25 The authors suggest that when it comes to low-income citizens, the better health status of Quebec compared to BC may be due to a stronger social safety net and the poverty reduction efforts of that province.26 Quebec has the longest standing poverty reduction plan in Canada, introducing anti-poverty legislation in 2002 with the Act to Combat Poverty and Social Exclusion. The province is beginning to report success as noted above and, for example, real improvement in the financial situation of all types of households, especially families.27 In May of this year Ontario became the second province to pass anti-poverty legislation with the Poverty Reduction Act 2009.28 Other provinces have developed poverty reduction plans – Newfoundland and Labrador, Manitoba, Nova Scotia and most recently New Brunswick. These plans provide frameworks to reduce poverty and support low-income citizens to participate more fully in their communities. They include actions to increase income assistance rates and minimum wage. Newfoundland and Labrador increased welfare rates and was the first province to index the rates to inflation.29 Quebec’s plan also includes indexing benefits.30 In Nova Scotia, the personal allowance rate has increased since 2002 at a rate of 15.5%, in order to keep pace with inflation, while the shelter allowance increased 26% for individuals and 4% for families. The government has committed to annually adjusting personal allowances based on the Consumer Price Index.31 Manitoba has recognized “…minimum wage increases are an important part of any poverty reduction strategy”, increasing it in May 2009 to $8.75 and again in October 2009 to $9.00.32 Newfoundland has a schedule to raise minimum wage to $10.00 by 2010.33 The BC government is taking action to combat poverty with initiatives to reduce barriers to housing and healthy food. Examples include the Rental Assistance Program to assist families with low earned income secure affordable housing and the cross ministry Produce Availability Initiative to improve access to fresh vegetables and fruit for residents living in remote communities. These important initiatives could be part of a comprehensive government wide plan to reduce poverty. 7


It is beyond the scope of this report to propose a comprehensive poverty reduction plan. Much work has already been done to inform a BC plan that has vision, targets and timelines and includes: • Raising income assistance rates to account for the actual cost of healthy food and safe housing and indexing rates to the cost of living • Raising the minimum wage to a level that supports an individual working full-time, full-year with an income above Statistics Canada low-income cut-off in a major urban centre • Supporting a wide range of initiatives to ensure all British Columbians have access to safe and affordable housing • Supporting initiatives that increase access to healthy food for all British Columbians, especially those living in rural and remote communities, or for whom access to food is difficult • Building a system of high quality, affordable, accessible child care • Measuring success by improvements in the health and social statistics of the most disadvantaged British Columbians.

To inform a BC poverty reduction plan see: •

A Poverty Reduction Plan for BC, www.policyalternatives.ca

Healthy Futures for BC Families: Policy Recommendations for Improving the Health of British Columbians, www.bchealthyliving.ca

BC Campaign 2000: 2009 Child Poverty Report Card, www.firstcallbc.org

BC Poverty Reduction Coalition, www.bcpovertyreduction.ca

Hunger Count 2009: A comprehensive report on hunger and food bank use in Canada, and recommendations for change, www.foodbankscanada.ca

What can you do? Learn more about poverty and take action in your community. • Compare your monthly disposable income to that of an individual or family on income assistance or earning a low wage (see Tables 1 and 3). Could you afford the food basket if you were in their shoes? • Support co-operative and affordable housing projects in your neighbourhood. • Get political and speak out in your community – work, school, church, professional associations, etc. – about why we should all care about eliminating poverty. • Volunteer at a seniors or community centre or after-school program. • Write a letter to your Member of the Legislative Assembly and ask for: • A provincial poverty reduction plan • An affordable housing strategy • Fair income assistance rates • Higher minimum wage • Favourable tax policies for low income earners. Find your Member of the Legislative Assembly at www.leg.bc.ca/Mla/3-1-1.htm

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Table 3 Food as a proportion of disposable income for seven family scenarios – the details Family 1

Family 2

Family 3

Family 4

Family 5

Family 6

Family 7

Reference family, income assistance

Single parent, 2 children, income assistance

Single older woman, income assistance

Young pregnant woman, income assistance

Single man, disability assistance

Reference family, low-earned income

Reference family, median income

$1,101

$1,061

$610

$610

$906

$1,794

$4,464

$648

$639

$36

$36

$40

$664

$135

$24

$24

$3

$48

$3

$0

$0

$0

$0

$0

$0

$0

$0

$108

Disposable income

$1,773

$1,724

$649

$694

$949

$2,458

$4,491

Shelter4

$1,028

$1,028

$648

$648

$648

$1,028 – 288 $ 740

$1,293

% disposable income required for shelter

58%

60%

100%

93%

68%

30%

29%

Cost of food5

$872

$659

$219

$274

$323

$872

$872

% disposable income required to purchase food

49%

38%

34%

39%

34%

35%

19%

– $127

$37

– $218

– $228

– $22

$846

$2,326

Monthly income and costs

Net income (after payroll deductions) Child/family Additional

benefits2

benefits3

Medical services plan

What’s left for all other costs of living

Note: All dollars and numbers rounded to the nearest whole number Reference family – mother and father, 31-50 years; boy 14 years; girl 8 years Family 1 – Reference family, income assistance. Shelter allowance $700; support allowance $401.06 Family 2 – One parent family, mother 31-50 years, boy 14 years, girl 8 years, income assistance. Shelter allowance $660; support allowance $401.06 Family 3 – Single older female 60 years, income assistance. Shelter allowance $375; support allowance $235 Family 4 – Single pregnant woman 19 years, income assistance. Shelter allowance $375; support allowance $235; natal allowance $45 Family 5 – Single male 25 years, disability assistance. Shelter allowance $375; support allowance $531.42 Family 6 – Reference family, one full-time earner, $11/hour. Before tax yearly income $22,880. 2009 CPP/EI contributions, federal and provincial tax deductions. After payroll deductions yearly income $21,525 Family 7 – Reference family, one earner, total income $68,900.6 Includes all income and government transfers. Employment income estimate $67,275 plus CCTB estimate $1,620/year for total $68,895. 2009 CPP/EI contributions, federal and provincial tax deductions. After payroll deductions yearly income $53,569 2 Child/family

tax benefits 2010 estimate. Includes where applicable Working Income Tax Benefit, GST credit, BC Low Income Climate Action Tax Credit, BC Sales Tax Credit,

Canada Child Tax Benefit, National Child Benefit Supplement, BC Family Bonus, BC Earned Income Benefit 3 Includes 4 Shelter

where applicable Christmas and School Start – Up Supplements, pro-rated, Natal Allowance

includes rent and telephone. Utilities may or may not be included. Rental data is from Canada Mortgage and Housing Rental Market Survey, April 2009 Custom Tables,

Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area. Rent for families 1, 2 & 6 is for 3 bedroom apartment (25th percentile). Family 6 is eligible for estimated rental assistance of $287.56. Rent for families 3, 4 & 5 is for bachelor apartment (25th percentile). Rent for family 7 is for 3 bedroom apartment (average rent). Telephone is basic service in Vancouver area code $25.25 plus GST, PST and 911 fee for a total of $28.28 5 2009

BC monthly average cost of the National Nutritious Food Basket

6 Statistics

Canada. Median total income, by family type, by province and territory (couple families) 2006

9


Table 4 (updated January 2010) Average monthly cost of the food basket in BC 2009 Age / gender groups

Monthly cost*

Family of four

$871.86

woman 31-50; man 31-50; boy 14-18; girl 4-8

Family of three

$658.93

woman 31-50; boy 14-18; girl 4-8

Girl 2-3 years 4-8 years 9-13 years 14-18 years

$113.10 $144.04 $169.35 $201.63

Man 19-30 years 31-50 years 51-70 years Over 70 years

$269.36 $244.31 $234.30 $231.79

Woman 19-30 years 31-50 years 51-70 years Over 70 years

$209.47 $206.83 $182.48 $178.88

2 British

Columbia. Ministry of Housing and Social Development. BC Employment and Assistance Summary Report. Province of British Columbia Housing and Social Development, 31 Oct. 2009. Web. 18 Nov. 2009.

3 Food

Banks Canada. Hunger Count 2009. Food Banks Canada, 16 Nov. 2009. Web. 17 Nov. 2009.

5 Provincial

Health Services Authority. Measuring Food Security: Outcome Indicators for the Food Security Program. Report in progress.

6 Canada. Health

Canada Office of Nutrition Policy and Promotion Health Products and Food Branch. Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 2.2, Nutrition (2004): Income-related Household Food Security in Canada. Ottawa: Health Canada, 2007. Web. 23 Oct. 2009.

7 Power, EM.

“Determinants of Healthy Eating Among Low-income Canadians.” Can J Public Health 96(3):s 2005. 37-42. Print.

8 Canadian

Population Health Institute. Improving the Health of Canadians: Promoting Healthy Weights. Ottawa: Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2006. 64. Print.

9 McIntyre, L. and Valerie Tarasuk. The Social Determinants of Health: Food Security as

a Determinant of Health. Public Health Agency of Canada, 2004. Web. 23 Oct. 2009. 10 Canadian

Population Health Institute. Improving the Health of Canadians: Promoting Healthy Weights. Ottawa: Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2006. 64. Print.

11 Canada. Public Health Agency of Canada. What Makes Canadians Healthy or Unhealthy? Public Health Agency of Canada, 16 June 2003. Web. 23 Oct. 2009. 12 First

Call: BC Child and Youth Advocacy Coalition. Child Poverty Rate Drops Significantly, but BC Still Worst of any Province. First Call: BC Child and Youth Advocacy Coalition, 3 June 2009. Web. 23 Oct. 2009.

13 Power, Elaine. Individual and Household Food Insecurity in Canada: Position of

Pregnancy Younger than 18 years 19-30 years 31-50 years

$224.55 $228.11 $222.47

Breastfeeding Younger than 18 years 19-30 years 31-50 years

$233.70 $241.28 $235.65

Dietitians of Canada. Dietitians of Canada, 2005. Web. 23 Oct. 2009. 14 Canada. Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation. Rental market report: Vancouver and Abbotsford CMAs. Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, Fall 2008. Web. 23 Oct. 2009. 15

*Food costs reported are based on living in a family of four. It costs more per person to feed smaller families and less to feed larger families. To calculate the monthly cost for families of different sizes, see the table below: Household Size Adjustment Factor Adjustment Factor Multiply by 1.20

Two People

Multiply by 1.10

Three People

Multiply by 1.05

Four People

Multiply by 1.0 (no change)

Five to Six People

Multiply by 0.95

Seven People or more

Multiply by 0.90

10

Columbia. BCStats Data Services. Labour Force Statistics October 2009. BCStats, 16 Nov. 2009 Issue: 09-10. Web. 18 Nov. 2009.

“Individual and Household Food Insecurity in Canada: Position of Dietitians of Canada.” Dietitians of Canada, 2005. Web. 23 Oct. 2009.

$115.61 $149.02 $196.30 $276.68

Individual

1 British

4 Power, EM.

Boy 2-3 years 4-8 years 9-13 years 14-18 years

Family Size

References

Dietitians of Canada and Community Nutritionists Council of BC. The Cost of Eating in BC. Dietitians of Canada, 2001-2007. Web. 28 Oct. 2009.

16

Canada. Statistics Canada. Consumer Price Index, by province (monthly) (British Columbia). Statistics Canada, 18 Nov. 2009. Web. 23 Nov. 2009.

17

Canada. Statistics Canada. Consumer Price Index, food, by province (British Columbia). Statistics Canada, 19 Aug. 2009. Web. 23 Nov. 2009.

18 Canada. Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation. Rental Market Report British Columbia Highlights. Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, Spring 2009. Web. 23 Oct. 2009. 19 Canada. Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation. Rental Market Report Canada Highlights. Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, Spring 2009. Web. 23 Oct. 2009. 20 Food

Banks Canada. Hunger Count 2009. Food Banks Canada, 16 Nov. 2009. Web. 17 Nov. 2009.


21

Klein, Seth, et al. Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives – BC Office. A Poverty Reduction Plan for BC. Vancouver: Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives – BC Office, December 2008. Web. 23 Oct. 2009.

22

First Call: BC Child and Youth Advocacy Coalition. BC Campaign 2000: 2009 Child Poverty Report Card. “Child Poverty and Working Parents: Fact Sheet #5.” Vancouver: First Call: BC Child and Youth Advocacy Coalition, 24 Nov. 2009. Web. 24 Nov. 2009.

23

Food Banks Canada. Hunger Count 2009. Food Banks Canada, 16 Nov. 2009. Web. 17 Nov. 2009.

24

Fang, R., Kmetic, A., Millar, J. and Drasic, L. “Disparities in Chronic Disease Among Canada’s Low-income Populations. Prev Chronic Dis. Volume 6. No.4 (2009): 1. Preventing Chronic Disease: Public Health Research, Practice, and Policy. Web. 23 Nov. 2009.

25

Ibid

26

Ibid

27

Quebec. Emploi et Solidarite Sociale Quebec. Government Action Plan to Combat Poverty and Social Exclusion 2004-2009. Third year progress report. Gouvernement du Quebec, October 2007. Web. 23 Nov 2009.

28

Ontario. Ministry of Children and Youth Services. Ontario Passes Historic Poverty Reduction Act. McGuinty Government Achieves Milestone In Long-Term Fight Against Poverty. Ontario Newsroom, 6 May 2009. Web. 23 Nov. 2009.

29

Klein, Seth, et al. Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives – BC Office. A Poverty Reduction Plan for BC. Vancouver: Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives – BC Office, December 2008. Web. 23 Oct. 2009.

30

Quebec. Emploi Quebec. Social Assistance and Social Solidarity Benefit Amounts. In Effect as of January 1, 2009. Emploi Quebec. Web. 23 Nov. 2009.

31 Nova Scotia. Preventing Poverty. Promoting Prosperity. Nova Scotia’s Poverty Reduction Strategy. Province of Nova Scotia, 2009. Web. 23 Nov. 2009. 32

Manitoba. Policy and Planning Branch, Manitoba Family Services and Housing. All Aboard: Manitoba’s Poverty Reduction Strategy. Manitoba, May 2009. Web. 23 Nov. 2009.

33 Klein, Seth, et

al. Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives – BC Office. A Poverty Reduction Plan for BC. Vancouver: Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives – BC Office, December 2008. Web. 23 Oct. 2009.

11


This report is endorsed by:

BC Healthy Living Alliance

Health Officers Council of BC

Breakfast for Learning BC & Yukon

BC Poverty Reduction Coalition

BC ACORN BC Association of Social Workers

Canadian Cancer Society, BC & Yukon

Heart and Stroke Foundation of BC & Yukon

BC Coalition of People with Disabilities

Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives – BC Office

Public Health Association of BC

BC Dental Public Health Committee

Canadian Diabetes Association – Pacific Area

Social Planning and Research Council of BC

BC Food Systems Network

Farm Folk City Folk

BC Healthy Communities

First Call, BC Child and Youth Advocacy Coalition

TRAC Tenant Resource & Advisory Centre

NutritionLink Services Society

Raise the Rates

Vibrant Abbotsford

Food Banks British Columbia

©Dietitians of Canada 2009 This report is published by Dietitians of Canada, BC Region and the Community Nutritionists Council of BC. The publishers gratefully acknowledge the members of the Cost of Eating in BC Committee for ensuring food costs are collected in each health region and for their contributions to this report; the dietitians, health authority staff and volunteers throughout the province who contributed to data collection; the grocery stores that allowed food costing on their premises and the Provincial Health Services Authority for the technical and financial assistance provided in collecting and analyzing the food costing data. Without the significant efforts of these many people this work could not be done. A copy of this report and previous reports can be downloaded from Dietitians of Canada’s at www.dietitians.ca/bccostofeating. Permission is granted to reproduce copies of the report in its entirety for personal or educational purposes, provided credit to the publishers is included.

The Cost of Eating in BC 2009  

The Cost of Eating in BC 2009