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Volume 4

Research in the Community

The Bay School of San Francisco


Contents Issue 1: November 2011 Nature Kills: How to Keep the Public Safe in National Parks…………………………………Amy Andreini

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The America’s Cup………………………………………………………………………………... Nick Bennett

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Recess: An Important Part of a Child’s School Career, or a Waste of Time? …………. Gibson Buttfield

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You Have to Retrofit………………………………………………………………………… James Hardwidge

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How Would You Feel If You Were Caged Up?……………………………………………...... Alena Hauser

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The Chain Never Stops………………………………………………………………………. Maddie Howden

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The Presidio Trust: Really Preserving Our Past?………………………………………………….. Jack Jue

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Inked Ideas: The Perceptions of Tattoos in Western Culture…………………………….. Yara Kanaaneh

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Subliminal Advertising…………………………………………………………………………... Jackson Karel

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Food For Thought: Industrial versus Sustainable Farming……………………………… Sophia Kauffman

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Musical Influences on Performance and Achievement……………………………………..... Jack Kissane

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Injury-Free Running? I Wish!………………………………………………………………… Leah Lind-White

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Time for Fisheries to “Clean Up” Their Act: The Environmental Impact of Pollution caused by Fishing……………………………………...Sam Lopez

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Story Time: Risky Business……………………………………………………………………… Rachel Miller

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Let the Bars Rust: Lowering Youth Recidivism……………………………………………….. Molly Mitchell 104 Yeah or Neigh? Does Horse Therapy Really Work? ………………………………………. Kiyona Mizuno 113 Is Soccer Worth It? ………………………………………………………………………………... Isaias Moya 120 Fast Forward Fashion…………………………………………………………………………… Sabrina Perell 125 Blood upon the Stage: The Bay Area Thrash Metal Scene……………………………….. Alex Rusbarsky 135 A Philosophunculistic Adoxography: The Role of Language in Thought and Bilingualism………………………………………...Franky Spektor 146 Dancing Our Way to the Olympics……………………………………………………………….Yelena Vayn 156 Artists in Recession……………………………………………………………………………...Audrey Weber 160 There’s No Business like Show Business……………………………………………………Chase Williams 166 The Importance of Music…………………………………………………………………………..Chessa Yee 172


Issue 2: March 2012 Depression, Mostly in Teenage Girls…………………………………………………………. Asha Abdallah 179 What Makes It So Hard? ……………………………………………………………………….Shani Abdallah 184 The Booms and Busts of Fashion……………………………………………………………… Abby Bernard 189 The Psychology of Religion……………………………………………………………………Christian Bolles 197 Stairway to Heaven: Music and the Human Brain…………………………………………………. Ian Child 202 Advertising: An Art Form? ………………………………………………………………………. Jude Driscoll 210 The Rise of the Food Truck…………………………………………………………………Isabelle de Moulin 217 Shouting at the Devil: Madness in Heavy Metal………………………………………………... Alexis Elliott 222 The World of Illegal Animals………………………………………………………………………. Aaren Field 228 Schools Should Offer a Class on Sustainable Agriculture……………………………………… Ben Foster 236 The Danger and Consequences of an Avalanche……………………………………………… Kyle Fowler 245 Invasive Aquatic Species in the San Francisco Bay………………………………………….. Ben Gerstein 251 Getting Truly Prepared for College……………………………………………………………. Zachary Heller 263 Oyster Farming: Sustainable or Unsustainable? ………………………………………………Nik Inalsingh 270 Veterans Care: Is It Enough? ……………………………………………………….. Stefan Jandreau-Smith 275 Recruiting Your Classmates………………………………………………………………….. Chase Johnson 281 Shakespeare and Modern Teens………………………………………………………………..Alex Jonasse 287 He Just Got Clocked! Concussions in the NFL………………………………………….. Andrew Kaminsky 292 The Effects of Media on Teens………………………………………………………………….. Kai Karrasch 298 Mindset and Probability……………………………………………………………………………… Sam Koch 303 Video Games and ADHD: Can There Be Benefits?! ……………………………………………... Tyler Krill 306 Learning Languages: What’s Most Important………………………………………………….. Zack Migdail 312 Social Networking, Privacy Protection, and Civil Rights for the American……………... Matthew Morgan 317 Corn Subsidies and Food Prices……………………………………………………………….. Zeke Mostov 323 Should College Athletes Be Paid? ………………………………………………………..Jason Nemerovski 330 The American Apathy towards Soccer………………………………………………………...Tommy Neville 336


Gangs in Juvenile Hall: What Can We Do? ……………………………………………………...Izzy Paxton 344 Heading for the Emergency Room? …………………………………………………………. Justice Skolnik 350 The Broken Career: NFL Guidelines for Injury Prevention………………………………… Erik Spangberg 356 The Stress Epidemic in Teens Today…………………………………………………………… Zach Ticktin 362 The Two Wheel Revolution………………………………………………………………………Fiona Twiford 366 Musical Therapy…………………………………………………………...……………………….. Chris Wong 375 Are You Really Thinking Freely? Opening the World of Emotions……………………… Jordan Yanowitz 380

Issue 3: June 2012 Born to Run: Dogs Need to Be Off-Leash………………………………………...Benjamin Eskin Shapson 387 The Brain and Its Role in Our Ability to Learn……………………………………………………. Alex Heller 392 The Weight of Society………………………………………………………………………….Kaiya Holtzman 398 Graffiti: Creative Art or Pointless Act of Vandalism……………………………………………… Miles Kelly 404 Prick Me! Prick Me!: Acupuncture as Primary Care…………………………………………..Rebecca King 408 Water Efficient Devices: The Effect They Have on You……………………………………….Emma Lasky 417 Big Box Stores: Burden or Benefit? ………………………………………………………… Kyoko Peterson 423 The Causes and Effects of Domestic Abuse……………………………………………...Emma Sturdevant 433 Arm Injuries: An Epidemic for Professional and Non-Professional Baseball Players………. Jake Vollen 440 Cracking the AP………………………………………………………………………………………. Anni Wen 447


Fall 2011

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Research in the Community The Bay School of San Francisco


Amy Andreini

Nature Kills: How to Keep the Public Safe in National Parks The National Park Service (NPS) was created as a branch of the United States Department of Interior in 1916; since then there have been millions of people nationwide visiting the Parks every year. These parks are mainly for recreational enjoyment, such as camping and hiking, but they do present many dangers to people visiting the parks. National Park Rangers serve to protect park visitors from potential dangers, but most dangers are caused by the people themselves. Although National Parks spend large amounts of time and money on rangers and law enforcement, a lack of visitor education leads to unsafe situations which can easily be avoided by more funding for visitor centers and information about the dangers one faces when entering a National Park.

Although National Parks are fun to visit, and many visitors are families looking for a way to escape into nature; the parks are wilderness and wilderness can be very dangerous. National Parks can be very dangerous, as National Geographic’s film Secret Yosemite shows: “I just want to press on people that the dangers of nature, how strong, how unpredictable they can be” (National Geographic). Nature is always unpredictable, and no matter how much people want to believe National Parks are safe, they are not and they need to be visited with caution. A similar point is made in the book Death in Yellowstone by Lee Whittlesey, “While appreciating its wholeness. Dangers are a part of that wholeness; we must never abandon a healthy respect for wilderness” (Whittlesey 198). In the wild a healthy respect towards nature can be the difference between life and death. Many people have survived in Parks while being underprepared, these are all lucky situations; many people who are not prepared face the grim consequences. When set in nature a human possesses little power against the elements, “You have to respect it; man is no match for nature in all its awesome power” (National Geographic). As hard as we try and as much new technology is developed to be prepared for the wilderness, one does not stand a chance if one does not have a healthy respect for the wilderness. As Whittlesey states, “Wilderness is impersonal. It does not care whether you live or die. It does not care how much you love it” (Whittlesey 198). As strong as this statement is, it is true: surviving in the National Parks is not im2


possible. Thousands of people do it every year, but there are the few who may lack boundaries and respect in nature, by not realizing the real dangers presented in National Parks. ! Besides visitor education through park visitor centers, another way the government plays a role in visitor safety is through the Park Ranger system. According to John Dempsey, a professor of criminal justice and a retired New York City police captain, there are two main types of Rangers, commissioned rangers and seasonal rangers. Commissioned rangers are commissioned by the government and receive a fully paid education, living arrangements, and a year-round job with the National Park Service (Dempsey). Seasonal Rangers only work during seasonal periods. Depending on the park they work in, most seasonal rangers work in the summertime when there is a noticeable increase in the amount of visitors to the parks. There is a large difference between the required education of commissioned rangers and seasonal rangers; while commissioned rangers require a four hundred hour class, seasonal rangers only require 334 hours of training of training and pay for the training themselves (Dempsey). The third type of law enforcement officers in National Parks are Park Police, these are the law enforcement officers who are more commonly seen in urban parks and monuments such as the Presidio, and the rest of San Francisco and New York City (Dempsey). In 1998 there were 2, 150 full time commissioned Park Rangers, 1,550 Seasonal Rangers, and 600 Park Police (Dempsey). The govern-

ment takes Park Rangers very seriously; in 1997 the Federal government spent $84 million on law enforcement in National Parks (Dempsey). These three types of park law enforcement spend their days protecting park visitors from potential safety hazards, and essentially save their lives. There are far more commissioned rangers than seasonal rangers, but both play a very important role in the safety of park visitors. The jobs of each type of ranger differs; commissioned rangers are responsible for many things such as: patrolling areas of National Parks, enforcing safety regulations, leading educational talks and presentations, and leading hikes around parks (Dempsey). Seasonal rangers have similar jobs as commissioned rangers, but due to the difference in training they do not have as much authority. Rangers have very important jobs requiring them to respond to emergency situations, but their main focus is to secure visitor safety in the National Parks. Park rangers face different dangers every day, but a majority of their training and dangerous real-life situations are a result of visitor negligence and other human mistakes. “Although they [Park Rangers] patrol vast amounts of pristine wilderness and often face dangerous animals… most of the problems these officers face involve people – the visitors to the parks” (Dempsey). With new advances in technology, such as GPS devices with emergency buttons that if pressed send ones location to emergency rescue teams to launch a search and rescue, visitors 3


seem to feel more comfortable with taking high risk choices. According to Matt Scharper, California’s search and rescue coordinator; “People need to be educated; they need to be prepared. They need to train, prepare and equip for the environment, and don’t take [unreasonable] chances just because they have this device” (“With New GPS”). Human dangers are always a threat in National Parks, which is why the NPS strives for citizen evolvement, education, employee development, and research and technology (“The National Park System”). These are all things that will promote visitor safety, and keep the parks safe for the future generations to enjoy. Most of human accidents and fatal missteps were caused by the negligence of park visitors. The NPS does a very good job at putting up warning signs where they are necessary, but unfortunately many of them are ignored by visitors just to take photos or to get a closer look at the waterfall. Many visitors neglect their own safety in order to take a photo, “Almost all of the Park’s waterfall accidents were the result of carelessness, often while snapping a photo” (Fimrite). Nature is beautiful and should be captured on film, but the NPS puts up the signs for a reason, and does not like to witness any tragedies in the parks. People seem to think it is okay to climb over barriers and railings just to get a good picture, but this puts them in a lot of danger (“Yosemite Visitor”). Another factor in a lot of fatal incidents in National Parks is that safety pamphlets are found in the cars of the people who got injured (Whittlesey 4). This shows that

the NPS is giving out adequate information that could save people lives, but many people choose to ignore the information. The negligence of signs and pamphlets could be due to a poor transfer of safety information from the NPS to the visitor. Many visitors need to be made aware of past deaths in order to gain an understanding of the dangers, “tragedies of this sort are too soon forgotten and too soon some other person with a venturesome spirit is likely to duplicate the terrible story told concerning the unhappy ending of a park vacation” (Whittlesey). One way of teaching about park dangers is to inform visitors of past deaths that have occurred, but there have been many similar deaths in parks either from waterfalls, or animal attacks which proves that people are still in the mind-set that the rules do not apply to them. This is why visitor centers and educational talks are needed as a more effective way to pass on valuable safety information from a ranger to a visitor, because they can hear the information from an actual ranger and listen to the facts. This year has been Yosemite’s “deadliest” year in ten years with a total of 17 deaths in the park just from January to August (Garofoli). One very prominent death occurred in July of this year, when three California hikers, one of them from San Francisco, were swept over the edge of Vernal Falls in Yosemite (Fimrite). Vernal Falls is a 317 foot drop; according to Scott Gediman, a Spokesman for Yosemite National Park, “nobody can survive a fall like that” (Fimrite). One cause of this year’s increase in water related deaths is due to the large amount of winter snowfall, 4


the melting snow is causing raging rivers that can consume anyone if they manage to slip into the water (Fimrite). There have been multiple cases of deaths this year alone with park visitors crossing the protective barriers to get a closer look and slipping into the water. Of the estimated 2,000 visitors per day during the summer-time to the falls, the three visitors may not sound like a large amount; but it is devastating (Fimrite). The deaths also have effects on many people involved such as the families of the victims, and the rest of the park visitors who stood by watching as the three passed over the edge of the falls. These deaths not only bring out sorrow in everyone, but also brings out frustration and anger from the fact that they could have easily been prevented by simply listening to the signs and the voices of other visitors who repeatedly told the three hikers to come back to the other side of the barrier (Fimrite). Jake Bibee, a man witnessed the fall, relives the horrifying experience “‘The fear of death in a man's face as he is about to die is not something I've ever seen before and I don't want to see again,’ … ‘Not just that family was damaged, but all of us who had to watch those people die are damaged’” (Fimrite). When most incidents occur there is usually a crowd of people who witness the tragic incident; this is an extremely hard sight to witness. Many bystanders have the feeling of helplessness when having to just stand by and watch as innocent people die.

Another dangerous threat to visitors in Yosemite are the mountain trails, such as the famous Half Dome trek. The seventeenth death occurring in Yosemite this year was a man who fell off the face of half dome around sunset (Garofoli). Yosemite has been taken big steps to further improve safety conditions on Half Dome; during the summer of 2010 a required permit system for half dome climbers was put into action. This has cut down the amount of people at one time climbing the mountain; “previously 1,200 people per day were squeezing onto the cables,” now with this permit system in place there are only 400 people a day allowed to climb half dome (Garofoli). This permit system has made noticeable improvements to the safety of this beautiful climb; since the permit system was put in place, there have been fewer injuries and deaths occurring on Half Dome (Garofoli). There are simple steps that parks can take in order to create an overall safe environment in order to prevent as many injuries and deaths as possible. The Half Dome permits are important because they regulate the amount of climbers per day. This could be regulated by the visitors themselves by using common sense but unfortunately most people assume that since there are rangers they can be saved in case of an emergency. Before the permits, people would go outside the permitted cables without harnesses because they want to connect with nature and feel safe to wander around the top of half dome without resulting in an injury or death.

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Most visitors rely on the fact that the park is their playground to explore, which it is; but they seem to forget that not all playgrounds are safe. When they forget this and get injured or killed people try to put a blame on the park for not creating a safe environment; “People take too many chances in the Park. Then, when something happens and a person dies, the park is held responsible for their actions. Hogwash!” (Whittlesey 196). The park would like nothing more than to be able to keep every visitor safe, but unfortunately that is not possible. Ultimately it is up to each individual to take responsibility for their own actions and consequences just like in any other place. The NPS puts up a lot of signs and barriers to protect people from overstepping their boundaries; but most people who get injured are usually found to have ignored a sign. These people must realize that, “Wilderness is not just another product or commodity to be made safe to prevent products of liability or litigation” (Whittlesey 196). A visitor does not have the right in a park to ignore the safety precautions and then try to sue the Park for not ensuring their safety. Visitors are not obligated to follow the signs, but they have to be willing to follow the consequences when something goes wrong. There have been multiple cases in which the injured have sued the NPS, and also fought to put up more signs in all areas of the parks. This is highly unnecessary, because if a visitor had listened to the first sign they would not need another sign further down the road where the visitor should not be in the first

place. Lee Whittlesey, Author of Death in Yellowstone puts this fight into perspective by stating that, “His [The judges] arguments would put signs on every square inch of the park because someone (somewhere, sometime) might not see them. Analogously I could ask should New York’s Central Park have signs every ten feet saying ‘Danger! Muggers!’ just because a non-streetwise, non-New Yorker might go walking there? Analogously I could ask … Should we stretch a net across the Yellowstone River above the falls in case someone falls in?” (Whittlesey 46). National Parks are obviously very different than New York City, but this argument suggests that every place has its own dangers and a park visitor must be aware of them before entering just as a tourist in New York must be aware of the different dangers there. National Parks and recreation areas tend to receive budget cuts quite often, but the past six years have been filled with extremely large budget cuts for the NPS. In 2006 the NPS suffered a large budget cut in which all California Parks and recreational areas under the NPS were forced to by the year 2011 to operate from 80% of their usual budget (National Parks Cutting Back). Other states including Georgia received a 40% budget cut unlike California’s 20% budget cut (State Parks). With these budget cuts, “not only are service being reduced, but positions are being eliminated” (National Parks Cutting Back). The cutting back on services entails closing visitor centers, campsites, and stopping the supply of water and trash services in certain areas 6


of the parks. These are all important services that are necessary in order to attract visitors to the parks, and necessary to keep them safe once they are in the park. Many parks all around the country are facing similar budget cuts which are forcing the parks to make big adjustments, “Mirroring a nationwide trend, Utah’s State parks took a deep budget cut earlier this year. Another double digit cut is likely next year, so one of Utah’s oldest and most important parks is down to one employee” (State Parks). This one employee is Carl Camp; he is the park curator, and now after recent budget cuts he can be found mowing the lawn, tending to the gardens, and helping visitors navigate their way through the park. It is hard enough dealing with the budget cuts let alone being the only employee in a small park. There is another plan in effect that is leading up to another $10 million budget cut in 2012 (Barton). This next cut would place an even larger strain on the National Park System. Many people argue that there are too many parks and monuments under the control of the NPS which leads to less funding for each park once the budget is divided (Barton). These parks are a part of the NPS for a reason, to be protected for future generations and to protect them from destructive forces. Budget cuts are very common with the recession, cutting one or two parks from the NPS would not make that much of a difference in the NPS budget. There are many budget cuts happening in all lines of

work, but in the NPS the elimination of employees and visitor centers could be putting someone’s life in danger. Over the past couple of years the NPS has had a noticeable increase in the amount of park visitors annually. There are many visitors in each park, and people come from all over the world to take a look at America’s most famous monuments such as Vernal Falls, Half Dome, and the Golden Gate Bridge, “The 394 National Parks draw 270 million visitors annually and remain a top attraction for foreign tourists” (Barton). Yosemite and the Golden Gate National Recreation Area have always had many things to offer that have drawn a crowd for many years, but they are having an increase in visitors every year. The year 2009 brought in 3,737,427 visitors to the Golden Gate National Recreation Area, which is an increase to the 3,431,514 visitors they got in 2008 (“NPS Stats”). During the recent recession people have cut down on their overseas travel budgets and stayed closer to home, which has drawn in more visitors to the National Parks. This has a big effect on the amount of annual visitors to National parks all over the United States. Many National Parks have washed out roads and aging buildings in dire need of restoration; but little funds are available to help repair them. This causes potential safety hazards for park visitors. The NPS has set their ideal budget for annual park maintenance at $700 million; although that is far off of the $250 million they receive (Barton). With this lack of funds going to7


wards maintenance in the Parks, many parks have had to cut services such as: campsites, trash, water, and visitor centers (National Parks Cutting back). These services usually help attract visitors, which brings in an income, but the parks cannot budget for most of these accommodations to remain open to the public. National Parks were made to be preserved and enjoyed by the public, it is very important that visitors keep exploring the parks and enjoying the wilderness. It is also very important that visitors do not lose visitor centers and rangers to educate them due to budget cuts. What visitors need most is a place such as visitor education centers to explore the parks and learn what to do in emergency situations and how to prevent them so they are not learning this first hand. More funding towards park maintenance and visitor centers would decrease injuries and fatal incidents by a lot, improving the National Park System as a whole. I would like to acknowledge of Craig Butz, Jack Jue, and Gibson Buttfield, for giving me feedback and helping edit my Research paper, also to Rachel Shaw for helping me with my Works Cited.

Works Cited Barton, Paul. “Funding, Staff Shortages Threaten National Parks.” Great Falls Tribune. Great Falls Tribune, 3 Sep. 2011. Web. 3 Oct. 2011. Dempsey, John. “Law Enforcement in the Wild.” Law & Order. 47.7 (1999): 125-129. ProQuest Resource Center. Web. 23 Sep. 2011. Fimrite, Peter. “Yosemite: Three Presumed Dead, Swept Over Vernal Fall.” SFGate. San Francisco Chronicle, 21 Jul. 2011. Web. 3 Oct. 2011. Garofoli, Joe. “Man Dies in Fall From Yosemite’s Half Dome.” SFGate. San Francisco Chronicle, 24 Aug. 2011. Web. 19 Sep. 2011. Mantell, Michael and Philip Metzger. “The Organic Act and the Stewardship of Resources Within Park Boundaries.” National Park Service. National Park Service, 23 Feb. 2005. Web. 29 Sep. 2011 National Geographic: Secret Yosemite. National Geographic, 2007. Netflix. Web. 25 Sep. 2011. "National Parks Cutting Back." Parks & Recreation. (2006): 21. ProQuest Research Library. Web. 23 Sep. 2011.

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“NPS Stats.” NPS Reports. National Park Service, N.d. Web. 6 Oct. 2011. “Section 1.4 of the 2001 Edition of National Park Service Management Policies, Interpreting the Key Statutory Provisions of the 1916 NPS Organic Act.” Park Protection. National Park Service, N.d. Web. 29 Sep. 2011. “State Parks Juggle More Visitors With Budget Cuts.” Morning Edition. National Public Radio, 30 Oct. 2009. Web. 22 Sep. 2011. “The National Park System Caring for the American Legacy.” National Park Service. National Park Service, N.d. Web. 29 Sep. 2011. Whittlesey, Lee H. Death in Yellowstone Accidents and Foolhardiness in the First National Park. Maryland: Roberts Rinehart Publishers, 1995. Print. “With New GPS Devices, Hikers Take More Risks.” All Things Considered. National Public Radio, 26 Oct. 2009. Web. 30 Sep. 2011.

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Nick Bennett

The America’s Cup

Introduction San Francisco Bay will be home to the 34th America’s Cup that will take place in the summer of 2013. The America’s Cup has become one of the world’s most exciting sport competitions, bringing together the best sailors and the world’s fastest sailboats – the wing-sailed AC72 catamaran. The America’s Cup could create great employment and economic development opportunities for San Franciscans and local businesses. According to the City and County of San Francisco the America’s Cup could create 8,800 jobs and $1.4 billion additional revenue. However, the America’s Cup is also bringing all sort of complex issues such as planning, fundraising, visitor transportation, preservation of the environment, traffic flow etc. The America’s Cup, if successful, will showcase San Francisco and the Bay Area to the world.

History and Evolution of the America’s Cup The America’s Cup started in 1851 and was first won by the schooner America, hence the trophy’s name. The cup was donated by the Royal Yacht Squadron’s. The first competition took place around the Isle of Wight. It is the most difficult trophy in sports to win: only four nations have held the trophy (Australia, England, Switzerland and the USA). The sailing competition comprises two phases. The America’s Cup Challenger Series where international teams compete for the right to race the Defender of the America’s Cup. The winner will race against the current Defender – the American BMW Oracle Racing team. Each team has to be sponsored by an approved yacht club. Larry Ellison’s team, sponsored by the Golden Gate Yacht Club, won the last America’s Cup held in Valencia in 2010. Ellison, CEO of Oracle and one of the wealthiest men in the U.S.A, used his immense wealth to build a hi-tech Catamaran with the help of NASA engineers, equipped with a 223-foot wing sail, which can power the boat at three times the speed of the wind. He was also able to hire the best skippers and crews. As winner of the last competition Ellison was the one to decide which city should host the 2013 America’s Cup. He selected San Fran10


cisco and his request was endorsed by the former mayor of the city, Gavin Newsom.

Benefits and Opportunities The America’s Cup will have a tremendous economic impact on the economy of the Bay Area above all for the construction, transportation, food & beverage, and hospitality sectors. And will also have a positive impact on regional attractions such as Napa Valley and Yosemite National Park. According to Jon Haveman, economist and the author of the study commissioned by former mayor Newsom, the America’s Cup could bring to San Francisco 50,000-100,000 spectators during the America’s Cup Challenger Series (the Louis Vuitton Cup) and between 250,000-500,000 spectators during the America Cup’s Finals. Also according to Haveman a minimum of $800MM additional spending is necessary to prepare the city for the event. The restructuring of the piers around the Embarcadero is an essential part of the project. Ellison has agreed to finance the restructuring in exchange of a long term lease of the piers. Pier 27 and 29 will be the location of the America’s Cup village, a large amphitheater and a super Yacht terminal. Pier 30 and 32 will be used for the repair and storage of the catamarans. The Marina Green will host the press and entertainment for the spectators between races. The American Cup’s will force the city to finally renovate most of the waterfront piers and buildings. Some of the jobs generated will be short term but some of them

have the potential to remain permanent given the expected economic boost. “In addition if Oracle wins again, you could probably safely assume they would want to have it here again,” said America’s Cup spokeswoman Stephanie Martin (San Francisco Business Times, January 21, 2011).

Challenges In December 2010 the City of San Francisco, the America’s Cup Event Authority (the organization formed to raise $270 million in sponsorships to cover the cost of the America’s Cup Finals and all the events leading up to it) and the America’s Cup Organizing Committee (a committee made up by some of the most prominent politicians, business and community leaders) signed the America’s Cup Host and Venue Agreement. Part of the agreement is a series of plans dealing with the environment, public safety, transportation etc. The “People Plan”, a planning document prepared by the City of San Francisco, has formulated five guiding principles for the America’s Cup “safety, resource efficiency, environmental sustainability, strategic adaptability and positive legacy”. The race course of the America’s Cup will be held inside the Bay which brings many concerns about safety, recreational use and its location in the bay. Every America’s Cup race has been held in the ocean, a couple of miles away from a city’s bayshore to avoid any interference with other boats. In the 34th America’s Cup, the course will be held inside the bay, which 11


has never been done in the America’s Cup history. The Coast Guard will coordinate the tankers by interrupting the race to let the tankers pass and reroute the course of pleasure boats and ferries to avoid interrupting the race. The race course will be between the Golden Gate Bridge and Alcatraz. The race will be for the first time easily accessible to the many people watching. Existing public transportation lines will be reinforced and parking facilities outside the city will be made available. Bicycle sharing is going to be introduced and shuttles will ran from different parts of the city. A commemorative Clipper Card will be introduced allowing access to all means of transportation. America’s Cup staff will welcome visitors at the airport and throughout the city providing information about public transportation and how to arrive to key destinations. Mike Martin, the City’s Project Manager for the America’s Cup, thinks the most compelling aspect of the Plan will be information: both in terms of peoples’ feedback on the plan but also feeding information to people who are coming to watch the event. He also endorses the use of web tools to enhance the end result of the Plan, “We’ll be excited to us information technology that’s being developed to make platforms for people to really understand what they’re going to see before they even get here.” (SailBlast March 31, 2011) A great focus is put on environmental sustainability: the number of super yachts has been limited to 24; traffic will be kept under

control by providing different means of public transportation thus limiting pollution and congestion; noise reduction will be addressed to make sure that the persons living around the Embarcadero can continue to go on with their lives without too many inconveniences. Strategic adaptability will imply the ability to make informed decision on a day-to-day basis above all related to transportation in accordance to the attendance for a particular event. The strategies outlined in the People Plan hopefully will create changes in transportation, coordination among different agencies and use of technology and information tools that will last well beyond the America’s Cup. Given the precarious budget situation of the City of San Francisco the event Authority with the help of the San Francisco America’s Cup Organizing Committee have to raise the funds to cover the costs through sponsorships and philanthropic contributions. “Fortunately, this is just a great spot” for America’s Cup to seek out sponsors, Craig Thompson, CEO of the Event Authority said of the Bay Area. “You have global headquarters of a lot of big, big companies. Obviously the high-tech industry is here. But there is a lot of banking, just a lot of global companies headquartered here.” (San Francisco Business Times, January 21,2011). 12


How the America’s Cup Will Transform Sailing A few years ago, Fred Allardyce, a supporter of the America’s Cup and an active community activist, talking with Judge Newsom, father of the former Mayor, said ““It would be amazing if Larry brought the America’s Cup to San Francisco. It could change the face of sailing”. He is right. According to D. Boyer, San Francisco Independent Media Center, January 6, 201, new elements will include: 
 
 * Groundbreaking new boats – the wing-sailed AC45 and AC72 catamarans – capable of close to 40 knots to enable 
 unparalleled racing competition and on-the-water excitement 
 * New course formats to create tight, tactical racing that showcases the speed of the boats and the skill of the sailors 
 * Enhanced online broadcasting to deliver a personalized viewer experience 
 * New broadcast formats including magazine programs, reality formats and racing packaged for live television 
 * A comprehensive sustainability program focused on the world’s oceans 
 * New race formats in new race venues through the America’s Cup World Series 
 * A clear path for young athletes through the Youth America’s Cup

Ellison knows the power of promotion, especially of television "No sport can be successful without good TV coverage," …"The TV coverage of the America's Cup has been dismal in the United States. We can fix that easily…..With a little bit of technology, and care and attention, I think we can make this incredibly exciting." (Adam Lashinsky, Fortune, March 19, 2010). Ellison’s dream is to transform sailing in a sport more appealing to the general public and make it exciting to the younger generations, above all the extreme sports youth. Sailing has been Ellison’s passion for all his life and he has been racing competitively for many years. In 1998 during a sailing race off the coast of Australia he almost lost his life “It shook up all 24 of us. That crew was the same crew that was on Black Magic, which won the America's Cup for New Zealand [in 1995]. It's an amazingly professional crew. All those guys were shook up. I've known for a long time that life is glorious and fragile and short. This reemphasized it -- it didn't really change me. It was amazing….. We certainly thought it was possible we wouldn't make it. The waves were 40-feet high. They were vertical. They were walls. …It was like being dropped off a four-story building onto asphalt every 45 seconds. That happened for three hours. It was very bad”. (BusinessWeek On line, May 8, 200). His passion for sailing is stronger than ever and he wants to transmit it to the millions of people around the world who will watch the America’s Cup in 2013. 13


Conclusion

Works Cited

What is the America’s Cup? Will the America’s Cup benefit the Bay Area? Is the America’s Cup going to respect the environment? How will the America’s Cup transform sailing? These are some of the questions that I have addressed in my paper. The work ahead is enormous and requires the collaboration of many different government and private organizations. Raising the funds to pay for the costs is also critical.

Boyer, D. "Want Change? Then Welcome the America's Cup to San Francisco. : Indybay." San Francisco Bay Area Independent Media Center. 6 Jan. 2011. Web. 31 Oct. 2011. <http://www.indybay.org/newsitems/2011/01/06/18668434.php>

The America’s Cup 2013 will take place in in a natural amphitheater bounded by San Francisco, the Marin Headlands, Alcatraz and Angel Island. This unique setting offers the opportunity to attract an unprecedented number of visitors and watchers generating long-term economic benefits through the global exposure that would come from media coverage. Go America’s Cup! Go team BMW Oracle! Go San Francisco!

Lashinsky, Adam. "Larry Ellison's Plan for the America's Cup Mar. 19, 2010."CNNMoney - Business, Financial and Personal Finance News. 18 Mar. 2010. Web. 3 Oct. 2011. <http://money.cnn.com/2010/03/18/technology/ellison_americas _cup.fortune/index.htm>. Lochhass, Tom. "Larry Ellison America’s Cup Sail Race – Larry Ellison in BMW Oracle America Cup." Sailing - Sailboats Learn How to Sail. 21 Jan. 2011. Web. 4 Oct. 2011. <http://sailing.about.com/od/advancedsailingcruising/a/LarryElli son.htm>. Young, Eric. "San Francisco to Recruit Americaâ™s Cup Crew San Francisco Business Times." Business News - The Business Journals. 21 Jan. 2011. Web. 31 Oct. 2011. <http://www.bizjournals.com/sanfrancisco/print-edition/2011/01/ 21/san-francisco-to-recruit-americas-cup.html?page=all>. Young, Eric. "San Francisco to Recruit Americaâ™s Cup Crew San Francisco Business Times." Business News - The Business Journals. 21 Jan. 2011. Web. 31 Oct. 2011. 14


<http://www.bizjournals.com/sanfrancisco/print-edition/2011/01/ 21/san-francisco-to-recruit-americas-cup.html?page=all>. Redmond, Tim. "The America's Cup Confusion." San Francisco Bay Guardian. 9 Feb. 2011. Web. 23 Sept. 2011. <http://www.sfbg.com/politics/2011/09/02/americas-cup-confusi on>. Schreiber, Dan. "America’s Cup Short of Cash for Planning 2013 Regatta | Dan Schreiber | Local | San Francisco Examiner." San Francisco Examiner | Breaking News & Bay Area News. 13 June 2011. Web. 25 Sept. 2011. <http://www.sfexaminer.com/local/2011/06/america-s-cup-shortcash-planning-2013-regatta>.

Roberts, Chris. "SF's Baywatchers Issue Warning to America's Cup | NBC Bay Area." NBC Bay Area - Local News, Weather, Traffic, Entertainment, Events, Breaking News Bay Area News, Sports, Weather, and Traffic | NBC Bay Area. 1 Sept. 2011. Web. 26 Sept. 2011. <http://www.nbcbayarea.com/news/local/SFs-Baywatchers-Issu e-Warning-to-Americas-Cup-128902393.html>. Coté, John. "America's Cup in S.F. a $1.4 Billion Anchor SFGate." Featured Articles From The SFGate. 19 July 2010. Web. 26 Sept. 2011. <http://articles.sfgate.com/2010-07-19/news/21988916_1_bmw -oracle-racing-team-economic-benefits-bay-area>.

Mullins, Jessica. "Marinscope Newspapers Archives Mill Valley Herald News Marin Voices Concerns over America’s Cup." Marinscope Newspapers Front. 31 Aug. 2011. Web. 25 Sept. 2011. <http://marinscope.com/articles/2011/08/31/mill_valley_herald/n ews/doc4e5e903f43871993162036.txt>. "America's Cup | Mayor Lee Issues." America's Cup. 19 Jan. 2011. Web. 26 Sept. 2011. <http://www.americascup.com/en/Latest/News/2011/1/Mayor-Le e-Issues-Executive-Directive-on-City-Commitment-to-Host-the34th-Americas-Cup-in-San-Francisco/>.

15


Gibson Buttfield

Recess: an Important Part of a Child’s School Career, or a Waste of Time? Over the past twenty years, many have argued over the necessity of recess. Recess has been a large part of our schooling and is well known as the time many make their best childhood friends. However, the question large parts of the country have been asking is: how necessary is recess? The school reform ‘No Child Left Behind’ in 2001 greatly reduced the willingness of the people in the community to allow as much time in recess when students could be doing more work to prepare for passing the annual test.  At this point, 40% of schools have stopped providing recess in America (Chaille).The decision to keep recess lies largely in the hands of those who live in the community, show-

ing that two-fifths of the country believes that recess should be abolished.  Recess needs to be kept in schools because it provides a strong, calming period that not only relaxes children and keeps them on task in class all day, but it also provides them with the benefit of developing creativity and supplies them with experiences that the children keep for the rest of their life. There is also “both theoretical and empirical evidence that allow16


ing time for recess or playground activities can yield immediate and long-term benefits for children of all ages” (Chaille). Mrs. Palpas, a first grade teacher at Park School in Mill Valley, is appalled at the idea that schools are removing recess time from their daily schedule. “At Park School, we have a recess break every hour, to make sure that they are on task all day,” (Palpas). Mrs. Palpas demonstrates this by comparing rainy days to normal school days. On rainy days, when there are no recess periods, the children become restless and easily distracted. This makes for a difficult time managing the children. She lets them out to run to the fence at the other end of the school and back for a quick break from the monotony of work. What keeps the kids going during the non-rainy days are the chances to get outside and take a break. As a result of more recess time, students spend their time more efficiently in class. Recess supplies children with more efficient time on task (Chaille). According to Chaille, time on task is the ability of students to stay focused on work. When children are in class for a long period of time, they get bored and look for another form of entertainment, and that’s when recess comes into play. The children clear their minds with recess and use their creativity in an open environment. As Pellegrini says, “recess fulfills children's need for novelty”. After a short while, they get bored of that too and long for something else to entertain them. That’s when the teachers bring them back into class. After a ten to fifteen minute

period of recess, they are brought back in and that longing for something different is satisfied by school. This theory is called time on task and is believed to be what is most important in a child’s school career. Without a break for  time on task, students would be forever in a bored state of mind, unable to absorb information and wouldn’t be able to use their time on task. A recent study in 2009 has shown evidence that teachers notice the benefits of recess. The study states that “a break of 15 minutes or more was associated with better classroom behavior as judged by the teacher, (Daily School Recess)”. With a break of fifteen minutes, the teacher noticed a change in the classroom behavior, such as a willingness to pay attention and memorize facts. However, due to the No Child Left Behind Act in 2001, school boards and communities have decided to cut down on recess in order to focus on academics and test taking. The over focusing on academics also cuts down on the time students have to learn a sport or practice an art. Sports and art help with the creativity needed for learning. Recess does more than just supply kids with the opportunity to grow creatively and socially. It also impacts their academic lives, in a great way: "the positive effects of distributed effort have specifically addressed the ways in which children learn numerous school-like tasks, such as native and foreign language vocabulary, recall from text, and math facts, (Pellegrini and Bjorklund)”. Children learn best when academic tasks are spaced rather than an intense amount of time 17


on one task. Recess provides creative breaks that children need to focus in class on difficult academic tasks. Those who oppose recess focus their argument on the need for students to spend more time working and less time playing. Recess, they say, “endangers the physical, emotional, and academic health, (Debate: is recess obsolete?)” what Armelia Williams is saying here is that abolishing recess would make sure that children spend more time studying if they were playing less. Lyn Breckenfelder retorts that children deprived of recess would in turn be deprived of a way to exercise that is actually fun. For example, many people begin to play a sport, such as soccer, when they are very young and enjoy it for the majority of their lives. Take two kids. One of the kids begins to play soccer when he is very young and the other never plays any sport as a young kid.  The first kid is provided with a fun activity that they can partake in, while the other is left without an activity to rely on. The second kid must now create an activity that he can play with his friends in order to stay entertained. The main goal on the playground is to have as much fun as possible in the ten to fifteen minute period that students have before they have to go back to class. The first kid may have a sport that he is able to play on a regular basis and know the rules to. This is not necessarily stretching the creativity of that child. The second kid, on the other hand, is constantly coming up with many games that he can play. That child is the one that is able to use his creativity more and more, and will most likely do better in

school. Williams said that recess would endanger the emotional health of a child because it provides children with negative experiences on the playground. Breckenfelder argues that the removal of recess would also harm the mental well being of a child, which would permanently be etched into that person’s life. Recess is usually the first time a child is matched with dozens of other people his or her age, which he can talk to and relate to. Without recess, these times would never happen and there would be no way that that person could fit in. Recess is not what is preventing the students from fitting in, but it is instead what kindles their social flame. As far as academic health, exercise calms students, and lets them stay in class longer without getting bored or stressed. It also improves the quality of time on task. This lets the students do better in class, and be physically in shape. The opponents are suggesting some alternatives to recess that could possibly supply children with the break required for more efficient time on task. Suggestions include physical education class and free play time. Unfortunately, physical education (PE) class does not help with giving students efficient time on task. The most important part of time on task is the use of creativity. Creativity is what keeps the kids’ minds active, and self reliant. Even though some say that physical education class fulfills the daily quota of play time, it lacks the most important part, creativity. Creativity drives the kids to make new games and fulfill the time they need to focus. With PE, there are fixed games that 18


the students must partake in that will exercise the kids the required amount of time. PE requires little creativity to play the games, and students aren’t really thinking in a way that would exercise their minds. Most games that are played in PE are fixed games that require everyone’s cooperation to succeed. In order to cooperate, one must follow the strict rules and guidelines or they will be completely lost. The students aren’t getting a break from their usual academic schedule due to the structured nature of physical education. PE isn’t supplying children with the required time they need to use their creativity. As an alternative to recess, some schools have offered something that they call ‘free play time’. This time is intended to successfully use the student’s creativity and exercise them, but in a classroom environment. There is also strict teacher supervision that prevents them from creating their own activities or mingling with students while an activity is under way. This does not help the children. These activities are not only unimaginative and boring, but the teacher supervision also hinders the students from using their creativity to make new games. So in the end, this free time isn’t really free at all. Since the beginning of the No Child Left Behind Act in 2001, school playgrounds have fallen into disuse because of the lack of time students have to play during the school day. Children aren’t out playing and using their imagination, but instead are inside, spending longer amounts of time on academic skills. If

there are no changes in the current recess policy, recess will be gone very soon and children will have no time to play or use their creativity at school. Recess is an important part of school that needs to be kept. If it is abolished children will struggle more with learning how to use their creativity early in life. One suggestion is to give children a ten to fifteen minute break after 30 to 40 minutes of time spent on academics. Another suggestion is for teachers to be more efficient in their transitions from one activity to the next. This is important because it cuts out useless class time that could be spent on recess. A third suggestion is to manage clean up time more efficiently so that kids have more time for recess.  These simple changes can help children from getting bored and distracted in class, as well as help students embrace their creativity. What schools really need to do is keep time for recess and find other ways to make room for more efficient work time.

Works Cited Chaille, Christine. "The Silencing of Recess Bells." Childhood Education 77.5 (2001): 319,319-320. ProQuest Research Library. Web. 19 Sep. 2011. Williams, Armelia, and Lynn Breckenfelder. "Debate: Is Recess Obsolete?" NEA Today 17.8 (1999): 43-. ProQuest Research Library. Web. 22 Sep. 2011.

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Jacobson, Linda. "Children's Lack of Playtime seen as Troubling Health, School Issue." Education Week 28.14 (2008): 1,1, 14, 15. ProQuest Research Library. Web. 22 Sep. 2011. "Eliminating School Recess for Children a Bad Idea." <span class="hit">Chicago Defender</span>: 13. Black Newspapers. Oct 09 1997. Web. 23 Sep. 2011 <http://search.proquest.com/docview/246928692?accountid=38 30>. Ramstetter, Catherine L, MS,PhD., C.S.C.S., Robert Murray, and Garner, Andrew S, MD,PhD., F.A.A.P. "The Crucial Role of Recess in Schools." The Journal of school health 80.11 (2010): 517. ProQuest Research Library.Web. 23 Sep. 2011. Burgeson, Charlene R., et al. "Physical Education and Activity: Results from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000." The Journal of school health 71.7 (2001): 279,279-93. ProQuest Research Library. Web. 22 Sep. 2011. “Palpas.” Personal Interview. Sep 30 2011.

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Emmett Greenberg

You Have to Retrofit Have you ever wondered when an earthquake was going to hit San Francisco? Have you ever wondered if your house is prepared to withstand a devastating shake? Well, an earthquake could hit any minute, and many wood frame houses are not able to cope with a sizable earthquake that is predestined to hit. Many wood frame houses need to be retrofitted in order save lives. Wood frame houses in San Francisco that are not built with current building standards, or pre-existing building that are not retrofitted at all, and especially homes built in the pre1940s, have been deemed unsafe in earthquakes, the owners of these homes need to retrofit if a disaster is to be avoided. Wood frame houses are a superior type of building to endure the seismic waves earthquakes produce, because of their strength to weight ratio. That is why 87 percent of all living buildings in San Francisco are wood frame, but there are still some problems that can make them unsafe; starting from the ground up.

In San Francisco there are many different types of soil which a house could be situated on, from the solid rock of Twin Peaks, to the sand and gravel of the Richmond, to the artificial landfill and water saturated mud of the Marina. The best type of soil in the city is igneous rock, bedrock, sandstone, mudstone, and limestone which are superior for handling and subduing the seismic waves of an earthquake. The most common type of soil consists of sand and gravel, which is okay. It is not the best, but it is not the worst. The worst type of soil is artificial landfill and water saturated mud, which can amplify the seismic waves and could be subject to liquefaction (“Soil Type and Shaking Hazard in the San Francisco Bay Area”). As described by The United States Geological Survey (USGS), “Liquefaction takes place when loosely packed, water-logged sediments at or near the ground surface lose their strength and act like a fluid in response to strong ground shaking. Liquefaction occurring beneath buildings and other structures can cause major damage during earthquakes.” Where a house is located and what soil is built upon is a huge factor when an earthquake hits, which can amplify the negative effects on a house’s foundation. When an earthquake occurs it sends waves that move houses in a lateral motion, when a lot of houses are designed to just withstand their own gravity loads. This lateral motion can send houses off their foundations, if they are not firmly anchored. A lot of wood frame houses have wood posts that rest and are not 21


anchored to their concrete foundation. When the lateral seismic waves hit a non-anchored house, the lateral motion if great enough, can result in the house to lean off its foundation which can stress more force on a certain part of the structure that can’t manage it, making it easier for the house to collapse. Here is an example of a wooden post that is not attached to the foundation.

In figure 1, notice how the post is just resting on top the small block of concrete foundation (“The ShakeOut Scenario”). Besides the fact that some houses have unbolted foundations, 62 percent of wood frame houses in San Francisco are weak soft story buildings. (“San Francisco’s Earthquake Risk”). A weak soft story is when the first floor of the building is feeble and is susceptible for major damage in an earthquake. Houses with a weak soft story are homes with parking garages underneath the house, which are usually held up by unreinforced walls or posts. Another example of this, are homes or apartments built on top of stores that are weak like garages. Weak soft story buildings are at greater risk of collapsing during an earthquake, because the ground shifts and the weak soft story is not capable of supporting the rest of the house anymore, which results in a collapse. Here is an example of this happening to an apartment building with a parking garage underneath that collapsed in the 1994 Northridge earthquake.

Figure 1. Post Beneath House not Secured to Foundation Pad or Floor Beam: Graf, William. The ShakeOut Scenario. University of Colorado. USGS. May 2008. Web. 16 Sep. 2011.

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occur. If that is, the wood frame structure is not damaged in the first place. Older wood frame houses are susceptible to many issues that greatly weaken the structure extremely quickly. Dry rot is one of the main concerns for older buildings. It’s a fungus that eats away at wood, making it brittle and fragile. Dry rot weakens the structure of a wood frame house immensely, making it easier for a collapse in an earthquake. Termites are also a big issue for wood frame houses. Termites eat holes throughout the wood frame structure making it weaker and thus easier for a collapse. ! Figure 2. Apartment with a Weak Soft Story Collapsed in 1994 Northridge Earthquake: Graf, William. The ShakeOut Scenario. University of Colorado. USGS. May 2008. Web. 16 Sep. 2011.

Because we live in a city like San Francisco where houses are close together, houses can pound each other during an earthquake. Pounding happens when houses are close together and mainly damage the upper floors in an apartment building or house. When the waves of an earthquake pass through houses they resonate at different frequencies and vibrate. Don Libbey, a civil engineer who does a lot earthquake retrofitting, further explains this topic, “When two houses are vibrating at different frequencies, the upper floors of the houses can smash into other houses that are adjacent to them.” Reinforcing of walls will add rigidity to wood frame structures so pounding does not

All these problems in wood frame houses, but wood frame houses are much better than some other types of homes like unreinforced masonry and unreinforced concrete. Wood frame buildings are good for withstanding earthquakes because of their strength to weight ratio and ductility (the ability of the structure to yield and to deform without collapse. It is desirable for a building to have some flexing capacity when subjected to the sudden loads of an earthquake because the flexing allows the building to dissipate energy). Homes that are not up to the current standards need retrofitting (“Wood Frame Construction”). These problems in the design of wood frame houses can be addressed in many retrofitting techniques such as strengthening walls with sheer walls, adding plywood in places of impact, anchoring the house to the foundation, and structural connectivity.

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There are many different ways to retrofit walls so they can cope with the lateral motion, and sheer walls are the most common. Sheer walls are composed of braced panels or reinforced concrete that act as a support to the original walls of the structure. They are built from the foundation up. Sheer walls are very good at strengthening the building structure so it has more rigidity. Braced panel sheer walls are wooden walls that are usually in a triangular arrangement making it a strong support. Reinforced concrete sheer walls have steel anywhere from ½ inch to 2 inch think poles that are embedded in the concrete giving the concrete a backbone, so it won’t crack and crumble. Sheer walls are very good for making the structure of a building stronger. There is a cheap an easy way to make homes absorb the force of a lateral wave, and that solution is plywood. One would think plywood is a thin piece of flexible wood that can break under a little stress. How is that going to reinforce your house to stop an earthquake? Well, when you nail plywood against a wall usually in the first floor, the lateral force of a quake will be lessened, and the house will have a greater chance of handling the shake. Instead of nails bolting the plywood in with screws are better because it locks the piece in instead of clamping on it. The nails or screws are placed every 4 to 6 inches so it gives the piece of plywood and the structure rigidity. The walls need to be able to cope a big shake but the house itself needs to be anchored to the foundation as well.

The foundation needs to be anchored into the foundation, and the best way for this is bolting the main wood frame beams into the foundation. Epoxy-set foundation bolts are another technique, where the lateral movement is expected to pull the bolt up and outward out of the concrete foundation. When the bolts are pulled from the foundation, the force of the shake is dissipated. Epoxy-set bolts can be improved by making them longer and setting them deeper into the concrete. Bolting washers are an important part of anchoring to a foundation, and the type, size and shape of the bolting washer also makes a difference in bolting strength. Current retrofitting standards call for thicker and larger square washers as compared to the small, thin, round washers found in houses built prior to the mid 1990s. This allows the beam to be clamped more securely to the foundation. The use of the newer square washer increases the holding strength of the bolts to the beams by up to 60 percent (“Earthquake Retrofitting”). On top of a well anchored foundation the wooden structure needs to have good connectivity. The walls should be connected as a whole so the earthquake can’t break down each part of the house. The wood frame structure needs to be firmly held together with braces and clasps. Most pre-1940s houses have wood frame structures that are held together with nails. During the vibrations and racking of an earthquake the beams of wood can vibrate apart since they’re only connected by nails. Now, there are braces and clasps that hold the beams together and then have screws that tightly se24


cure the wood. Connectivity is important for making a house behave like a singular structural unit, and is critical for withstanding an earthquake (“Wood-Frame Construction”). All of these methods are effective ways in making ones house safer, but building standards could be better. In California, are codes are best in the world for earthquake design, since we are familiar with big earthquakes from the past, but there are so many preexisting buildings that are not up to date with the current standards and they would have a higher chance of collapsing. Although there are a lot of un-retrofitted houses, California would perform way better than a quake in a 3rd world country. The 1989 Loma Prieta quake measuring 6.9 on the Richter scale killed only 63 people when in 1999 a 7.4 quake in Turkey killed 15,000 (“Wood-Frame Construction”). Therefore are codes are decent but they should be better. The question is, should we retrofit so people lives will be saved but the building will probably be inhabitable afterwards, or should we destroy unfit buildings and make them save lives and usable continuously? The first way would be cheaper but if a quake hit, everyone’s house would be destroyed at the same time, which would make many people homeless. The second one would be more effective in the long run but more expensive and harder to do. We should do both of these in a balance, so some people would be fine after a big earthquake struck and some people would need new homes, which the government should help

fund. We also need to find away to strengthen soft weak story buildings or find a working replacement. We need to upgrade older buildings so people in them are not severely injured or killed. People who own houses that need to retrofit their homes need to do so if a disaster is to be avoided, because earthquakes don’t kill people, buildings do. !

Bibliography “Codes Currently in Effect in San Francisco.” Department of Building Inspection. sfgov. Web. 17 Sep. 2011. “Earthquake Retrofitting.” Earthquake Safety. BBB. Web. 20. Oct 2011. “Earthquake Simulator Laboratory.” Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center. PEER. Web. 17 Sep. 2011. “Earthquake Terminology.” Pacific Disaster Center. PDC. Web. 16 Sep. 2011. Graf, William. The ShakeOut Scenario. University of Colorado. USGS. May 2008. Web. 16 Sep. 2011. “UC Earthquake Experts and Resources.” University of California. UC Berkeley. Web. 17 Sep. 2011.

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The CUREE-Caltech Woodframe Project. Consortorium of Universities for Research in Earthquake Engineering. CUREE. Web. 22 Sep. 2011. “Potentially Risky Wood-Frame Buildings in S.F.” San Francisco Chronicle. Sfgate. Web. 27 Sep. 2011. San Francisco’s Earthquake Risk. San Francisco Department of Building Inspection Community and Action Plan for Seismic Safety. CAPSS. 1 Mar. 2005. Web. 8 Oct. 2011. Sullivan. “Earthquake-proofing wood buildings.” Architect 83. 3. Mar. 1997. ProQuest. Web. 5 Oct. 2011. Wood Frame Construction Meeting the Challenges of Earthquakes. Canadian Wood Council. CWC. Web. 26 Sep. 2011. “Tall Older, High-Rise And Wood-Frame Buildings Could Collapse.”US Fed News Service. 6 Nov. 2008. ProQuest. Web. 2 Oct. 2011.

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Alena Hauser

How Would You Feel If You Were Caged Up?

day, giving them something to do. Zoos are also trying to provide the best health care for the animals, and ensuring the safety for both the visitors and the animals. Lastly, they could also have fundraisers to raise money for education, animal care, and conservation. Even though zoos are keeping animals in confined areas, they are giving the animals they best lives they can provide.

Animal Health The zoo is a place to create memories, a place where you can see things you don’t normally get to see in your day to day life. You will never forget the first time you saw a giraffe, or the look of pure joy you see on a child’s face as they gaze at a tiger. But what about the animals? Not many people think about how the animals are reacting to their surroundings. Animals cannot express themselves in enclosed spaces. They cannot hunt or find mates because they have limited space, and so they develop habits that are not part of their natural behavior, such as large carnivores tend to pace around their cages, forming paths. In 1936, Mary Akeley, who was one of the earliest women to explore Africa, said that “An animal cannot be isolated, even conceptually, from the particular environment to which it has become adapted during eons of geological time without a serious misunderstanding of its true nature” (Coe). Animals are not meant to be in cages. Zoos are doing their best to make their exhibits are exciting as possible, placing different toys each

When an animal comes to a zoo, they face many physical and physiological problems, and as hard as the zoo may try, these problems are unavoidable. There are many different things that must be done to the animal to ensure safety to its self and the zoo keepers when it first enters a zoo, as well as to make sure they do not escape. For example, bird’s wings must be clipped and some rhinos have had their horns removed. When a wild animal, who has always lived its life with freedom and space, is forced into an enclosed are for the rest of its life, this often results in self destructive and abnormal behavior, known as zoochosis (“Zoos: Pitiful Prisons”). When you visit the zoo, you rarely get to see the natural behavior of any of the animals. The small space creates a lack of privacy, which results in mating to be nonexistent in zoos. They spend most of their time sleeping and eating, and a study in the UK showed that 75% of the elephants in zoos were overweight (“10 Facts about Zoos”). 27


When walking up to a carnivore’s cage, such as polar bears, lions, tigers, or cheetahs, one might notice that the animals are pacing and rolling their head. The reason for this is because they are “…showing the most evidence of stress and psychological dysfunction in captivity” (“Zoos: Pitiful Prisons”). The space of lions and tigers is about 18,000 times smaller than the habitats they would have in the wild. Polar bears find themselves even more confined in 1 million times less space (“10 Facts about Zoos”). Generally, animals with hooves that tend to live in herds are often being caged alone. This causes them to lick and chew at their fences, and make unnatural lip, neck, and tongue movements, they are displaying physiological trauma. Birds and primates will react after a longer period of time. Sadly, they will start to hurt themselves due to the stress they are facing. Primates have even thrown their feces at visitors as an action to try to break free, and they will also throw up constantly (“Zoos: An Idea Whose Time Has Come and Gone”). When an animal goes into a zoo, it goes through a lot of trauma because of the lack of space and exercise. Zoos are trying to make their exhibits better for the animals, but they do not have the space to even come close to the amount of space an animal would have in the wild. But zoos are trying, and they have come up with many different procedures to ensure the animals health is the best that it can be while they are in the zoo. Many zoos are working to make the animals lives as healthy and entertaining as possible. At the San Francisco Zoo all the

animals have at least four to five complete health evaluations during their lifetime. The animals must get a physical exam and diagnostic testing, which includes a blood panel, urinalysis, xray, and ultrasound exam. For the zoos polar bears, Pike and Uulu, because they weight about 500 pounds each, instead of transporting them to the hospital, they must bring the hospital to the bears. The planning usually starts a week or so in advanced and all of the equipment to their exhibits in the days leading up to the exam. This includes a portable x-ray machine, ultrasound machine, dental equipment, anesthetics machine, monitoring equipment, and a catheter kit. The exam showed that both polar bears were in good health, but that they were both a little overweight, probably due to their “summer” diet. They will then be put on a “winter” diet, which mimics the feeding patterns of a wild bear as they prepare for hibernation (“Examining the Zoo’s Aging Polar Bears”). This is showing that the San Francisco Zoo is doing the best they can to ensure the health and safety of their animals. They have many enrichment types to enable the animals the best health quality they could have. There is Environment enrichment items, Habitat enrichment, Sensory enrichment, Food enrichment, and Social grouping. Environment enrichment items are basically objects that can be manipulated by the animal like toys. Habitat enrichment is the habitat design, substrates, water features, and others. Sensory enrichment is designed to address the animal’s sense of smell, hearing, vision, and taste and should invoke the animal’s territorial, repro28


ductive and hunting behaviors. When an animal has foods that they like more than others, and the food variety and forging opportunities is food enrichment. And lastly social grouping mixes genders and family interactivity, offering opportunities including grooming, bonding and playing. The San Francisco is trying their best to make the day to day lives of the animals entertaining. So far they have come up with over 833 individual items that can be enriching to the animals, and that number is growing everyday (“Enrichment”). Habitat enrichment is a big influence on how zoos design their exhibits. There are many different types of exhibits, formed from years and years of designing and redesigning exhibits. The concept of immersion design “is to immerse animals and guests in the same re-created theme area, habitat or landscape” (Coe). This was one of the first designs for an exhibit, just the basics, and no real detail. Then there was the cultural resonance; this concept was developed it 1907, and it was expanded to include vernacular architectural and cultural environments into the exhibits. There is also the theme and storyline exhibits. These were developed in 1907, and there are storylines, and narratives which add interest to groups on display. And lastly there is the rotation design, which has various groups of animals transferred between different exhibits on a regular basis that combine the concepts of immersion design, themes, cultural elements, and storylines (Coe). Including these designs into a zoo can keep animals entertained in their surroundings,

and even though it is still an exhibit, it is much better than a concrete exhibit.

Money Sadly, some zoos do find ways to cut back on animal care and safety, and funnel profits into other things, such as landscaping, refreshment stands, and gift shops (Geoghegan). Most of the animals that are kept in zoos are not endangered, and the few that are will most likely never be released back into the wild. The reason for lifetime captivation of exotic animals is not for conservation but rather because they draw bigger crowds. In China, they “rent” pandas to other zoos all around the world for about 1 million dollars per year (“Zoos: Pitiful Prisons”). Unfortunately, China does not use that money for the conservation of pandas. Instead for less significant important things that does not benefit the animals at all, but are rather funded and increases zoo income. But there are zoos that do support conservation, like the San Francisco and London zoo. Baby Animals are also major crowd pleasers. When the animal grows up, some zoos have no more room for them and they often end up in exotic trade. A study showed that at average there were about 142 million people who visit a zoo a year (“Zoos: An Idea Whose Time Has Come and Gone”). But over the years that number has started to dwindle down because people are realizing what the animal is going through while in captivity. In 2003 Wall Street stated that “nearly half of the country’s zoos 29


are facing cutbacks this year…” the slow “…attendance, mean while, is down 3% nationwide” (“Zoos: Pitiful Prisons”). There is no obvious proof that people are educated during their time in a zoo. A curator at the National Zoo followed about 700 visitors, and he found that “it didn’t matter what was on the display… people [were] treating the exhibits like wallpaper” (“Zoos: Pitiful Prisons”). He later explained that “officials should stop kidding themselves about the tremendous educational value of showing an animal behind glass” (“Zoos: Pitiful Prisons”). Even though zoos claim that they give people an opportunity to learn, people aren’t taking it. So is limiting money that is funding public safety and animal care, and using that money for less important parts of the zoo, such as food and landscape. But most zoos spend their money to make their zoos a better place. One of the ways they get their money, other than concessions and tickets, is through fund raisers. The San Francisco Zoo has a variety of fun annual events to raise the money they need for animal care, education, and local and global conservation programs (“Fundraising Events”). The San Diego Zoo has a similar fundraiser, except that instead of having events, they have the Animal Care wish list. It is a list of items that they need or want at the zoo, but cannot afford to get all of them. People can then pick something off of the list and donate however much money they want. One of the items is mini mammal scale; this scale accurately weighs small animals to let the veterinarians know if they are over or under weight. Not all zoos

are funneling the money into gift shops and concessions, but rather having fundraisers to help raise money for animals care and treatment.

Safety Various deaths have occurred in zoos, as a result of inadequate fences, lack of signs, and animal stress. Fences in zoos have many different purposes. Many people think it is just to keep the animals away from the visitors, but the reality is that humans are almost just as dangerous as the animals. Animals have died after having consumed coins, plastic bags, and other items that visitors have thrown into their cages. Some zoos have integrated glass cages to prevent both trash and other harmful objects from getting near the animals. Animals experience brutal beating, poisoning, starvation, as well as no veterinary care, burning, or stolen. These abuses occur mainly in roadside zoos and other zoos with small income. During natural disasters, animals are often left to fend for themselves, and many zoos have admitted that there was no evacuation plan if a natural disaster were to hit (“Zoos: An Idea Whose Time Has Come and Gone”). These incidents are even more frequent than animal attacks. The San Francisco Zoo did not follow regulations and tiger escaped (Lee). The fence was much shorter then was legal, and the tiger killed one person and injured two others before being shot and killed. Another event happened in Dallas. When he es-

30


caped from his cage, a gorilla was shot and killed. Witnesses say that teens were taunting it prior to the escape (Bostock). A big problem zoos have is what to do with the animals that they do not want, and so many zoos have established ways of “disposing” them. In 2007 the European Association of Zoos and Aquaria said that some zoos in the UK were encouraging the killing of unwanted animals. If that animal was valuable for other purposes, such as a tiger with beautiful coat. Sometimes it will be skinned of its fur and sold (“10 Facts about Zoos”). A pack of wolves was killed in 2006 and skinned because the social structure of the pack fell apart while in the zoo. That same year, two wolf cubs and their mother were shot because of over population. Zoo officials at the zoo suggested that further extermination should be put into action. Rather than killing them, some animals are sold to hunt facilities. They become targets on a hunting range. They are considered big game. Like I said before, many exotic cats—like lions and tigers—go into the exotic pet trade due to reckless behavior with animals in zoos. A Minnesota Zoo sells their unwanted animals to livestock auctions, where they often end up in traveling circuses or sold for slaughter. The Cleveland Zoo has even gone as far as to support zoo animals in medical experimentation, where zoo animals are tested on and often die (“Zoos: An Idea Whose Time Has Come and Gone”). Another place animals might end up is in roadside zoos. In 2010, CAPS (Captive Animals’ Protection Society) went undercover at Tweddle Farm Zoo and found that

sick and dead animals were rotting on the floors. One of the monkeys that was in an exhibit was only given cake and junk food to eat. This monkey was born in a zoo and was sold off when he was no longer a baby and thus not attracted the masses any longer. The lions were in even worse condition: “… there was no visible environmental enrichment. Some of the lions exhibited skin wounds and multiple scars of various age, some fresh, some healed” (Heaton). Many zoos are trying their best to keep their animals safe, including extra hands in an operating room and ensuring that elephants are comfortable while being transported from place to place. At the San Diego Zoo, Kamilah, a 300-pound western gorilla was safely transported from her exhibit to the hospital for multiple procedures. The staff, including animal care, construction and maintenance, garage, and veterinary staff, all participated in the transportation, and medical help that was needed for Kamilah. From start to finish, with outstanding teamwork and the implementation of innovative techniques, Kamilah’s exam proved successful, and the time she spent under anesthesia was reduced significantly (Stoddard). Another story of teamwork and safety at the San Diego Zoo was that they had recently just gotten three new elephants. The big question was how was the zoo going to get the elephants to the zoo. Many thought they could just walk them there. But that would cause danger to both the elephants and to the trainers. So they decided to put them in crates. The crates are designed to restrict 31


from causing significant damage to themselves or others. So what the trainers did to ensure the elephants are comfortable is they had the elephants stand in the crates a little each day. And when the elephants became comfortable enough, they were transported to their new exhibit (Landgridge). This shows that the San Diego Zoo did whatever they had to do ensure the safety for both the elephants and the gorilla. Many may think that other kinds of zoos, like safari zoos, may be different—because they are not enclosing their animals—with how animals react to the enclosure. I am sorry to say that they are not very much different. Most safaris keep their animals in cages for parts of the day, and then let them out for the rest of the time. If the lions and the zebras go out together, the lions would just attack and kill of the zebra. Woburn Safari Zoo keeps lions in small cages for 18 hours of the day, “The animals were very crowded and there was no provision for individual feeding or sleeping areas…” (Heaton). There are many people that are trying to prevent these incidents from happening, and they are making a fairly big impact in the zoo community.

What is Being Done The Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) is an organization that’s mission is to protect the wellbeing of animals in zoos. They give out accreditations to zoos that follow their standards that they have provided, including animal health, management,

and conservation (“Animal Care and Management”). Most zoos in the United States work to get the accreditations that the AZA give out, because it tells the people that this zoo treats their animals well and the maintain their zoo. Some of the things that a zoo must give to the animals is an adequate living environment, a social group, good health, and nutrition. The AZA also looks at the veterinary program, involvement in conservation and research, education programs, safety policies and procedures, security, physical facilities, guest services, and staff. They must also provide stimulating exercises for the animals to do, and provide a variety in their daily routine (“How Does Accreditation Work?”). This ensures that the animals stay in good health, and do not get bored. Zoos must also do daily observation and record data, such as weight monitoring, full physical examinations including blood tests, dental examinations, diet supplementation, and annual vaccinations (“Health, Husbandry, and Welfare”). Zoos must also watch the animal’s physical, biological, psychological, and social needs of the animals, and meet their expectations. AZA also promotes conservation, and has the Wildlife Conservation and Management Committee (WCMC) (“Animal Programs”). The WCMC manages over 450 cooperative Animal Programs, including Taxon Advisory Groups, Species Survival Plan and Red Studbook Programs. These programs help zoos with the protection and conservation of animals.

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This is a very hard problem to fix, but there are people out there that are doing their best to make zoos better for the animals. Since the idea of abolishing all zoos is not very realistic, the rules and regulations that the AZA has created seem to be a very good starting point in terms of making zoos a better place. Zoos should be required to have an accreditation from the AZA, and must keep the accreditation. If a zoo does not, then the zoo should be closed. Hopefully this will stop animal cruelty in zoos, and even though it does not fix the physiological problems that the animals suffer from, it does give them a place free of boredom and a place to be happy. We could release some of the animals, but they have become dependent on the zoo for food and water, and would die if released. If corruption did not exist in zoos because of spending money earned but rather spent on more space for the animals and better conditions, that could be a step in the right direction. Hopefully in the future people will bring solutions to treatment in zoos as well as educate people about the animals they are looking at. If zoos follow the rules of AZA and protect the animals they have taken into their hands, and show the people about these animals, then the future would be much brighter for zoos. Acknowledgments: I would like to acknowledge Sabrina, Isaias, Alex, and Susan Millhouse for editing my paper.

Works Cited “10 Facts About Zoos.” CAPS. Captive Animals, 3 Mar. 2010. Web. 29 Sep. 2011. “Animal Care and Management.” Tucker. “Animal Care Wish List.” San Diego Zoo Global. SDZ Global Wildlife Conservancy, 2011. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. “Animal Management.” Tucker. “Animal Programs.” Tucker. Bostock, Stephan. “Zoos and Animal Rights: The Ethics of Keeping Animals.” (1993): 230. Questia. Web. 29 Sep. 2011. Coe, Jon. “Trends in Exhibition.” Jon Coe Design. Jon Coe Design, 2004. Web. 2 Nov. 2011. “Enrichment.” Sfzoo. Sfzoo, 2011. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. “Examining the Zoo’s Aging Polar Bears.” Sfzoo. Sfzoo, 21 Oct. 2011. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. “Fundraising Events”. Sfzoo. Sfzoo, 21 Oct. 2011. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. Geoghegan, Tom. “What are zoos for?” BBC News. BBC, 8 June 2008. Web. 22 Sep. 2011. 33


“Health, Husbandry, and Welfare.” Tucker. “Healthy Conservation Projects.” San Diego Zoo Global. SDZ Global Wildlife Conservancy, 2011. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. Heaton, Ray. “Are Zoos Cruel?” Goodzoos. Amazon, 29 July 2005. Web. 26 Sept. 2011. “How Does Accreditation Work?” Tucker. Langridge, Mike. “Elephants on the Move.” San Diego Zoo. San Diego Zoo, 20 Apr. 2009. Web. 12 Nov. 2011. Lee, Vic. “Feds release SF Zoo tiger attack documents.” ABC News. ABC, 12 Feb. 2011. Web. 22 Sep. 2011. Stoddard, Valerie. “Gorilla Exam Takes a Village.” San Diego Zoo. San Diego Zoo, 19 May 2011. Web. 11 Nov. 2011. Tucker, Robin, ed. Association of Zoos and Aquariums. AZA: AZA, 1997. 27 Oct. 2011. Web. 12 Oct. 2011. “Zoos: An Idea Whose Time Has Come and Gone.” PETA. PETA, 2011. Web. 26 Sep. 2011. “Zoos: Pitiful Prisons.” PETA. PETA, 31 Dec. 2005. Web. 26 Sept. 2011.

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Maddie Howden

The Chain Never Stops Pretending a problem doesn’t exist doesn’t make it go away. It will always come back to make you try to listen. Child abuse is a problem that I never paid attention to and tried to push out of my life. I had always heard a lot about it because my mom was on the Board of Directors for the Child Abuse Prevention Center. Instead of ignoring the issue I decided to try and make a difference and help. I did research on child abuse and I also volunteered at the Child Abuse Prevention Center. I wanted to help the Center and the children at the same time, by bringing awareness to the issue. I believe the best way I can do that is by telling you about the issue of child abuse and some of the kids I worked with. Abuse has long-lasting effects on children because abuse changes how they feel about themselves and about others, which affects the relationships and experiences that they will have later in life.  There are four main types of abuse: physical abuse, physical neglect, sexual abuse and emotional abuse. However there are many branches off these four main types. Physical abuse

can be forcing hot sauce down a child’s throat or beating the child with a belt or scalding a child with boiling water. Neglect can be leaving children home alone without the necessities to survive, or not providing food, medical care, or shelter. Sexual abuse can range from using a child for pornography to performing sexual acts on a child. Emotional abuse is often verbal abuse and attacking a child’s sense of self-esteem and selfworth. Child abuse isn’t confined to one social class. It can happen in all races and social and economic groups; in San Francisco it can happen in areas from Pacific Heights to the Bayview. Young children are generally more at risk, but it can happen to adolescents too. Child abuse is also wide spread. In 2003 the National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect reported that there were about 2.9 million referrals concerning approximately 5.5 million children that were sent to child protective service agencies in the United States. In California, the California Department of Social Services reported that there were over 700,000 children reported for different kinds of abuse in 2004. Of the types of abuse, general neglect was the most common, and physical abuse is next. The San Francisco Child Abuse Prevention Center is dedicated to preventing child abuse and neglect, and promoting healthy families and the mental health of children. The reason the Center finds it so important to promote healthy families is so that 35


the children in those families are less at risk for child abuse or neglect. The center is a place where child abuse prevention services are all under one roof and where parents can come for a variety of services. There is a twenty-four hour talk line for parents to call whenever they need it. There are trained volunteers working on the talk line phones who can help parents to find a way to deal with their children that is not abusive. The volunteers can also refer parents to many services in the community. The Center provides counseling for parents, parenting classes, and counseling for substance abuse. It also provides childcare on regular basis for parents who are homeless, looking for work or attending a substance abuse class. The prevention center also provides education to schools, hospitals, and public agencies in the areas of child abuse and the recognition and reporting of child abuse. One of the reasons educating the public about child abuse is so important is because it can be very difficult for people to recognize the symptoms of child abuse. It’s difficult for an outsider to recognize the symptoms of child abuse when they come across a child, because children who are being abused often act out, and that can seen as a child who is badly behaved instead of a child who is being abused. It can also be difficult for people to believe that a child that they know personally is being abused, or that someone they know could be abusing their child. The worst part is that a child who is getting

abused is often afraid to tell an adult or anyone else that can help them about the abuse. Since children who are being abused often will not talk about the abuse, it is very important the public is educated about the common symptoms. The symptoms of child abuse can either be physical symptoms or behavioral issues. For people that work with children it’s important to learn to recognize these symptoms. For physical abuse some of the symptoms to look for would be bruises in places where a bruise wouldn’t normally appear in a normal accident. Other symptoms are bruises or marks that look like they were left by something like a belt or an electrical cord. Doctors and nurses are trained to look at fractures that shouldn’t have occurred given the history that what a parent tells them. There are also certain types of fractures that are suspicious of child abuse by themselves, for example, spiral fractures of the femur in a young child. For physical neglect, some of the symptoms are lacking the things that are essential for a child to have, for example, dental care, food, and hygiene. Symptoms of sexual abuse can be both physical and behavioral. Some of the physical signs can be pregnancy and diseases; and some behavioral symptoms are inappropriate behavior with peers, masturbation, and “excessive” curiosity about sex. For emotional abuse the signs are usually behavioral issues. The signs can be depression, acting out, being scared a lot, and eating disorders. 36


The issue of child abuse can be difficult to solve for several reasons. The first reason is that child abuse can be hard to discover. People don’t always recognize the symptoms of an abused child. The child who is being abused will often not tell anyone that they are being abused. The other major difficulty in dealing with child abuse is helping the children recover from the abuse (Brennfleck).

abuser is a parent or someone who lives in the home with the child it has a greater effect then a stranger or an acquaintance. If it is someone in the home, the child has to see them every day, and may have to depend on them. If it is a parent or family member, the child has learned to trust that person. It’s a greater effect because no child wants to be scared of their mom or dad (CBS News).

For an abused child, letting someone know is the very first step, but a very scary step. The professionals who work in this field, like social workers and police officers, are trained to help these children tell their story. The children are scared of being hurt more for telling someone that they are being abused (Hopper). It is important for the professionals to know how to let a child feel safe, and to tell their story so that they can be helped.

It is very hard for these children to learn how to trust someone again after they have been abused. There aren’t many ways you can let a child know that you won’t hurt them, but telling them that you’re there for them. It will take time for them to warm up and be able to open up. This is exactly what they need to do in order to get help.

Another obstacle to children disclosing abuse is that children often think that whatever happens to them is their fault (L.L. Bartlett). Children think the world revolves around them, and they internalize things that happen to them and think that they are the cause of the problem. That makes it hard for them to tell someone else about abuse. This belief is reinforced by some parents who tell their children that they are bad children and deserve the abuse. Recovery is the step that takes the longest to complete (Brennfleck). The difficulty of recovery depends on how long the abuse had been going on and who the abuser was. If the

When I asked to volunteer at the Child Abuse Prevention Center, I was a little nervous because I wasn’t sure what to expect. I didn’t know these kids and I didn’t know how hurt they were. I have been working with children since I was 10 years old, but the kids at the center are different then the kids I normally work with. Many of them had emotional and behavioral issues. For example, one of the kids got mad and couldn’t deal with it with his words, so instead he would throw things at the other children. There are usually about five to seven kids each day and about 3 workers. Every child wants special attention because they want to feel loved, so the workers at the center want to make sure that every child gets one-on-one attention. Each kid 37


has a different way of showing emotion whether it’s biting, hitting, using bad language or pushing. The volunteers at the Center have to be able to deal with all of these actions. They also have to try to teach the children how to deal with their emotions in a better way. Some of these children do not have good role models in their home to learn from. Teaching a hurt kid what is right and wrong takes time (ABC News). The reason it is so hard to work with these kids is because they are still in the recovery stage (the hardest stage). Most of the kids that ended up in the center were there because someone found out or suspected that they were being abuse and approached them. They found out because of the signs the child was giving off. Even when kids are too afraid to ask for help they often have other symptoms that a trained adult can see. That is why training adults that work with to pay attention to these signs is so important. The symptoms of child abuse can be very obvious or not obvious at all (ABC News). These signs are given off to tell you what’s going on indirectly. Children sometimes want the adult to come to them instead of having to go to the adult (Landcaster). In doing research for this project I have found that the best way to see how a child reacts to others is to sit down and watch them, so that’s exactly what I did. ABC News said that with each action of a child you can see what they are feeling. A child who is angry may be hurting in some way. A child who

hits others all the time may have been hit himself. A child who is constantly fighting over toys or other belongings may not have any belongings of their own and is trying to claim something of their own. All of these things I saw and all of these things are normal for children at risk, as Rita said. Rita is in charge of the playroom at the Child Abuse Center. She has a lot of experience working with children who have been abused or children who are at risk of abuse or neglect. She is very knowledgeable and was very helpful to me when I volunteered. In the time frame that I volunteered in the playroom, the Center provided child care for her children of parents who were attending an AA meeting (Alcoholics Anonymous). These children are considered at risk for abuse or neglect. Many of the children I worked with showed some symptoms of stress or acting out behavior, but one kid in particular showed more than the others. For his privacy I will call him Tommy. Tommy was the most interesting kid at the center. All of the times I volunteered he was there. He showed the signs of abuse more than the other kids did, and on more than one occasion. I did get a chance to meet with Tommy’s mother, and out of all the moms I had seen coming and going at the center she was really off. The research child abuse shows that something often triggers a parent to abuse. Something really triggered Tommy’s mom because she had to bring Tommy to the Center more than once a day, because she was afraid she would abuse him if she was alone with him. The sad part is Tommy is getting used to the center. 38


The center is like his second home, “It’s where I feel safe”, he said. For a child to feel safer at a Child Help Center more than with his mom is not good. Tommy’s mom needs to figure out why she feels the need to hurt him. She wasn’t nice to Tommy, which is why he attached himself to people he can trust like the other volunteers at the center. Tommy feels the need to find love which is why he attaches too easily, which isn’t going to help him in the long run. It’s going to make his life a lot harder than it has to be. I saw other parents at the Center who seemed very close to hurting their children. The second time I was there, a parent came into the playroom and said, “I was getting ready to strangle him!”. She then handed her kid over to me and left, knowing that I was only a volunteer at the playroom. The boy was only about five, and he only spoke Spanish. I was nervous about dealing with the little boy, and about what might happen to him at home. It made me realize how important the prevention center was for parents who feel out of control with their children. The worst aspect about child abuse is that without intervention the chain never stops. It has been found in studies about child abuse that children that have been abused are more likely to abuse their children too. People who were abused as children need help to learn parenting skills that they were not exposed to as children. This is not a problem that can be solved over-

night but we can all take our part to stop the chain. The chain will keep going on and on unless we can do something to prevent it, and we can. “There is no greater insight into the future than recognizing when we save our children, we save ourselves” (Margaret Meade).

Works Cited Bartlett, L.L. Abuse, a Daughters Story. Los Angeles. 2010. September 2011. Print Brennfleck, Joyce ed. Child Abuse Sourcebook. : Detroit, MI : Omnigraphics, 2009 . September 21. 2011. Print. Crime and Violence Prevention Center, California Attorney General’s Office. Child Abuse Prevention Handbook. 2006. October 1st 2011. Print. CBS News. Doc Charged in Huge Child Abuse Case. U.S. 23 February 2010. Haley John. Abuse 2nd Edition. Los Angeles. 1990. . 20. September . 2011. Print Hopper, Jessica. Alaska Woman Charged With Child Abuse After Appearing on 'Dr. Phil' Show. ABC. News. Jan. 28. 2011. Web 39


Magnuson, Ed. Grant, Meg. Wilde, James. The Ultimate Betrayal. Time Magazine U.S. September. 19. 2011. Web Landcaster, Rodger. Sex Offenders: The Last Pariahs. The New York Times, Sunday Review. August 20 2011. Web. Savage Michael. Abuse of Power. New York. 1992. . 21. September. 2011. Print Stein Wendy. The Truth about Abuse. New York. 1995. . 22. September . 2011. Print

40


Jack Jue

The Presidio Trust: Really Preserving Our Past? The Presidio of San Francisco’s facilities and public programs alone attract roughly five million visitors annually. That’s roughly the same number of people who visit the Grand Canyon or the Lincoln Memorial every year (Capasso). What about the Presidio draws in these vast numbers each year? What makes the Presidio so unique? After all, it is much smaller than other national parks; it contains less than 1500 acres of land, compared to Yosemite’s sprawling two million. Yet Johanna Wald, a senior attorney for the National Resources Defense Council, believes there is more to the Presidio than just acreage: “Perhaps small for a national park, the site [the Presidio] contains a variety of resources not found in areas 100 times its size” (The Presidio Trust and our National Parks: 374). In this 1500 acre park, there is a surprising wealth of history, culture, and national significance (US Presidio). As a military base, it was used continuously for 218 years by three different governments (Wald). Now a national park, the agency responsible for preserving its

unique value is the Presidio Trust (US Presidio). The Presidio Trust is also responsible for making the park financially selfsufficient by the year 2013. This is done by rehabilitating and leasing historic buildings in the Presidio (Wallace). At times, however, the pressure to become financially independent can conflict with the historical integrity of the Presidio. When these situations occur, the public must act to preserve the Presidio’s historical character that makes the park so unique and enjoyable to its visitors. The Presidio Trust’s Main Post Update is an excellent example of the community’s involvement in protecting the Presidio’s history and expressing their opinion. However, if the public forgets the historical importance of the Presidio, then its unique value will be lost, and it will cease being such an incredible community resource. Although the Presidio Trust works with its partner organizations and follows established guidelines dictating its actions on historical rehabilitation, it can fall short of fully preserving the historical character of the Presidio. In order to better preserve the irreplaceable history of the Presidio and thereby improve the community, the Trust must engage and educate the public on historical matters and the public must take a more proactive role and strongly provide feedback on projects and decisions made by the Presidio Trust. Historical preservation is important in the Presidio because of the park’s rich history. The Presidio was first established in 1776 by the Spanish as their northernmost coastal fort that over41


looked the San Francisco Bay (U.S. NPS). The center of their base, the Main Post, is still considered the heart of the Presidio. In 1821 the Mexican government took control of the Presidio, and from 1846 to 1994 it was occupied by the United States military (Adams). It has played a role in every major U.S. conflict since the Mexican-American War of 1846 (U.S. NPS). The park contains archaeological and structural elements of all three governments, and boasts 469 historic buildings which contribute to its National Historic Landmark status (Wald). In the midst of all this, the Presidio is located in San Francisco and has contributed considerably in shaping the city (Adams). Since its establishment as a national park in 1994, the Presidio has become a widely utilized community resource and residential neighborhood. However, the Presidio’s journey from military post to national park should not be forgotten. Some do not care about this journey or history in general and honestly wouldn’t mind losing the historical features of the Presidio. However, history is extremely important in today’s society. Understanding human history is a significant factor in making wise decisions for the future. Analyzing the successes and failures of past events and decisions enables the present generation to make better choices for the future. By neglecting past achievements, no matter how obsolete, humanity fails to appreciate the learning process and the path taken to create the modern world. Humanity also destroys its chances for a successful future. The United States judicial system and logic itself are

based on applying precedent to current situations. Without the past, individuals have no identity. As the venerable author John Steinbeck wrote in his novel, The Grapes of Wrath, “How will we know it’s us without our past?” In preserving the past, historical preservation also preserves the future. Therefore, it should be a substantial piece of every individual’s life. The National Park Service (NPS) attempted to instill the importance of historic preservation when they were granted control of the Presidio after the U.S. Sixth Army departed in 1994. When the NPS analyzed the Presidio, it found that many buildings had fallen into disrepair and vandals had further deteriorated some of the structures (Wallace). The buildings desperately needed rehabilitation, but problems occurred as to whom would fund the rehabilitation costs for the nearly 800 buildings in the park and maintain them once they were restored (Adams). As explained previously however, the Presidio is a unique place. It is a prime location overlooking the San Francisco Bay, the Golden Gate Bridge, and Alcatraz, that developers have always wanted to utilize. It also has easy access to many areas of the city while remaining in a scenic, natural setting. Its large number of buildings have various uses including homes, hospitals, barracks, and aircraft hangers. Due to these unique factors, Congress decided that it was feasible to rehabilitate and convert the Presidio’s buildings into living quarters and workplaces that could be leased to tenants. The capital received from tenants could support maintenance costs and further rehabilitation. Jo42


hanna Wald explains, “Occupied buildings can be better maintained and protected, thus extending their lives. The simplest and most cost effective way to preserve the Presidio’s buildings…is by renting them and reinvesting the rents in maintenance” (375). In theory, this was an excellent idea, but in less than a year it was evident that the National Park Service lacked the resources and expertise to carry out the unique and demanding obligations required of the Presidio (Wald). A plan was formed for a new federal agency that would be focused solely on the Presidio, with the ability to effectively rehabilitate and lease its buildings. Representative Nancy Pelosi, with the support of President Bill Clinton, pushed the idea into reality (Trelstad). In 1996 the 104th Congress established the Presidio Trust (Clinton). Its official charge stated in the Presidio Trust Management Plan is “to protect for present and future generations the historic, natural, scenic and recreational resources of the Presidio, and to do so in a manner that eliminates eventually any requirement for ongoing federal funds” (qtd. in Adams). If the Trust were not to accomplish self-sufficiency by 2013, then the Presidio would be given to the General Services Administration and sold for federal profit (Adams). The Presidio Trust has been self-sufficient since 2009, meaning that it can pay all of its bills, but it only makes a profit of a few million dollars a year (Wallace). With some projects costing tens of millions of dollars, it could take the Trust years to provide the funding for just one project. With

the year 2013 rapidly approaching and an ever decreasing amount of government support, the Trust’s goal remains to gather as many tenants as possible (Wallace). The Presidio Trust must follow certain regulations in accomplishing this goal, such as the parameters established by the Presidio’s historic status, the Trust’s partner organizations, and the congressional agencies the Trust reports to. The Trust is overseen by a Board of Directors; six appointed by the President, the seventh the designee of the Secretary of the Interior (US Presidio). The Trust is broken into several departments with various areas of expertise, including real estate development and maintenance. Because of its diverse history and historical structures and artifacts, the Presidio was designated a National Historic Landmark District. These districts are defined as “nationally significant historic places designated by the Secretary of the Interior because they possess exceptional value or quality in illustrating or interpreting the heritage of the United States” (GGNRA). Other notable landmarks include the Brooklyn Bridge, Monticello, and the U.S. Capitol (US Dept. of Interior). This status requires the Presidio Trust to follow regulations when rehabilitating historic structures that are meant to preserve their historical heritage, specifically the Secretary of the Interior’s Standards for Rehabilitation and the Guidelines for Rehabilitating Buildings at the Presidio of San Francisco (Wallace). These regulations are very thorough as to what specific historical materials are to be used, what methods are best, and 43


how to rehabilitate various parts of buildings. A few common limitations are the amount of new construction and expansion allowed in the Presidio, as well as that historical aspects of sites should be left untouched or repaired rather than replaced. These factors can make projects challenging and expensive. The Presidio Trust has two partners, the National Park Service and the Golden Gate National Parks Conservancy, who work with the Trust during historic rehabilitation projects. The NPS maintains the coastal areas of the Presidio, roughly amounting to 20% of the park (US Presidio). The Trust must share their project proposals with them and receive their criticism. The NPS has the power to amend and change the Trust’s project plans if it feels that the historical integrity of a site is at jeopardy; however, it is less common to completely cancel entire projects. The Presidio Trust reports to the executive branch and must provide information to Congress and several government agencies upon request (Widman). These agencies, such as the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, analyze project plans and offer their criticism (Wald). The Trust must afford these agencies “a reasonable opportunity to comment on the undertaking” however, these comments do not have to be carried out (US Advisory). Even with its government structure and regulations, the Trust has difficulties concerning the historical integrity of the park, including partner disputes, regulation misinterpretation, and overall, a lack of communication between the Trust and the public.

One of the Secretary of the Interior’s standards is, “A property shall be used for its historic purpose or be placed in a new use that requires minimal change to the defining characteristics of the building and its site and environment” (U.S. Dept. of Interior). The vagueness of this statement has sparked controversy with the Trust’s partners as well as outside organizations and the public. Questions arise as to the definitions of new uses, minimal change, and defining characteristics. Robert Wallace, a Presidio Trust architect and the director of design, explains the reason behind partner conflicts: “What’s important to them [NPS] is are you following the standards, and are you doing so in a way that’s indisputably clear. That’s where the debates are. We are following the standards but we might have a difference of opinion as to whether something is or isn’t compatible.” This broad interpretation is a contributing factor to public and organizational opinions that are not necessarily accurate. “Everyone’s got a different opinion about what works and what doesn’t work” Wallace says. According to Mr. Wallace, each advocacy group and individual interprets these standards differently and would like projects to be done based on their interpretation. This lack of communication between the Presidio Trust and the community is the Trust’s greatest challenge and a key factor that needs the most improvement. Robert Wallace agrees. He says that the Trust’s greatest weakness is “getting the message out and sharing it.” Reaching out to the public is a critical aspect of any public property, let alone any National Park. After all, the people 44


are the ones using the Presidio; they should be aware of what is going on and they should have a say in it. But the reality is that few people are fully aware of the Presidio’s history, or the historic rehabilitation and construction done by the Trust, even if they use the Presidio every day (Wallace). Mr. Wallace claims that he has met people who believe the Presidio is still occupied by the military. The Trust does have educational opportunities for students; however these are primarily focused on the unique environmental aspects of the Presidio, not its history (US Presidio). A historical museum of the Presidio would be highly beneficial to the public’s appreciation of the Presidio’s history, but there is no museum. The closest thing to it will be a so far unplanned exhibit in the new heritage center, currently under rehabilitation (Wong). There is a volunteer archaeology program offered by the Trust, however there is no room for new volunteers (US Presidio). The class fullness demonstrates the public’s willingness to learn as well as the Trust’s inability to provide the necessary education for the entire community. The Trust is only required to host two public board meetings a year, and it is not mandatory to accept public opinion on historical projects (Wald). In actuality, the Trust does offer dozens of public meetings a year and accepts public opinion, but the fact that it doesn’t have to take any of it into account is disturbing, and calls into question the Trust’s value of the public voice. The Presidio Historical Association (PHA), an organization whose mission it is to protect the historical integrity of the Pre-

sidio, believes that the Trust does not have enough checks or constraints limiting its use or misuse of power (Widman). The PHA believes this is a substantial reason for its failure to fully preserve the historical character of the Presidio, along with its financial independence requirement (Widman). All of these factors contribute to the public’s lack of education, and therefore to the public’s lack of involvement. Mr. Wallace said this about the public: “They don’t completely understand what we’re doing to these buildings” (Wallace). Mr. Wallace went on to say, “I think the public would love to know more behind-the-scenes stuff.” Yet there is little being done to engage the public about the Presidio’s historical preservation. Few efforts are being made to improve the communication between the public and the Presidio Trust. Unless there are, the Presidio’s historical integrity will always be at risk. However, this is not solely the Presidio Trust’s challenge. The community is also responsible for their own lack of education and action on the Presidio’s historical projects. The historical educational tools provided by the Presidio Trust are meager, yet they are present. If people are interested, they can pursue these learning measures and become more actively involved in the historical preservation of the Presidio. However, few people do, even among those who actively use the Presidio’s facilities. Many are aggressively involved and frequently comment on issues such as environmental conservation, trails, and parking areas, “but there is a lot less than you would think about historic 45


preservation” (Wallace). The level of energy devoted to historical preservation should be identical to these other issues. It appears that not enough people are aware of the importance of historical preservation, and fewer are willing to act on it. The fact that many Presidio visitors are more vocal about preserving their parking spots than preserving the past further validates the essential need for community outreach and education. The reason that the public’s education and engagement in the Presidio’s rich history is so important is because there are severe consequences if these standards are not met. If the Presidio Trust continues with the current level of community outreach and education, and the public remains generally apathetic towards the Presidio’s history, than the historical integrity of the Presidio and everything that contributes towards its National Historic Landmark Status is at risk. Historic rehabilitation projects can be approved by the Presidio Trust’s partners and reporting organizations and still damage the historical character of the Presidio. The historical integrity of the park can be damaged in two main ways: methods of rehabilitation and the use for the building once it is rehabilitated. Much of what the Presidio Trust does is considered beneficial to the historic wellbeing of the Presidio. However, there are cases in which the rehabilitation, approved by the Trust’s partners and reporting agencies, actually damages the historical integrity of the site and the surrounding location. An example of a historical preservation disappointment is The Walt Disney Family Museum, lo-

cated in the Main Post. Months of effort and millions of dollars turned the former Army Barracks into a beautifully rehabilitated structure, except for the back of the building. The backside of the building is covered with reflective, black glass. Many visitors are pleased with it, but the glass is clearly contemporary and covers the entire wall, sticking out among the traditional redbrick buildings. The glass can be clearly seen from Lincoln Boulevard and Doyle Drive. The eye is drawn to it, and its purpose is confusing. Robert Wallace believes that it detracts from the historical mood set by the majestic row of barracks, and negatively affects not just The Walt Disney Family Museum, but the surrounding buildings as well. He says, “You have no sense of the fact that the building once was formed around a courtyard” (32:40). Maintaining the original historic look is so important because it establishes the atmosphere of the site, allowing for a deeper immersion and appreciation of the history. It also emphasizes the key features unique to a particular structure. By coating the back of the museum in contemporary glass and masking the courtyard, the structure’s historical potential was not fully utilized. The loss of this historical facet means that the historical value of the entire Main Post decreases. Building additions are designed so they can be removed to restore the structure to its original state, but with the lack of public motivation, the glass will likely remain standing for decades, a detriment to the Main Post (Wong). It is projects like these that are most threatening to the Presidio’s historical integrity. Relatively small 46


projects that fail to grab the public attention needed for change can easily spread throughout the Presidio. Unfortunately, the Presidio Trust primarily conducts projects on this scale (Wallace). Larger projects, like the Trust’s Main Post Update plan, change large or vital areas of the Presidio and attract more powerful public attention. However, they also have the potential to be a much larger threat. The second way that the historical character can be negatively impacted depends on the specific tenant in a building. Some feel that certain tenants, like the Disney Museum, are damaging the historical and aesthetic aspects of the Presidio. John Rizzo, chairman of the Sierra Club’s Bay Area Chapter, said this about the Disney Museum: “Disney is a tourist attraction. It doesn’t help anybody. It doesn’t go to the original Park Service goal of bettering society” (Levy). Most business tenants will occupy a building for more than twenty years, so these choices will impact the Presidio for a long time (Wong). However, the public’s extremely limited ability to express their opinion of acceptable tenants leaves the Presidio Trust with an open freedom to choose whichever tenants best suit its agenda, sometimes whichever one will contribute the most monetarily. Gary Widman, president of the Presidio Historical Association, believes that the Trust should value the public opinion more, and “listen to what the public really has to say.” If the Presidio continues to be managed in this way, the historical value of the Presidio will rapidly diminish. With a lack of public opinion and engagement,

projects will cease being beneficial to the people or to cherishing the history of the Presidio. The Presidio Trust’s current method of making decisions without the public’s consent or advice could dramatically alter the function of the Presidio and tarnish the Trust’s purpose. The Presidio’s historical value, as well as its unique value, will suffer. The solution to this problem can be separated into what the Presidio Trust needs to do and what the public needs to do; however both groups’ solutions are intertwined and must work together to create the best possible historic national park. The Presidio Trust’s goal of gathering as many tenants as possible can remain exactly the same. All that should be added is a much stronger emphasis on public outreach and public involvement. This includes better education on the history of the Presidio, and public awareness of current and upcoming projects. One way that the public can be educated on the Presidio’s history is by making it an integral part of student programs, like field trips. If the children are taught about local history, how it impacts them, and why historic preservation matters in a positive way, then there will more likely be a larger number of people who care about the historic fate of the park. However, many visitors who enjoy the park are adults. There must be better education for the adult visitor. One of the Presidio Trust’s public education strategies is called ‘museum without walls’ in which placards on trails and in front of influential sites would teach the community about them (Wallace). This is a good interactive 47


idea, but the brief historical quips do not give the public enough historical information or allow the public to pursue a topic if interested. At these sites there are no historical aides to answer questions, no suggested materials to study, no in depth tours of the major historical landmarks that make the Presidio unique. These are all useful suggestions for educating the public that will leave visitors with a positive feeling about the Presidio. Another idea is to create an area in the Presidio where the park’s history is displayed in a detailed manner. This could be in the form of a museum, exhibits, or simply a place where the public can easily ask questions. Gary Widman, the president of the Presidio Historical Association, suggested, “The Trust could adopt a policy that would give the public the best possible historic national park in the Main Post area, including the best possible history museum and visitor center.” The Trust also needs a place where they can share with the community upcoming and current projects, ways in which the public can contribute, and explain the roles of the Presidio Trust. The PHA believes that a visitor center would be appropriate to meet this goal, especially since the Presidio Trust lacks one currently. This will reduce a lot of skepticism and encourage more community involvement. The Trust does share some of this information on their website, but Mr. Wallace believes that “the public would love to more behind-the-scenes stuff.” There should also be an adult education program, like the volunteer archaeology program, that get adults involved in the Presidio’s rich history. By

forcing the public to pursue historical interests on their own, the Presidio Trust loses a large percentage of the public’s engagement. The Trust needs to introduce activities and strategies that better engage the public. Outreach strategies should encourage people nationally and in the Bay Area to experience the Presidio, especially those who have never been to the park before. This could mean advertising, in the form of brochures, letters, commercials, and posting events and news on social networking sites. These ads should encourage the community’s participation in public meetings and workshops, as well as community service opportunities. Another method would be to reach out to more schools around the Bay Area. A field trip is an enjoyable way to educate students. By involving as much of the community as possible, the Presidio’s economy will improve as more people visit the Presidio. More visitors will buy products at the Presidio’s restaurants, shops, and businesses (such as Planet Granite and SF Green Clean). With more people actively engaged and educated in the Presidio, the public voice will become stronger and historical decisions will be better made. One of the most beneficial methods of bettering the Presidio would be for the Trust to pass a policy in which an organization, directly representing the people, would have the power to review historical project plans and to work with the Trust to amend them. This was the job of the Fed48


eral Preservation Officer, but several years ago, under high pressure from the Trust and potential tenants to pass certain documents, the employee resigned. Craig Middleton, the executive director of the Presidio Trust and a member of the Board of Directors, took over the position (Widman). Now the concern is that the Federal Preservation Officer will accept virtually anything the Trust passes because the Officer’s official critiques are no longer independent of the Trust. Gary Widman believes this was the last official check in the Trust’s structure, and now only the community remains to regulate projects. In summary, the Presidio Trust must value public opinion more seriously, listen to the community’s advice, and commit to and encourage public involvement in projects through historical education and expansive public outreach strategies. The public’s responsibility to the history of the Presidio is to become educated, commit to its watchdog role by actively engaging in the Presidio Trust’s decisions and events, and advocating for the establishment of the previous suggested policies. Just because the Presidio Trust has not made these improvements does not mean that the public must remain inactive and uninformed. That is the current situation. People should walk through the Presidio and take a closer look at the historical buildings and sites that make the Presidio one of a kind. The community should study the available historical information from trusted sources and utilize the Presidio Trust Library. This library contains public documents and records of the Trust’s ac-

tions (US Presidio). Participation is another key way to educate individual citizens. This includes community service, the archaeology volunteer program, public Presidio Trust meetings and workshops, public events, and historical tours. The community should be encouraged to join historical groups like the Presidio Historical Association, or the National Trust for Historic Preservation. These groups can more effectively communicate with the Trust than individual citizens. The community must pressure the Presidio Trust to make the previously suggested improvements and policies as it is the only way they will actually take shape. Because the public voice is the last parameter to regulate the Trust’s decisions, it must be strong and it must be present for every issue. In order to preserve the history of the Presidio, the public must become historically educated and motivated to make the Presidio Trust a more open agency while regulating the Trust’s historical decisions This solution, if put into effect, would have several areas of concern. The fundamental problem with the resolution is the cost. Public education, outreach, and community advertisements all cost a large amount of money. A historical museum and a visitor center, as educational and beneficial as they sound, would likely cost tens of millions of dollars to fund, the money most likely coming from the Presidio Trust’s pocket. These tenants would not be as profitable as business tenants; they might not make a profit at all. Based on the current Trust budget, these projects would be difficult to put into action and are not realisti49


cally feasible at this time (Wallace). However, this doesn’t mean that the Trust cannot invest more money into these areas. Another concern is public motivation, and the effectiveness of the community involvement strategies. If the Trust does create more community outreach and education, it does not mean that it will successfully engage the public. Nevertheless, this should not be a discouraging factor; every decision has its risks, and even if it fails to bring in more public attention, there are always more strategies to use. If these methods work, and if the public becomes actively engaged in the Presidio Trust’s plans and proposals, there is a risk of a loss of efficiency in running the Presidio. The rehabilitation process, from the idea conception to the finished product, can take years, sometimes decades (Wong). The procedure is already long, and the worry is that a more open Presidio Trust will slow the rehabilitation process and hinder the Presidio Trust’s financial independence mission. Examples like The Walt Disney Family Museum show that when the Presidio Trust does not listen to the public’s advice, the historical integrity of the Presidio is more likely to be threatened. The public voice can be the difference between excellent historic preservation and irreversible historic damage. The reward of successful rehabilitation is worth a few more months or even years of careful inspection and improvement. Another factor to consider is that the Presidio Trust does not have to follow all of the suggestions, only incorporate a combination of the most successful and reasonable options. There may be critical

concerns associated with this solution, yet the benefits, if analyzed carefully, outweigh these risks. In summary, modern culture, society, and way of life are based upon human history. Preserving the factors that shaped the past, and thus the present, is crucial in providing a better chance for a successful future. Therefore it is imperative for every individual to protect the history around them; in the Bay Area, this includes the Presidio of San Francisco. The Presidio is filled with a rich, unique history, and continues to contribute to the local community as a public recreational area. Unfortunately, the Presidio’s distinctive historic culture could be threatened by the Presidio Trust and its conflicted mission of historic preservation and financial independence. Instances have occurred in which the Presidio’s historical integrity has been damaged, but because of the Trust’s ineffective communication with the public, these regrettable cases will continue to occur. Both the Trust and the public must change their attitudes towards historic preservation, and unite together for the good of the Presidio. The community must become better educated and more actively involved in the Presidio Trust’s decisions. They must speak out against any historical preservation violations, for public pressure is one of the only ways to enact change in the Presidio Trust. The people have a powerful voice; they must learn how to use it. In turn, the Presidio Trust, the federal agency accountable for the historical preservation of the Presidio, has a responsibility to improve communication between it and the pub50


lic, to support active public participation involving historical preservation, and to incorporate public opinion more advantageously in order to create and maintain the best historic national park the Presidio of San Francisco can be.

“Golden Gate National Recreation Area.” United States National Park Service. U.S. Department of the Interior. National Park Service, 3 Aug. 2011. Web. 21 Sept. 2011. <http://www.nps.gov/goga/index.htm>

I would like to acknowledge Alena Hauser, Sabrina Perell, Sam Lopez, Craig Butz, and Charleen Jue for editing my paper.

Jackson-Retondo, Elaine. National Park Service, Pacific West Region. Section 213 Report: Presidio of San Francisco National Historic Landmark. United States: Advisory Council on Historic Preservation. 17 April. 2009. Web. 24 Sept. 2011.

Works Cited Adams, Gerald D. “Presidio Trust Management Plan, San Francisco.” American Planning Association 70.4 (2004) 12-13. ProQuest Research Library. Web. 25 Sept. 2011. Capasso, Tim. “Officials try to balance overcrowding, preservation.” Our National Parks. University of Miami, School of Communication, 5 May. 2010. Web. 17 Oct. 2011. Clinton, William J. "Remarks at the Presidio in San Francisco, California." Daily Compilation of Presidential Documents Jun 17 1996: 1024-. ProQuest Research Library. Web. 26 Sep. 2011 <http://search.proquest.com/docview/195181903?accountid=38 30>. Golden Gate National Parks Conservancy. Home Page. Golden Gate National Parks Conservancy. Sept. 2011. Web. 21. Sept. 2011. <www.parksconservancy.org>

King, John. “Park Service warns of flaws in design plan.” San Francisco Chronicle. SF Gate, 18 April. 2009. Web. 22 Sept. 2011. Levy, Dan. “A Green Belt in the Black: Presidio as National Park Achieves Self-Sustaining Goal!! 8 Years Early.” San Francisco Chronicle. SF Gate, 15 June. 2005. Web. 19 Sept. 2011. Presidio Trust. “Presidio Trust Management Plan Main Post Update Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement” The Federal Register 73.240 (2008). ProQuest Research Library. Web. 25. Sept. 2011. Trelstad, Brian R. "The Presidio Trust Legislation: Preservation Or Privatization?" Urban Ecosystems 1.3 (1997): 135,135-153. ProQuest Research Library. Web. 23 Sept. 2011

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United States. Advisory Council on Historic Preservation. National Historic Preservation Act of 1966. Advisory Council on Historic Preservation. 2006. Web. 29 Sept. 2011. United States. Dept. of the Interior. National Park Service. The Secretary of the Interior’s Standards for Rehabilitation. Washington D.C.: Dept. of the Interior, 1990. Print. United States. Presidio Trust. Bringing Back The Heart of the Presidio. Presidio Trust, 2008. Print. 5 Sept. 2011. United States. Presidio Trust. The Presidio. Presidio Trust, Sept. 2011. Web. 21 Sept. 2011. Wald, Johanna H.The Presidio Trust and our National Parks: Not a Model to be Trusted. Golden Gate University Law Review 28.3 (1998). Golden Gate University School of Law. Web. 21 Sept. 2011. <http://digitalcommons.law.ggu.edu/ggulrev/vol28/iss3/5/> Wallace, Robert. Personal Interview. 5 Sept. 2011 Widman, Gary. “Presidio Trust Research Project.” Message to the author. 19 Oct. 2011. E-mail. —. Telephone Interview. 23 Oct. 2011. Wong, Kelly. Personal Interview. 5 Sept. 2011.

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Yara Kanaaneh

Inked Ideas: The Perceptions of Tattoos in Western Culture In a case study about tattoos, a student named Lautman bluntly stated his thoughts on the word tattoo: “What a loaded word, ripe with associations of carnival side shows, Maori warriors, drunken sailors, rock stars, and the Holocaust,” he said (Fedorenko, Sherlock, Stuhr). His associations with tattoos are not far from the stereotypes that people have in our society today. That is not surprising considering the earliest tattoos ever found are from around 5,300 years ago, which has given decades for the art to evolve and take on many different images (R. Mantell). Since the Neolithic Period, the images associated with tattoos have continued to evolve, not just in Western society, but in all different cultures around the world. Although tattoos came into existence centuries ago and are present all over the world, the practice of tattooing in Western society in particular is at-

tacked with negative assumptions and stereotypes which do not hold true in the majority of cases today. Although tattooing has come to be widely accepted as a form of art, for the most part tattoos are not looked at in the same way as other types of art. Rather, tattooing is commonly looked at as something harmful and even a form of self-injury (Rubin). There is a lot of judgment of people with tattoos, as the majority of tattooed clients in a scientific study done by Social and Anthropological Research Methods for Art/Art Education expressed, saying that people are constantly stereotyping them with names like “freak”, “super-hardcore”, “a bike-rider”, and more (Fedorenko, Sherlock, Stuhr). The list of stereotypes goes on and on. These assumptions that people make cause people with tattoos to be alienated from people without them. These judgments create barriers between the two sides. With these barriers come different opportunities for people with tattoos than for people without them, whether in personal relationships, or job opportunities. After all, “it’s easier to give someone who looks like you a fair shake,” says John, a journalist for the New York Times (Schwartz). There are many harmful assumptions of tattoos which are present in Western society, and they have most likely evolved from the significances of tattoos in other cultures. Despite the negative perceptions of tattoos in Western society, tattoos in other cultures most often have positive connotations. One of the 53


places that tattoos were first present was in Africa, in which tattoos had a positive significance. Africans have been decorating themselves with paint and different forms of pigment since 4000 B.C. They used them either as cosmetics or as a part of many African rituals which marked new stages of life. Body decoration in Africa could tell a lot about a person, like their age, ethnic region, social rank, and even their political opinions. “Certain scars on the foreheads of men in the IGBO region of Nigeria, for example, indicate high social rank. In some cultures, scarification is believed to make a person more beautiful or to provide magical or protective benefits” (Body Adornment and Clothing). Tattoos were seen as a beautiful thing in African culture but they were more powerful than just a form of decoration. They could determine one’s identity and even benefit a person spiritually. Tattoos were an imprintation of culture, not only in Africa but in many other cultures as well. As journalist Enid Schildkrout expresses, tattoos were a way “not only to imprint a drawing onto the flesh but also to stamp onto the mind all the traditions and philosophy of the group” (Schildkrout). An example of this is in Buddhist history, when people were often tattooed with precepts such as refraining from killing, stealing, improper sexual behavior, lying, and intoxication (Schildkrout). In this sense, tattoos were teaching people good values and they had positive significances.

Tattooing finally “entered the Western world in the 1770’s, when Captain Cook and the crew of the Endeavor came upon the elaborately inscribed flesh of Pacific Islanders, who called their markings tatau” (Rothstein). As told by an author of Polynesian background, this word “traveled all over the world and is known by all the nations. It has become such a part of everyone’s language that people have forgotten that originally this word was a Polynesian word” (Mai). Tattoos became present in Western society after being discovered in other cultures, yet tattoos have become so popular in the Western world that people have forgotten their historical significance. Tattoos were such an exotic thing to people in America, and because of that, people probably had little knowledge about what tattoos had symbolized. This caused tattoos to evolve and take on their own meaning in the Western world, and to have a significance that completely differs from that in other cultures. Tattoos have been seen on many different groups of people throughout Western culture. For most of the 20th century, tattoos were a predominantly male phenomenon (Scelfo). Michael R. Mantell, a psychologist, observed this and said, “Who did I know growing up in Newark, New Jersey, the Weequahic Section, who had tattoos? Sailors, criminals, thugs, ‘greasers’ and just ‘bad guys’” (R. Mantell). Tattoos were not only becoming present in predominately male communities (the Navy, prisons, gangs, etc.) but they were beginning to be identified specifically with men that were dangerous. During the twentieth century, 54


women transformed this association of tattoos and used tattoos “as a form of subversive resistance to colonial power” (Schildkrout). Women used tattoos to express resistance against the political leaders of the twentieth century. Because of the inequality between men and women during that time, women used tattoos as a form of empowerment and expression of things that they could not always safely voice in society. Tattoos became an important form of expression with another group of people in our culture as well. During the end of the 1980’s and beginning of 1990’s, tattooing resurged as part of the “Generation X” look. Tattoos had begun to symbolize youth culture at the time. This generation has been characterized as a time when adolescents were bitter over problems created and worsened by their parents, and this generation was seen as “the age of diminished expectations.” This subculture had begun to use fashion as an outward manifestation of their identity (Scelfo). They were using tattoos to their advantage and as a way to express themselves, just like women in the twentieth century. Tattoos have personal significances in each person’s life, but the common groups of people that had tattoos in the Western world (like adolescents and “bad guys”) were changing the perceptions that people would have of tattoos today. The large presence of tattoos on sailors, criminals, and the like during the beginning of the 20th century planted the current association that tattoos were for “bad guys”. An anthropologist

named Susan Benson pointed out that “in the West, tattoos have been associated with worlds that restrict the body: on ships or in prisons. Yet tattoos stand against constriction: their images are typically defiant” (Rothstein). Generation X has also affected the image of tattoos today. They were thought to lack a deeply cultural basis, and made tattoos a symbol of teen culture and rebellion. Music and fashion media at the time also encouraged this grunge image (Scelfo). The way that tattoos appeared in American history sprouted the idea that tattoos are negative and even a form of self-injury. For example, Generation X made tattoos a symbol of rebellion, and youth at the time were often associated with negative behavior. This may have created the association of tattoos with things like eating disorders, self-loathing, substance abuse, depression, and social alienation. The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry even released a statement in 1999 that proclaimed tattooing a possible form of self-injury (Rubin). But tattoos were seen as a form of injury and social alienation even before they were present in Western culture. An example is in Polynesian culture, which is where the tattoos that we know today were created. In a narration about life in early Polynesia, it talks about the only woman left in Polynesia with her entire face tattooed, which used to be a traditional thing in their culture. “She would stare silently at the sea. Not moving not talking. Not smiling. Not looking at anyone. Her eyes on the sea, as 55


if captivated by those ever-rolling waves. Her body leaning with intensity toward the ocean, as if her whole being was listening to something we could not hear” (Mai). In this context and in many situations today, tattoos are characterized as a means of alienation from people who do not have tattoos. A student who participated in a case study said that “her tattoo separates her from people who do not have tattoos and connects her to those who do” (Fedorenko, Sherlock, and Stuhr). Tattoos almost seem like a language that only some people can understand. People with tattoos do benefit from them in ways that people in our society may not realize. A common reason that people get tattoos is because they are a way to show one’s identity and how that changes over time. As journalist Enid Schildkrout once said, tattooing is a “process of intentionally reconstructing the corporeal in order to symbolically represent and physically chronicle changes in one’s identity, relationships, thoughts, or emotions over time” (Schildkrout). Similar to how tattoos were once used in African culture to symbolize change and growth, a client in a case study done by Social and Anthropological Research Methods for Art/Art Education said, “The tattoos I have are symbolic of changes and rites of passages, transitions I’ve outgrown. They represent growth that I arrived at through change, and I see them as scars of that process. But there’s a beauty there in the process too, so they’re beautiful scars” (Fedorenko, Sherlock, Stuhr). Tattoos are a way to emanate the growth of a person and their identity, in ways that others may

not ever understand about the person. Tattoos not only signify how a person is identified by others, they also signify the way a person identifies themselves. Tattoos can also be a form of empowerment. Similar to how women once used tattoos to resist colonial power, tattoos are still used as a means of empowering oneself in society. A psychologist named Lawrence Rubin expresses this by showing that throughout all of the judgment and degradation of every type of person in our society, tattooing “is a means of asserting mastery and control over our bodies, and anchoring ourselves, quite literally during a time of life when the only constant is change” (Rubin). Tattooing is a way to empower one’s body and self in a world where the value of those things is often lost. Even in Polynesian culture, “a tattoo was always a sign of strength” (Mai). But in Western society, the strength and power of tattoos is often perceived as a form of pretentiousness. In San Diego Magazine, a psychologist stated that, “the fact is, tattoo-lovers are a proud lot . . . they proudly declare that they are what they are” (R. Mantell). In this sense, tattoos are a form of self-expression. They are “a means of marking ourselves in a society that fosters, both wittingly and unwittingly, anomie and anonymity” (Rubin). People with tattoos are just “ordinary people like you and me, except that they have a strong sense of identity they have no intention of hiding. They are not scared of public opinion and would love to let others know what they believe in” (R. Mantell). In a world where it is sometimes hard to 56


voice one’s opinions, tattoos empower people to express themselves in another way. Tattooing is an art, and just like any other type of art or form of self-expression, tattoos should be treated that way. Clients in the case study Social and Anthropological Research Methods for Art/Art Education voiced this same belief, saying that “if you’re really serious about [tattoos] you really appreciate art” (Fedorenko, Sherlock, Stuhr). In our society, tattoos are not generally perceived in the same way as other forms of art, but people who do appreciate tattoos only reinforce the value of them. People should realize that tattoos have a personal significance to each human being, so they should not be generalized or put into categories. A tattoo artist in a scientific study by University of Illinois stated, “I never know what type of person is going to come through my door – from a police officer to a preacher” (Fedorenko, Sherlock, Stuhr). Tattoos are not just limited to a specific type of person, and they do not mean the same thing to each person, so tattoos should all be treated as their own work of art. As psychologist Michael R. Mantell says, “Tattoos are a mark of the 21st century, and it’s estimated that more than 25 percent of people under 30 are inking their skin” (R. Mantell). Tattoos are now becoming more of a mainstream thing, and they are even becoming more popular in media. They are now commonly seen on athletes, rock stars, and movie/television stars (Rubin).

Even with the growing popularity of tattoos, they are still not fully accepted in Western society and they may never be, but people should be more open-minded about the art of tattooing, without allowing stereotypes to become inked onto their minds.

Works Cited “Body Adornment and Clothing.” Africa: An Encyclopedia for Students. Ed. John Middleton. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2002. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 22 Sep. 2011. Fedorenko, Janet and Susan Sherlock and Patricia Stuhr. “A Body of Work: A Case Study of Tattoo Culture.” University of Illinois Press. 25.1 (1999): 105-114. JSTOR. Web. 22 Sep. 2011. Kakoulas, Marisa. “Employment Discrimination: Be Careful What You Sue For.” BME Guest Columnists. BMEzine, 5 Apr. 2004. Web. 24 Sep. 2011. Kiesbye, Stefan, ed. Body Piercing and Tattoos. Michigan: Greenhaven Press, 2009. Print. Mai, Rai. Manoa. Hawai’i: University of Hawai’i Press, 2005. JSTOR. Web. 22 Sep. 2011. R. Mantell, Michael. “The Pshychology of Tattoos.” San Diego Magazine. San Diego Magazine, 20 Aug. 2009. Web. 22 Sep. 2011.

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Rothstein, Edward. “Seafarer’s Memoirs, Written on Skin.” New York Times. New York Times, 22 May 2009. Web. 24 Sep. 2011. Rubin, Lawrence. “Tattoos and Body Piercing: Adolescent SelfExpression or Self-Mutilation?” Psychology Today. Sussex Publishers, 2 Jul. 2009. Web. 22 Sep. 2011. Scelfo, Julie. “Body Decoration.” St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture. Eds. Sara Pendergast and Tom Pendergast. Detroit: St. James Press, 2000. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 22 Sep. 2011. Schildkrout, Enid. Inscribing the Body. New York: American Museum of Natural History, 11 Jun. 2004. JSTOR. Web. 22 Sep. 2011. Schwartz, John. “Extreme Makeover: Criminal Court Edition.” New York Times. New York Times, 5 Dec. 2010. Web. 24 Sep. 2011. Sever, Joy. A Third of Americans With Tattoos Say They Make Them Feel More Sexy. New York: Harris Interactive, 8 Oct. 2003. PDF file.

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Jackson Karel

Subliminal Advertising Throughout the 20th and 21st centuries there has been both national paranoia and skepticism about the effectiveness of subliminal advertising. Some types of subliminal advertising may be effective and research shows that other forms of subliminal persuasion are not. New experiments do show that the subliminal advertising tobacco companies are currently using may certainly incite craving among tobacco addicts. It is also possible that their subtle advertising strategies are more effective than traditional advertising. Unlike most subliminal advertising, the hidden marketing tactics tobacco companies are using are rarely prohibited by governments. More research needs to be done about the effectiveness of subliminal persuasion but if the conclusions of these fairly recent research studies are confirmed, serious legislation needs to be made. Addicts don’t need any more obstacles when trying to overcome addiction. People who are not addicted to anything should feel happy, not just because they can feel normal without taking drugs or alcohol, but because a lot of subliminal advertising aimed at sober

people isn’t any more effective than traditional advertising. The first thing newcomers to the concept of subliminal advertising should know is the actual difference between “regular” ads and subliminal ones. The definition of a subliminal message that seems to be agreed upon is that subliminal messages are messages that can be detected by the subconscious while not being detected by the conscious mind. Splicing frames, hidden images, and regular product placement are theoretical examples of subliminal advertising. Splicing a frame is when one takes a single frame of film and puts it in between other frames of film. This creates a flash at a speed that the conscious mind cannot register. Some people believe that people can be persuaded by audio subliminal messages such as the hiding of messages in barely audible music and backmasking--playing messages backwards, masking their comprehension from the conscious mind. Research strongly points to the notion that audio subliminal messages do not have any effect on the listener. (“The Voice Within” ;Mather) There are even more distinctions within the categories of the more plausible examples of subliminal messages. There are three types of effects subliminal advertisements can hope to have on the consumer: memorization, emotions and cravings. A subliminal message that only intends for the viewer to remember the product subliminally advertised is just as manipulative 59


as a traditional advertisement. The difference between subliminal advertising that manipulates the viewer’s memory and traditional advertising is that the viewer will never consciously recall that they saw the ad. That doesn’t really matter because who remembers any of the traditional ads they see? Can anyone remember the ads they saw last week? Most subliminal ads aren’t this basic though. Some subliminal advertisements attempt to conjure the viewer’s positive emotions making them associate good feelings with the product or negative feelings with a rival product. An example of this is the RATS advertisement against Al Gore for George Bush’s campaign for President. The ad had a subliminal message saying that bureaucrats and Al Gore were “rats.” The intent was most definitely to make voters think of untrustworthiness when they considered voting for Gore (Westen). That is just a small thought but as marketing consultant (and manager of the experiments on addiction previously mentioned) Martin Lindstrom says “it comes down to the swing voters and we also know that the whole swing voting issue comes down to the subconscious mind. We actually know from the latest research studies we’ve been involved with that just the fact of you choosing the right venue. I.e, if I go and do my voting in a church it may effect the vote I give because churches stand for anti-abortion and antiabortion stands for the Republican Party. So even things like

that they never thought about before are coming up to the surface and indicating that the subconscious mind is an incredible strong driver in the way we are casting our vote… and I also think we are afraid of subliminal advertising. You know we have now proven that indirect signaling has an effect. In fact it actually has a much stronger effect that we thought it had. So there are several areas from an ethical point of view that will raise concerns in the average public out there” (Miley). If you put two and two together you can see that the combination of Lindstrom’s points shows that subliminal ads, which Lindstrom actually believes to be completely effective, could influence world politics by influencing swing voters to choose important leaders. Because of their frightening capability, the FTC and FCC should continue to regulate subliminal advertising. Lindstrom has an excellent point but exaggerates, especially about the efficiency of subliminal messages. In actuality, subliminal emotional manipulation has seen some results showing its possible, slight effectiveness in a laboratory setting. One of these studies projected subliminal messages onto old people. The messages were either positive stereotypes about the elderly or negative stereotypes. The seniors who received the good messages walked with a better posture (Lindstrom 76). The same thing was done to a wide group of people competing in a challenge. The people subliminally primed with words motivating competition were more aggressive. In another experiment, people with white skin also got more hostile when they 60


were subliminally flashed photos of African Americans. For the competition and hostility tests, an outside group rated the subjects more hostile and aggressive than people in the experiment who were not subliminally primed (Epley). These were not the only experiments done but no aspect of subliminal persuasion has yet to be proved. Most subliminal advertisements involve sex, rather than just positive or negative emotions. Some ads hide the actual word “sex” or hide a sexual organ in the ad somewhere. The intent behind including hidden sexual imagery is to rouse the viewer’s carnal desires supposedly making the viewer desire the product more and associate the feeling of sensuality with it. This theory was brought to the eyes of the public by author Wilson Bryan Key and his book titled Subliminal Seduction (Boese). Key used minimal amounts of scientific evidence in his books (Moore). This makes his thesis very dubious, especially since so much time has passed since he started publishing his theories. Currently, there is still an ongoing debate on whether or not sex actually sells in traditional advertisements. Like emotional subliminal manipulation if subliminal seduction was effective it would be unethical. Because of this it is good that single frame cuts and hidden messages are currently regulated by several world governments (Subliminal Advertising). This regulation is usually focused on television when there is another form of subconscious manipulation that appears to be far more concerning.

Two multi-million dollar studies were made by Martin Lindstrom, a marketing consultant, and some scientists about tobacco advertising using the most cutting edge brain scanning devices, fMRIs, on 2,000 test subjects from five countries (“Anti-Smoking Warnings Make You Want to Smoke, Claims Study”). fMRIs are brain scanning devices. One of their studies shows that placing things that slightly remind one of tobacco in random places, is more effective in increasing craving than traditional tobacco advertisements. One other notable study was done on this subject that showed that when smokers deprived of tobacco were subliminally flashed and then shown the same images after the priming, they recognized them faster than both non smoking test subjects and non cigarette deprived smokers (“Subliminal processing”). These studies are important because since tobacco cannot be advertised in the media anymore, tobacco companies use massive amounts of their money allotted to marketing to create subliminal advertisements. These subtle messages appear in the interior design of bars that are paid for by tobacco companies. These inconspicuous messages also appear on racecars. Marlboro even markets Wild West inspired clothing that intends to subconsciously remind people to smoke their cigarettes. Martin Lindstrom led another study that came to the conclusion that when smokers watch anti-smoking ads there is increased activity in their nucleus acucumbens, the brain's "craving spot"(Lindstrom 80-86). Anti-smoking ads were actually making 61


smokers crave tobacco. When reviewing Martin Lindstrom’s book of findings, Buyology, the magazine Advertising Age wrote that “in a different study, researchers found that anti-smoking ads had the same counterintuitive effect ("Ad Experts Not So Quick to Buy Into 'Buyology’"). Anti-smoking ads have this opposite effect because as Martin Lindstrom wrote in Buyology “when we watch someone do something, whether it’s scoring a penalty kick or playing a perfect arpeggio on a Steinway grand piano, our brains react as if we were actually performing these activities ourselves”(Lindstrom 56). Most anti-smoking ads feature somebody smoking. Usually that person is unhealthy or dying but when smokers see someone else smoking, the brain mimics that action making the smoker watching the ad crave a cigarette. To conclude, more research needs to be done about subliminal messaging in order to make stricter legislation because unscrupulous marketers could use these subliminal tactics to take advantage of the consumer. There are some short-term solutions that could be helpful such as encouraging anti-smoking ads to feature words instead of images. Subliminal persuasion may seem only nefarious when applied to addicts but it may effect us all because everyone in the United States is a consumer.

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Sophia Kauffman

Food For Thought: Industrial versus Sustainable Farming

United States, more than 99% of farm animals are raised and slaughtered using industrial methods (“Factory Farming”). The other 1% of farm animals is produced sustainably. The United States Department of Agriculture, or USDA, defines sustainable agriculture as “an integrated system of plant and animal production practices having a site-specific application” (USDA). In the long run, sustainable farms “satisfy human food and fiber needs, enhance environmental quality…, make the most efficient use of nonrenewable resources…, sustain the economic viability of farm operations…, and enhance the quality of life for farmers and society as a whole” (USDA).

You see a hamburger sitting in front of you, but do you really know what you’re eating? Have you ever wondered how your meal gets from the farm to your plate? It’s not something that’s thought about often. The industrial agriculture companies put a tall wall in front of the consumer, so they don’t see exactly how their meal gets from where it’s first grown or raised to them. Today many people understand that they have the ability to learn about the harmful techniques used to process many of the foods they eat. The consumer can choose to support industrial farms, which produce large amounts of affordable food, or sustainable farms, which are better for the welfare of humans, animals, and the environment.

Industrial farming is a phenomenon of the 20th century. Before the 1920s everyone grew sustainably, and according to the U.S. Bureau of the Census, 60% of the entire U.S. workforce was rural labor. That number was reduced to 40% in 1900 and to 15% in 1950. Today, only 2% of the entire workforce in America is farmers (McKenzie 10).

According to USLegal.com, industrial agriculture is, “the industrialized production of livestock, poultry, fish, and crops….” In the

But why did factory farms start to replace small, family-owned ones? Sustainable farms are very beneficial to human, animal, and environmental health, but industrial farms are beneficial for other reasons, the first being cost. Unlike sustainable farms, which focus on raising and slaughtering animals humanely for the benefit of the consumers and the environment, the main goal of industrial farms is to produce affordable food and receive as much profit as possible. According to John Ikerd, Pro63


fessor Emeritus of Agricultural & Applied Economics at University of Missouri Columbia, when humans started farming industrially we “bent nature to serve our needs. We achieved the economies of large-scale, specialized production as we applied the principles, strategies, and technologies of industrialization to farming” (Ikerd 1). People who own and run industrial farms are mostly concerned about profit, so the animals are contained in Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations, also known as CAFOs or feedlots. These are, “agricultural facilities that house and feed a large number of animals in a confined area”. The costs of these facilities are extremely low, due to the close confinement of animals and cheap corn diet. (“Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations”). In addition to low cost, industrial farms also produce animals at an alarmingly quick rate. Feedlots confine hundreds of animals into small spaces, a practice that is inhumane but cost efficient as more animals can be kept in less space. The corn they are fed fattens them for slaughter quicker than their natural diet, which means more animals can be produced in shorter amounts of time. Sustainable farms are good in some aspects, but are also more expensive than industrial farms. It takes longer for animals to be ready for slaughter when they are fed the food they naturally eat, and they are raised on a much smaller scale (Pasternak). In an interview with Mark Pasternak, the owner of Devil’s Gulch

Ranch in Nicasio, he explained that it is impossible to make nature do the exact same thing over and over again, like a factory. No cow or chicken or pig is going to be the exact same color, size and weight, or grow at the same rate. And while industrial farms try to make every animal as similar as possible, sustainable farms and ranches like Devil’s Gulch embrace the difference, and the local restaurants they sell to change their menus depending on what is available that day (Pasternak). However, not all restaurants are willing to accept the compromises needed to buy sustainable. Fast food chains like McDonald’s and Burger King have rigid menus that can’t change from day to day. Chain restaurants rely on shipments of the exact same amount of the exact same type of meat on a rigid schedule, something that is close to impossible on sustainable farms (Pasternak). While sustainable farms have drawbacks, many of their practices are beneficial as well. In The Omnivore’s Dilemma, Michael Pollan asks people who buy locally and sustainably why they do so. Some of the replies include, ‘I just don’t trust the meat in the supermarket anymore.’ ‘I drive 150 miles one way in order to get clean meat for my family’

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‘It’s very simple: I trust the [local farm] more than I trust the WalMart. And I like the idea of keeping my money right here in town’ (Pollan 242). It is extremely difficult to tell where food came from if it was produced industrially. It’s a long process, and many or all of the less-than-desirable steps are concealed. However, people don’t have to worry about knowing where their food is coming from if they buy sustainably because the process isn’t hidden. The consumer knows exactly what’s on their plate, and how it arrived there. They know that there were no unhealthy chemicals used to produce it, and know that there is a much smaller risk of the food being contaminated. They may even know the farmer personally, which increases trust and confidence (Pasternak). Eliminating the guesswork is only one of the ways humans can benefit from buying sustainably. Another, perhaps more driving reason to buy sustainable food, is to support local farmers. With huge industrial farms taking over, it is harder for smaller, family-owned farms to stay in business. Supporting these farmers keeps money local and out of the agribusiness owners’ pockets. Additionally, keeping these farms afloat can benefit generations of both farmers and consumers to come. The farm stays in business, the farmers and their families continue to benefit, and the consumers continue to receive food that is healthy for them.

Better health is perceived by many as another benefit of sustainable food. The meat supplied by sustainable farms is far more nutritious due to the allowance of natural feed to the livestock. Sustainably raised meat also “encourages short and long term health benefits and lessens the likelihood of certain diseases” (Sustainable vs. Industrial 1). Everything is natural, and there is no need for unhealthy synthetic fertilizers, feed, or antibiotics (“Pesticides”). Consumers gain from supporting sustainable farms, but the animals that are raised sustainably do as well. Animals raised on sustainable farms are given the food they eat naturally and provided with clean, healthy living conditions unlike those on industrial farms. They are not given any growth hormones and are slaughtered humanely (“Animal Welfare,” “Antibiotics”). Although it may seem that farmers should be required to provide animals with such basic needs, they are in fact a luxury that few farm animals receive. For example, cows have evolved to eat grass, so it seems obvious that this is what all cows should be fed. This, however, is not the case on most industrial farms. They are fed corn, a cheap alternative that compromises the health of the animal and the quality of the meat (Pollan 77). On sustainable farms, animals are fed what they were evolved to eat because it leads to better health, which in turn produces higher quality meat and dairy. Letting nature run its course the way it is supposed to has many benefits. For example, cows 65


have rumens, which, “[take the] cellulose in grass and [turn] it into…very nutritious protein,” which is reflected in the quality and amount of nutrition in the meat (Pollan. “Interview”). When cows are grass-fed, they are also allowed to choose what kind of grass they want or need at that certain time. There are hundreds of different types of grass found in a single pasture, and cows know which one they want or need at a certain time. This makes the animal healthier, because they ultimately know what they need to be healthy. This is something that cannot be provided when animal feed is predetermined as it is on industrial farms. Not only does this eliminate the need to inject animals with antibiotics and other chemicals, but it also makes it easier to find a cure when sickness occurs, since the factor of unnatural food is eliminated (“Antibiotics”). Because sustainable farms use little to no outside resources, they are beneficial for the environment. Everything is interconnected in one big and complicated web, so little outside support is needed: the sun helps the grass grow, which in turn feeds the cows, whose manure both replenishes the soil and acts as a home to the larvae that the chickens eat, and so on (Pollan 219). Since the manure acts as a fertilizer for the soil, there is no need to buy any, which greatly reduces the amount of fossil fuels used on the farm. There are also less fossil fuels needed to transport food grown on sustainable farms, because the distance the food has to travel to reach the consumer is much less than the distance traveled by industrially farmed food. Most of

the food is sold at local supermarkets and farmer’s markets which decreases the amount of fossil fuel used for transportation. While industrial farms are highly profitable and efficient, there are disadvantages, some of which are quite extreme. One major problem with industrial farms and feedlots is the unethical treatment of animals. They are structured so that, “even the animals’ most fundamental needs—clean air, sunshine, freedom from chronic pain and illness—are denied them” (“Factory Farming”). Cows are separated from their mothers twelve hours after being born, then are dehorned and fed a milk replacer made from the blood of their own kind, which can lead to the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, or Mad Cow Disease. They often suffer foot and udder diseases from standing in their own manure and being closely confined, and the corn diet weakens their immune system (“Animal Welfare,” “Diet and Disease in Cattle”). Veal calves are kept alone in dark crates that prevent movement so their meat will be tender, and are fed a diet with low amounts of iron so the meat has a pale color that is appealing in the market (“Factory Farming Facts”). Dairy cows are specially bred for high milk production. Since they produce milk for up to ten months after giving birth, they are constantly impregnated to keep the milk production continuous. When they become unable to produce enough milk, they are sent to slaughterhouses (“Factory Farming Facts”). 66


Piglets’ teeth and tails are clipped shortly after they are born to prevent tail biting, an activity that does not occur on sustainable farms. However, pigs on industrial farms are separated from their mothers and confined in pens with concrete floors that have been linked to skeletal deformation of the feet. On sustainable farms, pigs are allowed to root, or dig in dirt and straw. Rooting is, “natural activity for pigs; and when restricted, they show visible signs of stress and aggression, such as tail biting” (“Animal Welfare”). Broiler chickens, or chickens raised for meat, are bred to grow muscle at a rate that their bones often can’t keep up with. They are raised in cramped and overcrowded houses instead of pens to prevent bruised flesh, and half of their beaks are seared off to prevent the birds from pecking each other to death. Layer chickens, or chickens that are raised for their eggs, are kept in cages with 14 square inch floors, with five to eight birds per cage. Newborn male chicks are suffocated at birth, and hens are essentially starved for up to two weeks to induce molting and increase egg production. When hens come to the end of their laying cycle, they are sent to slaughterhouses (“Animal Welfare,” “Factory Farming Facts”). Disease is another problem on industrial farms. To combat the spread of infection, healthy farm animals are constantly injected with antibiotics. This is a practice that has been going on since 1946, and today, almost 50% of antibiotics in the United States

are administered to farm animals. Although this perpetual usage of antibiotics increases animal growth by helping food digestion and offsets the unsanitary conditions, it is extremely dangerous (Hughes) . The bacteria that the antibiotics are meant to kill can develop immunity to them, making these medicines useless. It is also estimated that “80 to 90 percent of all antibiotics given to animals are not fully digested and eventually pass through the body and enter the environment, where they can encounter new bacteria and create additional resistant strains” (Antibiotics 1). This creates drug-resistant bacteria strains for not only other animals, but humans as well. An estimated 18,000 Americans die from drug-resistant infections every year, and, “the National Academy of Sciences calculates that increased health care costs associated with antibioticresistant bacteria exceed $4 billion each year in the United States alone” (Antibiotics 1). Despite the fact that these drugs are beneficial to industrial farms and feedlots in the short term, in the long term, they will become useless, both to animals and humans (“Antibiotics,” “Factory Farming Facts”). Not only do the antibiotic-resistant bacteria strains negatively affect humans, but quality and cleanliness of industrially produced food do as well. Because over 5,000 animals are slaughtered and produced per day, it is difficult to ensure cleanliness (“The Meatrix 2½”). Often, manure caked on animals’ hides can contaminate the food, which spreads harmful bacteria such as E. coli, Campylobacter, and Salmonella. Because of these un67


sanitary conditions, “76 million Americans suffer from food poisoning each year” (“Food Safety”). Industrial farms and feedlots not only have negative effects on animals, but on the environment as well. A USDA estimate states that more than 335 million tons of manure are produced on United States farms annually-100 times more than the amount of human waste. Some of the manure is spread on fields, which is harmful to the soil, and the remaining is kept in huge tanks or lagoons. It may seem harmless, but manure gives off many harmful gasses including ammonia, endotoxins, carbon dioxide, and methane, all dangerous gasses which pollute the air and contribute to global warming (“Air Pollution,” “Waste”). After the pollution from manure is taken into account, pollution from transporting food and livestock must be considered. Industrially farmed food generally has to travel much farther than sustainably farmed food to reach the consumer’s plate, and large amounts of carbon dioxide are released in the process. In an Environmental Protection Agency estimate, “the agricultural industry was directly responsible for six percent of the U.S. contribution to global warming in 2004” due to the contributing factors of air pollution from both animal manure and transportation. (“Air Pollution”)!

of which one to support. Sustainable farming “is still supported [by] only a minority of consumers as an expression of their concern for the environment and the consumption of quality foods” (Bowler 210). Perhaps the reason for the lack of support for sustainable farms is lack of education, cost, or the fact that, “sustainable agriculture requires a new social contract between food producers, food retailers, [and] food consumers (“Developing Sustainable Agriculture”). It is easy to ignore the downfalls of industrial farms when the food they produce is so cheap and easily accessible. Although it’s more expensive in the short term, buying sustainably has benefits that may prove to be costeffective in the long run. A consumer who knows about the true costs of the food they eat must decide whether they want to pay for it now or later. I would like to acknowledge the following people: Juli Kauffman, Scott Kauffman, Kiyona Mizuno, Rachel Miller, and Leah LindWhite for editing my paper

Works Cited “Air Pollution.” Sustainable Table. Grace, 2011. Web. 25 Sep. 2011. “Animal Wellfare.” Sustainable Table. Grace, 2011. Web. 25 Sep. 2011.

A consumer who is educated about the benefits and drawbacks of both industrial and sustainable farming must make the choice 68


“Antibiotics.” Sustainable Table. Grace, 2011. Web. 25 Sep. 2011. Bowler, Ian. “Developing Sustainable Agriculture.” Geographical Association. 87.3. (July 2002). JSTOR. Web. 25 Sep. 2011 “Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations.” National Conference of State Legislatures, 2011. Web. 27 Sep. 2011. “Diet And Disease In Cattle: High-Grain Feed May Promote Illness And Harmful Bacteria.” ScienceDaily. American Association For The Advancement Of Science, 11 May 2001. Web. 10 Oct. 2011.

Hughes, Peter and John Heritage. “Antibiotic Growth-Promoters in Food Animals.” FAO. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2011. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. McKenzie, Shawn. The Rise of Industrial Agriculture. Pasternak, Mark. Personal Interview. 14 October 2011. Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore’s Dilemma. New York: Penguin Press, 2006. Print. Pollan, Michael. “Interview.” Modern Meat: PBS. Print. “Sustainable Agriculture.” United States Department of Agriculture. National Institute of Agriculture, 2009. Web. 28 Sep. 2011.

“Factory Farming.” FarmForward, 2008. Web. 27 Sep. 2011.

The Meatrix II 1/2. Free Range Graphics, 2006. Grace. Web. 25 Sep. 2011.

“Factory Farming Facts.” IDA. In Defense of Animals, 2011. Web. 25 Sep. 2011.

“Waste.” Sustainable Table. Grace, 2011. Web. 25 Sep. 2011.

“Food Safety.” Sustainable Table. Grace, 2011. Web. 25 Sep. 2011. “Industrial Agriculture Law & Legal Definition.” USLegal. USLegal.com, 2011. 25 Sep. 2011. Ikerd, John. “Impacts of CAFOs on Rural Communities.” University of Missouri, 2011. Web. 28 Sep. 2011. 69


Jack Kissane

Musical Influences on Performance and Achievement Music is one of the primary influences on individual performance. In sports, many people believe that the best way to prepare for an athletic event is through training, diet, and exercise. But they are wrong. Scientific studies have determined that music has a stronger effect on optimal performance. Many people perceive music as just pleasant sounds to our ears. Instead, music has a complex relationship between our brains and the auditory inputs received from music. The stimulus provided by music invokes a wide range of emotions from internal peace to peak intensity. A song’s bass, pitch, and, tone can strongly influence individual emotions. Different songs produce different feelings and moods. Individuals can control their feelings simply by listening to specific sounds. Music has a profound effect on the brain’s emotional response. People can control the use of music to intentionally alter their state of mind for optimal performance in upcoming events in school and athletics.

There is a complex relationship between music, the brain, and individual emotion. Research scientists have discovered a framework for how emotions can be created by outside stimuli. Even though scientists know a lot about our brains, they are still developing their knowledge and ideas about how it relates with music. Researchers such as Antonio Damasio, a professor at the University of Southern California, look into the functions of the brain to determine what happens when sound enters the brain. The researchers examine the brain circuitry to determine the established pathways for music. Next they examine the effects or roles music may have once inside the brain. Based off his research, Antonio Damasio says that emotions are created by the interactions of an individual’s mind and the “internal and external influences” surrounding it. Internal means biochemical processes and external means coming from the surrounding environment. The interaction of these two influences can cause feelings or emotions. The outside experiences influence the biochemical reaction with one another and can alter moods. Emotions involve psychological arousal as well as expressive behaviors and conscious experiences. Researchers such as Antonio have found that “feelings are what arise as the brain interprets emotions, which are themselves purely physical signals of the body reacting to external stimuli.” (Damasio) The brain is much like a filing cabinet. Once the brain knows a piece of information, it stores it away. Music enables the brain to bring back that memory or bring back the feeling from that specific time. 70


To take a closer look at what exactly happens to the music inside of the brain, Frezya Sancar wrote an article explaining this series of complicated interactions between music and the brain. We know that emotions are created by external influences, but what happens to the brain when it hears music? ! Many different parts of the brain are used during the transaction between music and our minds. When the vibrations of music enter the brain, the ossicles vibrate in a small membrane that connects to the fluid of the inner ear. Ossicles are some of the smallest bones in the body. They are located in the eardrum. These small bones can record vibrations and send them to certain parts of the brain. The vibrations that are connected to the fluid of the inner ear transform the sound into a pressure wave within the fluid. (Sancar) This pressure wave passes into the cochlea. The cochlea is a section of the inner ear that has two cell membranes (upper membrane and lower membrane) that are specialized to act as neuron receptors. These are also known as hair cells. The vibrations allow the “lower membrane (basilar membrane) to move in respect to the upper membrane” (Sancar) This type of movement bends the hair cells and causes the release of the transmitter onto the neurons of the right brain auditory cortex. The brain can control the vibrations and use them to release certain chemicals within the brain. The effect is similar to drugs that enable the brain to release dopamine and create a “high” effect. All of this was created by music and external influence. However, this is not the only way emotion can

be created. A similar process can happen by visual recognition or the tactile nerves that can interpret touch. The experiences we have everyday enter our minds and bring back memories that cause emotions much like nostalgia. All of the senses are able to act as external influences that can change emotion. Music is not the only external source that people can take in and create an emotion. All of the senses: visual, taste, touch, and smell can cause emotions as well. Similar to certain types of music, emotions that are formed by taste and smell usually are created by a sense of nostalgia. Nostalgia means an outside source brings back a certain cherished memory that occurred in the past. Many people feel nostalgic possibly when their favorite childhood meal has been prepared for them or rather a familiar smell that they have associated with particular memories or interactions. Marina Karkosovsky, a scientist trying to discover how emotions can be created. In an research article, she talks about her knowledge of nostalgia. Marian states, “The word is a learned formation of a Greek compound, meaning "returning home" (Karkovsky). By returning home, a person considers the memory to be a special part of their life. “Nostalgia is often triggered by something reminding the individual of an event or item from their past” (Krakovsky). Sight, smell, and taste are all contributors to nostalgia. On the other hand, music has more of an effect of creating new emotions rather than recalling an old feeling. However, music has many factors that impact the outcome of an emotion. 71


The components of a song such as beat, pitch, and tone can affect what kind of emotion a person experiences. Much like the other senses above that cause emotion, there are different aspects hidden inside each song that can cause a certain feeling. Using different types of beat, pitch, and tone people can have different reactions to different songs. For pitch, when a person hears a certain pitch it sends a signal to the inner ear, the auditory cortex can translate the noise into part of an emotion. Feyza Sancar, a researcher in how human brains can interpret sound says, “the membranes and the hair cells in the cochlea also serve to dictate pitch. The basilar membrane which acts as the vibrating membrane varies in flexibility along the length of the cochlea.” (Sacnar) The brain is able to take in the pitch given off from the song and interpret it. With all of the other aspects of the song, the type of pitch has an effect on what emotion an individual can create. As for rhythm, when the brain interprets it the belt and parabelt areas of the right hemisphere are involved in processing rhythm in music. When people are getting ready to start playing a rhythm at a steady pace, they use the left frontal cortex and the left parietal cortex, and right cerebellum; while an individual is playing music, all of these parts of the brain are active.(Sancar) Not all people will react the same way to one song, and there are a variety of different emotions produced depending on the individual. However, there are some pretty usual reactions for some standard songs that have simple beats and not much

change in tone and pitch. Usually a slow moving beat with elongated sound can create a relaxed emotion. On the other hand, hard fast beats that are loud and staccato (quickly start and end), can make a fast heart beat and create an emotion that can give off energy. To expose me to his relationship with music, I interviewed Colin Williams a Music/Humanities teacher at the Bay School. Colin says that music actually does affect his mood in fact “After listening to five of Sonny Chris’s songs [he] had to do push-ups because [he] had so much energy in [him], [Colin] just needed to get it out somehow.” (Williams). It is remarkable that just one sound wave can produce enough energy to force someone to do a physical activity. However, Colin did mention that he unintentionally listened to the music and did push-ups. Music can alter people state of mind after listening to certain songs. However, many people intentionally use music to prepare for upcoming events. Before upcoming events in school and athletics, many individuals use music to inspire themselves or place them in a proper state of mind. Music’s effect on people can be controlled and used to intentionally changing the way someone perceives a situation a certain way. Think about an organization such as “Rescue Animals Now” commercial. The commercial shows pictures of injured, lonely dogs that have been abused, neglected and mistreated. In the background, there is sad music so the viewers will feel empathy for the dogs and possibly rescue one. In school, my peers told me they used music during school to 72


help them prepare for an event. One of my classmates, Nick Bennett, said he had experiences in school where music had helped him. Nick said that in Dr. Doyle’s class “we meditate for two minutes every day; usually someone will pick out a song they would like to share with the class.” (Bennett) Usually the music that is played in Dr. Doyle’s class in peaceful, calming music to put the students at ease before the hard day of work starts. Nick says that this is a very helpful part of the class because it gives the student’s time to just relax and take in the music. “Music can heal the mind, relieve stress, and lift the spirit. Powerful harmonics are created by singing bowls and chimes, as well as human voices... and the words we use.”( AnismanReiner) Calming, peaceful music can help an individual relax or relieve the stress from a big upcoming test. Music is able to relax a person by making them just focus on the music. They do not notice any other distractions they may have in their everyday lives. However, music does not only give off a relaxed calming emotion, people use music to create energy for athletic events. For athletics, I talked to my friend, Ben Epstein, about his experiences with music and sports. Ben is a student at Marin Academy who participates in both tennis and long distance bicycling. When I talked to Ben, I asked him if he has ever used music while participating in his activities. He said that he uses music before, during, and after his events. Ben has created a “ritual” before every race or match by listening to Eminem’s Til’ I Col-

lapse. This song contains a steady, fast paced beats with a very deep bass. All of those aspects of the song can contribute to an increasing heart rate and motivating someone. Ben states, “It makes me feel motivated, it makes me believe that I can push longer and go faster.”(Epstein). During his races, Ben says that he will use the music to take his mind off of the pain caused by the cycling. The music acts as a distraction from his pain. And after the race, Ben says he loves to listen to Ziggy Marley, a Reggae musician with calming and peaceful songs. Ben is the perfect example of an athlete who uses music to alter his state of mind. Another example is Will Allen, a cornerback on the Miami Dolphins. Will talks about his pregame rituals in a blog he posted on bonesball.com. Will feels that “certain songs help [him] tune out everyone and all other distractions. On game day, [his] choices of songs tend to be more upbeat, energetic and filled with lyrics that help [him] build the confidence.” (Allen) Even professional athletes use music to manipulate their emotions to prepare for upcoming events. It is clear that different music can have a wide range of effects on people. By examining the science of the brain and breaking down songs into categories, a clear connection to music and the brain can be seen. Looking at how emotions are created by external and internal influences, researchers can see that music can act as an external force influencing the brain into making emotions. Taking a look at the aspects of a song such as pitch, rhythm, and tone can all affect one’s feelings. With differ73


ent roles of pitch, rhythm and tones comes different emotions. However, if an individual chooses certain songs they know can make then produce a certain emotion; they are able to manipulate the songs into making them feel certain emotions. People use this technique to prepare for upcoming events or get through a painful experience. In addition, music can assist people in calming themselves down once an event is over. The complex relationship between music and the brain is essential to understand because people interact with music every day. The effects of music can strongly influence a person’s performance or achievement.

Work Cited

Pytel, Barbara. “Brain Function and Music” Educational Issues. Jun. 2007. Web. 25 Sep. 2011 Sacks, Oliver. “Musicophilia.” New York Times. New York Times, Sep. 2008. Web. 23 Sep. 2011. ----, M.D, Musicophila: Tales of music and the Brain. Sancar, Feyza “Music and the Brain; Processing and Responding” First Web reports Apr 1999. Web 25 Sep. 2011 Sanfranek, Rita. “Use Music Therapy on Stroke Patients.” Red Orbit. Apr. 2008. Web. 23 Sep. 2011 .

Allen, Will “Pregame Ritual” Bones Ball, Mind the Sport Oct. 2011. Oct 18, 2011.

Stanton, Sandra. “Alzheimer’s Disease A Family Affair a Growing Social Problem.” ProQuest. CSA, Apr. 2001.Web. 23 Sep. 2011.

Anisman-Reiner, Victoria “Healing with Sound” Natural Medicine Dec 2005. Oct 7, 2011

Vink, Annemiek “Music and Emotion” Nordic Journal of Music Therapy May 2001. Sep 23. 2011

Damasio, Antonio “Feeling our Emotions” Scientific American Mind Apr 2005. “Oct 5 2011 Karkovsky, Marina “Nostalgia; Sweet Remembrance” Psychology Today May 2010. Oct 4 2011. O’Donnell, Laurence. “Music and the Brain.” Cerebromente. Mar 1999. Web. 23 Sep. 2011 74


Leah Lind-White

Injury-Free Running? I Wish! Sitting at Crissy Field, looking out at the San Francisco Bay, one can observe toddlers running in the sand, graceful, free, easy, and barefoot. Turning to the left, however, another picture is presented, as the gravel trail leading west carries runners of all shapes, sizes and ages, accompanied by the unmistakable slap-slap sound we have come to identify with modern running. Running for pleasure is a recent development in American culture, becoming popular over the last forty years. It is no surprise that running has caught on like wildfire across the United States, as the sport often consists of simply throwing on a pair of shorts and an old t-shirt, strapping on a pair of shoes, and walking out the door. The population of runners in the United States has grown exponentially in the last decade, matched by a parallel increase in injury rates among runners. But who teaches people how to run? As Bobby McGee, an endurance sports coach and personal trainer once stated, â&#x20AC;&#x153;You are taught how to swing a tennis racket, you are taught how to swing a golf club, but you are not taught how to runâ&#x20AC;?. So when we have a question or a concern about running where do we go? Since

the sport does not require much personalized gear, often times the shoe sales people are the first to hear our concerns. This is not a false instinct, for leading shoe companies, such as Asics, Adidas, Nike and New Balance, are in fact incredibly well educated about running studies, regarding proper form and the injuries found in the running population. However, the shoe companies use their knowledge to create and design shoes that will support improper running form, while trying to minimize the injuries that will inevitably result. When a sales person is asked what is needed to fix the pain in an individualâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s knees, hip, lower leg or foot, their immediate response is to suggest a change in shoe. They recommend a shoe that will better support the foot and cushion the impact, in an attempt to minimize the stress that leads to injuries. From personal experience, however, such suggestions are misleading, for the modern design of running shoes negatively affect the biomechanics of proper running form, placing unnecessary stress on the bones, ligaments, and tendons of the lower leg. Because of this, it is no surprise that parallels can be drawn between the development of modern running shoes and the increase in injury rates over the last decade. The solutions derived by leading shoe companies have actually been detrimental to runners. As exemplified by shoe commercials such as Asics, Adidas, New Balance, the design of running shoes has been created from an isolated focus on problems pertaining to just the foot, leading to greater injuries in the long run. Thinking about the human body as a 75


whole is a concept that has the potential to prevent and heal many running injuries. The concept, however, has been ignored. Instead, runners are lead to believe that everything can be solved with a new pair of shoes. For many people today, the idea of running fast over long distances seems like an unnatural feat. Many assume that running injuries are common because we are not meant to run long distances, or in fact at all. From an evolutionary perspective, however, this is clearly not the case. It is common knowledge that the larger brain and the opposable thumb were essential in the evolution of the human species, but few individuals realize that running was one of the most important adaptations, separating the human species from the great apes. This misunderstanding is derived from humansâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; tendency to associate speed with success, rather than efficiency over long distances. The capacity to track and run down prey, over long distances and for many hours, was a skill used by many groups of people throughout human evolution. In contrast to what many people believe, humans were indeed born to run long distances efficiently. As Dennis M. Bramble and Daniel E. Lieberman of Harvard university state in their article, Endurance Running and the Evolution of Homo, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Quadrupedal cursors easily sprint faster than humans over short distances, but sustainable endurance rate speeds of humans are surprisingly comparable to specialized mammalian cursors such as dogs and horsesâ&#x20AC;? (Bramble). This is an interesting comparison, for not only do Bramble and Lie-

berman highlight humans ability to run long distances; they also compare human endurance to that of the dog and the horse; the two species which were among the first to be domesticated by Homo sapiens (Bramble). From an evolutionary perspective, endurance running was made possible by specific adaptations, such as the increased leg length, stabilization of the pelvic structure by reduced size, growth of the gluteus maximus muscle, an elongated trunk, smaller arm length, and larger arch in the foot. These adaptations played an important role in the development of our ability for endurance running. Such specialized adaptations allowed for the increased stress and pressure on certain bones to be distributed throughout the entire skeletal system, while maintaining a faster pace. The capacity to tolerate the physical stress of running was critical to the survival of Homo sapiens (Bramble). Even in contemporary cultures, running has proven to be a useful tool in the survival of our species, and even aboriginal peoples, such as the Bushmen of the Kalahari desert (Attenborough) and the Tarahumara of central America (McDougall), continue to rely on endurance running as a hunting strategy and method of war (Attenborough). This strategy, known as the persistence hunt, is still used today in the daily lives of these aboriginal people (Attenborough), as running was and still remains to be a necessity for many people in certain societies, as the use of the automobile and public transportation has become in ours. ! 76


Why, one might ask, do we now experience so much difficulty while running, when we have evolved to be runners? What did the ancient people know, that we have forgotten? Today many believe that running style and form is something unique to each individual. The fact is that there is a proper technique for running that, if violated, can cause injuries in various places throughout the human body. One might not believe it at first, but by simply looking at the images from ancient cultures, such as the Greeks, Romans, Egyptians, Rarรกmui, and Kalahari Bushmen, a similar running form can be noted throughout. These cultures seemed to believe that there was a natural form, which allowed for more efficient and less injury prone running. In the past several years, three major assertions have developed about proper running form - Pose Method running, Chi running, and Evolution running. The three styles are quite similar. Although they differ in certain details, they all follow the same general style of running, which includes forefoot or midfoot strike, high knee lift, bent knees, relaxed foot, and fluid arm motion. The differences in the three styles come into play when looking at the body positioning, the engagement of certain muscles, and the focus. In the Pose Method style, the body position is very upright, and the focus is on the upward pull of the foot off the ground with the calf and hamstring muscles (Romanov). The Chi Running style emphasizes that a bent knee should be the focus when running, as it allows the runner to maintain an upright position and land lightly on the forefoot (Dreyer).

Figure 1: Ancient Running

Lastly, the Evolution Running technique instructs that the body position should be a forward lean, while maintaining a straight line throughout the body with as little bend at the hip as possible. This technique also emphasizes that the knee should never precede the head, and, although a high knee lift is important, the knee should drop quickly. The primary focus of the Evolution technique is to allow momentum to decide the pace, by varying the angle of the lean. This technique advocates for a high cadence and a focus on relaxed muscles, giving the appearance that one could run almost effortlessly (Greaux). A running form similar to these three styles can be seen in images 77


from ancient cultures. Looking at a depiction of the Olympians of Greece on an ancient vase, one can observe the same high knee lift, forefoot strike, forward lean, bent knees and long arm swing. Through these images, we realize that the shift in running style today is not, in fact, a new discovery; it is a rediscovery of the ancient effortless run (Britannica). Although the Biomechanics of the human body are quite complicated, they are essential to the understanding of runningrelated injuries. Both the bone and muscular structures of the human body undergo massive amounts of stress when a running gait is performed, and if even one miniscule relationship between bones, muscles, tissue, ligaments or tendons is even slightly dysfunctional, injury will most likely occur. It is therefore necessary to look at the skeletal and muscular structure of the human body to better understand the magnitude of affects the poor design of running shoes could have on running biomechanics. It should be noted that the entire skeletal structure of the body is important to running, however, it should also be recognized that the lower half of the skeletal structure is much more pertinent when speaking in terms of running.

Figure 2: Bone Structure

The first essential bone is the iliac, or pelvis, as it is the fundamental support structure of the lower body, and it is necessary for balance and movement. The femur is the next major bone, which is located in the upper leg. The proximal end of the femur articulates with the iliac to create the hip joint (see terminology page if needed), and the distal end articulates with the tibia (the shin bone) to create the knee. Resting on top of the knee joint created by the femur and the tibia is the patella, or knee cap. The patella is often injured during falls, and the repercussions of an injured patella tendon (attached to the patella and to the proximal tibia) are serious. Aside from the tibia in the lower leg, the fibula is the other major bone in the lower leg. Unlike the tibia, which runs down the front of the lower leg, the fibula runs 78


laterally down the lower leg where its distal end articulates with the ankle to connect the feet and legs (Netter 459-461). Within the foot, the calcaneus or heel bone articulates with the metatarsals, which are the main bones in the foot, to create the structure for the arch (Netter 492-495). Landing too hard or landing on the heel can create injuries in the calcaneus and the metatarsals; the most common of these injuries are stress fractures (Halpern).

Figure 3: Bone Structure

The muscular structure corresponds to the skeletal structure, as the muscles exert specific forces on the bones to create proper biomechanics. The hip flexors are the first muscles directly involved with initiating the stride. They are attached to the pelvis and proximal part of the femur, and they generate the ability to raise the knee. Although not often, the hip flexor can be injured by pushing off too hard and overextending the leg backwards, or from stress due to the impact from landing. The next group of muscles is the quadriceps, which is found in the anterior part of the upper leg. Proximally, the quadriceps aid the hip flexor in raising the knee, and distally it helps with the extension of the knee (Netter). The quadriceps are muscles that are often pulled during running or running related sports, due to a malfunction in the push off stage of the stride, or due to the overextension of the knee before the foot strikes the ground (Kurtz). The last major muscle group in the upper leg is the posterior muscles called the hamstrings. The proximal end of the hamstrings aid in the extension of the hip during push off, and the distal end in the flexion of the knee during recovery; both countering the actions of the quadriceps. On the anterior of the lower leg, there are the anterior tibial muscles, which run along the tibia or shin bone (Netter). The tibial muscles are the source of the ability to lift and flex the foot at the ankle. These muscles are a common source of pain, as they are the muscles affected by shin splints, an injury ranked in the top five most common running injuries by Runnerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s World Magazine (Halpern). One may wonder, at 79


first, why the affected tibial muscles, are so prone to injury (shin splints), but upon thinking about the effect of landing on the heel, it all becomes quite clearer.

Figure 5: Muscular Structure

Figure 4: Muscular Structure

When landing on the heel, the runner is exerting three to four times their body weight onto their calcaneus or heel bone (Micheli), while the anterior tibialmuscles are tightened in order to keep the foot flexed upward to prevent tripping and falling. It is no surprise, then, that this level of impact on a tightly contracted muscle would cause stress and damage, resulting in the pain known as shin splints in the anterior muscles around the tibia.

On the posterior side of the lower leg, the gastronemeous and soleus muscles (calf muscles) may develop problems of their own. Both the gastronemeous and soleus attach proximally to the fibula and tibia near the knee joint, and distally to the calcaneus or heel bone. They also have lateral heads which cross the knee itself. Because of this, the push off stage of running is a great source of injury within the posterior calf muscles, for any torque of the lower leg can cause injury in the lateral heads crossing the knee joint itself. The most significant muscle within the foot is the quadratis plantis. The quadratis plantis muscle is 80


the muscle that maintains the arch, and is closely related to the long plantar ligament which runs along the top of the foot and helps to maintain the arch as well (Netter). Both the quadratis plantis muscle and the long plantar ligament are the source of support within the arch, the shock absorber for all motion throughout the entire body (Greaux). Injuries within the arch, such as plantar fasciitis (a common running injury), generally involve these structures (Halpern). Many believe that differences in arch form, such as flat feet or high arches, are due to anatomical deformation and are inevitable. But, since the arch is supported by the quadratis plantis muscle and the long plantar ligament, a slow deliberate training program aimed at strengthening the arch of the foot can actually reshape the arch to a certain degree. Strengthening the arch can lower the percentage of people requiring orthotics, and greatly decrease injury rates pertaining to pronation or supination (see terminology page) of the foot (Greaux). Surprisingly, these lower leg injuries are greatly affected by the performance of the gluteal muscles, located in the buttocks and inner hip. The entire leg can be stabilized at the knee and at the ankle, preventing injuries at these joints, by strengthening the gluteal muscles. In particular, the gluteous maximus, a muscle found in the buttocks and attaching to the posterior and the lateral side of the femur, can prevent over-pronation of the foot and torque on the knee and ankle, relieving several muscles, tendons, and ligaments of unnecessary stress and damage (Metzger). Other deeper gluteal mus-

cles, if strengthened properly, greatly assist as well, for they allow for less internal rotation in the hip joint, which can stress hip flexors and the lower back, locations where injuries and pain can be a problem, especially for woman athletes (Samuelson). The gluteal muscles hold and sustain the lower part of the human body. If strengthened appropriately, these muscles can significantly increase balance and power, for the gluteous maximus is the strongest muscle in the human body. Few people take advantage of this fact (Metzger). Strengthening this muscle alone can cure many of the injuries in the lower body. Balancing muscular strength, along with proper running form, maximizes the efficiencies of running biomechanics, thus, allowing for the body to approach the goal of â&#x20AC;&#x153;effortless running.â&#x20AC;? Proper biomechanics is necessary for all activities in daily life. However, because of the increased stresses involved in running, proper biomechanics become even more critical. Every move made by the human body, and every angle of the skeletal structure relative to the ground must be to the runners benefit. When any other component is added to the biomechanical equation, forces creating stress become more difficult to manage. One important variable in the equation is shoes. The proper design of running shoes is crucial for effortless, injury free running. Shoe designers are just starting to realize the need to maintain proper biomechanics, by making running shoes as minimal as possible, meaning that the angles in running form are not modified. This has been the dilemma of mod81


ern running shoe designs. Modern shoe companies have a thorough understanding of the source of injuries, as they conduct many studies on popular injuries within the running community. Yet, their solutions have been detrimental to the health of runners. Leading shoe companies, such as Asics, Adidas, Nike, and New Balance, design their shoes to compensate for problems many individuals experience when running due to a lack of proper form. To do so, design teams from such companies create shoes with more cushioning, a wider base, larger heel, rigid sole, and more padding (Gel-Kayano). Although it may seem like a fine solution at first, over time runners begin to attain injuries that can become quite severe. The process is quite simple. Imagine that an individual begins running with no prior training. They throw on a pair of shoes and begin pounding down the sidewalk planting their heel first with every stride. After just one week they begin feeling sharp pains down the sides of their shins, knee joints, hips, and lower back with no apparent source. Since shoes are the only necessary gear for running, they drive to the nearest running store, and salesperson gives them a shoe with massive cushioning in the heel to prevent pain occurring in these areas. Not only will the cushioning hide the fact that the same amount of force is still applied to the bone structure, muscles, tendons and ligaments in the lower body, the bigger heel will force the individual to continue to land on the heel of their foot, something that would not occur naturally at a running gait. So, in fact, the design of running shoes

can affect runners in significant ways, especially with the growing population of new runners (McDougall). The shoe companies also reinforce popular misconceptions about proper form and training. In the description of top selling shoe models, companies specifically state things such as, “Asics design philosophy that employs linked componentry to enhance the foot’s natural gait from heel strike to toe-off” (Gel-Kayano). This statement describes the improper heel strike as “the foot’s natural gait”, and it reinforces the idea that the design of these shoes modifies the biomechanics of running form, to the detriment of the runner (McDougall). A statement from another shoe company illustrates a more subtle point, when they say, “A reinforced heel counter secures the foot and the internal PDRB helps prevent overpronation” (Pure Cadence). This advertisement of their latest technological advances suggests that proper form can be attained through improvements in shoe technology. This lack of understanding about running, fueled by misleading information from shoe companies, may be the leading factor in the increased rate of injuries in modern day runners. The public has become susceptible to the illegitimate advice, used to sell shoes. To test the hypothesis that the modern design of running shoes has negative effects on the biomechanics of running, I conducted a personal qualitative study of running form with and without shoes. The study consisted of 15 subjects of both genders, ranging from ages 7 to 51, with varying degrees of run82


ning experience. Each subject was filmed from the anterior, posterior and lateral views, both barefoot and in running shoes. With the video data and observations, comparisons were made between barefoot and shod running for each subject. Observations included factors such as knee height, stride length, head stabilization, and heel strike versus midfoot or forefoot strike. Since the majority of the subjects are active members of the Bay School cross country team, there were observations of subjects both during practice and in competition. Candid filming during races also played a major role in the study, giving the opportunity to compare schools with various styles of coaching with regard to proper form. Through these extensive observations, a great deal of information was extracted. In 14 out of 15 subjects, an incredible shift occurred between barefoot running and shod running in the landing on the foot. When running with shoes on a flat plane, subjects landed heel first, but after removing their shoes, the subjects instinctively adapted their form, by landing on the midfoot or forefoot, thereby relieving impact on their feet and on their joints. Although this was true for almost all of the subjects, one subject did continue to land on their heel when running barefoot. After about five minutes of continuous running, this subject began to experience pain on the top of the foot, along the tibia or shin bones, within and around the knee joint, and within the hip flexors. No matter what original style the subjects maintained prior to removing their running shoes, once barefoot, every one of the subjects made significant

changes in their running, with shorter strides, a faster cadence, a greater knee height, and a more stabilized head level. These characteristics are seen in winning high school cross country runners, who are able to maintain this form through the entire race, regardless of the shoe they may be wearing. Another interesting observation made during the study was that all the younger subjects had naturally better form. It was not until about age fourteen, that subjects began to show signs of improper form and poor biomechanics. This supports the ideas of Harvard professors Dennis M. Bramble and Daniel E. Lieberman, who believe that all Homo sapiens are born with proper biomechanics. If this is so, it supports the idea that the development of poor biomechanics results from improper training encouraged by the design of modern running shoes; a hypothesis, addressed by my study at the Bay School of San Francisco, has been supported by my observations. So far, the discussion has been about the biomechanics of the human body, and whether or not the design of running shoes has any correlation to the improper form found in todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s runners. Since it has been established that such assertions may be true to at least some extent, the question that remains is, what is the solution for injury-free running? I donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t believe that there is just one answer to this question, for the problem is complicated, and thus calls for a multifaceted solution. I would like to propose three steps, which together may create a solution to the problem at hand. The first step toward a solution is knowl83


edge and education about the biomechanics of running and proper form. If one is determined to reach a goal of injury free running, he should acquire as much knowledge as possible about every aspect of running and biomechanics, in order to make educated decisions about training. It is not, however, just the individuals who should be educated about running. Often times, as in my case, it is the coaches and personal trainers who encourage improper form. It is critical for coaches and trainers to be educated in the most recent information with regard to form, training, and injury prevention. They will then be in a position to help competitive athletes to reach their full potential, while protecting themselves against injury. By exposing the running population to more accurate information, the propaganda produced by large shoe companies will have far less influence, and the shoe companies will be forced to redesign shoes to match the desire of the runners. The second step to creating a solution is developing and balancing the muscular strength of the runner. I visited the running experts at the Innersport Chiropractic Clinic, and their motto is, “You are only as strong as your weakest link” (Innersport). Many times runners do not take part in any cross training. They are only strengthening isolated running muscles, such as the gastronemeous and soleous muscles in calf and the quadriceps in the anterior thigh. If one desires to truly reach his full running potential, taking part in a variety of cross training, such as cycling, swimming, rowing, yoga, and pilates, will help to de-

velop and balance muscular strength. With more muscular balance throughout the body, injuries due to overuse and weaknesses will be less likely to occur. The last component to creating a solution for injury free running is to choose running shoes wisely. As stated by Dr. Bernard Marti in his recent study of barefoot versus shod running, “Runners in shoes that cost more than $95 were more than twice as likely to get hurt than runners in shoes that cost less than $40” (Marti). The more expensive shoes, such as the Pure Cadence by Brooks and the Gel-Kayano 17 by Asics, costing over $120, have more features that will inhibit natural running form, and therefore, increase the risk of injury. This valuable lesson was emphasized in a personal story from Danny Dreyer, founder of the Chi running method, and author of Chi Running, Once I went into Chinatown in San Francisco to buy a pair of T’ai Chi shoes. When I told the Chinese woman behind the counter what I wanted, she took one look at the running shoes I had on and said, “I don’t understand why any Americans wear shoes like that…all they do is make your feet stupid.” What she was implying, in a not too subtle way, was the less shoe you have on your foot, the more your foot will educate your body to move correctly. (Dreyer 186-187)

So as Dreyer later states in his book, “Make sure that the running shoe you choose has a sole that can bend in a 90 degree angle at the mid sole (where the pad of the foot would be)” 84


(Dreyer 186) to ensure that full motion can be achieved while running. If a full range of motion and flexibility of the foot can be achieved, then the runner is more likely to maintain a natural running form with proper biomechanics. A shoe design that allows for natural foot movement will greatly decrease the risk of injury and increase the likelihood of being a successful long distance runner, like the aboriginal barefoot runners, the Tarahumara of Central American and the Kalahari Bushmen of South Africa. Although it can be said that currently the design of running shoes negatively affects the biomechanics of running form, the situation is not all bad. In fact, every month, shoe companies are becoming more and more supportive of the idea of minimalist running or barefoot running, designing shoes that can allow runners to experiment with different styles of running. It should be recognized that minimal or barefoot running styles are not the solution for all runners, as body and foot confirmation differ greatly within the population of runners. Through a process of educating about proper form and training, developing balanced muscular strength, and making an educated choice about shoes, the majority of runners will be able to alleviate pain and injury, while increasing their speed and stamina. Many advocates of barefoot running, including myself, believe that running styles comparable to that of many aboriginal people will become more and more popular, dramatically changing the spirit and focus of running sports as they are known today. Injuries

will always be a risk, especially in competitive and long distance running. But, with a revision of our ideas about running form and a wider spread knowledge of the biomechanics of running, we can minimize the risk of serious injuries and allow athletes to pursue the dream of joyful, seemingly effortless running.

Terminology Anatomical: Pertaining to the anatomy of the human body. Anterior: Situated before or at the front of; pertaining to or toward the head or forward end of the body. Articulate: To unite by a joint or joints Biomechanics: The study of the action of external and internal forced on the living body, especially on the skeletal system. Distal: Situated away from the point of origin or attachment, as of a limb or bone; terminal. Orthotics: A device or support, especially for the foot, used to relieve or correct orthopedic problems. Posterior: Pertaining to or toward the back plane of the body. Pronate: To turn in to a prone position; to rotate the sole of the foot outward so that the inner edge of the foot bears the weight when standing.

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Proximal: Situated toward the point of origin or attachment, as of a limb or bone. Shod: The act of covering the foot with dense material for protection; wearing shoes. Supinate: To rotate the sole of the foot inward so that the outer edge of the foot bears the weight when standing. Torque: To rotate or twist.

Works Cited “A Shoe For Barefoot Runners.” All Things Considered. National Public Radio, 19, Sep. 2009. Radio. All Things Considered. Web. 20, Sep. 2011. “Are There Benefits To Athletic ‘Toe Shoes’?” All Things Considered. National Public Radio, 6 Jul. 2011. Radio. All Things Considered. Web. 21 Sep. 2011. Attenborough, David. “African Kalahari Desert Kudu Persistence Hunt. BBC Earth. Youtube. 29 May. 2009. Web. 21 Sep. 2011. “Barefoot Running and Shoe Analysis.” Innersport Chiropractic: A Performance Therapy Clinic. Sandy Baird. Date on Site. Web. 21 Sep. 2011

Burfoot, Amby, ed. Complete Book of Running: Everything you need to know to run for fun, fitness, and competition. Emmaus, Pa.: Rodale, 2004. Print. Bramble, Dennis M. and Lieberman, Daniel E. “Endurance Running and the Evolution of Homo.” Nature Magazine Vol. 432. 18 Nov. 2004:345-352. Print. Dreyer, Danny. Chi Running: a revolutionary approach to effortless, injury-free running. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2004. Print. “Gel-Kayano 17.” Asics. 2011. Web. 10 Oct. 2011. Greaux, Jessica. Personal Interview. 27 Sep. 2011. Halpern, Alan A. The Runner’s world knee book: what every athlete needs to know about the prevention and treatment of knee problems. New York: Collier Books, 1984. Print. Joyce, Christopher. “Study: Humans were Born to Run Barefoot.” National Public Radio, 27 Jan. 2010. Web. 20, Sep. 2011. Kolata, Gina. “As Sports Medicine Surges, Hope and Hype outpace Proven Treatments.” New York Times. New York Times, 4 Sep. 2011. Web. 19 Sep. 2011. Kurtz, Anna. Personal Interview. 12 Oct. 2011.

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McDougall, Christopher. Born to Run. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2010.Print.

“Running Analysis.” Innersport Chiropractic: A Performance Therapy Clinic. Sandy Baird. Date on Site. Web. 21 Sep. 2011.

McDougall, Christopher. “The painful truth about trainers: Are running shoes a waste of money?” Mail Online. 19 April. 2009. Web. 9 October. 2011.

Samuelson, Joan Benoit. Joan Samuelson’s Running for Woman. Emmaus, Pa.: Rodale Press, 1995. Print.

McGee, Bobby. “Bobby McGee on running mechanics and ideal running cadence/stride rate.” The Science of Sport. Youtube, 26 Oct. 2009. Web. 8 Oct. 2011.

“Woman’s Supernova Sequence 4.” Adidas. 2011. Web. 25 Sep. 2011. “WX1011.” New Balance. 2011. Web. 25 Sep. 2011.

Metzger, Gabe. Personal Interview. 15 Oct. 2011. Micheli, Lyle J. Healthy Runner’s handbook. Champaign, Ill.: Human Kinetics, 1996. Print. Netter, Frank H. Atlas of Human Anatomy. New Jersey: CibaGeigy Corporation, 1989. Print. “Nike LunarFly +2 Woman’s Running Shoe.” Nike. 2011. Web. 25 Sep. 2011. “Pure Cadence.” Brooks. 2011. Web. 25 Sep. 2011. “Put Those Shoes on: Running Won’t Kill Your Knee’s.” Morning Edition. National Public Radio, 28 Mar. 2011. Radio. Morning Edition. Web. 22 Sep. 2011. Romanov, Nicolas. Pose Method of Running. Florida: Pose Tech Corp, 2002. Print. 87


Sam Lopez

Time for Fisheries to “Clean Up” Their Act: The Environmental Impact of Pollution Caused by Fishing Fishing is an extremely important resource throughout the world; it provides food for many people and is a large part of the world’s economy. In the United States alone, the commercial fishing industry contributes a staggering 70 billion dollars to our nation’s economy annually (“Economy”). Along with this, 1 million people are employed by the commercial fishing industry in the U.S., a number larger than the population of San Francisco (“Economy”). However, our high dependence on fishing means that we are responsible for managing and maintaining our fisheries and ensuring that they prosper. This is not just making sure

that we set limits on catches to prevent overfishing of specific species, but this also pertains to managing pollution caused by fishermen. Pollution caused by fishermen can range from lost fishing gear to the transport of unwanted non-native species from other waters. Fishing is a necessary practice for the lives of many people, but negative impacts to the environment (such as derelict fishing gear, lead poisoning, and the introduction of invasive species to new environments) must be closely monitored and controlled if we want healthy marine ecosystems and sustainable fisheries. A commonly raised concern with the environmental impact of boats is that they can collide into larger animals, such as marine mammals, but another problem boats pose is that they can transport non-native species from one place to another. Organisms can be transported by attaching themselves to the hull, in pipes opening to the exposed exterior of the hull, and in the ballast tank and live well water (Veitch 29). Many of these transported non-native species cannot survive in their new environments and end up dying off. However, if the new habitat is the right setting for the hitchhiking organism and there are no factors such as disease, predators, or parasites to limit their population, the non-native species could take over its new ecosystem, becoming an invasive species (De Poorter 2). One example of this was when the comb jellyfish was accidently introduced into the Black Sea (and later the Sea of Azov 88


and the Caspian Sea) via the ballast water of ships. Originally native to the Atlantic Ocean, comb jellyfish live in estuaries along the coastline and can tolerate a variety of temperature and salinity conditions. However, predators, parasites, and diseases native to the Atlantic kept the population of the comb jelly under control. In the early 1980’s when the comb jelly was introduced into the Black Sea, its population soon skyrocketed due to the fact that there were no predators to keep its population in check and because it easily adapted to a new environment. The comb jelly, only 10 cm long, preys upon zoo plankton, fish larvae, and eggs, causing a broken link in the food chain. Because of the comb jellyfish’s dominant numbers, it caused a significant decrease in this food for other native predators of the Black Sea; therefore, the populations of the native predators decreased because the comb jelly began to compete for and take over their spot in the food chain. Even the numbers of organisms at the top of the food chain, such as dolphins and predatory fish, began to decrease along with the number of eggs and larvae of other organisms. This major disruption in the ecosystem also effected fishermen that depended on the Black Sea fisheries for a way of life; the commercial fishing industry went into a downward spiral. By 1992, around a decade after the introduction of the comb jelly, “the annual losses caused by drops in commercial catches of marketable fish were estimated at least US$ 240 million” (De Poorter 23). However, this is not the only kind of organism that can wreak havoc on an ecosystem.

Even seemingly harmless non-native organisms like mollusks can have devastating impacts as well. Originally native to the Black and Caspian Seas and the Sea of Azov, the zebra mussel was accidently transported to the Great Lakes of the United States in the mid 1980’s via ballast water. It has now become one of the most devastating aquatic invasive species in the U.S. The zebra mussel competes with zooplankton for food and other mollusks for habitat space, often suffocating or starving these other mollusks. Because of the fact that zebra mussels actually alter the water conditions of habitats in which they live in and fight with many other native invertebrates for habitat and food, they can severely impact the ecosystem and food chain of any habitat to which they are introduced. From the Great Lakes, it is believed the zebra mussel has been transported to many other river systems throughout the U.S. on boat hulls, anchors, or trailers or on equipment such as diving suits or waders. Because of this, the zebra mussel is now found in all of the major river systems to the east of the Rocky Mountains (De Poorter 19). However, environmental damage is not the only problem caused by zebra mussels. Pipes and other manmade structures can be destroyed or impaired by high densities of these mollusks, and “industrial intake pipes 3 feet in diameter have been completely clogged and entire water systems ravaged” (Firmrite). The impacts from just the zebra mussel alone has cost the United States 750 million to 1 billion dollars in from the year 1989 to 2000 (De 19). Today, the zebra 89


mussel is beginning to threaten locations close to the Bay Area. In January of 2008, the zebra mussel was found in San Benito County, just to the southeast of the Bay Area (Firmrite). The San Francisco Bay is already an area very susceptible to non native marine species. Out of the estimated 500 alien species in the U.S., an estimated 200 of these are found in the San Francisco Bay alone (De 6). Because of this, citizens in the Bay Area must be especially aware of this threat and be more active in preventing further spread of these non-native species. In the history of invasive marine organisms, there has only been one successful eradication of an invasive species that has established itself in an environment (De 16). In a Northern Australia marina, chemicals were used to kill of an invasive mussel species that had begun to thrive in the marina (Veitch 27). However, all native animals living in the marina had to be eradicated as well in this process, an undesirable effect of this approach (De 16). Therefore, the solution to this problem is not to develop a method of eradicating an already established invasive species, but to learn how to prevent the spread of non-native species from place to place. Ballast water is the leading cause of transport for non-native marine species. An estimated 7,000 species are carried around in ballast water every day, and “10 billion tons of ballast water are transferred globally every year” (De 4). Fishermen and other owners of boats must find a way to cut down on the number of

invasive species transferred in this fashion. Also, it is important to clean the outside of boats, trailers, waders, and other gear when traveling from one body of water to the next (De 16). However, the transfer of invasive species is not the only form of pollution caused by fishermen; lost fishing gear is also a large environmental impact caused by fishermen. Many fishermen, both at sea and at shore, lose many hooks, nets, lures, rigs, pieces of fishing line, pots, and traps. Lost fishing gear like this is known as derelict fishing gear (Gilardi 1). Ghost nets, nets that have been lost or discarded in the ocean, probably have the most impact of all derelict fishing gear. Some ghost nets can be miles long, weigh a ton, and drift 60 feet below the surface, virtually undetected except to the animals that find themselves entangled in the “blobs of whitish nylon” ( Nielsen). The fact that fishing gear is designed to catch or entangle fish does not change after the fishing gear is lost or discarded. Nets continue to fish even after they are lost, drifting around the oceans and entangling marine organisms (Nielsen). Similarly, lost lures attached to devices that attract fish, such as flashers that create silvery flashes of light to resemble bait fish, are often ingested by animals, such as marine mammals. Adam Ratner, the visitor program coordinator at the Marine Mammal Center (MMC), explained that this is because fishing gear is usually designed to imitate small bait fish, fish that are the prey for many 90


animals in the marine ecosystem besides just the targeted species of fish. He also said that at feeding depth for many organisms, it is often hard to see, and therefore, many animals mistake derelict fishing gear and other man-made items for food (Ratner). This gear often contains fishing hooks and line, and if animals ingest this or get entangled in it, it often spells disaster for that animal. This is the most common cause of injury to animals in cases where they ingest lures, but the plastic that makes up the lure or rig can also prove harmful to animals. Plastics that are ingested can also lead to digestive problems and the intake of toxic chemicals (“Marine”). Plastic, an inorganic compound made using petroleum, contains chemicals that can potentially be harmful to marine life, causing irritation and damage to the digestive system (Andrady). Also, plastic does not fully biodegrade and can remain in an animal’s stomach, making it feel full when it is not getting a proper source of food. This can lead to malnutrition and even starvation in animals (Andrady). Plastics break down into microscopic pieces, but never fully degrade (Andrady). Because of this, the toxins from plastic affect the animals at the bottom of the food chain first, such as plankton. Then, the toxins travel up the food chain from the animals that eat the plankton to the animals that eat those animals. Soon, many animals could be affected by the toxins in plastic despite never directly ingesting plastic. While plastic pollution in this way has more of a widespread impact,

the impacts from other derelict fishing gear, especially ghost nets, can be much more severe. Ghost nets have very significant impacts on the marine ecosystem, not only entangling animals, but also snagging onto habitats, especially coral reefs, and destroying them. In the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, entanglement of marine organisms and destruction of coral reefs are both significant problems caused by these ghost nets (Gilardi). Ghost nets that drift close to the bottom of the sea easily get caught on structures that are jutting up from the sea floor such as coral reefs. When this happens, the ghost net continues drifting along in the same direction, snapping off pieces of brittle coral as it moves along. This is a huge problem because coral reefs are one of the most diverse and life abundant habitats in the world, and many animals depend on the coral for food, habitat, and shelter. If coral in the reefs die off, some of the animals living among the coral will most likely not be able to survive. In the same general area, Hawaiian Monk seals are being threatened by entanglement from ghost nets. The Hawaiian Monk seal, an endangered species, is only estimated to have a population of 1,200 to 1,500 individuals (“Hawaiian”). Between the years 1982 and 2000, there were over 200 documented cases of Hawaiian monk seals entangled in derelict fishing nets (Gilardi 1). The fact that this many were entangled in ghost nets means that there were probably many more undocumented cases of entanglement. Adam Ratner of the MMC says this is because people are only able to observe 91


the affects of injuries such as entanglement when the animal is entangled close to shore. In those cases, the animal will probably be able to make it to shore and then receive help. However, Mr. Ratner says that if an animal is entangled at a distance that is far away from shore, the animal will most likely drown, suffocate, or starve before getting back to shore. Therefore, no one is really able to document all cases of entanglement among different species of marine mammals (Ratner). If ghost nets impact such a high population percentage of the Hawaiian Monk seal, this is something that could potentially drive the species even closer to extinction in the next few years if efforts are not increased to prevent entanglement in this area. Over the past few years, efforts to prevent and remove derelict fishing gear have increased, but it is still difficult to remove much of the undetected gear. Since 1998, a group of many organizations including the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Adminstration Fisheries Service (NOAA) have “removed 495 tons of derelict gear from the coral reef habitats of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands” (Gilardi 1). In the state of Washington, where crabbing and fishing are extremely important industries, organizations have been able to do the same, removing “265 nets and over 750 pots and traps weighing over 30 tons from inland marine waters” (Gilardi 1). Because the ocean is so large, it was usually by coincidence that ghost nets were found, until recently.

Tom Veenstra and his team of other scientists were able to build a computer model of the Pacific Ocean to predict in what area higher concentrations of these nets end up. Their computer model predicted that that these nets converge in a “convergence zone” just north of Hawaii, and after an operation of 3 plane flights over the area to try to confirm these ghost nets, Veenstra’s team found that their predictions were correct (Nielsen). Despite now knowing where this high concentration of ghost nets is, “Veenstra says he's disturbed to discover that these ghost nets are converging on one of the more biologically rich parts of the Pacific, an area known to teem with fish, birds, turtles and whales” (Nielsen). Now that scientists know that many of the nets are gathering in this area, organizations need to take action and develop effective removal programs, especially since these ghost nets are threatening one of the world’s very biological diverse areas. However, since it will be almost impossible to remove most of the tangles of nets and fishing line throughout the ocean due to its immense size, the solution to this problem going forward is to cut back on the amount of derelict fishing gear lost. While many people may say that this is impossible considering losing this gear is almost always an accident, fishermen should be encouraged to be more cautious about securing their nets on boats so the nets don’t fall overboard and contribute to this problem. Recreational fishermen should just be more cautious about where and how they leave their fishing gear. If a recreational fishermen fishing on the 92


shore of a bay sets down some used fishing line by his feet and ends up forgetting it, that line will probably end up in the water and threaten to entangle animals in that aquatic ecosystem. If organizations like Fish and Game were to make people aware of the potential effects of lost fishing gear, they would probably make sure to dispose of it properly and not to lose it in the first place. Efforts could also be taken to cut down on the use of some of the more potentially harmful fishing gear currently used by fishermen. Some of the more harmful aspects of fishing gear come from the chemicals it is made of, and one of these potentially harmful chemicals is lead. Lead is widely used in fishing tackle because its physical properties such as its high density, low melting point, and maliability are properties beneficial to both fishermen and product manufacturers. In the fishing industry, lead is most commonly used in sinkers, but it is also found in jig heads, hooks, and lures (“Lead”). Information has shown that an average of 4000 tons of lead sinkers for fishing are bought each year, and a large percentage of these sinkers are used (Elmore 1). While not every piece of lead tackle is lost or discarded into the environment, “both sinkers and weighted lures are frequently lost when snagged on rocks, fallen trees, or other submerged hazards” (“Lead”). Lead products can also simply be lost due to being spilled while handling and not being recovered (“Lead”). Studies that have been done along shorelines show that there have been amounts of lead ranging from almost no pieces to over

100 pieces per square yard (Elmore 1). However, even a single piece of lead can potentially prove deadly for certain species of birds, and even marine mammals. Because of lead’s toxicity and its frequent usage by fishermen, lost lead fishing tackle can greatly impact aquatic ecosystems. Lead, being a heavy metal, is very toxic when ingested by most animals and “has been shown to cause anemia, neurological impairment and immune system impairment” (Elmore 1). Lead also bioaccumulates in animal tissue, meaning the lead is absorbed by the animal faster than it is lost (Elmore 1). This means that animals that consume lead fairly regularly will develop higher concentrations of lead, leading to a higher risk of lead poisoning and possible death. Birds, such as swans, ducks, geese pelicans, and especially loons, are the creatures most impacted by lead poisoning. Birds often consume lead weights discarded by fishermen, mistaking them as gizzard stones that help with digestion (Elmore 2). This is a significant problem because “lead can accumulate in a bird’s gizzard where it is continually ground into smaller particles and readily absorbed into the blood stream” (Elmore 1). Lead tackle can also be consumed by birds that ingest rigs containing lead when they try to eat bait off of hooks, and since lures are designed to imitate prey, birds often mistake lures containing lead for their natural prey (“Lead”). Scientists have observed the harmful impacts of lead in birds throughout the 93


world. Studies have shown that thirty percent of documented loon deaths in New York have been caused by lead poisoning, excluding cases of mass die-offs due to botulism (“Lead”). Other studies show that in some places, up to fifty percent of the mortalities among loon populations were due to lead. In some parts of Britain, “90 percent of the mortality rate of some mute swan populations… was due to lead poisoning from fishing tackle” (Elmore 2). However, birds are not the only animals that can be impacted by lead poisoning. According to Adam Ratner of the MMC, a seal was found dead on a beach and the cause of death was not immediately known. However, an autopsy was done and it was discovered that the seal had died from ingesting a single lead sinker. The seal probably consumed this sinker when swallowing a fishing rig (Ratner). Birds are the animals most likely to consume lead fishing gear, but any animal that ingests lead fishing gear could develop lead poisoning due to the high toxicity of lead.! Because of the harmful effects on the environment, many restrictions on lead usage in fishing have been recently implemented, and organizations are promoting the use of alternative materials to lead as well as raising general awareness among anglers. The New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) is encouraging anglers to stop using lead tackle, use lead free tackle in its place, and make an effort to pick up or retrieve discarded or lost tackle (“Lead”). There are many alternatives to lead, including tungsten, steel, brass, and many others (Elmore 3).

However, the NYSDEC discourages the use of zinc fishing products because zinc is also toxic and has similar impacts to lead on the environment (“Lead”). If the Department of Fish and Game can get anglers to buy these non-toxic alternatives and support stores that sell them, then that would significantly decrease the amount of lead that enters the environment via fishermen. Also, restrictions or bans on the lead usage in fishing would greatly help to cut back on the amount of lead in the environment. New York currently prohibits the use of lead sinkers less than a half ounce, New Hampshire prohibits the use of lead sinkers less than an ounce and the use of lead jigs less than an inch in length, Canada prohibits the use of lead tackle weighing less than 50 grams in all national parks and national wildlife areas, and lead sinkers are prohibited in some wildlife refuges in the Western U.S. (“Lead”). However, more limiting and widespread restrictions regarding lead use would help to prevent or cut down on this problem in more places. Pieces of lead that are most commonly consumed by birds are under 2 ounces, but all pieces of lead that litter the environment will eventually break down. When this happens, the lead can easily get into the water supply and continue to poison plants, animals, and even people (Elmore 1). Because of this, it would make sense that there should be a permanent ban on all lead tackle, regardless of size and weight, in the near future. 94


A concern with implementing a ban on lead would be that the cost of fishing would increase, and therefore, the number of fishermen would decline. However, a previous restriction on lead in hunting in 1991 led to initial drop in the number of hunters at first, but the number of hunters rose back to and above previous levels over time. Comparing this with a possible ban on lead in fishing tackle in the near future, it seems very “unlikely that a complete ban on lead in…fishing tackle would contribute to large, sustained declines in…fishing activities” (Elmore 3). While it may be a challenge at first to get rid of lead fishing products, it will greatly benefit marine ecosystems and the fisheries that are a part of them. From lead poisoning to derelict fishing gear to the spread of non-native species, the way to prevent all these problems starts with implementing regulations and promoting public awareness. A complete ban on lead weights would dramatically cut back on the amount of lead that ends up in marine ecosystems. If organizations work to make this issue more aware to the public, then enough support could eventually be gathered to get the government to pass a law on the ban of lead. In the mean time, fishermen can support stores and companies that use lead alternatives in their fishing products such as steel and tungsten. By supporting these eco-friendly alternatives, companies that use lead would have a hard time competing and would either go out of business or switch to manufacturing products made out of lead alternatives. If fishermen were made more aware of what

lost fishing line, nets, and other gear could do to the marine ecosystem, they would probably be more careful about losing fishing gear and be more likely to dispose of used and unwanted fishing gear properly. If the general public was made more aware of what derelict fishing gear is currently doing to marine ecosystems, organizations that have derelict fishing gear removal programs may get more funding. Regulations should be implemented that take more caution to prevent the spread of invasive species between bodies of water. Fish and Game is already doing this, and has distributed flyers and put up posters about steps fishermen and boaters can take to minimize this risk. Derelict fishing gear, lead poisoning, and the spread of invasive species in marine environments are all problems caused by humans/fishing that are severely harming ecosystems and thus the fisheries that depend on the integrity and well being of the complete ecosystem. People throughout the world are highly dependent on fishing, and if we want to rely on fishing for generations to come, we must work to prevent the problems we created to help sustain healthy fisheries and marine ecosystems.

95


Works Cited Andrady, Anthony, and Joel Baker. "Plastic Marine Debris: What We Know." NOAA Marine Debris Program. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 13 June 11. Web. 25 Sept. 2011. De Poorter, Maj. "Marine Menace: Alien Invasive Species in the Marine Environment." IUCN. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Web. 25 Sept. 2011. "Economy: Commercial Fishing - A Cultural Tradition." NOAA's State of the Coast. 28 Sept. 2011. Web. 21 Oct. 2011. Elmore, Dwayne, Don Wolfe, and Kevin Allen. "Impacts of Lead Ammunition and Sinkers on Wildlife." Oklahoma State University. Web. 25 Sept. 2011. Fimrite, Peter. "Tough Alien Mussels Threaten Bay Area Waters - SFGate." Featured Articles From The SFGate. 25 Jan. 2008. Web. 21 Oct. 2011. Gilardi, Kirsten. "Reducing Marine Debris: Derelict Fishing Gear Removal Programs in Hawaii, Washington, and California." Highseasghost.net. The High Seas GhostNet Project. Web. 25 Sept. 2011.

"Lead Fishing Weights and Loons." New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. 2011. Web. 06 Oct. 2011. "Marine Debris Will Likely Worsen in the 21st Century; Goal of Zero Waste Discharge Should Be Adopted." National-Academies.org. 19 Sept. 2008. Web. 25 Sept. 2011. "National Marine Sanctuaries Condition Reports - Pressures on Cordell Bank." NOAA: National Marine Sanctuaries. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 5 June 2009. Web. 26 Sept. 2011. Nielsen, John. "Team Hunts Deadly 'Ghost Nets' in the Pacific." NPR : National Public Radio : News & Analysis, World, US, Music & Arts. National Public Radio, 31 May 2005. Web. 23 Sept. 2011. Ratner, Adam. Personal Interview. 1 Oct. 2011. "Tackling Marine Debris in the 21st Century." The National Academies. 2008. Web. 26 Sept. Veitch, C. R. Turning the Tide: the Eradication of Invasive Species: Proceedings of the International Conference on Eradication of Island Invasives. Gland: IUCN, The World Conservation Union, 2002. Print.

"Hawaiian Monk Seals." Earthtrust - Wildlife Conservation Worldwide. Web. 06 Oct. 2011. 96


Rachel Miller

Story Time: Risky Business What are little girls made of?
 Sugar and spice and everything nice—
 that’s what little girls are made of.
 What are little boys made of?
 Snakes and snails and puppy dog’s tails—
 that’s what little boys are made of. -Children’s Rhyme Because media teaches kids of all ages about gender roles, or the importance of acting a particular way due to one’s sex, parents are challenged with the crucial task of teaching their kids the unimportance of gender roles. The important thing to know about gender is that it is only an idea. The Merriam Webster definition of gender is “the behavioral, cultural, or psychological traits typically associated with one sex”. Gender is simply a socially formulated idea. Another important idea in of this type is stereotypes. The first dictionary

definition of stereotype is “a conventional, formulaic, and usually oversimplified conception, opinion, or belief” (Abrahams 11). The word that sticks out most about stereotypes is oversimplified. People look at a large group of people with some similarity and pick out a trait that they believe applies to all people with that similarity. Stereotypes can be hugely controversial, especially gender stereotypes. This stereotype is especially unfair because there are only two genders in our world, and there are many more than two types of people. When we stereotype by gender we restrain people from having their own voice and way of life. People begin to experience gender roles with their first breath when they are born. In Boy V. Girl, a book about gender roles, George Abrahams states,“from the moment you were born and somebody announced, ‘It’s a boy!’ Or ‘It’s a girl!’ society has been sending you messages about the way it expects you to look, think, and behave” (Abrahams 1). Soon after birth, children reach a crucial point in their learning. Young children’s brains are growing every day and although there are many things they don’t understand, children do understand an amazing amount. A toddler’s brain is craving knowledge (Fenkl). In an experiment, one year olds watched a puppet show in which one puppet was conveyed as nice, and another as mean. Surprisingly, when given the choice, the child chose to play with the nice puppet. This test proves that babies not only know what is going on, but they have opinions about it. 97


In this time of intellectual growth, how exactly are babies learning? People learn from experience and something children experience an incredible amount it media. Children’s media is one of the most researched medium (McCabe). This amount of interest in children’s media proves again the point that things children read, hear, or see in their early lives create who they are as people for the rest of their lives. In an article about raising media-savvy kids, Barbara Rowley describes a race to educate kids between parents, teachers, and media. She states that in this race, media would win because many kids spend more time with media than they do learning from their teachers or parents (Rowley). Parents wouldn’t knowingly allow strangers with unknown values to teach their children. However, parents all over the world do as soon as they introduce their children to media. Media are everywhere, kids can’t go a day without it- media includes TV, music, newspapers, magazines, billboards, books, and more (George). The average two to eleven year old watches 3 hours of television a day (Reeks), and that’s not even close to all the media they experience every day. Children listen to the radio in the car, parents encourage them to read, often storybooks are read aloud every night. When parents take their children out, they see billboards and other advertisements. The average child takes in an enormous amount of media. Some argue it is all too much. Our world is evolving, and technology is being created for children. This technology could be setting back a generation while

attempting to teach and entertain them. A new toy called the Alphaberry was created so as a parent, you don’t have to “give up your phone and subject it to relentless pushing, tapping, drops, and drool” (A is for Alphaberry). The review for the toy describes it as an alternative for allowing your child to destroy your iPhone. This proves that parents have given into media. They need an alternative to giving kids their own technology. They need more technology. The Alphaberry seems like a perfectly safe and fun way for kids to learn letters, but consider this; more kids ages 2-5 can play with a Smartphone application than tie their own shoes. More kids ages 2-5 can open an internet browser than swim without help (What Can Your TwoYear old Do?). Of course, I am not saying that all media is bad for kids, but I do believe that the amount of media that kids interact with and the messages sent through this media is worrying. The most obvious way kids learn gender roles through media are the commercials played during children’s shows. Some commercials display girls playing with dolls and beauty supplies. Others display boys playing with cars, guns, video games (Abrahams, 103). It is okay to show a boy playing with a car, but the problem is that children only see boys playing with cars, and because of this they learn that playing with cars is something the boys, and solely boys, do. So why is it not okay for girls to play with cars? Why can’t boys play with dolls? Children don’t have these answers. All they know is what gender they identify as, and how that gender is portrayed through media. Kids, as wild 98


and rebellious as they tend to be, see someone like themselves doing something, and they do it. Something most people have probably never noticed in all their years of media interaction is the ratio of males and females. Janice McCabe explains in a study about twentieth century children’s books that “recent studies continue to show a relative absence of women and girls in titles and as central characters” (McCabe).Although it may seem insignificant that there are more males than females in media, when one looks at the numbers, there is a major difference. In a study of 6,000 children’s books, it was found that 57 percent of characters were male, and 31 percent female (Paul). The problem with having so many more males than females in children’s media is that the lack of females sends the message that “women and girls occupy a less important role in society than men or boys” (Flood). This makes sense, to a child, if there are more boys, boys are more important. To teach children the equality of males and females, there needs to be more equal number of females and males represented in children’s books. Children’s authors must also widen the roles of females and males to show kids can do whatever they desire (Flood). Parents can also, usually mistakenly, teach their kids gender roles. The toys parents buy for their kids send messages about what parents expect their kids to do when they grow up. Parents who buy a baby doll for their child unintentionally put into

the child’s mind the idea that when they are older, their job will be raising a child. Parents who purchase a workbench for their child, do the same, allowing their child to prematurely think they will grow up to work with tools or fix things (Abrahams, 35). Susan D. Witt explains in an article about parental influence on gender roles that “parents encourage their sons and daughters to participate in sex-typed activities, including doll playing and engaging in housekeeping for girls and playing with trucks and engaging in sports for boys” (Witt). By the age of six or earlier, kids learn that certain toys are for boys, and certain toys are for girls (Abrahams, 36). Although kids to follow the gender roles they learn fairly strictly, one gender follows these rules more carefully than the other. One interesting fact is that boys more carefully follow gender roles. This could be due to fear of punishment or teasing, especially by fathers. We know that they are more careful about this because at age 5 and a half, a girl will pick up a toy usually played with by boys, but many boys refuse to use a girl’s toy (Wang). When asked, children of both genders made this clear, it is okay for a girl to play with a boy’s toy, but it is not okay for a boy to play with a girl’s toy (Tempel). Recently, there have been many examples in the news of children not following gender roles, each with very different reactions from the public. The first is a little boy who won’t respond unless he is called Cinderella. His parents asked psychologist 99


William Pollack if he had gender confusion, but Pollack disagreed, stating that “Cinderella could represent kindness, nurturing, or just plain goodness” (Kalish). I believe that this is the way all people need to look at gender roles. Another example is a J. Crew advertisement in which a mother was painting her son’s toenails pink. Many were upset about this, one claiming that “this is a dramatic example of the way our culture is being encouraged to abandon all trappings of gender identity” (Macedo), and another calling it “blatant propaganda celebrating transgendered children” (Macedo). These responses are examples of people valuing traditional gender roles. As in many situations, people go to extremes on the topic of gender roles, overanalyzing things or refusing to separate from their traditional views. Dr Seuss books have been deeply analyzed, people even going as far claiming that the word Lorax is broken into symbol clusters, which can then be translated into Greek, and it refers to Christ (Fenkl). There are many other religious beliefs about gender roles, for example Greg Gibson has many theories, one being that “when boys act like boys and girls act like girls then they most reflect God’s intended design for his most prized possessions” (Gibson). He also states that “as Christian parents, we must teach our children at an early age what biblical feminity and biblical masculinity are” (Gibson). He further describes this stating the girls can do what they want but they should be feminine about it, and boys should do what

they want, but they should be masculine about it (Gibson). This view is very traditional, and therefore controversial. `! Another controversial extreme recently debated is couple Kathy Witterick and David Stocker who are keeping their baby’s, Storm, gender a secret from the world. Only very close friends and family know the four month old’s gender. Stocker powerfully states “If you really want to get to know someone, you don’t ask what’s between their legs” (Parents Keep Child’s Gender). Storm has 2 brothers who can chose how to dress and wear their hair. People sometime call them girls mistakenly and Witterick and Stocker leave it up to the child to decide whether they want to correct people or not. People are appalled by the parents keeping Storm’s gender a secret, claiming that “these parents are turning their child into a bizarre lab experiment” (Parents Keep Child’s Gender). This is a nontraditional yet also controversial example of an extreme, but many today would agree that this is the more acceptable extreme. Egalia is a pre-school in Sweden which is gender neutral. This means that the teachers call children by names or as a group they are called friends in order to “free children from social expectations based on their sex” (Hebblethwaite). The teachers also make an effort to choose books that don’t use the traditional presentation of gender and place all toys side by side so kids will play with whatever they want. Director Lotta Rajalin explains, “We want to give the whole spectrum of life, not just half” 100


(Hebblethwaite). Although this again is an example of going to an extreme, I think it is a clever way of fighting expectations based on gender.

are designed to prepare the way for the business of later life, and should be for the most part imitations of the occupations which they will hereafter pursue in earnest.

Children today are growing in a technological age, so parents need to teach kids how to interact with technology (What can Your Two-Year old Do?). The first thing to do in order to limit how much one’s kids learn about gender roles from the strangers behind media is to limit their media intake. Surprisingly, only “3 in 10 kids have rules about media use”(Rowley). Once there is a limit on media, the next step is to be with kids while they experience media. Although the point of TV for many parents is to entertain their kids so they can do something else, it is important that parents experience media with their kids (Reeks). When parents are with their children they can explain specific bias and messages (Rowley). One way to attempt to experience media with your child is to keep TV and computers in family room so you can monitor what your children see (Finkelstein). One can’t take media completely out of a child’s world, so it is important to teach kids that media is manipulating them. This will lead to them being more aware and less likely to be influenced by subliminal messaging (Rowley). Even Aristotle talks about the importance of monitoring what children learn, see, and hear:

There are even exercises to teach kids about the truth and bias in media. First, instead of lecturing, ask guided questions to start a conversation (Rowley). Another activity is to count men and women in a program with your child (Rowley). As mother of two, Anne Zeheen describes, “They need to hear your voice alongside all the other noise out there” (Rowley).

The Directors of Education, as they are termed, should be careful what tales or stories their children hear, for all such things

There are things one can teach his or her child to do to stop allowing gender roles to control their lives. One is to help their child find a role model who defies stereotypes (Abrahams 164). This will show them that someone is breaking these strict rules, so it is okay for them to as well. It is important that child learn not to refer to all people as men or mankind but instead humans so that things don’t seem directed at boys. Another use of language is to teach children to not use gender specific names for professions. Instead of cafeteria lady say cafeteria server. Instead of ballerina, call him or her a ballet dancer. Police officer is a nice alternative to policeman. Acknowledging that children experience a lot of media and gender roles are sent through that media is the first step. The second step as a parent and a citizen to do something to change that message by teaching children what one wants them to know and live by, as the parent. 101


Work Cited Abrahams, George. Boy v. Girl How Gender Shapes Who We Are, What We Want, and How We Get Along. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit, 2002. Print. Aristotle. The Politics. Trans. Benjamin Jowett. Ed. Steven Everson. London: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1988. Bloom, Paul. “The Moral Life of Babies” The New York Times. The New York Times. 5 May 2010. Web. 26 Sep. 2011. Fatale, Latina. “How to Talk to Little Girls.” Latina Fatale. N.p, 21 Jul. 2011. 1 Oct. 2011. Fenkl, Heinz Insu. “The Secret Alchemy of Dr. Seuss.” Journal of Mythic Arts . The Endicott Studio. 2001. 1 Oct. 2011. Finkelstein, Alex. “The Real Mom’s Guide to Kids and TV” Parenting N.p. 2011. Web. 5 Oct. 2011. Flood, Alison. “Study Finds Huge Gender Imbalance in Children’s Literature” The Guardian. The Guardian. 6 May, 2011. Web. 26 Sep. 2011. Gibson, Greg. “Teaching Kids Proper Gender Roles ” The Veritas Network N.p. 27 May 2010. Web. 5 Oct. 2011.

Hoffman, Jan. “Boys Will Be Boys? Not in These Families.” The New York Times. The New York Times, 10 Jun. 2011. Web. 22 Sep. 2011. Hebblethwaite, Cordelia. “Sweden’s ‘Gender-Neutral’ PreSchool” BBC News Europe. N.p, 7 Jul. 2011. Web. 23 Sep. 2011. Kalish, Nancy. “My Son Doesn’t Act Like a Boy!” Parenting N.p. 2011. Web. 5 Oct. 2011. Macedo, Diane. “J.Crew Ad Showing Boy With Pink Nail Polish Sparks Debate on Gender Identity” Fox News. Fox News. 11 Apr. 2011. Web. 5 Oct. 2011. McCabe, Janice et al. “Gender in Twentieth Century Children’s Books: Patterns of Disparity in Titles and Central Characters.” Gender & Society Apr. 2011. Web 31 Mar. 2011. McCallum, Dennis and Gary DeLashmutt. “Marital Closeness Under God’s Authority” Xenos Christian Fellowship. N.p. Web. 5 Oct. 2011. “Parents Keep Child’s Gender a Secret ” Parenting N.p. 24 May 2011. Web. 5 Oct. 2011. Paul, Pamela. “New Study Finds Gender Bias in Children’s Books” The New York Times. The New York Times. 5 May 2011. Web. 26 Sep. 2011. 102


Reeks, Anne. “Kids & TV- A Get-Real Guide” Parenting N.p. 2011. Web. 5 Oct. 2011. Rowley, Barbara. “Raising Media-Savvy Kids” Parenting N.p. 2011. Web. 5 Oct. 2011. Tempel, Melissa Bollow. “It’s Ok to Be Neither: Teaching That Supports Gender-Variant Children.” Rethinking Schools. N.p, Fall 2011. 1 Oct. 2011. Tahnk, Jeana Lee. “A is for alphaberry” Parenting N.p. 28 Sep 2011. Web. 5 Oct. 2011. Thank, Jenna Lee. “What Can Your Two-Year-Old Do- Tie Shoes or Play with Your iPhone?” Parenting N.p. 25 Jan. 2011. Web. 5 Oct. 2011. Wang, Sam PhD. And Sandra Aamodt PhD. Welcome to your Child’s Brain. USA. Bloomsbury, 2011. Print. Witt, Susan D. “Parental Influence on children’s socialization to gender roles” Adolescence 32 (1997). Web, 5 Oct. 2011.

103


Molly Mitchell

Let the Bars Rust: Lowering Youth Recidivism Down the battered concrete sidewalks of the Western Addition, Johnny ran through the night, unaware of the fact that he played the role of an accomplice to a crime. About twenty minutes earlier, Johnny’s best friend had pulled up to his living accommodations on the edge of the projects. He was seated in a blazing red Cadillac—which was a stolen car even though Johnny was unaware of this—and he invited Johnny to get in. As Johnny placed one foot and then the other in the car, he was oblivious of the fact that because this car was stolen, he was committing an offense by even getting in it. Many youth often find themselves trapped in situations such as this where they do not know they are committing a crime. However, there is also the other section of juvenile offenders who are aware of the crimes they commit, such as Johnny’s best friend driving the stolen car. Today, going through the juvenile justice system is a tumultuous process where many youth find themselves in jail as the end result. Jail is sole punishment and does very little

to reduce the rate of youth recidivism. Counties and cities must begin to look for alternatives to jail for juvenile offenders. Different therapeutic programs as well as the tactics of not trying juveniles as adults and putting libraries in juvenile halls and detention centers have been proven to reduce recidivism. Juveniles who commit crimes repeatedly must not be thrown in jail, for that does little to reduce recidivism or help rehabilitate youth. Instead, through programs modeled after the strategies of restorative justice, Fresh Lifelines for Youth, multi-systemic therapy and safe place programs as well as other innovative tactics, the rate of youth recidivism can be lowered. Immediately after a youth commits a crime and is caught, there a several different scenarios and situations that can occur depending on the severity of the crime, the age of the young person, and other factors as well (“Juvenile Delinquency”). When a juvenile commits a crime and is arrested, police have five options. For more minor crimes, the police can chose to send the youth home even if there is a record of previous illegal activity or send the youth to an agency that will provide care and shelter. For more severe crimes, police normally bring the youth to the police station, give the youth a Notice to Appear, or put the youth in juvenile hall (“Juvenile Delinquency”). Police must inform juveniles of their Miranda Rights. These rights state that the youth has the right to remain silent, have a lawyer, and anything said can be used against them in court. The policy of mak104


ing youth aware of their rights is positive because many youth are unaware of the rights they have which could end up harming them in the long run. Another policy enforced in juvenile court is that all juveniles are entitled to a lawyer and will receive a court appointed lawyer if they do not have the financial means to afford a lawyer (“Juvenile Delinquency”). The next steps toward court often come into play if a Notice to Appear is issued. If a Notice to Appear is issued to a juvenile, there are several possibilities that come next. For different crimes, having a Notice to Appear entails different things. For more minor crimes, the youth offender will often only be lectured and then be allowed to return home. For crimes of a more intense severity, the child will be given the opportunity to go to a voluntary program as opposed to court. Voluntary programs include special classes and community service (“Juvenile Delinquency”). If the youth finishes the program, it is then mandated that court is not necessary. In the most extreme cases, the case is either referred to the District Attorney and the child is allowed to go home or the case is referred to the District Attorney and the child is placed behind bars. However, all crimes warrant different consequences (“Juvenile Delinquency”). Different types of crimes and their level of severity constitute different punishments. If a youth must go to court, several punishments the court has the ability to order are living with the parent/guardian under court supervision, putting the youth on

probation with the possibility of placing them in foster care, sending them to live with relatives, or living in a group home or institution. In more severe crime cases, the youth can be sent to a probation camp or ranch, juvenile hall, or the Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation. The Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation will process the youth and eventually send them to a camp or correctional facility (“Juvenile Delinquency”). The parents or guardians of the juvenile must pay a fee to keep their child in the Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation. If the court orders restitution to pay for damages and injuries regarding what happened to the victim, then the parents or guardians of the child must pay (“Juvenile Delinquency”). If the youth does not end up going to court, but instead chooses a settlement offer, than the punishment offered in the settlement offer will often be better than the punishment the youth would receive in court (“Juvenile Delinquency”). The severity of the crime is also consequential regarding the punishment. If a youth commits a minor offense such as petty theft, then they may only be sentenced to a short time of community service whereas in the situation of murder or attempted murder, the juvenile can possibly be tried as an adult (“Juvenile Delinquency”). Often, many young people find themselves in negative situations within the Juvenile Justice System. Many offenders do not know how it came to that point or what even drove them to commit a crime in the first place. 105


For every juvenile, the motive to commit a crime is different; however, there are several factors that repeatedly appear in juvenile crime situations. Juvenile crime is often highly concentrated in neighborhoods of lower socio-economic class (Billitteri). James Alan Fox, a criminologist at Northeastern University corrects misconceptions people hold about crime and race stating, “it’s not race itself that’s the issue. It’s the socioeconomic conditions associated with race” (Billitteri). Often, many juveniles that commit crimes are lacking a stable role model and reliable figure in their life. As a result of extreme poverty, many home situations are far less than ideal with unstable single parents and multiple siblings which create an unstable home life. Sometimes, when kids merely venture outside, there are violent circumstances and situations (Billitteri). Many kids also feel that when a crime is committed against them, they must then commit a crime in retaliation no matter what the ramifications (Billitteri). The majority of youth also live in neighborhoods where they have high exposure to crime and live in close proximity violence (“Juvenile Justice” Prevention Action Project). As a result of living in such poverty-stricken areas, many children “come into conflict with the law through activities for survival, including theft, vagrancy, and begging” (“Juvenile Justice” Prevention Action Project). However, juvenile delinquency is not restricted to low income neighborhoods, races, or genders. Often, people make stereotypes about juvenile delinquency in low income neighborhoods, but Carl Taylor, a sociologist at University of

Michigan declares, “[youth violence] is now transcending race, class and gender. It’s something that affects communities big and small, and people of all races and colors” (Billitteri). Within the juvenile justice system, there are many flaws that prevent juveniles from being treated fairly and making the right decisions for the nation’s troubled youth. As youth begin the chaotic journey through the juvenile justice system, they are often separated from their families and friends, which only worsens the negative situation and isolates them from the outside world. The organization Penal Reform International voices on their website, “the removal of children from family and community networks, as well as from educational or vocational opportunities, can compound social and economic disadvantage and marginalization” (“Juvenile Justice” Penal Reform International). There is also the looming flaw of unfair treatment within the Juvenile Justice System. Many children have merely committed minor offenses, yet they are prosecuted heavily and often receive much harsher punishments than their actions warrant because of unfair decisions made by the judges and prosecutors (“Juvenile Justice” Penal Reform International). Within the issue of unfair treatment lies the fact that many children are denied basic rights throughout the process. This makes it difficult for them to understand the meaning of the proceedings being taken against them. In juvenile detention centers, it is of high importance that children have rights to health, social services, recreation, and protection from violence within prisons (“Juvenile 106


Justice” Penal Reform International). Just because children are detained in correctional facilities doesn’t mean that they should be denied basic rights such as those stated above. Many detention facilities due to lack of funding are in poor conditions, yet the majority of judges still send juveniles to these correctional centers as opposed to considering other options more thoughtfully. Aside from the decrepit conditions of the detention centers, there are many other flaws within the Juvenile Justice System; one of them being that Juveniles can be tried as adults. One of the most debated about issues in the Juvenile Justice System is the fact that juveniles can be tried as adults depending on the severity of the crime. This is extremely unfair to many juveniles because the possibility of being tried as an adult means a much more severe punishment for a mistake made in the years of youth. When tried in adult courts, juveniles may not have the same rights as adults do (Shoemaker). Even though youth under 18 cannot be sentenced to death, the possibility of the case being sent to the adult courts is still a worrisome situation. A juvenile can be tried as an adult on the grounds that the state laws require the juvenile to be tried as an adult because of the offense or the prosecutors decide the juvenile must be tried as an adult based on the age and offense. There is also the possibility that the judge within the youth court makes the decision that the juvenile must be tried as an adult given the age and offense (Shoemaker). Regarding particular crimes, a youth that is over 14 years of age can be tried in an adult court if the follow-

ing crimes are committed: murder/attempted murder, arson, robbery with a weapon, rape, kidnapping/carjacking, crimes with guns, drug related crimes, and escaping from juvenile hall (“Juvenile Delinquency”). As a result of the fact that these crimes are so severe, it is correct that the youth be tried as an adult for their actions. Possibly the most dangerous aspect of a child being tried as an adult is the fact that they could then be sent to adult prison even though this is an irregular punishment. A youth must be 16 or older to be sent to adult prison. If they are not 16 or above and are given the sentence of prison in the adult courts, they must wait until their 18 birthday to serve it (“Juvenile Delinquency”). There is also the possibility that a juvenile case could be held until the juvenile is a legal adult and the case would then be in the adult court. The fact that it is even possible a juvenile could be tried in an adult court is unfortunate, as research has shown youth tried in adult courts are much more likely to commit crimes in the future than if they were tried in a juvenile court (Shoemaker). In our society, if someone commits a crime then the general public wishes that that person be punished for their wrongdoing. While it is important that people be punished for doing something that goes against the laws of our nation, often, our society overlooks the fact that people that commit crimes must also be rehabilitated and educated about the problems of their previous actions instead of merely being punished and then 107


tossed back onto the streets where they are likely to commit offenses again. (Billitteri). Overall, rehabilitation is more important than punishment. Even though our society wishes to see people punished, it is more important for them to learn not to commit crimes again and that is why it is vital that other solutions besides jail be found (Billitteri). Another issue regarding solutions other than jail that should be taken into consideration is class. Often, though it should not be this way, people of higher socioeconomic class have more opportunities than people of lower socioeconomic class. Children in different classes commit the same crimes, yet those in the lower classes are caught more often and often treated more harshly. If solutions other than jail are to be implemented into communities and courts, then it is vital that the same solutions be made available across all classes and not just in the communities that can afford it or are more open to these solutions. A beginning solution that communities can implement as a primary step towards preventing recidivism is instating libraries in juvenile detention facilities. The juvenile detention center in Alameda County serves as a good example. Regarding the relationship between the youth at the facility and the library, librarian Amy Cheney says, “the kids are excited to come to the library. They behave in the library. Coming here is privilege” (Payton). This library is one of the first built in a juvenile detention center across the country and is proving to be an extremely

positive thing. Children who haven’t been to libraries before are coming to the library eager to practice their reading skills (Payton). Books in the library are specially selected so that the youth can relate to them. Shannon Martin who was previously held in the center states, “I feel like they gave me a book and told me to dream, to see a better life for me” (Payton). Cheney also speaks of how many kids have discovered possible explanations for why they chose illegal paths. One girl discovered that because her mother was in jail for much of her childhood, it led her to express herself in violent ways (Payton). Authors who have come to speak at the library have had “an explosive effect. The authors bring the books alive. They create an interest where otherwise there might not be an interest” (Payton). The general consensus of former detainees is that the library helped them to turn their life around. Reading inspirational novels inspired many not to resort to illegal activity again (Payton). Reading also helps to better educate the youth at the detention centers by improving literary skills. Cheney advocates for libraries in detention centers declaring, “we haven’t seen that sticking someone in a cell improves anything. It only increases recidivism. Look at the literacy levels of people in prison. That’s one predicator: If you can’t read, get a job, do lots of things, then you have a difficult time being a productive member of society” (Payton). The slight disadvantage to installing libraries in detention facilities is funding and the fact that citizens may not want

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to contribute money to help those who have committed crimes, however small, against the general public. Another primary solution towards preventing juvenile delinquency is the Safe Place Program. The Safe Place program embodies the general solution of providing at-risk youth with places to go when they find themselves in a negative situation as opposed to doing something illegal. San Francisco can form a program similar to this one which was first instituted in Chicago to help the city’s at-risk youth. The Safe Place Program is a program that involves businesses within the community such as hardware stores, small groceries, restaurants, convenience stores and other workplaces with at-risk youth. The program offers youth between the ages of 11-17 who are homeless, have difficulties at home or are runaways someone to talk to. “Safe Place is a youth outreach program that creates a network of Safe Place sites each identified by the program’s distinctive yellow and black diamond-shaped Safe Place logo” (“New Public Service Campaign Asks Runaway, Homeless, and At-Risk Youth to Seek Assistance with Chicago Safe Place Program”). The Safe Place program is a way for youth to access immediate help. A young person can walk into a location, identify themselves as a youth in crisis, and will then meet up with an employee of the program to establish an effective plan of action that details all the options (“New Public Service Campaign Asks Runaway, Homeless, and At-Risk Youth to Seek Assistance with Chicago Safe Place Program”). While this program could

prove to be very helpful for youth and businesses who are willing to participate, a disadvantage is that it relies heavily on active participation from local businesses which is often difficult because many small businesses are mainly interested in surviving themselves. One of the primary goals of this program is to create awareness, and while this is still a changing program and difficult to implement permanently, it is a positive shorter-term solution that can be put in place while long term solutions are developed such as multi-systemic therapy and restorative justice. Programs such as multi-systemic therapy (MST) and restorative justice can be implemented into communities to prevent juvenile recidivism and become long term solutions. MST and restorative justice are extremely similar to one another. MST is primarily community based, as is restorative justice, and both involve making offenders accountable for their actions and understanding the impacts of their violence as opposed to locking them away in a jail cell (Bundy). MST and restorative justice help to rehabilitate offenders and teach them to understand the impacts of illegal activity on communities and victims. Programs such as these are very beneficial to offenders and heavily reduce the rate of recidivism (Bundy). While jail merely punishes, MST and restorative justice focus on healing, rehabilitation, and understanding. Restorative justice and MST also help the victims of the crimes. Within restorative justice and multi-systemic therapy, there lies, “the hope that new approaches can succeed 109


in rehabilitating offenders and healing victims and their communities is part of the dynamic, too. Restorative justice proponents say traditional punishment is clearly failing on those fronts” (Bundy). Restorative justice helps offenders to better understand their role within violence patterns and helps them break it. It also improves the ethical existence of the offenders. David Onek, a former candidate for San Francisco District Attorney, strongly believed that restorative justice and multi-systemic therapy could be implemented into communities to reduce recidivism drastically. Regarding this point of view he says, “admitting what you did, confronting your actions, hearing from a victim about the impact that things have had on them, that’s tough” (Bundy). Restorative Justice and MST also offer alternatives to the problem of overcrowded jails. However, there are several drawbacks to MST and Restorative Justice as well. As a result of the programs being community based, there are members of every community that feel that public officials have no concern for the safety of the community by letting offenders be in it (Prevention Action Project). Many people have problems with the fact that, “programs like MST allow a juvenile offender who has just offended [which may include a violent crime or serious property theft] to remain on the street” (Prevention Action Project). There is also the issue that restorative justice and MST may only be implemented in some communities, which would reduce the effectiveness of these programs. These two programs may possibly only be able to be

implemented in communities that can afford it. “Implementation on a small scale raises ethical questions about how youth and families can have equal access to evidence-based interventions” (Prevention Action Project). Even though MST and restorative justice are ultimately better for offenders than jail in reducing recidivism, it would become a socioeconomic class issue to only implement it in wealthier communities and not lowincome communities (Prevention Action Project). It is also difficult to implement MST and restorative justice into lower socioeconomic class neighborhoods because people are more concerned about personal well-being than participating in a program such as this (Bundy). In addition to restorative justice and multi-systemic therapy, another long-term solution for the San Francisco Bay Area to implement into communities to prevent juvenile delinquency are programs such as Fresh Lifelines for Youth (FLY). FLY educates youth who have been to jail or are at-risk about the legal system through their three programs: The legal course, the leadership program, and the mentoring program (“About Fly”). The Legal Course is a 13 week program that educates kids about the legal system through role play, mock trials, model councils and hearings and debates. The legal course also helps participants to foster the skills of anger management, problem solving, empathy, and coping with peer pressure (“Our Programs”). After completing the legal course, kids are eligible to apply to be part of the Leadership Program. Youth in the Leadership Pro110


gram delve into community involvement. For one year, in the leadership program, “youth meet with each other monthly to participate in pro-social activities, and to implement community service projects that help the homeless, seniors, terminally ill, pre-school children and the environment.” The leadership program also provides more intensive case management for individuals than the legal course (“Our Programs”). In this way, the leadership program fosters responsibility and a shared sense of community. The mentor program provides youth with mentors who become positive role models and a stable figure in the lives of the youth. Mentors and youth meet at least once a week with one another, and a relationship grounded in trust and understanding is formed which mentors and youth maintain long after one year (“Our Programs”). While it would be ideal that programs such as FLY, MST, and restorative justice are implemented throughout all the communities of the San Francisco Bay Area, it must be seen as a difficult yet achievable long term goal. Placing youth in jail does not help them learn that committing crimes is bad, it merely punishes them for what they have done and often many youth end up returning to jail multiple times. Short term solutions such as libraries in juvenile detention centers and Safe Place Programs can be easily implemented into communities while long term solutions are developed such as FLY, MST, and restorative justice. In doing this, a brighter future can be built for delinquent youth. If these programs are implemented more effectively into

society, they may even begin to bridge the gap between upper and lower socioeconomic classes as opposed to making it wider through incarceration.

Works Cited “About Fly.” Fly: Fresh Lifelines for Youth. 2011. Web. 25 Sep. 2011. Billitteri, Thomas J. “Youth Violence: Are “Get Tough” Policies the Best Approach?” CQ Researcher. 20.9 (5 Mar. 2010): 193216. CQ Researcher Online. Web. 25 Sep. 2011. Boyle, Gregory. Tattoos on the Heart. New York: Free Press, 2010. Print. Bundy, Trey. “Prosecutor Candidates Support Restorative Justice.” The New York Times. The New York Times, 17 Sep. 2011. Web. 23 Sep. 2011. “Juvenile Delinquency.” California Courts The Judicial Branch of California. Judicial Council of California, 2011. Web. 23 Sep. 2011. “Juvenile Justice.” Penal Reform International. 2011. Web. 2 Oct. 2011. “New Public Service Campaign Asks Runaway, Homeless, and At-Risk Youth to Seek Assistance with Chicago Safe Place Pro111


gram.” Entertainment Close-up. 20 Jul. 2011. Gale Cengage Learning. Web. 19 Sep. 2011. “Our Programs.” Fly: Fresh Lifelines for Youth. 2011. Web. 25 Sep. 2011. Payton, Brenda. “Juvenile Hall Librarian Promotes Write to Read.” SF Gate. The San Francisco Chronicle, 28 Aug. 2011. Web. 25 Sep. 2011. Prevention Action. Prevention Action Project. 20 Sep. 2011. Web. 21 Sep. 2011. Secret, Mosi. “New York Judge Seeks New System for Juveniles.” The New York Times. The New York Times, 20 Sep. 2011. Web. 25 Sep. 2011. Shoemaker, Donald J. “Juvenile Justice.” The Encyclopedia Britannica. 2nd ed. 2007. Web.

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Kiyona Mizuno

Yea or Neigh? Does Horse Therapy Really Work? The horse beneath you is going at breakneck speed. The scenery around you is a blur. The sky above you is blue. The wind around you is cold. The hooves below you are pounding on the hard earth. You know that if you fall, you’ll get hurt, maybe killed. But you do it anyway. Why? Because it allows you to escape from whatever may be bothering you. It lets your mind loose. It provides a distraction. It both separates and connects your mind to your body and present. There are horse-crazy people who say that little is more exhilarating than riding a horse going at fifty miles an hour; however, there are also those who fear going anywhere within five feet of a horse. In fact, there are those who fear going anywhere near anything that may pose a threat, whether it is material or immaterial.

While horses may seem to pose a great threat to many people, they don’t treat problems the traditional way. Horses pull people in, draw out their emotions, and help them overcome any obstacles that may prevent them from living up to their full potential. They have the natural ability of being a therapist, and, with that ability, they have proven to be wonderful healers. Although the amount of research is limited in this relatively small field of equine assisted therapy, from the information that is available, horses have proved to be effective therapists that help people overcome emotional and social issues. Despite being a great form of psychotherapy for children and adults alike, there are some limits and difficulties in this field, such as the few people who are not responsive to the treatment. Although it is rare, some people may have closed off their emotions so completely that even equine therapy can’t help. Children also connect on a different level than adults, and not all children “respond equally to intervention efforts” (Tetreault). No single method will cure the most complex disorders; people may need multiple interventions that require more than just horse therapy. Not all of the studies in this field are credible because there are factors than can change the results such as self-evaluations and the lack of a comparison group. For example, in one report there was no data collected on those who declined. As a result, people can’t study the difference between people who improved 113


and those who did not. It can’t absolutely determined “whether the changes observed were the result of treatment, time alone, or other factors unrelated to treatment” (Klontz et al). The report was also partially based on clients’ self-evaluations, and if clients lie about how much progress they made, it could result in an inaccurate report. The fact that some people did not even complete the evaluation after the treatment must be taken into account, and the lack of truthful evaluations may have changed the results. Although there are some limitations in this field, there are always improvements to make the information more legitimate. For example, random selection of participants in research experiments measuring the effectiveness of equine therapy can solidify the reports. Reports can also benefit from always using a comparison group to evaluate the results of the experiment to another to ensure reliability (Klontz et al). All of these improvements can be implemented to ameliorate the research. People need therapists that are both good and honest listeners. People with emotional problems and wish need to get them out into the open need a good listener to make them feel respected. People need attentive listeners and someone or something with whom they can connect to be able to get through their issues. Horses provide humans with what they need in a therapist. Horses may not talk, but they are wonderful listeners and allow

humans to use body language as well as spoken words (Resources with Horses). Their non-verbal stimulus and physical feedback can also teach patients more about themselves. In addition to having non-verbal stimulus, horses don’t deny or mask their emotions. When spending time with a horse, what you see is what you get. They don’t try to hide their feelings (InBalance). It is important to be able to read different moods through body language (Micklem). Being able to do this can also help build safer and better horse-human relationships as well as human-human ones. Horses possess many qualities that make them terrific therapists. They don’t hold prejudices or biased opinions (Frewin). They don’t care what you wear, how many friends you have, or your upbringing. Of these things, horses are blissfully unaware. It is important not to judge a patient and to put them first. Horses also draw similarities with humans: they have different personality types and the way one horse does something may not be how another horse does it. They have attitudes and moods, but also enjoy having fun. The similarities between the horse and patient can help heal because they “provide vast opportunities for metaphorical learning” (EAGALA; Willow Pond Ranch). Lastly, horses are wonderful therapists because they respond immediately to our actions and they challenge authenticity. They know if you mean or don’t mean what you say. They chal114


lenge us to be our best by requiring all of our attention and respect. Equine assisted learning and psychotherapist practitioners find that horses are mirrors of emotions and behaviors. If we do something they don’t want, they can do something we don’t want (Resources with Horses). They create lasting changes; to change a horse’s behavior, we must change our own (Willow Pond Ranch). Being adaptable is useful in life because we will always encounter people who don’t do things the way we do, but we must learn how to accept that and go along with it. Horses can also provide distractions from troubles that life throws at you. For example, women from the Marin Cancer Institute in California participated in an equine program called Horses as Healers run by Miwok Livery Stables in Mill Valley. Taking care of and riding the horses allowed the cancer survivors to take a break from their lives and pull back into their bodies and the present. Diane Brandon from the Marin Cancer Institute in Greenbrae described it as “a vacation without having to pack.” While working with horses, you can also find your happy place and escape there when life is too overwhelming. You can figure out what makes you calm and peaceful, and you can use this to change yourself. You need to change to move forward. Combining horses with experiential therapy is extremely effective for getting over problems. Jaimie Hutchinson from the Pioneer Pacific College says that this form of therapy can reach

“people in ways that traditional therapy cannot. Sometimes it helps just to remove the client from their comfort zone to gain new insights, and learn new strategies for problem solving.” Experiential therapy engages the patient in natural interactions so that he or she is guided toward make decisions and either move forward or stay back; it is purely the patient’s choice. There are many kinds of patients that can be treated by equine therapy; studies have shown that it can treat a wide variety of issues. The things that equine assisted learning and growth can potentially treat have one thing in common: emotion. All of the subcategories of this form of therapy diagnose and try to help people with different types of emotional problems. For example, horse therapy can treat relationship problems, communication needs, and abuse issues (Frewin). Shelley Rosenberg, the author of My Horses, My Healers, was sexually abused as a child. She suffered greatly until she discovered her love for horses and how they provided an escape and distraction from the terrible experiences going on in her life. She couldn’t connect to her peers or colleagues and couldn’t let anyone get close to her. But horses taught her how to trust again, and how to start build trust in humans after her own family betrayed her (Rosenberg). In addition to treating trust and boundary problems, equine therapy can treat assertiveness, trauma, grief, and frustration tolerance (InBalance; Resources with Horses). The list goes on and 115


on; many social, emotional, communication, relationship, mental, or behavioral problems can be treated by equine facilitated therapy. An example of someone who was treated for emotional problems was a 13-year old named Jakob. He suffered from posttraumatic stress disorder after witnessing and surviving a Mojave Desert truck accident. A gray horse from Stand InBalance, Ricco, was dedicated to helping him heal. Ricco helped Jakob stay present and reassured him that he was there no matter what happened to “support the tears that fall…no matter what hurts” (InBalance). At the end of the treatment, Jakob said that he felt a lot better but wasn’t really sure why. Horses can help heal people after experiencing traumatic experiences without it feeling like treatment. People of any age or gender can heal without realizing that they are healing. Currently in the Bay Area, there are people who can always benefit from equine assisted therapy. Since traditional forms of therapy are not as effective, horses should be used more to help those in need. It is an underused type of treatment that can potentially solve a huge range of issues, and since the youth of the world are the future, it is necessary for them to develop life-long skills that will benefit themselves, others, and environment around them as well. The world needs confident and successful leaders; however, to create these people from peo-

ple with issues, prospective leaders need to change and start recovering from negative experiences. The problems affecting many people are caused by bad experiences in their lives. Children and at-risk youth can be negatively affected through abusive families. Traumatic experiences in life can also have bad effects on those involved; any upsetting event will always have consequences. But if people cannot get the treatment they need, the treatment that equine therapy can provide, then they will not be able to live up to their potential. In addition to being therapists for people with major issues, horses can also help those who need to develop new skills. There are those who need only to develop skills that equine therapy can teach. For example, using horses in therapy can help medical students improve their doctor-patient relationship. Beverley Kane, MD, believes that doctors and nurses must be characterized by “compassion, insight, and respect”. Through therapy, medical students can become more aware of the delicacy of communication and appearance when interacting with patients. Since working with horses requires a lot of patience, attentiveness, care, focus, and perceptiveness, it can help prepare medical students for their future work with humans (Kane). People who experience equine assisted therapy can gain longlasting skills that can benefit them for life. People learn how to take responsibilities for their actions as well as how to build better relationships. Within that, communication, both verbal and 116


non-verbal, are very important in building good relationships and are skills that can be taught. Confidence can be built through working hard and achieving a certain goal during therapy sessions (EAGALA). Confidence and self-esteem are very important in life to be able to make good decisions, but social skills are also very important. Equine facilitated therapy can help people develop better group skills. With better social skills, and thus better academic achievement, they can move forward in life and pursue their dreams. Better social skills also help create better peer relations and relationship dynamics (Tetreault; InBalance). Learning how to take control can help organize your life and includes learning problem solving, organizational change, and discovering new things. In other words, you can gain insight on how you operate in a group (Training Solutions for Tomorrow) and how to deal with different personalities that aren’t on par with yours. Personal growth, team building, management and leadership, and communication skills are the main benefits that come from equine assisted growth and learning. You can also learn how to set goals and to try and reach those goals. Confidence building is an important part of personal growth, and it helps people overcome fears, embrace challenges, and accept change. You can also gain motivation, learn problem solving and creative thinking. Finally, communication skills such as listening and verbal and non-verbal interactions can be gained (Training Solutions

for Tomorrow). All of these things are important in leading a good and full life because they allow a person to be able to know him or herself completely and how to interact with others. While equine therapy has proved to be effective given the reasons mentioned before, some people may be skeptical as to whether or not it works. However, it is effective because the patients are always active, moving, and interacting. Although there is no riding involved, it allows them to go out into the world and face their fears. Some people are fearful of horses because they are much bigger, and weigh much more, than us. Even though horses can invoke natural fear in humans because they are much more powerful, they can guide us in a relatively nonthreatening environment to expose our feelings. A clinical report written by Bradley T. Klontz and others they used two different tools to measure the effectiveness of EAL. They used Brief Symptom Inventory, a self-report scale to measure psychological patterns and clinical distress, and Personal Orientation Inventory, another “self-report instrument designed to measure constructs related to self-actualization” (Klontz). Klontz and his team predicted that people’s BSI would lower and their POI would rise. People’s BSI scores did, in fact, lower significantly from the pretest to the posttest; in other words, they became less psychologically distressed. People’s POI scores increased from the pretest to the posttest, and no significant change from the posttest to their follow-up evaluation. The 117


participants themselves reported that they became more rooted in the present, being less focused on fears and anxieties, more self-supportive and confident. People need to be aware of their problems before considering getting better. Sometimes, “individuals are often unaware of their behavior until they can understand it through the way in which the horse reflects it back to them” (Shultz). The way the horse mirrors behaviors back to a person is an effective way of showing the person how they are acting. When someone is doing a certain thing, we don’t automatically do that specific thing as well. However, when working with horses, “we receive clear and explicit feedback about messages that we may not be aware we are sending” (Kane). Humans don’t normally notice the subtle differences between different body languages, but horses can. Horses are especially sensitive to body language because of their natural instinct to need to be able to perceive others in order to survive. Equine assisted therapy, learning, growth, and education, incorporate horses into their programs because they are extremely effective tools to help patients develop social, emotional, and communication skills. People all over the world, Bay Area included, have problems caused by traumatic experiences that can be treated by equine assisted therapy. They need treatment that is a more effective method of overcoming emotional obstacles than traditional therapy. While there may be some

limitations of the therapy and research, the pros have visibly outweighed the cons. It is underused type of treatment that can potentially solve a huge range of issues. It isn’t recognized as much as traditional therapy, but should be (Brandon). It is not well-known enough to be widespread and treat lots of people, but considering its effectiveness on many problems, it should be offered more. Horses are amazing therapists and provide many wonderful opportunities for patients to rise above their issues. While there may be safety anxieties, equine professionals carefully select which horses to use and are always in the arena with the patients to ensure maximum security. While there may be some concerns about the effectiveness of equine assisted learning and growth, it is the best way to overcome emotional obstacles because of the therapeutic qualities that only horses possess. Using horses in emotional therapy is the most effective way to develop long lasting communication, relationship, management, organizational, and social skills that will benefit many people for life.

Works Cited Brandon, Diane. Personal interview. 13 Oct 2011. EAGALA - Equine Assisted Growth and Learning Association, Inc. 2010. Web. 7 Oct 2011. <http://eagala.org/>.

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Frewin, Karen and Brent Gardiner. “New Age or Old Sage? A Review of Equine Assisted Psychotherapy.” The Australian Journal of Counselling Psychology. 6 (2005): 13-17. Web. 23 Sep 2011. Hutchinson, Jaimie. Equine Assisted Psychotherapy: Horses Are Still Helping Us Today. Pioneer Pacific College, 2009. PDF file. 23 Sep 2011. InBalance. Stand In Balance – Empowering Your Authentic Self. InBalance Equine Assisted Growth and Learning. Web. 19 Sep 2011. <http://www.inbalancewithhorses.com/> Kane, Beverley, MD. Medicine and Horsemanship: A Communication Model for the Doctor-Patient Relationship. Stanford University School of Medicine, 2006. PDF file. 23 Sep 2011. Klontz, Bradley T., Alex Bivens, Deb Leinart, and Ted Klontz. The Effectiveness of Equine-Assisted Experiential Therapy: Results of an Open Clinical Trial. 15 (2007): 257-267. Web. 23 Sep 2011.

Resources with Horses. Hold Your Horses Farm. Web. 19 Sep 2011. <http://www.resourceswithhorses.com/index.html> Rosenberg, Shelley R., Beck Andros, and Linda Kohanov. My Horses, My Healers. Bloomington, IN: Author House, 2006. Print. Shultz, Bettina N. Equine Assisted Psychotherapy with At-Risk Adolescents. Denver Seminary, 2005. PDF file. 23 Sep 2011. Tetreault, Aimee. Horses that Heal: the Effectiveness of Equine Assisted Growth and Learning on the Behavior of Students Diagnosed with Emotional Disorder. University Park, Illinois: Governers State University, 2006. PDF file. 23 Sep 2011. Training Solutions for Tomorrow. Innovative Horizons, 2011. Web. 19 Sep 2011. <http://www.innovativehorizons.com/index.html> Willow Pond Ranch – Equine Assisted Learning and Horse Rescue. Willow Pond Ranch. Web. 19 Sep 2011. <http://openinggates.org/>

Micklem, William. Complete Horse Riding Manual. New York, NY: Dorling Kindersley Limited, 2003. Print. Opening Gates, LLC – Equine Assisted Learning. Opening Gates, 2011. Web. 19 Sep 2011. <http://openinggates.org/>

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Isaias Moya

Is Soccer Worth It? Soccer has spread so wide that almost every nation in the world plays it, but in total there are 240 million players. Soccer has become a huge part of society worldwide and injuries are the main worry for the community. Injuries aren’t the only thing players and spectators should see, they should also look at how much the benefits of soccer outweigh the detriments. Although the chance of injury while playing soccer is a significant disadvantage, other factors, such as the amount of enjoyment and fun that players and fans receive from the game vastly outweigh the negative aspects of soccer. Some of the possible and more common injuries in soccer include: head injuries, ankle injuries, knee injuries, as well as the somewhat common hip injury. In contrast many people don’t see how soccer could be so helpful to your body. Soccer helps many people stay in shape, gain endurance, strength, agility, and the ability to think swiftly in a tough situation. Soccer like any other sport is just as dangerous and many things can occur throughout the ninety minutes.

Of most common injuries, head injuries are at the top of the list being some of the most severe. When hearing of head injuries most people associate it with headers, but most don’t realize that most head injuries occur from players running into each other as well as them running into the goal post. Dr. Donald Kirkendall looked deep into the cause of head injuries in soccer. It is rare for a soccer player to receive a head injury from heading the ball. Although the ball can travel to speeds up to 70 mph, most players cannot kick that hard nor will they be idiotic enough to head a ball going at those speeds. The only injuries from headers that are received are when the players don’t head the ball correctly. Another issue Dr. Wolin addresses is, “There is no scientific evidence that correct heading is associated with concussions” (Prevention Strategies). When a player receives an injury to the head of such high impact it usually means they have received a concussion. Once a player has received a concussion even if minor, the player should sit down so they can rest and not have a concussion become a long term injury. A player’s head can become very vulnerable due to concussions which will on the long run prevent players from being able to play soccer. It is more common for a player to receive a leg injury such as a knee or an ankle injury due to other players. Most players usually get injuries in games from fouls leading to worse injuries.

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Another common injury during the games is knee injuries from not stretching. Knees and ankle are usually at the top of the list in terms of common injuries but they aren’t as harsh as some other injuries. The occasional ankle and knee injuries occur when the teams are usually playing harshly and are willing to do anything to keep the other team from scoring. Ankle injuries can also occur on a bad field which will lead to rolling an ankle or have one player trip onto another which will cause for both players to get injured as opposed to one. Knee injuries tend to happen while running or bumping into another player. Dr. Kirkendall says, “26% of knee injuries occur while a player is changing directions, while 56% were not. The others did not recall.” About eighty percent of anterior cruciate ligament tears are due to sustaining impact from another player while playing rough. Those are forms of force that players can receive to the knee, but the other possibility is landing incorrectly from a jump which will cause the ACL to tear in the knee meaning the knee will give out making it difficult to continue playing after injury has healed. The ACL can be one of the harsher and more detrimental injuries sustained from soccer. The ACL being tore as stated earlier makes it difficult for players to continue playing after injury and may keep from doing other things in the future. There is one easy way of preventing knee injuries and that is why Dr. Preston Wolin, sports medicine doctor from Chicago, says “Coaches should spend 30 minutes 3 times a week doing exercise to prevent knee injuries” (Prevention Strategies). Some inju-

ries can be easily prevented but there are others that are inevitable and may do severe damage. On the long run injuries are not the only possible outcomes for your body. The referees do their best to notice players aiming for other players as opposed to the ball. When a dangerous play occurs the referee takes the time to find out if the player is okay so no further injuries occur. The usual tackle is supposed to hit the ball and if the offensive player gets injured during the tackle, it will all be legal as long as the defensive player hits the ball first. If the defensive player hits only the player, it is possibly considered a yellow. The major issue is that a player cannot lie in front of another player because it is considered a dangerous play. Soccer, when it began, did not have many rules allowing for more injuries to occur but as time went on more stable and established rules were made which eventually led to the red and yellow cards keeping the sport safe; which gives more room for the activeness, the fun, and the training in soccer. When soccer began there were rules about fouling but the only rules stated were that under no circumstance shall one player “hold another player, push with the hands, nor trip another player,” according to Tony Brown, UK based football (soccer) tactician. Soccer was a brutal sport before the foul cards. Although the rules were there, there was no way to point out the mistakes that the players committed until later on in the history of soccer. One game in the semi-finals between England and Argentina caused the yellow and red cards to start, for enforcing the foul rules. 121


Fouls were not allowed, but people were not punished for them. Ashton, the head referee for the 1966 FIFA World Cup, decided to come up with a way to make the referee’s decisions during the game, about the fouls, more clear. The yellow and red cards since then made it clearer for people to know what the referee was doing. If the referee was sending the player off the field it lets the audience know as to why he is sending them off the field. The reason for the confusion was because the referees, unlike American football, don’t stop and tell the fans what is going on. That had one of the biggest impacts on soccer leading to better safety and clearer boundaries. Even though red and yellow cards were initiated, some injuries still occurred, some from other players and some from the sport itself. Soccer is a very intense sport which requires lots of energy, strength, and stamina which are great for your body and useful for almost any other physical activity. Soccer is only ninety minutes but when you are playing, sometimes it feels a lot shorter but other times it’s quite the opposite. To be able to play the entire ninety minutes takes a lot of stamina. With soccer all the work outs that take place during soccer help to stay in shape and keep up with all the running that has to be done. Of all the benefits it seems that stamina is the most stated. There are other benefits from soccer such as coordination, thinking on the spot, increases muscle and bone strength, persistence, as well as self-discipline.

Most soccer players seem to say that stamina is one of the most important reasons why they play soccer. Endurance being one of the most important traits of soccer players, because it helps them keep up with all the other players as well as be able to play the entire time. Soccer is one of the few sports that requires constant running. For players to keep up they need to have stamina and when they have stamina, they have the endurance to run and do a lot more things such as play with their kids or younger men, as well as other sports. Endurance is a trait that comes useful to many aspects of the daily life and if you have a lot of stamina, then it will help you keep up with many things. After that strength closely follows up. The strength that comes from soccer also helps with how long they can run following up from stamina. The strength and intensity in soccer makes the adrenaline in the body to rush which is why people sometimes have a lot of stamina. The strength is useful to fend other players off, but at the same time it can be used to kick the ball into right place and help you with far balls and cross balls. Some players don’t realize the important of the strength needed to play with others and how difficult it is to kick the ball such great distances. The strength as well comes from all the training done just to keep up with every other player that tries to get to the top and the only way that is possible is to keep on growing and getting stronger without that the other players would leave them behind and many state that they feel more fit and over the years it has 122


helped them stay in shape as well as strong because they wanted to play and they had something to strive for. Although it sounds easy another skill that is improved is self-discipline as well as motivation because you need to want it. You can’t just go through the motions in soccer. Soccer is the sport where you want to keep on doing it or else it won’t help as much and you will not be taking full advantage of the possible outcomes. The amount of work that soccer takes is the same work that makes others wants to keep on playing so they can have something and not be couch potatoes. By staying off the couch and playing soccer you can also gain some other skills like the ones above be used in other sports or in life. Coordination is a very useful skill to have. When your body can keep up with what your eyes see. Being coordinated increases your awareness as well as allowing you to be quick on your feet every time a play is near you. Although the ball may not be near, you must stay watching the opponent and be sure they will not counter while the other team is attacking. Studying the field quickly and being aware of your surroundings can also be used when typing quickly, when playing baseball as well as when playing a sport such as basketball where you need to keep an eye on the ball. Your opponent, as well as the motion of your body is very important to thinking ahead and being aware, which lead to a development of that skill.

By thinking ahead you stay ahead of your opponent as well as knowing what you are going to do and be direct about it. This way you can play the ball more precise allowing the play to become hard to follow for the other team because they may not know how to react. Soccer as well as life is like a game of chess. To stay ahead means taking the time to see what is going as well as thinking about what your next move is. It is sort of like thinking on the go, because there are certain occasions that may ask for a quick reaction but that would be difficult without any practice ahead. Not only do you have to think ahead for your sake but you have to read what your other team mate is doing so something good can come out of the play. You can’t just kick it where you want someone to be; it has to reasonable for another player. With all these skills there is still one that is useful and helpful for the body. In soccer, flexibility counts, according to Corbin C.B, although it may not seem like it; it is definitely one of the many factors that contribute to the sport. To kick a ball while sprinting and you are the last defender, it is important to be flexible to reach the ball. Most cases where the flexibility is taken into account is when a player is usually “fighting” for the ball and one player is guarding him in front but he needs to be quick on his feet and sometimes the player trying to get the ball may have to make a weird gesture with his body and feet to reach the ball being guarded. The stretches at the beginning of practice are usually meant to limber up the legs to be prepared for any possible situation. 123


Flexibility along with all the other benefits stated earlier outweighs any fear of possible injuries a player may receive while playing. Overall I believe that soccer is one of the most intense sports because it takes a lot of hard work, self-discipline, as well as being able to think quickly with any situation. Soccer does have its injuries but it’s the same as any other sport. Sometimes it just takes being careful. Some precautions should be taken but overall I believe that the benefits outweigh the detriments of soccer majorly. The benefits from soccer are what make you want to play the sport. Soccer has been around for so long and they have made the sport safer but FIFA has done all they could do to establish the rules and honestly if soccer is safe or not is within the power of the players. The players can choose whether they play the game cleanly or rough, because that is where most injuries come from. When I talk to most people about soccer they tell me why the sport is fun as well as to why they play it. Soccer benefits outweigh the fear in possible injuries because injuries can occur anywhere by anything not specifically any sport specially soccer.

Corbin, C.B. & Noble, L. Flexibility . A major component of physical fitness,JOPER, June(1980).Print. 20 Nov Elliot, J. G. & Bempechat, J. (2002). The culture and contexts of achievement motivation. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 96, 7-26. Hagerty, B. M., Williams, R. A. & Oe, H. (2002). Childhood antecedents of adult sense of belonging. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58(7), 793-801. Kirkendall, Dr. Donald “ A report on Knee Injures” US Youth Soccer, Us Youth Soccer web. 22 Sept 2011 Millard, Linda. “Differences in Coaching Behaviors of Male and Female High School Soccer Coaches.” .Questia, Vol.19. Questia. 1996.Web. 19 Sep. 2011. “Prevention Strategies can Limit Soccer Knee Injuries” Daily Harold (Arlington Heights, IL) 4 Mar.2009:2. Questia, web, 21 sept. 2011 Scott, Nina Savin “The Thinking Kid’s Guide to Successful Soccer.” Canevari Green. Questia. 1999. Web. 20 Sep. 2011

Works Cited Chudler, Eric H. “Soccer & the Barin” Washington.edu.10 sept. 2011, Washington,web., 21 sept 2011 124


Sabrina Perell

Fast Forward Fashion Style is highly individualistic, and the changes of the fashion industry today are propelled by the contemporary looks as well as reflecting on classics of the past. Innovation of women’s fashion in America today, from the streets to the runway, reflects a sharp and swift shift in fashion. The 21st century is characterized by the rapid advancement of technology. As a result, fashion is moving faster than ever before. It is a connected complex cycle that is ever changing. Trends and information travel quickly causing ripple effects spreading through dynamic media. Fashion inspiration is deeply rooted in local, regional, and world street culture, celebrities and events. The 21st century is a home for technological advancement, the internet, and media. Leaders, media icons, complex political structures, economies, as well as a long world history to examine are carefully speculated by designers, fashion icons, magazines and fashion forecasters and other influential people in the fashion industry to create products suited to the needs and likings of target consumers. These variations are instrumental in

the rapid advancement of fashion. Steven Faerm pointed out that “fashion and clothing” are not one in the same. Fashion is an art form that incorporates a vision, as all art does, whereas clothing has lack of meaning and is much more focused on the functional” (9). As any art form, fashion harnesses self expression but it is unique because the body on which it is displayed is relaying a message to those around about the “self.” The fashion industry strives to piece together themes that people can use to self express. This practice allows for the common ideas and values of a society to be linked with the production of the fashion industry. Thus, the continuum of fashion success is rooted in its “cycle that continually emphasizes new ways of blending innovative trends with available garments” because of the natural desire to be up to date and original (Tate 101). Historically, women’s social status was determined and defined by fashion. The ruling powers would see that “laws were frequently enacted to ensure that the lower classes could not assume false representation through fashion” (Faerm 12). Apparel as a “static indicator of social customs and hierarchies” divided the people who were marked by their social ranking through the clothing they could wear (Breward 63). Today, in the 21st century, women’s fashion no longer depicts social status in everyday garb. More commonly people are wearing clothing displaying “sociological and cultural truths” of today (Breward 63). The changing world and views pushes fashion in different directions 125


and maintains the momentum of the fashion industry. Fashion is an important representation of any time period because “fashion measures attitudes, morals, views and delineations in society, reflects economic status and creates ‘tribes’ that one aspires to join” or fit into those in which they belong (Faerm 12). These variations have changed over time and as a result ideas expressed in fashion change to reflect the current happenings which may even be different depending on the social group an individual identifies with. This pure reflection of values could only occur with societal freedoms that did not exist before. Over time societies liberated the populous from these social confines fashion placed on them. Although no event could singlehandedly characterize this shift, the invention of the sewing machine in 1846 greatly affected fashion accessibility and affordability for lower classes (Breward 29). This incredible tool, still used today, sped up the production of clothing; new styles came out faster, and in larger quantities with more varieties. Thus, the cost of clothing decreased because production did not take nearly as much time. As women’s fashion became accessible for those who were not within the highest classes of society. This meant that the visual social divide through clothing was vastly diminished. Because clothing was made for the masses and thus needed to be more versatile, “simplification and standardization of form of dress occurred as mass production methods made rapid manufacture of the same model possible” (Roach 176). As women began to

wear clothing that was similar, social class was now even more hidden to the eye. Still, fashion continued to change. Historical events directly affected the different elements necessary to make clothing, thus influencing the designs themselves (Faerm 40). During the time of the Great Depression, Chanel designed clothing that was more form fitting and thus “cost effective” because the fabric was used modestly (Goldstein). The lower classes were not able to afford clothing, especially with lush amounts of fabric. This shift of high fashion toward minimalism in the 1930’s, reflected a humble nature of the upper class society and fashion trends of the time. Even with this shift it an individual’s economic status was sometimes evident because of their clean clothing, jewelry, and cars. Fashion has come a long way since the mid 20th century. Today, the social divide through clothing it is almost nonexistent. People of all social classes wear jeans, which were once only worn by the lower classes. They are no longer a social distinction even though there are variations that are more or less trendy at any given time. It is commonalities in clothing like these that have contributed to altering the way people view each other. Even after the downfall of fashion control and the need for updates to reassert that the highest class could afford the latest styles, trends evolve each season. The key influencers on fashion as it has evolved through history have been different depending on the time period. Charles Fe126


drick Worth was the first fashion designer in 1845, with a shop that had clothing updated seasonally (Faerm 12). The haut couture houses followed his strategy in order to make money and the women living in Paris responded. The concept of having seasonal fashion changed women’s fashion to speed up because people wanted the latest, most current “look” in order to stay in fashion. It was confusing to consumers if all the fashion houses were producing different styles so they agreed to come together, discuss, and share their visions for future designs. Through this process they would generally come to some kind of consensus (Green).

age of the corset and accepted the “s-curve silhouette.” At this age travel became more popular. When Europeans learned that the Asian women did not wear corsets a new fashion idea was sparked. This revolutionized the life of women in America because “this liberation and increase in women’s independence (because women could now dress without the assistance of servants who tied their corsets), created silhouettes that were easier to move about in and led to the surge of interest in (women’s) recreation and sports.” (Faerm12). The designers were instrumental in accepting ideas of the suffrage movement and popularizing them.

Historically, fashion designers have recognized that understanding the needs of people is instrumental in the success of the clothing made so, it is important to recognize the target consumer and make the clothing appealing to them (Faerm 44). The analysis of “historical, cultural, societal, political, and economic changes in the world” form anchoring ideas for updates in fashion that the consumer is looking for regardless of whether or not they know it (Faerm 8-9). The themes that the designers notice can also be turned into messages that are expressed through new lines additionally creating a sense of coherency (Faerm 8, 42).

Later in the 1960s, designers turned to the youth for inspiration (Faerm 44). At the time, the youth was active and outspoken. Designers saw that there were many ideas that could be expressed. Much of the liveliness was in response to the political events of the time. Because fashion is “a system if ‘innovation’ engineered to meet and encourage seasonal consumer demands and fulfilling a cultural requirement to define evershifting social identities and relationships,” there were many opportunities to create clothing that reflected the events of the time (Breward 63). The expressive youth has taken a stand on controlling fashion today in the ways they “experiment with existing garments, often recycling period pieces or customizing basics… adding accessories typical of native costumes, wearing oversized garments, distressing clothes, and recycling vintage clothes are inexpensive ways to individualize fashion. The

Before Channel, during the turn of the century, Poiret and Fortuny revolutionized women’s fashion during the women’s suffrage movement (Breward 28). Their designs diminished the us-

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grunge look, popular with today’s [1990s] youth has profoundly influenced high fashion” (Tate 99). As the people began to drive the art of designers street fashion came to be. Prêt-à-Porter is a style of fashion that is in expensive but in vogue which appeals to the youth (Tate 91). This concept drives street fashion. Ever since the 1960s, looking at the youth’s interpretation on fashion has played a key role on the development of fashion because they introduce a fresh prospective. For some designers the street is the core because “street fashion has tremendous influence over fashion trends. Designers need to be innovative in order to attract business and ferreting for the latest trend allows them to do so. Street style, commonly known as street fashion, are outfits worn by anybody anywhere that are in style but somehow have a unique interpretation of current trends or are pieced together in a new interesting way. Street fashion inspires designers to model collections after themes they had seen on the street. Most designers travel a great deal, pursuing information on the latest trends, new color stories and textile innovations. Inevitably, constant exposure to different cultures and the way people interpret fashions around the world influence fashion trends” (Tate 99). Street fashion exists in many places and allows for different trends to begin and spread reflecting the messages of the society in which they originate. When clothing from past time periods appear again designers typically chose focal points to play into modern fashion (Faerm 40). Although the fashion industry

is highly linked, the fashion that comes from Europe “is a source of common inspiration that is usually translated into apparel for the U.S. consumer” because fashions are received differently by the people living in these two distinct places and needs to be altered accordingly (Tate 93). Street fashion is unique and says a lot about ones character and their unique expression (“Present Fashion Fads). Fashion is often characterized by its “affiliations” which often become themes in fashion lines or in outfits that are seen on the street (Faerm 12). Magazines have articles throughout their various issues that highlight current events and describe a specific example of the connection between a style and current events. This encourages people to have meaning in what they wear. Street fashion depicts characteristics of the stylist through creativity, and ultimately is an ideal for the fashion industry to be visionary by expressing ideas unique to the current era. Dressing to lifestyle is a matter of comfort. It makes people feel that they fit their crowd or social circle but regardless there is a human desire to stand out. The range in clothing choices allows for “American youth who value individuality and appearance” to stand out even though they “may not look individual to outsiders, although within their group individual distinctions are recognized” (Roach 128). Within friend groups there is a need to “stand out without stepping out” so that individuals define their place in the group. The women’s fashion industry has thrived in America due to the freedom that women have to choose what 128


they wear and how they wear it. Street fashion is a spontaneous art form that works because people throw together a combination of what represents them and what they like. Fashion has evolved away from the ideals of beauty, to individuality and self expression. “An individual’s [fashion] likes and dislike in regard to beauty are not haphazard. Instead, they are predictable preferences dependent upon the social context within which the individual learns to view his world… beauty must be understood as a social variable. Personal beauty does not exist in the absolute sense; it is always viewed in relation to a specific cultural situation” (Roach 95). Today, fashion apparel trends evolve rapidly as consumers and designers instantly react concurrently to influences and trends, and are inspired to proactively express their individual interpretations. The introduction of the internet and digital media working together has transformed fashion to become more interactive and omnipresent. With the widespread access to the internet in the 21st century, the American lifestyle is fast paced, quickly responsive, and customized so fashion will inevitably be constantly evolving to meet the changing desires of people. The fashion industry has been particularly successful in 21st century America because of the American value of self expression through of freedom of speech and individuality is encouraged. Freedom of speech allows for individual ideas to be popularized and widespread through media. The entire basis for the internet was to connect people and ideas. The purpose for the fashion indus-

try’s utilization of the internet is identical. The success of fashion’s relationship with the internet is logical. The fashion industry must create new desirable styles and popularize them in order to make profit. The internet is a tool to promote the latest trends. It is no longer necessary to go to fashion shows to see what designers are creating and what magazines will be placing in their next issues for people can access the photography of the streets and of fashion shows in the comfort of their home. By scanning over many outfits that have been handpicked patterns become more evident. The fashion industry calls them “megatrends” which are a “broad spectrum of macro trends” (“Forecast”). The reason why they are reference points for designers is because “each megatrend is supported by inspiring mood images, cultural references and complementary color palettes” giving them a purpose (“Forecast”). The internet allows people everywhere to “pick up on street trends first hand or through media images, and the look filters into the fashion cycle” and make personal connections (Tate 99). It takes skill to identify the key themes appearing that have potential to go viral. Fashion is an art specifically one of design. With that being said creativity is one of the most important factors. Street fashion would lose its value if there was no effort to carefully piece elements of color, shape, texture, fabrics and accessories together. Observing what the megatrends are in a season will ensure that the line is in vogue (“Forecast”). Seasons are one of the only 129


constants in the fashion industry. During the warmer seasons people wear clothing that will keep them cool in contrast to the fall and winter where clothing is essential to staying warm. For the most part the colors worn in each of these seasons reflect the changes in nature but each year the specific shades of color that are widely seen for any given year, will change. Pantone is the leader in the industry of color. Twice each year experts come together to predict the exact color pallet that will be in style and release their report (“The Business of Color”). Studies are done in advance to determine the exact shade and tone of each color and how it will fit into the pallet (Tate 115). Stephanie Keller- Bottom, graduate of the Fashion Institute and expert in innovation and industry trends spoke with me in depth about the Pantone color reports. She informed me that if the Pantone report is faulty, often collections will not be received well because the colors aren’t satisfactory to people at that point in time. The science of psychology proves that certain colors cause people to feel and react to colors differently depending on the color. Each report also has an explanation of why that exact color was chosen for that particular season ("Dance Into Spring 2012"). The Pantone report is released about a year in advance so that the designers can produce their collections with these colors and consumers can plan ahead as well as grow accustom to them. The accessibility of fashion through the internet and social media allows many more people to get involved and see a range

of styles. They can scan what is available they learn what they like. Consumers can easily view fashion details and instantly purchase. Rent-the-Runway is a recent online business allowing customers to “rent” high fashion designer label clothing and couture from an online source, wear it and return it after using it. Think of Netflix for fashion. Members are able to view a wide variety of quality clothing online, to select styles that best suit their needs, specifications, size, color preference and their occasion. Without having to pay exorbitant prices for the latest designer collections, Rent-the-Runway members may keep their fashion looks fresh and unique, with a less wasteful, more efficient means to wear fashion apparel for clothing that may only be worn once or twice (Keller-Bottom). Senior Editor and Columnist at EcoSalon.com, Luanne Bradley writes and analyzes the fashion industry and has concluded that celebrities today have more pressure than ever before to be fashion icons modeling original styles. The internet allows celebrities to reflect on ways in which they can fuse their own ideas into the clothes they wear while still staying in vogue. Later, they serve as inspiration for others when their ensemble is captured and posted for others to see. Celebrities of the past have worn all one designer but this practice is no longer accepted today because celebrities have the role of being fashion figures through originality—not following the designer (KellerBottom). Still, celebrities continue to work with designers because of the mutual benefits. 130


“Seeded fashion” is a specialized advertising and trend-setting practice for promoting and popularizing fashion concepts, designer products and accessories, through diverse media exposure. This way they structure their image and release it. The brand becomes reliable because the fit is generally the same, and the view point on fashion expressed in the various lines remains consistent. The reliability factor draws consumers in. An entirely new industry of publicity companies have arisen which specialize in seeding fashion to popularize consumer demand and set new, fresh fashion forward trends. Fashion manufacturers and designers expose new fashion statements by having popular celebrities, musicians, television actors, performers wear their latest creations. The public wants to know who is wearing what and the press plays the role of discovering this information and broadcasting it. Even before the internet this practice existed. For example, “Lady Duff Gordon, (a leading fashion designer at the turn of the century), trained her statuesque models to adopt individualized and potently erotic stage personas in order to attract publicity” (Breward 106). Today, magazines thrive on reporting the latest trends in fashion, advertising, home furnishings, and lifestyle because trends in all these areas are interrelated” (Tate 99). The clothing designers fit or design for a celebrity will reflect specifications that the designer and client work through. Not only would the design be seen in the media, but the designers name would also get out attracting new business for both

parties. This is also an opportunity for the designer to test ideas and see how they are received. Jason Wu was once an unknown designer but when First Lady, Michelle Obama wore a dress that he had designed to the inauguration ball in 2009 he suddenly became one of the most watched designers (KellerBottom). When the much anticipated dress and designer were released to the media people responded with curiosity and has contributed to Jason Wu’s success. He was able to become an overnight sensation because of the role media plays with fashion. Consumer trend testing has allowed for designers to anticipate how their designs may be received and how to alter them. With websites such as Facebook, Twitter and others, designs receive exposure and commentary full of compliments and critiques. DiMauro claims that “by using social media tools, the fashion industry can uncover a goldmine of consumer inspiration and trend-testing. The ability to identify and capitalize on what's hot and catch rising trends in advance of market saturation can make all the difference to a fashion brand or retailer's margin.” In reality, designers are not only trend testing but also popularizing their creation thus driving the fashion industry. By doing so, consumers are already on board to make purchases when the final product is released. There is an idea they express artistically that a consumer would adopt and also intentionally express when the new fashion was worn. 131


These shifts are always occurring but one of the recent ones designers are beginning to take note of is occurring due to climate change. People are increasingly aware of the effect they have on the environment and new ways of dressing allow for them to project eco-friendly values. The new fashion approaches are well adopted because “all people have a similar economic problem: resources are scarce relative to wants” and people recognize this issue (Roach 198). Individuals are beginning to buy vintage clothing and buy less. They are forced to look for items that they like best rather than seeing them already pieced together in a store which forces creativity. Buying vintage is beneficial because clothes are recycled rather than thrown away (Bradley). Buying vintage clothing with fur or leather is better than buying new clothing that had materials from animals because the consumer is not supporting the selfish killing of animals. The repetitive nature of fashion allows for people to buy less. When styles are reintroduced they are more likely to return again in the future because they represent themes that apply to a multitude of time periods (Faerm 40). In buying less people make what they have work and are more aware of what is truly necessary to buy and use rather than being impulsive shoppers which is often a wasteful practice. Because people are buying less, they spend more time finding the perfect items that are highly versatile and will last longer even if it means the apparel they have is more expensive (Bradley). The online rental websites have also been popularized by this ideal. The

Fashion Futures project is spearheading these ideas and putting them on the radar of fashion designers. “Fashion Futures” focuses on climate change, resource shortages, population growth and other factors that will shape the world of 2025 and the future of the fashion industry within it” ("Project Overview”). The grassroots research being done by the Fashion Futures project to evaluate the sustainability levels of corporations including those of fashion house is raising awareness to a higher level. The information they are finding in their research supports that designers it is becoming evident clothing has a chance of being better received by consumers if they are aware that the clothing was made with the environment in mind. The movement is not solely about conservation of fabric and the materials used to create it. The fashion futures project examines companies on many levels and each step they take as a part of their process. One of the main points examined is production. It is becoming more important that the local communities are receiving fair benefits from the work they do making clothing or producing the materials such as cotton and silk. More sustainable practices are first being adopted in the wealthier countries because this change has proven to sometimes be more expensive but will change as it becomes generally available. America is one of the leaders in sustainable practices and California is home to many of the up and coming technologies. Laws are in action in order to encourage sustainable practices and the Americans responded through their apparel choices. 132


These projects are taking place here and now. They affect our present and our future so why not take part in them? There is still plenty of room for self expression and new trends in fashion and for returning trends. The fashion industry is changing for the better and is yet again adjusting to meet the needs of people and society. Acknowledgements: To Isaias, Franky and Alex for editing my paper.

Working Bibliography Bradley, Luanne. Personal interview. 27 Sept. 2011. Breward, Christopher. Fashion. Oxford, New York: Oxford Univ., 2003. Print. "The Business Of Color: Pantone Sets Fashion Trends: NPR." NPR : National Public Radio : News & Analysis, World, US, Music & Arts : NPR. 10 Feb. 2011. Web. 20 Sept. 2011. <http://www.npr.org/2011/02/10/133636541/the-business-of-col or-company-sets-fashion-trends> "Dance Into Spring 2012." Pantone/ Fashion + Home. 15 Sept. 2011. Web. 23 Sept. 2011. <http://www.pantone.com/pages/fcr.aspx?pg=20911>. DiMauro, Vanessa. "Fashion & Social Media: Power to the People or the Publisher?" Social Media Today. 06 Oct. 2011. Web.

10 Oct. 2011. <http://socialmediatoday.com/vanessa-dimauro/372255/fashion -social-media-power-people-or-publisher>. Faerm, Steven. Fashion: Design Course. Hauppauge, NY: Barron's, 2010. Print. "Forecast." Stylesight. Web. 25 Sept. 2011. <http://www.stylesight.com/product/fashion_office/forecast.html >. Goldstein, Lauren. "The Chanel Jacket." Time Magazine U.S. 23 Aug. 2003. Web. 03 Oct. 2011. <http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1005534,00 .html>. Green, Marlina. "Who Sets the Fashion Trends?" Ezine Articles. 12 Jan. 2010. Web. 22 Sept. 2011. <http://ezinearticles.com/?Who-Sets-the-Fashion-Trends?&id=3 547917>. Keller-Bottom, Stephanie. Personal interview. 3 Oct. 2011. "Present Fashion Fads - What Varieties Of Garments Are Stuffing Your Closet This Year?"Buy A Bikini. 23 Sept. 2011. Web. 25 Sept. 2011. <http://buyabikini.net/articles/present-fashion-fads-what-varietie s-of-garments-are-stuffing-your-closet-this-year-1124.html>. 133


"Project Overview." Forum for the Futures 2025. 2011. Web. 29 Sept. 2011. <http://www.forumforthefuture.org/project/fashion-futures-2025/ overview>. Roach, Mary Ellen, and Joanne B. Eicher. The Visible Self: Perspectives on Dress. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall, 1973. Print. Tate, Sharon Lee. Inside Fashion Design. 5th ed. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, 2004. Print.

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Alex Rusbarsky

Blood upon the Stage: The Bay Area Thrash Metal Scene

Introduction You are walking down the street one night in San Francisco. You pass by the Warfield Theater. A band called “Metallica” is playing with special guests “Exodus”. It seems like a legitimate show to you. Somehow, you are able to get right in front of the stage. People start piling up behind you. The lights go down, the music starts to play, and people are slamming into each other and jumping off the stage. What is this? It’s just good ol’ Bay Area Thrash Metal. The Bay Area is home to one of the most influential music scenes in the world. Bands such as Metallica, Exodus, and Testament pioneered the thrash metal movement in the Bay Area, and were followed by other acts such as Forbidden, Possessed, and Death Angel, and many more. Bands from other scenes would also congregate here, such as Los Angeles’s Slayer and Megadeth. Many bands arose out of the obscure Bay Area metal scene but only a few stuck together and had a lasting impact. All these bands have been pertinent to the later development of death metal and other extreme metal genres. For years, thrash metal has been met with criticism and controversy because many people outside the thrash metal scene do not understand the technicality of the music. They dismiss it as just a bunch of noise and often misinterpret the lyrics as devil worshipping anthems. To some, it is just a form of sick entertainment. Others believe it is more than that; it

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is a way of life. To truly understand thrash metal, in the words of Metallica, one must “Jump in the Fire”.

Influences The main influence for thrash metal musicians all around the world came from the New Wave of British Heavy Metal. In the 1970s and early 1980s, bands such as Judas Priest and Iron Maiden defined the heavy metal sound, building off of ideas from Deep Purple and Black Sabbath. Iron Maiden’s third album, The Number of the Beast, would go on to be one of the most influential heavy metal albums of all time (Childs). The dark lyrics of the titular song and the fast drum and guitar work of Run to the Hills expressed the musical values heavy metal had from this point on. Singer Bruce Dickinson had a powerful and melodic voice that would influence later bands to follow in his footsteps. Judas Priest’s impact on the metal world would be just as significant. Singer Rob Halford’s voice also defined metal vocals and the crunchy guitar sound became a basic blueprint for heavy metal riffs. They also brought the biker look to metal. Leather or jean jackets with studs or spikes became a must for metal wardrobe (Childs). Many musicians began to get into heavier music as their tastes developed. “Heavy” music was defined as crunchy, low tuned guitars and a fast, pounding drum beat. Kerry King, guitarist of

Slayer, describes his time with finding heavy music through, “’this ain’t angry enough.’ I went to the next level, got tired of that, ‘this ain’t angry enough. What can I get? Judas Priest, this ain’t angry enough. I gotta go further than that’”. Many thrash musicians say that their peak in searching for heavy music was Venom and Motörhead. They were both early pioneers of speed metal which spawned thrash metal (Get Thrashed). Craig Locicero of Forbidden says that Venom was the most revolting music he could find. He liked the dark lyrics, speed, and the fact that people were terrified of them (“Craig Locicero”). He was among many people who were allured to their morbid imagery and blasphemous music. Most of their songs were played at breakneck speeds and dealt with the occult and Satanism, an aspect of the music that would later be attributed to heavy metal for ages to come. Song titles include Witching Hour, One Thousand Days in Sodom, Black Metal, In League with Satan, and Welcome to Hell. Their first two albums Welcome to Hell and Black Metal are also among the most influential metal albums ever. Without the release of these albums, thrash metal, and later metal subgenres, would not exist as we know it today. A reporter for the Los Angeles Times reviewed a Venom concert and stated that in “Venom’s hands, speed metal is at its darkest, most potent and brutal extreme. Factor in beefy bassist Cronos’ raspy vocals – which stick out like a sore throat—and you have a supremely ugly metal that just doesn’t get any heavier”

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(Strauss). Venom’s brutal, evil image and distorted sound was truly terrifying but effective in the metal scene. Motörhead, another contributor to speed metal, released a string of five important albums from 1977 to 1982. One of these albums, Ace of Spades, was truly the superior of these albums. Just like Venom, speed was a major tool to their sound. Even though bands like Motörhead and Venom were early thrash and speed metal pioneers, some believe it is safe to say that true thrash metal was born in the United States (Get Thrashed). In the United States, punk music would help further influence thrash metal artists. The term “thrash metal” actually originated in the punk and hardcore scene in New York City. The audience was going crazy and “thrashing”. Early thrash bands were inspired by the speed and aggression of punk and the term “thrash metal” has been used to describe the music ever since (Get Thrashed). Notable punk bands that influenced thrash artists were Dirty Rotten Imbeciles (more widely known as DRI), Minor Threat, Suicidal Tendencies, Dead Kennedys, and many others (“Guide to Metal”). Many songs by Los Angeles’s Suicidal Tendencies coaxed people to rebel against society and some songs were just comical that had no significant meaning. Questioning society and the government has been a part of thrash metal since the beginning (Layton). San Francisco’s Dead Kennedys would also influence thrash bands for years to come. Just like Suicidal Tendencies, Dead Kennedys had many

comical songs with no meaning, but they had a few strongly political songs. Dead Kennedys’ songs were filled with obscene and controversial lyrics. Their songs were fast and sometimes lacked technical musicianship, but it was the speed factor that Dead Kennedys, and the many other punk bands, instilled upon the forthcoming wave of thrash metal.

Bands Since the early 1980s, many thrash bands have stepped into the spotlight, but only a few deserve the honor of being named the few that set the genre off. The “Big Four of Thrash” (Metallica, Slayer, Megadeth, Anthrax) would form during this time and many other bands would follow in their footsteps. The band Metallica, was the first band to show sheer power and speed. The second of the “Big Four,” Slayer, took Metallica’s sound to the next level by adding tremendously morbid lyrics and intense guitar and drum work. Although not the other two bands that make up the “Big Four,” Testament would show everybody the more melodic side of thrash metal and Exodus would show exceptional musicianship and the “kill the poseur” side of metal. These four bands would define the Bay Area thrash scene. Bands such as Los Angeles’s Megadeth and New York’s Anthrax would be pertinent to thrash’s evolution, but they would draw aspects from these bands before gaining large underground followings.

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In 1980, future Metallica guitarist Kirk Hammett would form a lesser known, but hugely inspirational band dubbed “Exodus”. Along with vocalist Paul Baloff, second guitarist Gary Holt, drummer Tom Hunting, and bassist Geoff Andrews, Exodus would be named the original kings of Bay Area metal. They recorded the highly praised Bonded by Blood which was a very influential album among their contemporaries. Though not a thoroughly consistent band, the hard partying and relentless musicianship aspects of their image would label them the most influential metal band in the Bay Area at that time (“Exodus”). Formed in 1981 by Lars Ulrich and James Hetfield, Metallica would set out to become the biggest metal band of all time. Before playing sold out arenas and breaking 100 million in record sales, Metallica would start out rehearsing in garages, handing out demos and playing small clubs in the Los Angeles area. They later relocated to the Bay Area as they felt they weren’t appreciated in LA. In the Bay Area they would meet bass virtuoso Cliff Burton. (Get Thrashed). In the summer of 1983, Kill ‘em All was released. Many feel this album was the true birth of thrash metal. The high tempos, fast drumming, and innovative guitar work shows their influence drawn from the intricate riff techniques of Iron Maiden and the speed of Venom and Motörhead (Erlewine). Metallica’s next two albums, Ride the Lightning and Master of Puppets would further develop thrash metal.

In 1981, the world would witness the beginning of Slayer’s “Reign in Blood”. Even though they weren’t formed in the Bay Area, they had a huge impact on the scene when they had a string of successful shows out there in the mid 1980s. The band comprised of guitarists Jeff Hanneman and Kerry King, bassist and vocalist Tom Araya, and drummer Dave Lombardo. They further built on the evilness of Venom with their debut album Show No Mercy and they took it to the next level with the EP Haunting the Chapel and the full length Hell Awaits. These albums would establish Slayer as a truly dark and satanic band— or “Slaytanic” band. Each album would be heavier and better than the last. The 1990s was a prosperous time for Slayer. Unlike Testament and Exodus, Slayer would see exceptional album sales and it seemed like they were barely affected by the grunge movement at all (Huey). The year 1983 saw the formation of a band that took a very melodic approach to the thrash metal genre. They showed that they were heavily influenced by NWOBHM. They would display the more melodic side of thrash but would also even delve into the death metal genre. From 1987 to 1990, the band released a string of albums, The Legacy, The New Order, Practice What You Preach, and Souls of Black. The latter would experience the effects of the grunge movement. It stayed on shelves for months. Just like Exodus, the 1990s saw inconsistent line ups and poorly selling albums (“Testament”). 138


Music Common traits in songs have been displayed in the sections above. Slayer and Metallica were pioneers in the creation of thrash metal and there are many traits that all thrash songs have in common. Dark lyrics are very common and songs must be fast and heavy to live up to the lyrics. Lyrical themes that are most employed in the world of thrash metal include the morbid subjects Satanism, warfare, serial killers, creatures, apocalypse, epidemics and over-the-top violence. Some songs that fall into these categories are Hell Awaits by Slayer, Among the Living by Anthrax, Piranha by Exodus, Face in the Sky by Testament, Seek and Destroy by Metallica, Arise by Sepultura, and Kreator’s Pleasure to Kill. Another side of thrash shows the social criticism that makes up another huge part of it. Themes in this category can include environmental awareness, censorship, anti-war messages, street crime, questioning religion, and a corrupt government. Songs in this category includes Critical Mass by Nuclear Assault, Hook in Mouth by Megadeth, Refuse/Resist by Sepultura, and God Hates Us All by Slayer. The titles and content of these songs are often overlooked by many outside of the thrash scene as garbage. They do not see the profound meaning or entertainment value in the songs. People outside the thrash scene may also criticize thrash metal for being “too easy” to play. While there are some songs that

are not intricately written, (most of the time on purpose for comedic effect) the majority of thrash metal displays well above average musicianship. It features fast, technical guitar work, a riveting bass line and a blazing drum beat to keep the tempo. Most songs are played around 190 beats per minute (or bpm) to well over 216 beats per minute. Slayer’s landmark album, Reign in Blood, is played at a constant rate of around 210 bpm. Bay Area band Sadus released Chemical Exposure in 1991 which featured the faster-than-the-speed-of-light-track Certain Death (Prato). The album also showed their talented playing abilities with intricately structured parts—such as the introduction to Twisted Face—disproving all allegations that thrash metal takes no skill to play. The speed and technicality of thrash metal has been overlooked by many critics because it may be “too loud” or the vocals may be “too harsh”.

Influence Since the late 1980s, many metal bands all over the world have cited these Bay Area bands as major influences on their style. Even bands that played alongside each other found some sort of thing they liked and copied it. Forbidden, a lesser known band at the time, would draw influence from Metallica, Slayer and Exodus (“Forbidden”). Another Bay Area band, Possessed, was also influenced strongly by Slayer and they would be a major influence on death metal (“Possessed”). Their debut album Seven Churches was a com139


bination of thrash and death metal. Jeff Becerra was one of the first people, if not the first, to utilize the deep, growling vocals technique which has become a death metal standard (“Seven Churches”).

ment, and many other thrash bands have cited Metallica as a source of inspiration to their music. Countless other bands that arose in the years to come would also be inspired by Metallica and the other “Big Four” bands.

Death’s Scream Bloody Gore, released two years later, would define death metal from thrash metal. Death was among few bands in Florida that drew influence from West Coast thrash metal. They cite Slayer, Exodus, and Metallica as their primary influences (“Death”). Obituary was also among the Florida death metal scene and took death metal in a different direction. Most of their material was played at a slower tempo making a more groove oriented sound (Birchmeier).

Decline

In 1984 in Brazil, Sepultura would form and become one of the bestselling international thrash metal bands. Singer and guitarist Max Cavalera was influenced by the likes of Slayer, Metallica and many NWOBHM bands. Their debut Morbid Visions would be a stepping stone in the creation of death metal. There next album Schizophrenia would stay more true to the classic thrash metal sound than their previous effort (“Sepultura”). Many Bay Area bands that evolved alongside Metallica would be heavily influenced by them. As stated before, they really popularized and took thrash metal to the next step with the release of Kill ‘em All (Young). They also seemed to bring the genre of metal as a whole back to life as it was starting to dwindle away from the spotlight. Forbidden, Death Angel, Testa-

As mentioned before, thrash metal went through a rough patch during the 1990s when grunge music became more popular. Grunge is a subgenre of rock that had humble beginnings all around the country, especially Seattle—much like thrash metal and the Bay Area. The “Clash of the Titans” tour would be the “final blow” of classic thrash metal. The tour featured Alice in Chains, an unknown grunge band at the time. Alice in Chains gained a lot of exposure causing a surge in grunge’s popularity (Get Thrashed). Though adhered by the death of bassist Cliff Burton in 1986, Metallica persisted with new bassist Jason Newsted. Metallica realized that they have to fit in with the changing music scene and decided not to write eight minute, multi layered masterpieces. The release of Metallica (better known as The Black Album) featured songs that had slower tempos and softer guitar work than previous releases. The album went on to be their highest selling album to date and the song “Enter Sandman” would arguably become their most famous one. The rest of the 1990s saw an even deeper change when they cut their hair and released an even softer album, Load, followed by Re-

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Load. This would lead to an incredible backlash from their fanbase but many appreciated their new style (Erlewine). However, many bands decided not to quit playing with brutality and speed. Testament released Low in 1994, Demonic in 1997, and The Gathering in 1997. The players on these albums would rotate quite a bit, leaving vocalist Chuck Billy and guitarist Eric Peterson the only permanent members of the band. These three albums didn’t soften up their sound at all. They were on the verge of death metal, shown through the low tuned guitars, fast and pounding drum work, and deep, bellowing vocals (Henderson). Exodus also continued to produce albums that didn’t change in style at all, but were also plagued by inconsistency in their line-up, leaving Gary Holt the only permanent member of the band’s history. Exodus ultimately broke up in the mid 1990s, but shortly after, they reformed (“Exodus”). Slayer also carried on strong into the 1990s. Their releases Seasons in the Abyss and Divine Intervention were landmark albums for them, and maybe even thrash metal, because they sold incredibly well for metal albums. Seasons in the Abyss also marked their first video, with the title track. Despite Dave Lombardo leaving to pursue other interests and being replaced by Paul Bostaph, Slayer’s momentum would continue to increase. Along with the success of their contemporaries, some bands would deal with break ups and other negative factors that came as a result of grunge. Forbidden released their second album

Twisted into Form in 1990 which would not sell particularly well. Craig Locicero, the guitarist of Forbidden, recalls that they had a record deal lined up with a really big company in the early 1990s when grunge was just taking form. Just when they were about to wrap up the meeting, someone alerts the head of the company that a new band dubbed Nirvana was going to be the next best thing. Forbidden’s deal was dropped and they broke up a few years later. But, they would later reform in 2001 (“Craig Locicero”). The reason why these bands never dropped off the map was because they had strong fan-bases. The fans of thrash metal will do anything to keep the genre alive. They will even risk their lives.

Fans The fans of thrash metal have kept it alive for just over 30 years. Even though most bands are obscure and don’t sell many albums, the fans of thrash metal will help these bands stay together with their support and dedication. Some fans say that this music has helped them through tough times and that it can even be therapeutic, despite its speed and aggression (Arnett). Thrash metal, and the whole metal genre in general, has helped many of its listeners through turbulent times in their lives. They use it to appease their aggression. In Jeffrey Jensen Arnett’s book Metal Heads: Heavy Metal Music and Adolescent Alienation, he interviewed a young man named Jack who has 141


had a bad life so far. His life has been very chaotic with his father neglecting him and having already stayed in a psychiatric hospital for a drug addiction. The only thing he has interest in at this point is heavy metal. The thing that attracted him to metal, and the thing that attracts all potential listeners, is the power of the music. It is a very intense genre of music and it touches on so many topics that people can relate to. (Arnett). At shows, fans become engulfed in the music and lose track of everything. They will begin “thrashing” around, which is where the term “thrash” metal comes from. At every thrash metal show since the music’s inception, fans will start an obligatory “mosh pit”. Arnett describes that in a mosh pit “there are bodies crashing into one another, and the more you watch the more it becomes apparent that they are doing this deliberately, in a violent dance” (Arnett). The potency of the music moves the fans to do such extremes. A lot of the time, someone would end up injured in the pit. Sean Killian of San Francisco’s Vio-lence recalls that people would get their heads busted open from stage diving or moshing hard and they wouldn’t know at all until the show ended (Get Thrashed). Many people have criticized moshing. Some deem it as a threat to one’s health, which it can ultimately be. In 1994, Christopher Mitchell was killed when he attempted a stage dive and landed on his head in a New York club. He was only 18 at the time. At the time, it was the only mosh pit related death in the United States. Since people started getting seriously hurt at shows, many started to take a stand on mosh-

ing. Paul Wertheimer, a crowd management specialist, stated “Moshing is dangerous, period. It is the responsibility of people who put on public events to provide a safe environment” (Pogrebin). However, moshing and stage diving are still prevalent at many metal shows today. It is part of the thrash metal culture and the fans will never stop doing it.

Society’s View For years, thrash metal has come under fire for conveying morbid messages and dangerous behavior. The recurring themes of the occult, murder, and warfare are just three subjects thrash bands like to touch on. Yet, society only sees these subjects as what makes up the whole genre. Serious themes that are prominent within the genre are censorship, crime, substance abuse, and even environmental awareness (Get Thrashed). But even when bands play songs along the line of the occult, murder, or warfare, they aren’t telling people to do these things. The bands are just interested in the subjects. Tom Araya of Slayer stated that Slayer doesn’t “glorify anything. I graphically describe a lot of things—this really happens, this does go on. I’m not telling people to do it; I’m just telling you what I see, what I hear and what I know” (Palmer). He feels that the things he writes shouldn’t compel anyone to do such acts. Most thrash metal lyrics are critiques of society, while others are stories that are not meant to be taken seriously and have the actions portrayed in the song realized by anyone. 142


However, in 1995, Elyse Pahler was tied to a tree and stabbed to death by three friends who were inspired by Slayer’s music to sacrifice someone to the Devil. They were allegedly persuaded to commit such acts because Postmortem and Dead Skin Mask gave teenagers Royce Casey, Joseph Fiorella and Jacob Delashmutt detailed how to “stalk, rape, torture, murder and commit acts of necrophilia” on the Pahler’s daughter. The lyrics found in Slayer’s Necrophiliac also may have provoked her killers to carry out her murder with such lyrics as “I feel the urge the growing need/to f--- this sinful corpse/My tasks complete the b----‘s soul/Lies raped in demonic lust”. Although the case against Slayer was dismissed, the charges against Casey, Fiorella, and Delashmutt were not. They are currently serving time in prison for killing Pahler (Horn). The people who blame such actions on metal have no idea that the artists aren’t trying to get people to murder one another. Metal, and all music in general, should not be slated as the sole purpose for a murder or suicide. The person who committed such acts is the only one to blame. It’s how they interpreted the song, and their interpretation could be completely different than what the original meaning was. Some people believe that the reason thrash and death metal isn’t as widely popular as other genres of music is because the music is too intense. Cannibal Corpse has been a large advocate of this statement. The members of Cannibal Corpse believe that violence is a large part of society and that their songs

simply emphasize it more than other bands would. Their songs are purely entertainment and are not meant to be taken seriously, just as Tom Araya of Slayer has stated. George “Corspegrinder” Fisher, singer of Cannibal Corpse, stated that they are inspired by gory movies and they “want the lyrics to be like that. Yeah, it's about killing people, but it's not promoting it at all. Basically these are fictional stories and that's it. And anyone who gets upset about it is ridiculous” (“George ‘Corpsegrinder’ Fisher – 2004”). Cannibal Corpse’s music is a form of art and all of the stuff they depict will never happen. To them, it’s just harmless entertainment (Metal: A Headbanger’s Journey). However, just because it is “harmless entertainment,” doesn’t mean it hasn’t had a profound impact on the world.

Impact Thrash metal, and the whole genre of metal has had a lasting impact on the world. There are countless fan websites that are created for said fans to blog about and keep others up to date on their metal heroes. At concerts, one can observe how many of the people there are sporting the classic denim jacket with patches and buttons showing their devotion to their favorite bands. As long as there are fans of the thrash metal world, there will also be the people who constantly state it takes no talent to play and that the lyrics are harmful to society. Many people who make these claims have little to no evidence to back it up. 143


Thrash metal has been viewed by many as just a bunch of noise and another way to worship the devil. The fans of it can say otherwise. Thrash metal is a way of life with a rich history dating back to the 1980s right here in the Bay Area. It takes a profound amount of musicianship to be able to play as technical and fast as it takes to become a “thrasher”. Though the lyrics at times are mainly for entertainment purposes, there is a deeper meaning in most lyrics about how society is faulty and the hardships of life. The bands that started it in the early 1980s have influenced thousands of metal bands that wouldn’t be around if it wasn’t for them. The fans are what have kept thrash alive for 30 years and they will stick with it for all their lives. The music has been there for them in times of grief and has helped calm their aggression despite the harshness of the music. The bands that formed in the Bay Area have influenced countless bands all over the world. The Bay Area was also a place for bands from other scenes to congregate and gain large followings. Though met with much criticism, it hasn’t died out among people and will most likely never die.

Works Cited

Acknowledgements

"Guide to Metal." Hessian. Web. 10 Oct. 2011. <http://hessian.org>.

I would like to thank Sam Lopez, Isaias Moya, Frankie Spektor, Max Victoria, and Craig Butz for helping me edit my paper.

Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen. Metal Heads: Heavy Metal Music and Adolescent Alienation. Boulder, Colo. [u.a.: ! Westview, 1996. Questia. Web. 25 Sept. 2011. Birchmeier, Jason. "Obituary." AllMusic. Web. 24 Oct. 2011. ! Childs, Peter. "Heavy Metal." Encyclopedia of Contemporary British Culture. London: Routledge, 1999. ! 248-49. Questia. Web. 10 Oct. 2011. "Craig Locicero." Online interview. 6 Oct. 2011. Erlewine, Stephen T. "Metallica." AllMusic. Web. 22 Sept. 2011. "George ‘Corpsegrinder’ Fisher - 2004." Interview by Mark Prindle. Web. 25 Oct. 2011. <http://www.markprindle.com/fisher-i.htm>. Get Thrashed: The Story of Thrash Metal. Dir. Rick Ernst. 2006. DVD.

Haflin, Ross. Photograph. Henderson, Alex. "Demonic - Testament." AllMusic. Web. 15 Oct. 2011. ! 144


Horn, John. "Heavy Metal: Music To Murder By?" The Daily Beast. 3 Dec. 2000. Web. 28 Oct. 2011. Huey, Steve. "Slayer." AllMusic. Web. 20 Sept. 2011.  Layton, Lynne. "Heavy Metal: A Cultural Sociology." The Nation 9 Aug. 1993: 184+.Gale Opposing ! Viewpoints In Context. Web. 7 Oct. 2011. Metal: A Headbanger's Journey. Dir. Sam Dunn, Scot McFayden, and Jessica J. Wise. 2005. DVD. Palmer, Robert. "POP VIEW; Dark Metal: Not Just Smash And Thrash." New York Times 4 Nov. ! 1990. Gale Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 7 Oct. 2011.

---. "Sepultura." AllMusic. Web. 28 Oct. 2011. ! ---. "Seven Churches - Possessed." AllMusic. Web. 24 Oct. 2011.  ---. "Testament." AllMusic. Web. 20 Sept. 2011.! Strauss, Duncan. "Speed Thrills." Los Angeles Times 31 May 1986: G3. ProQuest Historical Newspapers. ! Web. 03 Oct. 2011. Young, Charles M. "Refined metal?" The Atlantic Nov. 1991: 42. Gale Opposing Viewpoints In ! Context. Web. 7 Oct. 2011.

Pogrebin, Robin. "Hard-Core Threat to Health: Moshing at Rock Concerts." New York Times 09 May ! 1996. Print. Prato, Greg. "Sadus." AllMusic. Web. 20 Sept. 2011. Rivadavia, Eduardo. "Death." AllMusic. Web. 25 Oct. 2011.  ---. "Exodus." AllMusic. Web. 20 Sept. 2011. ---. "Forbidden." AllMusic. Web. 20 Sept. 2011. ! ---. "Possessed." AllMusic. Web. 20 Sept. 2011. ! ---. "Reign in Blood." AllMusic. Web. 19 Oct. 2011. 145


Franky Spektor

A Philosophunculistic Adoxography: The Role of Language in Thought and Bilingualism Can language, a means of expression so instinctual and familiar to us, influence the way we interact with the world? The way we verbally express ourselves is so natural to us, we seldom take the time to consider its impact. In fact, languages can have a significant influence on our unconscious habits of thought. Because they are so closely related to the cultures from which they stem, languages often reflect the worldview of that society. It follows that the more languages someone speaks, the more culture and perspective they can absorb. Immigrants in particular are opened to a new realm of understanding within their adopted country with the knowledge of their native country’s language. Likewise, learning American English can also greatly impact an immigrant’s outlook and habitual thinking. Therefore, because language cannot limit one’s range of thought, but can

only expand it, knowing multiple languages should be encouraged for immigrants and non-immigrants alike, as it allows one a wider reference frame for the world. Linguistic relativity, the theory that language is able to influence one’s cognition, first arose in late 1800’s Europe. Linguists of the time were expanding the borders of their understanding, recognizing societies, cultures, and languages that were foreign to them. Many were interested in conducting an inductive analysis of the Indo-European language system, a discovery of the relation between Indian and European languages made by Europeans visiting India as early as the 1600’s. Linguists sought to compare the Indo-European system to the languages spoken by other societies (Ellingsworth). Karl Wilhelm von Humboldt was one of the first linguists of the time to propose a strong case for the theory of linguistic relativity, even going so far as to state that “our mother tongue can entirely constrain our thoughts and intellectual horizons” (Deutscher). Humboldt and his contemporaries were working off a few key axioms which would determine their later research and convictions about the influence of language. Firstly, the theory of linguistic relativity concluded that, “languages, especially members of different language families differ in important ways from each other” (Swoyer). This hypothesis affirmed that language is determined by the culture which speaks it, and just as cultures differ from one another, the functions and expressions possible 146


in their language do as well. The second main premise alleged, “the structure and lexicon of one’s language influences how one perceives and conceptualizes the world, which they do in a systematic manner” (Swoyer). According to Humboldt, one’s culture, and subsequently, their language, shape the way in which they are able to think in sure and predictable terms. Linguists of the 1800’s grappled casually with this theory, until it became revived as a serious topic in 1900’s Germany, revolutionized by Benjamin Lee Whorf and his contemporary, Edward Sapir. Whorf, originally a MIT chemical engineer, delved into the theory of linguistic determinism, an offshoot of linguistic relativity which emphasized the constraints language places on perception. According to an article by Ellingsworth, Whorf’s field of research included “the relationship between the mechanisms of language such as vocabulary, inflection, and sentence structure on the one hand, and perception and organization of experience in the broad patterns of behavior in the other.” Also mentioned is that Whorf hypothesized that the “structural differences between languages are paralleled by non-linguistic cognitive differences in native speakers of separate languages” (Ellingsworth). Unlike linguists before him, Whorf took this idea a few steps further, eventually declaring that, “the structure of language strongly affects or determines the world view which is acquired through learning a language” (Ellingsworth). At first, these extreme notions took the linguistic world by storm, inciting wonder over the idea that language can completely define how

we think. There was, however, a rather startling lack of evidence for these claims, and the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis was eventually somewhat discredited. As the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis fell into disrepute, a few other theories emerged in different places on the scale of determinism. There currently exist different viewpoints on the relationship between language, culture, and thought, some of which adhere to linguistic relativity strongly, and others who discredit effects or importance of language entirely. This is known as the debate between nature and culture. Some believe differences in language are negligible because human nature determines speech, and it is not a facet of culture. They hold that languages, being naturally determined, are essentially similar in every significant way. Therefore, language has absolutely no impact on perception or cognition. Other linguists theorize that languages contain considerable differences in their lexicons and grammar due to cultural influence, and that each culture has a somewhat arbitrary ability to assimilate their language into their perceived reality which can define an individual speaker’s range of awareness (Deutscher). Even over time, languages are continuously shifting to accommodate changes in culture. These theories tend to disagree with Whorf primarily on the premise of extremism, but also in terms of origin, or the chicken-egg argument. The question of how people can create or learn new words if their reality is limited by a certain closed lexicon is a common theme. 147


Unlike in Whorf’s time, there is empirical evidence that can be gathered, particularly in the color field. It has been observed that some languages treat green and blue as one color. One such example is Welsh, as the word for “blue” accommodates all shades of green, even though there is a word of English understanding of “green” as well (Grue). Likewise, in Tarahumara and many African dialects, blue and green are also contained in one word (Harris). The linguists who hold to the predominance of culture’ influence think color can be chopped up subjectively anywhere along spectrum according to the whim of a culture, and that an individual learns from his parents of the society where such breaks should be made (Grue). Other psychologists and linguists think people are ingrained with ideas about how colors are grouped. They believe that the brain is preconditioned to focus on just a few main colors, including primary, secondary, black, and white, in what nature has conditioned them to see and experience (Grue). One experiment, conducted by researchers Aubrey Gilbert, Terry Regier, Paul Kay and Richard Ivy, made the hypothesis that language possibly affects perception in the right half of visual field much more than the left because language centers are only located in one hemisphere (Harris). This experiment attempted to work off the premise that both sides of the nature/ culture spectrum may have valid claims. The research team used Berkley undergrads and those with surgically separated brain hemispheres caused by accidents, separating them into

control groups for observation (Harris). In the study, individuals were presented with blue or green colored squares arranged in a circle, with one square being a different color than the rest. In a circle of navy blue squares, for example, one would have to point out an odd man out that was either a very slight shade of blue lighter or darker than the rest, or one which contained more green or yellow in it.

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Surprisingly enough, researchers found that “participants responded more quickly when the odd man out had a different name than the other colors, but this only occurred if odd man out was in the right half of visual field” (Harris). This occurred because the brain’s right hemisphere receives sensory input from the left side of the body, and the left hemisphere receives sensory input from the right side. The functions of language and speech are housed within the brain’s left hemisphere. Thus, if language really does affect color perception, it would be much more likely to do so when presented from the right visual field. There have also been similar tests performed on members of African tribes which don’t make the linguistic distinction between colors such as blue and turquoise, or even blue and black. In their language, the ocean and the sky are both called black, but they have many more names for shades of green, which they perceive as utterly different color categories. Perhaps this is because, much like the Sami peoples of Iceland have dozens of words for snow, the more prominence a culture places on an object or concept, the more evident this will be in their language. African speakers, thus, may take longer to differentiate between blue and black, than between very subtle shades of green. Earlier studies of linguistic relativity proposed that language either decisively determines thought and perception, or does not make a difference at all, but there is now a known middle ground between the nature/culture debates. It

can be said that nature determines where cultural color divides most take place, and also how they are seen and experienced. Another color experiment conducted by Terry Regier used a grid displaying a myriad of colors on a globe, grouped by computer generated type relation. The top of the globe as white, and the bottom was black, with all other colors grouped in a girdle around the middle. The computer was programmed to find the theoretically best color divisions among categories of color, which were then compared to English speaker’s color divides in real life (Grue). These divisions where then shown on the globe on valleys and hills, where the main color divides where located on the valleys, and never the hills. This experiment found that the globe computer model closely fit some languages. For example, one computer generated division was a color system which grouped together yellow and reds, but excluded white and whitish yellow. The real world lexical boundaries which varied across cultures only were only present where the computer algorithm produced several options that were equal in accuracy. These results explain where nature determines the spectrum assembled by language, and how much wiggle room cultures have in deciding how to name what (Grue). After comparing the results to languages spanning the globe, researchers conclude, “our representation of the visual world may be, at one and the same time, filtered and not filtered through the categories of language” (Harris). 149


There is much more such evidence for the interrelationship of language and culture, particularly in the lexicon and grammar found a language’s speakers. The cultural reflection in language can be seen by the existence of vocabulary for terms that may not exist in other languages, or be direct translations of them. This simply exhibits the idiosyncrasies of a culture, and the ways in which speech and language reflect it (Citron). American English conjugates verbs extensively, emphasizing precise identification of an event in the past, present, future, and hypothetical tense which is in contrast to Arabic, which doesn’t conjugate past and present, or Chinese, which does not conjugate verbs at all, but instead imparts time through context. Likewise, Sino-Tibetan languages speak of distinctions indirectly through syntax and context rather than verb inflection (Ellingsworth). In the Whorfian view, this might come to suggest that Chinese speakers cannot conceive of time, but in all actuality, language’s only restriction is in what “it must convey and not in what it may convey,” says Roman Jakobson, a respected linguist. Time is therefore not a forced observation that must be specified, but it certainly can be conveyed through any language. There also exist certain usages of grammar and lexicon that can make one speak in ways which come to influence the way they habitually perceive the world. In the case of a remote aboriginal tribe known as the Guugu Yimithirr, for example, this can be more clearly demonstrated; their language utilizes only objec-

tive cardinal directions, such as, west, northeast, and south. They make absolutely no use of egocentric directions such as left and right, near, below, or above in relation to their bodies in the way English speakers do. Thus, speakers of Guugu Yimithirr are required to know from a particularly young age the cardinal directions at all times, until it becomes automatic. Because of their language, all Guugu Yimithirr speakers have an exceptionally developed sense of direction and an instinctual spatial awareness that English speakers lack unless consciously developed through experience (Deutscher 157). Language can also carry a culture’s rhetorical values in certain words, as well as the general flow and content of speech. In the case of the Japanese, values can be linguistically demonstrated through social order. Japanese involves a verbal hierarchy involving gender, occupation, age, and status, which must be explained in vocabulary, inflection, as well as non verbal rituals. This type of classification exists in most other languages as well, such as Spanish. Spanish speakers use particular words and tenses to speak to someone formally or informally in the “tu” vs “usted” manner (Citron). Conversely, English speakers are much more linguistically egalitarian, and have limited hierarchical words to describe people in the same way that is habitually done in Japan or a Spanish speaking country. This lends English a much more informal tone and an absence of instinctive social structure in speech. That being said, it is very possibly to convey age, status, and economic positions in English. It 150


is also necessary to change tone and formality when speaking to one’s boss rather than a friend, but these act almost as addons which do not innately influence tense or inflection. Language is, as such, a strong indicator of social relationships between cultures and classes. Another key element in the effect between language, thought, and perception included the role played by translation, particularly for immigrants working on second language acquisition. Languages are not direct translations of each other lexically even if two languages may have words with the same definitions, because each concept or word can be applied with different associations (Citron). Nabokov, a bilingual Russian writer remarked, “each shadow of meaning conveyed in a key word bears out in its explication, so that the set of semantic primitives that can define freedom, for instance, will not mean the same words as is used to define “svoboda,” the Russian word for freedom. By exploring the difference in meaning of the key words used in languages, we can better understand that which these cultures use as their primary means of expression” (Gorski). For immigrants especially, the word “homeland” in English translates directly to “rodina” in Russian, but the associations, such as the old country, close ties, sense of complete belonging, origin, loyalty, almost maternal affection, and protection cannot be applied in the same way to the English word (Gorski). “Rodina” bespeaks of certain warmness, a closeness, and heartfelt desire to reunite for Russian speakers.

From the perspective of renowned writer and academic, Eva Hoffman, a Polish immigrant to the US, there are indeed many new associations in English that may take some time getting used to. She brings up one case involving the word “kindly,” as she heard it used by Americans. In Polish, there is no category of judgment for “kindly,” so from a Polish perspective, English speakers using the word sound as if it ought to be ironic or sarcastic. “Kindly,” directly translated from English or Polish, describes one person in two different ways, even though the word may be the same. This is simply based on Polish cultural associations attached to the word “kindly,” which makes such a person appear falsely nice, or sarcastically sweet. One requires a leap out of the Polish expectation to use “kindly” in English with proper meaning and context (Besemeres). Guy Deutscher, another immigrant and native Hebrew speaker remarks, “When I speak English, I may say about a bed that ‘it’ is soft, but as a native Hebrew speaker, I actually feel that “she” is too soft.” Even though the word for bed describes the same object on both English and Hebrew, certain structures, such as object gender, can play a crucial role in the aspect of translation. Various experiments have shown that grammatical genders can shape the feelings and associations of speakers toward objects around them. Eva Hoffman further describes her experience with language in the US, saying that the language spoken can impact one’s personal mind. It is possible for an immigrant’s personal

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identity and associations to change through translation, because language can sometimes mediate reality (Besemeres). The theory of the linguistic prototype is a possible explanation for why languages differ in translation. Each culture and society associates a particular prototype to every concept, which can add variation to words which should be easily translatable. This occurs because vocabulary words are organized in one’s mind through culturally determined prototypes which differ in their categorization across languages. In the example of the female bed in Hebrew, or that of “rodina,” homeland, in Russian, both cultures determine a particular prototype which colors their associations of concepts and objects observed in other societies. Hoffman says that, “for the speaker, there is a complete equivalence between the language and the reality,” meaning that the prototypes can affect the ways in which speakers assimilate their reality (Besemeres). However, this data points to a conclusion much different from the one the Whorf hypothesis had previously made. Instead of determining the scope of one’s mind, language reflects culture through the people of a certain society in their expressions and the perceptions it encourages, but does not enforce. Guy Deutscher remarks that, “the real affects of the mother tongue are rather the habits that develop through the frequent use of certain ways of expression. The concepts we are trained to treat as distinct, the information our mother tongue continually forces

us to specify, the details it requires us to be attentive to – all these habits of speech can create habits of mind that affect more than merely the knowledge of language itself” (Deutscher 234).This means that automatically using the formal tense with seniors, or only using the cardinal directions to describe one’s surroundings instills patterns of thought, and not restrictions of thought. The grooves of habitual cognition, as carved by languages, in no way limit or constrict the abilities of the speaker. According to a Stanford researcher, “words and phrases can be adapted, but what’s easy to say in one language may be hard in another. It is more natural and common for speakers of one language to think in certain ways compared to speakers of another language” (Swoyer). This is because of societal conventions affect the concepts and language structure which is more relevant to the culture. In fact, the more languages one is able to speak, the more open their options for perception and understanding through the lenses of multiple culture. According to James Citron’s essay on Language Acquisition, this conclusion is known as the theory of ethno-lingual relativity, which confirms that “perspective is not limited by one’s own cultural and lingual experience, but is open to contrasting culture and language patterns of other people” (Citron 105). This means that knowing more than one language, especially for immigrants, can open one’s cultural boundaries and understanding. In contrast, immigrants who do not yet know the language of their new country may experience difficulty understanding 152


even nonlinguistic cultural facets. Relations with other people can be hard for immigrants because, “people’s very reality, and therefore their own relation to it, seems suspended, incomplete, until it can be named” (Besemeres). This implies a correlation between learning the language and immersing oneself into another culture. The more integrated someone is linguistically, the more rich their cultural experience, perspective, and range of thinking, and world view. Likewise, the better one understands the culture, the better their language skills will become. Immigrants who are previously bilingual may have an easier time rather those who are monolingual as well. This is because monolinguals “possibly have more rigid, fixed, and less flexible perceptions that may put them at a disadvantage where abstract concepts and relations occur” (Portes 213). This theory can be supported with several studies about bilingualism, its effects on cognition, and how immigrants become enhanced by learning a new tongue. Elizabeth Peal and Wallace Lambert at McGill University in Montreal conducted research in which they hypothesized about the cognitive benefits of bilingualism. They thought that bilinguals or those who are multilingual have an enhanced perspective because they have been exposed to the enriched environment that stems from multiple cultures (Portes 213). The study differentiated between “semi” or “pseudo” bilinguals, who know and use one language much more than the other, and those who know and use both languages about equally, or true bilinguals. Peals and Lambert

observed carefully controlled group of 10 year olds of French monolinguals, and French-English balanced bilinguals. After a few months of recording data from the two groups, the researchers noticed that the bilingual grouped preformed significantly better than monolinguals on wide range of verbal and nonverbal IQ test. Bilinguals were seen to do the best on tests involving concept formation on cognitive and symbolic flexibility (Portes 212). The researchers concluded that people who learn two languages have two symbols for every object or idea that stems from the combination of two associations and prototypes. Therefore, they can approach concepts from the different linguistic and cultural lenses. Another supporting study tested much the same things in immigrant children or children of immigrant parents, only from a higher age group (Portes 215). This study was conducted as an analysis of high school student’s test scores in the San Diego area. English monolingual students were recorded to have better reading comprehension score, as might be expected. However, in concordance with the Peal and Lambert experiment, fluent bilinguals had vastly better math scores for every nationality and language. Therefore, based on these studies, it can be concluded that, “foreign languages should be emphasized in schools because learning new languages opens student’s minds to the ways of other peoples and increases the opportunities for cross cultural understanding” (Citron 105) Eva Hoffman comments from her personal account of second language acqui153


sition that, “mastering a new language is more than a necessary skill in an economic sense; it is rather a matter of entering into a whole world constructed according to certain shared understanding” (Besemeres). As one of the most powerful forms of human expression, language contains within it the values of a culture, and the ideology of that culture’s speakers. It is clear that although language does indeed have a certain impact on the way one may think, this impact provides people with the ability to gain new insights through the study of multiple languages. Unlike the linguistic prison house proposed by linguists centuries earlier, it is now known that language it able to span cross cultural boundaries. Multilingualism, and the interpersonal associations that stem from it, allows a person the gift of true color vision.

Works Cited Besemeres, Mary. “Language and self in cross-cultural autobiography: Eva Hoffman's Lost in Translation.” Canadian Slavonic Papers40. 3/4 (SepDec 1998): 327-344. Web. 17 Sep. 2011. “Bilingual Education.” State University.com. Date Unknown. Web. 16 Sep. 2011. Citron, James. “ Can Cross-Cultural Understanding Aid Second Language Acquisition?

Toward a Theory of Ethno-Lingual Relativity.”Hispania. Vol. 78, No. 1 (Mar., 1995), pp. 105-113. Web. 25 Sep. 2011. Deutscher, Guy. “Does Your Language Shape How You Think?” The New York Times. New York Times, 26 Aug. 2010. Web. 14 Sep. 2011. Deutscher, Guy. Through the Looking Glass. Metropolitan Books, 2010. Print. Ellingsworth, Huber. “The Shadow of Benjamin Lee Whorf: Continuing Issues in Linguistic Relativism.” University of Tusla, 1994. Web. 18 Sep. 2011. Gorski, Bradley. “A Literary Investigation of Linguistic Relativity.” Vestnik: The Journal of Russian and Asian Studies. The School of Russian and Asian Studies, 10 Sep. 2010. Web. 13 Sep. 2011. 2003. Web. 12 Sep. 2011. “How Grue is Your Valley?” The Economist. Linguistics Department of Berkley, 18 Jan. 2007. Web. 19 Sep. 2011. 154


Harris, William. “Words Help Us See and Talk.” The University of Chicago News Office. 31 Jan. 2006. Web. 19 Sep. 2011. Portes, Alejandro and Ruben G. Rumbaut. Immigrant America. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2006. Print. Swoyer, Chris. “The Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis.” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

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Yelena Vayn

Dancing Our Way to the Olympics In most people’s minds, when they now hear the term, “Ballroom Dancing,” they think of it as just a form of entertainment – like dancing with the stars. In reality, Ballroom dancing is a complicated and physical sport. Often times, when people think of ballroom/Latin dance, they tend to compare it to ballet or any sort of artistic dance style. Other times, people think of it merely as a contest. This brings us to the differing views of whether the activity is Art/Entertainment, contest or Sport. The controversy is best exemplified by the recent attempts of the International Dance Sport Federation, IDSF, trying to get ballroom dancing to become an Olympic sport. Unfortunately, the closest that Dance sport has ever gotten to becoming an Olympic sport was when it got officially recognized by the international Olympic committee, or the IOC, in 1997 and later in demonstrated at the 2000 Olympics. Ballroom/ Latin dancing has its many competitions ranging from local competition, to regionals and nationals all the way to international world competitions. In these Dance sport competitions, dancers from all around the world gather and compete with one another, hoping to achieve a title.

Dancesport has been around since the early 1900’s and has become very popular recently. Dancesport includes two major dance styles which are standard (Ballroom) and Latin. Each style consists of five dances, and some dancers perform all ten. Dancing has been popular for ages, and ever since Ballroom/ Latin came to existence, it became a larger tradition. There are lots of different age and skill categories for those who want to seriously compete. Ballroom has been open and available to people of all ages, whether they dance for recreational purposes or professionally. Once it became well-known, many different organizations began trying to look into having it become an Olympic sport.“Ballroom dancing has evolved into a highly participated and organized sport. It was recognized by the International Olympic Committee and granted a provisional Olympic sport status in 1997. Overseas, the International Dance sport Federation is robust and growing with 62 member countries on six continents” (Wilson’s Dancesport). Ballroom dancing became a world-wide phenomenon. For over twenty years Dance sport has been trying to become an Olympic sport. Over and over again the federation, IDSF, the International Dance sport Federation, has submitted formal requests for consideration in the Olympics. So far it has only has been considered and recognized by the International Olympic Committee but has no approval for the 2020 Olympic Games because it does not seen to meet all of the requirements and 156


there is a lot of doubt that it will ever be formally accepted as an Olympic sport. Ballroom/Latin dancing, or Dance sport as it is now known, a highly competitive, physically and skill demanding sport, should be an Olympic sport because it is a highly popular and competitive sport. This brings us to the next question. What makes a sport? Having standards for achieving victory is an obvious must. (Justin) Ballroom dancing holds different standards in order for a couple to achieve a title. These standards include skill, technique, performance, and style. Dance sport does not lack any specifics in this area. Another attribute that makes a sport is that it requires athleticism. “Sports all require a great amount of physical strength” (Bryce Propheter). The IOC finds dance not very physically demanding, when in reality Dancesport requires stamina and a great amount of strength and endurance.  The WDSF argues dancesport should be included as an Olympic Medal Sport because: it has gender parity; it has so far been free of doping, it has a large audience world-wide, venues would be easy to find and the competition could easily be run over two days. (Dance sport& the Olympics) The reason to the constant denial for Dance sport from the IOC, the International Olympic Committee, is because they fear that people do not wish to watch Latin/ballroom dance in a sporty, competitive, way. A survey from the Dance sport UK website then proved otherwise with a survey that showed that 98.95%

of the 10,012 people who took the survey voted yes on Dance Sport becoming an Olympic sport (Dance Sport in the Olympics?). Along with that concern, comes one important question that many dancers and even non-dancers ask: Is Ballroom dancing an art, a contest, a sport, or all three? Many wonder about this because they all seem to be true for Dance sport. Although dancing has been an art for a while in history; competitive dance could also be linked to contests and even sports. Ballroom dancing, unlike some other forms of dance, is a competitive, strength and skill requiring sport. For Dance sport, an athlete must have stamina, strength, flexibility, coordination, creativity, technique, etc. The list goes on, but these aspects prove dance to be a sport just like any other. However, many say that dancing is only an art to be viewed and competed in its own competitions, not such a large one like the Olympics. Dancers believe that dance involves as much athleticism as figure skating, which is what dance is often compared to. (Will ballroom Dancing be an Olympic sport?) “The IOC believes that if an activity has more sport than art content, is related to biochemical advantage than to mechanical advantage, and is intended as more educational than entertainment-oriented, it should be seriously considered for inclusion in the Olympic Family” (Dance sport in the Olympics). Ballroom Dance can be considered a sport because it is highly athletic, requires serious training, physically and technically, has its own judging with rules and rankings, and if anything, is 157


really competitive. There are various attributes and requirements which sports mustmeet in order to be included in the Olympics; these facets now include conditions that "the new sport should increase the appeal of the games, the sports should have an emphasis on youth and development and there should be global participation – at least 75 countries must be involved worldwide. (Dance & the Olympics). Finally, “on September of 1997 the international Olympic committee granted full recognition to the International Dance sport(IDSF) Federation as the governing body of the sport”(Dance sport in the Olympics?). “The IOC has recognized IDSF because of the worldwide popularity of dance sport or Ballroom-dancing as it is called in society circles, and IDSF’s compliance with the IOC’s high qualifying standards” (Manalo Inigno). The IOC can recognize any international federation in order to include them into the Olympic movement and consider the sport. “It was also a demonstration sport at the 2000 Olympics.  Dance sport is not currently a medal sport; but the WDSF is recognized by the IOC as a governing body which sets rules in accordance with the Olympic charter.  This is required for sports to progress to a medal level and is part of the IOC’s aim to promote sport on an international level”(Dance sport& the Olympics). Its worldwide popularity boosted even more when dancing with the Stars, ABC’s new hit TV show came out. “Peter Pover the Head of IDSF says” “Ten years ago, the only people who would watch Ballroom dancing were ladies

over the age of 50. It’s all been transformed with ‘Dancing with the Stars’”. But “TV fame –Plus the idea of Olympic glory—has ignited a feud between the Amateur Federation and Ballroom’s international Organization of Professional dancers.” (Barry Newman). The professionals who hugely thrive from profit competitions, like England’s famed Blackpool Dance Festival, worry that the Olympics will downgrade their own competitions and international championships. The World championships including IDSF are the biggest competitions for Dance sport. They will quickly lose value if Ballroom Latin Dance becomes an Olympic sport. The dancers are well aware that if Ballroom/Latin becomes an Olympic sport, then not every great dancer will be able to participate. Their titles will quickly lose value when the only title people will want will be the “gold”. The IOC is the main council for the Olympics. The main roles for the IOC are: To govern the Olympics, to set up rules, and to consider/recognize sports. In rule 3 number 5 in the Olympic Charter it says that “The IOC may recognize non- governmental organizations connected with sport, operating on an international level, the statutes and activities of which are in conformity with the Olympic Charter” (Olympic Charter). The IOC determines what a sport much requires in order to become an Olympic sport, and determine which sports are to be considered. Dance Sport seems to fit most of the requirements that the IOC holds, but is still portrayed as an art because for one, it is 158


dance. And most types of dances are to be performed and not competed. Although this is not true for Dance sport, and it is still not accepted, the organizations such as IDSF and USABDA will not quit trying to include ballroom into the Olympics. Ballroom/ Dancing has come so far in the last 20 years, becoming a very popular sport and getting seriously considered by the Olympic Committee. Hopefully, Dance sport will get accepted into the 2020 Olympics.

Works Cited “Dance Sport in the Olympics?"Essortment.Web. 21 Sep.2011 Quinn, Robb. “Ballroom Dancing Seeks to Step Into Olympics.” Newser. 7 june 2011. Web. 21 ! Sept.2011 “Dancesport in the Olympics.” Dancesport Events. 28 Sep. 2010. Web. 23 Sep. 2011. <http://dancesportevents.com/dancesport-in-the-olympics>. Biba, Johannes “USA Dance” USA Dance. 14 Oct. 2002. Web. 24 Sep.2011 <http://usadance.org/news-and-press/olympic-update/>

“Will Ballroom Dancing be an Olympic Sport?” BallroomDancingMadeSimple.. Web. . 24 Sep.201<http://www.ballroomdancingmadesimple.com/MoreInf o/DanceSportOlympics/> “Dance sport now closer to Olympics?” Inquirer Sports. 12 July 2010. Web. 9 Sep. 2011 < http://sports.inquirer.net/columns/columns/view/20100712-28 0567/Dance-sport-now-closer-to-Olympics> Propheter, Bryce. "» What Is a Sport?" Jack Central. 25 Sept. 2008. Web. 20 Oct. 2011. <http://www.70sbig.com/blog/2011/04/sport/>. "What Is DanceSport?" Wilson's DanceSport - Ballroom Dancing, Ballroom Dance Lessons and Classes in Sarasota, FL. Web. 19 Oct. 2011. <http://www.wilsonsdancesport.com/pages/dancesport.htm>. "Dancing & the Olympics." Dance Sport England. Web. 20 Oct. 2011. <Dancing & the Olympics>. !

“Dancesport in London's 2012 Olympics” GoPetition. 8 Jul. 2005. Web. 24 Sep.2011 <http://www.gopetition.com/petitions/include-dancesport-in-lond on-s-2012-olympics.html> 159


Audrey Weber

Artists in Recession Murals, packaging, songs, architecture, and paintings are only a few places were art can be found in our daily lives. An art student named Jonathan Chin says, “When we look around us, we see a lot of things that relate to art, contain art, are art and display art. Art is everywhere because people need to use it for daily uses” (Chin). A main way for arts in our daily lives to improve is by art organizations. Many of these organizations work to bring people of different communities together to make art. The art created by the people of these organizations range from murals to performing arts. These organizations try their best to reach out to everyone in these communities and educate them with all the skills they need to create beautiful art. When the art is created these organizations find ways to present it to the public using galleries or even online databases. Along with helping communities come together, art organizations also foster new artists in the city. Artists that belong to certain art organizations get a chance to show their work and to become known in the art community. Artists contribute to organizations by teaching classes or by making art that can be sold to fund programs run

by the organizations. Even with the help from artists, art organizations are facing financial crisis following the current economic recession. Since the start of the recession, local art organizations have not been able to reach out to their communities to educate and enhance local art efforts because of their financial situation. With more funding, these organizations can have positive effects on the community. Art contributes to society in ways that many people do not recognize. Everywhere around us art takes form as architecture, food, and technology. In a society, art is used to communicate values or beliefs through self expression. Art communicates ideas with people in different ways but it never fails to share an artist’s thoughts with an audience, “Art can show ideas about the past, what has happened as of late, what is currently happening and what may happen in the future” (Chin). Art can communicate ideas and emotions to people around the world through movies, galleries, or even the internet, it is a global form of communication. This connection, art, connects all because art shows human ideas (Barr). It can reveal world issues such as global warming or represents feelings that an artist may have when something impacts their life. An artist named Deborah Barr tries to make her art connect with people, especially children. She says, “My intention in my creative process is to catch attention by creating a visual dialog that the viewer can intimately identify with, and the challenge for me as an artist is 160


to go beyond the internal barriers that separate us from each other” (Barr). When ideas are shown through art to children it can become a helpful learning tool and help students achieve more. Art is found mainly in schools because it is an interactive and fun thing for a student to do. It helps engage students in their learning. According to an article about Art by Jonathan Chin, “Art is fun and acts as an interactive tool for reluctant learners, younger students” (Chin). In schools, it is highly important that art education is available to students because it can lead to success. According to a article by Fran Smith about how art is key to a child’s development, “Years of research show that it's closely linked to almost everything that we as a nation say we want for our children and demand from our schools: academic achievement, social and emotional development, civic engagement, and equitable opportunity”( Smith). Schools need these arts in order to develop successful students. The opinions that artists express can be accessible to students when they are educated about art. Artists influence their community by expressing their thoughts on different subjects and problems. The artist's use of color, texture and images create a view that expresses their true opinion on a subject. These opinions shown through art can bring communities together and make them feel differently about a subject, this can lead to an impact on the world outside of art

(Barr). Arts many contributions to society can make it easy for people to feel connected through ideas and opinions shared through art, “Although, art is not a language, people do not need to know anything about another language and can draw ideas from what they see” (Chin). These contributions make it easy to see why art, especially art organizations, are a link to bring art and culture to communities. Help from artists can lead to growth in communities or new communities altogether. One way that art organizations involve the community is through classes which teach art to all people but mainly children. These classes are made to challenge many different people to express themselves in ways that can benefit the community. For example, an art organization called Creativity Explored, works and supports people with disabilities. They offer classes to people with disabilities and they hold exhibits of the members art work (“Mission Statement”). Other organizations work with children, the elderly, or artists. In one organization in Yorkshire, 13 to 72 year olds work side by side (“The Arts make a contribution”). When different people work with these organizations, it draws in other people to become a part of a group of people that focus on creating art. Artists work with art organizations to be part of the art loop and find ways to exhibit their art. An organization called Mission Artists United is dedicated to artists mainly in the Mission district. They let every artist make their own profile with pictures of their 161


art online. It’s basically Facebook for artists. At Mission Artists United they work to try and find ways to help artists sell art and exhibit their art in the Mission. I recently met an artist named Elliot Nathan who uses Mission United. It’s the only organization he is a part of because he, like many other artists, wants to share his art with many people. Mission United also helps artists meet each other and get involved in the art community in the Mission by sharing art. For art buyers it enables them to get in touch with an artist and also see when they have an open studio (“What is Mission Artists United”). This special organization helps artists make contacts that could become potential customers and provide funding. Mission United is committed to helping artists find the connections they need to succeed in the art world, “MISSION ARTISTS UNITED is working with city government and local businesses to find ways of coordinating marketing efforts, connecting artists, and working to establish the Mission as THE destination point for viewing and buying art” (What is Mission United). These art organizations help people make art and help artists support themselves. In many situations around the country art organizations are the only source for people in less fortunate situations to be able to see and view art in places without access. These places may include nursing homes, nursing homes and sometimes even prisons (Chin). Artists in communities are known for involving professional artists and members of society to come together to make art in a positive welcoming area. Many artists in communi-

ties volunteer to work for organizations to share their work and give to organizations that have possibly helped them in the past. I volunteered at Precita Eyes, an organization that aids Mural artists and met a local Italian artist who was working with them. While I was there, he was doing a painting of an old record store across the street in which he added skeleton people in the store windows and outside of the store dancing. The painting that he was working on was going to be sold in the store and the proceeds would go to the Precita Eyes Organization. This is a common way for an artist to contribute to an organization and provide a source for money. This way, the organization gains so finical stability and artists have a way to show their art and teach people about what they are doing. This artist along with many other artists is helping organizations get the financial support they need to continue their work. Most organizations get money from donations but when a recession hits the majority of donors decide to not donate at all or give to social services. In 2007 prior to the recession, art organizations were receiving $13.64 billion dollars in total from the government and donations while nonprofits were receiving $43.32 billion that year. This amount has been dropping at least 5% for art organizations each year (Spector). This is mainly because most people believe that art isn’t a crucial part of society like food banks or homeless shelters. The lack of money has made many organizations unable to reach out to communities (Spector). In New York, the Metropolitan Museum of Art had to 162


cut 74 positions and threatens to cut 10% more due to lack of funds (Spector). Art organizations positive effects on communities are not being supported financially. Art requires supplies and money for space to create and to exhibit. Most of the money that art organizations receive is through donations and artwork sold in art galleries. Unfortunately during a recession, people believe that the arts are not as beneficial to society as social services. According to Ms. Crawford, a woman working for an independent theater, “The Arts are that thing that can be cut, because we need our police officers, we need our soup kitchens” (Howard). The view on art contributes to people’s views on its importance. For many people, art is just a way for people to make a living or a piece of work behind their couches which makes it seems not as important as social services when America is in a recession (Howard). Technology is another factor that has had a huge impact on the financial situation of the art organizations in communities. With our current technology, it is very easy for anyone to observe art online without having to pay for anything. This leaves many artists and organizations unable to show off work in a way that would give the audience a better sense of the depth of the art work and directly challenge people observing the art. Art is still being made but people are viewing it online which leaves artists unable to make more connections in the art world.

Museums in many parts of the America are changing their hours because of low attendance and lack of funds to keep the museums open. This makes art exhibits much more limited than in the past because not as many people can observe the art being shown in museums (Veltman). The arts need to make some changes in order to become recognized differently in communities. This would lead them into better funding that could enable them to expand art in communities. In order to save these organizations from collapsing, they need to find new ways to support themselves financially. When hard times come for organizations the volunteer rate goes up by 11% and people doing art goes up by 5% but it’s hard to support these artists through organizations when the money is tight (Spector). Volunteers can help organizations raise money by contributing to them. A good way to start changing the view of art organizations is changing the image of art. Mostly art is looked at as something that is fun to do; but to most people it isn’t perceived as something that benefits the community in any real way. If these organizations put out the idea that they are an important contribution to society they may earn more respect and money from the public. They can do this by teaching people how to use art to benefit communities. According to an article about fundraising for the arts, the message art organizations should be giving to the public is, “Art is central to any kind of decent society. We are working toward a society where art will be accessible to everyone, as audience or creator or both” (Klien). 163


This message of accessibility along with changing the way donations are solicited can greatly benefit the organizations. Many of the organizations focus on receiving donations from small groups of people in specific areas. If the art organizations expanded their mailing lists then many different kinds of people would possibly contribute to these organizations. This could potentially earn art organizations more money as well as expand their audience to the public that might be interested in learning more about art. A museum in St. Louis uses this technique well by giving out free museum passes to everyone who makes a school purchase in their city (Howard). This approach gives people more opportunities to explore art and encourages them to come back. It could also help give museums more donations by expanding their audience to people who could be willing to volunteer or make generous donations to organizations whom they might otherwise not know about. This is somewhat risky considering that there is so no guarantee that the organizations will receive anything in return for their generosity (Hoye). Another way organizations can improve their money flow is to encourage government funding of art. The government gives a lower percentage of funds to art organizations which puts them at a huge disadvantage compared to other organizations in communities. If these organizations fight to get an art budget from the government then they are more likely to be able to sustain themselves possibly even when a recession hits.

In conclusion, art is a very beneficial aspect of our society. It is a way for people to express themselves, share ideas and learn. The most common way for art to be promoted is through art organizations around the country. These organizations strengthen communities through education about art and the sharing of new ideas. To do this work, they need a sustainable money source which they have been struggling with since the recession. During these harsh times for art organizations, they must find new ways to support themselves so they aren’t so dependent on donators.! ! ! ! ! Acknowledgements: I would like to acknowledge Jackson Karel, Sophia Kauffman, and Terry Weber for proofreading my paper.

Works Cited “Arts Organizations Struggling to Make Ends Meet.” CBS San Francisco. 24 Jan 2011. Web. 22 Sept 2011. Barr, Deborah. “The Power of Art in Society.” Lafter Hall, Unknown. Web. 25 Sept 2011. Chin, Jonathan. “What is the Importance of Art.” Ezine Articles. Ezine Articles, Unknown. Web. 25 Sept 2011. Hoye, Susan. “Recession Hits Art Groups Especially Hard.” The Chronicle of Philanthropy, The Chronicle of Philanthropy, 2007. Web. 25 Sept 2011. 164


Klein, Kim. “Raising Money for Progressive Arts and Cultural Organizations.” Shelterforce. Shelterforce, 2000. Web. 25 Sep. 2011. “Mission Statement.” Creativity Explored, Unknown. Web. 25 Sept 2011. “The Arts makes a contribution to the Big Society of Yorkshire.” Arts Council England. Arts Council England. 25 Aug 2010. Web. 26 Sept 2011. Smith, Fran. “Why Art Education is Crucial and Who’s doing it best.” Edutopia, 28 Jan 2009. Web. 25 Sept 2011. Spector, Mike. “Art Groups lose out in Fight for Funds.” The Wall Street Journl. The Wall Street Journal, 18 Mar 2009. Web. 25 Sept 2011. “What is Mission Artists United?” Mission Artists United, Unknown. Web. 25 Sept 2011.

165


Chase Williams

There’s No Business like Show Business The year is 1948, the great war is a distant, yet essential memory. On this particular Saturday night, a father in his suit, tie, and fedora hat holds hands with his 8 year old twin sons, who are wearing matching San Francisco Seals hats, blue jeans and penny loafers. A few feet ahead of them is mom, dressed to the nines in her best outfit and looking marvelous with her intricately applied makeup and hair. Mom is holding her daughter’s hand while they laugh and talk about the most recent teen heartbreak, Gregory Peck. As the blissful family walk down the street, they pass friends and neighbors as they share quick hellos, familiar handshakes, and warm embraces. Up ahead there is a glow, a wonderful glow that lights up the entire block. With excited anticipation, the children quicken their steps. As the family happily approaches the light, they grin with appreciation at the marquee that reads, no make that shouts, “Miracle on 34th Street”.

The scene depicted above portrays a typical Saturday evening in San Francisco, as well as around the nation. Following WWII, family played an important role in post-war daily life. A welcome treat for many families was the movies, or more specifically, their neighborhood independent theater. Not only would a family night out provide the entertainment witnessed at the show, but the family would also be a larger part of their immediate neighborhood. Pre-movie rituals would entail going to the family’s favorite neighborhood restaurant, with perhaps a stop at the local ice cream store on the way home. All the while seeing, talking, and catching up with other families, friends, and neighbors. Theaters were local, iconic destinations in the old days, almost in comparison to the local churches in a neighborhood in the sense that these places distinguished their neighborhoods. On a Saturday night, there was one place people would go: to the movies. They wouldn’t board the bus, or hail a taxi, to go to another theater, they walked to their neighborhood theater. This somewhat idealistic scenario that I envisioned of a 1948 family represents what we today are lacking, not only as family units, but as individuals as well. San Franciscans, as well as Americans have slowly forgone the family outings and bonding experiences such as the Saturday night movie, and replaced these rituals with quick, easy gratification. Instead of a family of five holding hands and strolling through their neighborhood on their way to their local theater, today’s families are staying home watching movies on their televisions, or on their com166


puters, many times in different rooms. Our generation is not as big a part of our neighborhoods as we once were, and as a result, I believe we are not a big part of our immediate community. There are many reasons why families are spending less and less time together in their neighborhoods, whether it be social, diversity, or economic reasons, or the advent of competing technology, a major reason is the demise of the independent theater. Irving Berlin was right: There’s no business like show business. San Francisco has always been seen as a theater town with theaters in every neighborhood ranging from Fisherman’s Wharf to the Sunset district. No matter what decade, times change, tastes change, people change, and theater operators face a constant challenge to keep up (Tillmany, Theaters of San Francisco). Independent theaters have always served as a large part of San Francisco’s art and cultural history, but since the opening of mainstream multiplex theaters, Netflix and On Demand, the times of a simple family outing to the their local neighborhood theater are slowly disappearing. With the closure of each of these independent theaters, an empty building full of history, culture, and memories of the good old times are left to sit vacant. Usually noted for their squeaky, stained chairs, day old popcorn, and watery coffee, rather than today’s stadium seating, cup holders, and surround sound, independent theaters are his-

torical landmarks. Independent theaters currently play movies ranging from second hand Hollywood films to international films. Jack Tillmany, the author of Theaters of San Francisco, states that “the international cinema scene really began in 1935 when the Avalon on Fillmore Street, a small neighborhood house that had been around since 1914, reinvented itself as the Clay International with a new programming format that proved immediately popular and continues today” (Tillmany). In relation to theaters, the word “international” evolved into “art” and later “repertory” but they are still a variation of the same theme. Most people use the term “international cinema” to describe films from foreign countries. Usually these films are not in English but are provided with subtitles. Not all films played at second and third hand theaters are foreign or indie films. The term second hand describes theaters that show movies from Hollywood weeks after they come out. Because of the price of buying film right away from Hollywood is very expensive, independent theaters wait to buy the films weeks after they air. Most of San Francisco's neighborhood theaters were built by a small group of enterprising, local theatre operators who each developed their own small circuits of neighborhood theaters. One of the most prominent San Francisco theater operators was Samuel H. Levin whose theaters included the Metro, Balboa and Harding Theatres. Another pioneer of independent theaters was Abraham Nasser, whose holdings included the Alhambra, Castro, and Royal Theatres. Greenfield owned both 167


the popular New Fillmore and New Mission Theatres. Other operators owned theatres throughout the City, but most of the City's neighborhood theaters were owned by one of a half dozen operators (“San Francisco Neighborhood Theater Foundation”). In the 1900’s, almost every neighborhood had at least one theater (Tillmany, Theaters of San Francisco). Most of San Francisco’s neighborhood theaters opened between 1910 and 1930. San Francisco neighborhood theaters were primarily second and third run houses (San Francisco Neighborhood Theater Foundation). Jack Tillmany says, “in an era when going downtown to a movie was time-consuming and more expensive, a large percent of population was quite content to catch films within walking distance of where they lived, even if they had to wait a few weeks” (Tillmany, Theaters of San Francisco). The local theater was often the anchor of a neighborhood, all the stores and merchant buildings such as restaurants surrounded them. Kids in the neighborhood attended school together, lived a few blocks from each other, and all went to movies on a Sunday afternoon for a treat. Just like seeing neighbors at church, people saw their neighbors at the theater (Tillmany, Theaters of San Francisco). The neighborhood was truly an extended family. San Francisco independent theaters have always struggled to make ends meet regardless of the decade. Single screen thea-

ters in general are hard to keep in the black (Arthouses to City Cinemas). Starting in the 1950’s, neighborhood theaters were competing with newly popular television and big Hollywood produced theaters (“San Francisco Neighborhood Theater Foundation”). With the birth of the multiplex craze, many independent theaters were closed. (“The Disappearing Movie House”). Multiplex theaters, with their flashy signs and stadium style seating, do anything to draw people in, such as showing multiple movies of all genres. These theaters use every possible perk to attract the people of today in the largest possible numbers. Multiplex theaters are the “new wave of movie going in the 21st century” (“San Francisco Neighborhood Theater Foundation”). The income brought in by multiplexes today and the prices to attract people would never be able to be covered by small, one screen theaters. Jack Tillmany says that, “moviegoers want the widest possible variety of films to choose from, and a lot of the films are to be exhibited at all, multiplexes are the only answer” (Tillmany, Theaters of San Francisco). In addition to the outside competition of multiplex theaters, the independent theaters also face an obstacle in the way of inhome entertainment such as Netflix. Not only are these “quick and easy” entertainment options taking income away from independent theaters, families are staying home to watch movies, which directly affect the local neighborhood and its economy. Netflix and On Demand allow people to download movies right away on their computers and televisions. No more waiting 168


around for movies to air or paying $12 to see a movie. The consumer price for the service that supplies all these screens is $7.99 a month for streaming, only and $9.99 a month if you want to order DVDs. At the end of 2010, Netflix reached 20 million subscribers, up from 12.3 million in 2009 (Movies Should Think Like Netflix). The Netflix subscriber rate is skyrocketing, while people attending movie theaters are drastically decreasing. In 2010, Netflix subscriber base increased by 65%, theater attendance declined by 5.4% (Movies Should Think Like Netflix). Movie theater attendance should be going up; going to a movie is an essential part of watching a film. It is hard to argue the financial attractiveness of staying at home is tempting, take my family for example; a family of five going to the movies on a Saturday night is close $100 without dinner. With dinner, depending on where we go, is another $50. This $150 night compared to a five dollar movie at home sounds pretty tempting. Yet some more factors that contribute to the loss of consumers for independent theaters are On Demand and DirecTV. The theater industry has been in a panic since Warner Bros., Fox, and Universal partnered up with DirecTV to offer movies eight weeks after they hit theaters (Theater Owners Fight Back). This announcement has theater owners upset. According to Eric Wold of Merriman Capital, throughout this whole situation, theater owners have the upper hand, “they have ultimate control not just over which films are advertised in their theater but which films are shown and on how many screens” (Theater Owners

Fight Back). If box office revenue starts to fall even more because films aren’t being shown on as many screens, big name studios are in big trouble. Currently, about half of every dollar spent at the movies goes to the studios (Theater Owners Fight Back Against Early Video on Demand). Hollywood itself plays a huge role in the closure of small independent theaters. Hollywood sells theaters the films of newly made box office movies. One intriguing scenario, which is important to me relates to my local theater, the Balboa Theater. Due to the new advancements in technology, the Balboa needs to invest in a $200,000 in a digital conversion after learning from the National Association of Theater Owners that film prints of movie might not be available in a couple of years (Peter Hartlaub). John Fithian, President, National Association of Theater Owners says, “film prints could be unavailable as early as ...2013. Simply put, if you don’t make the decision to get on the digital train soon, you will be making the decision to get out of the business” (Country Theater). Independent theaters have been showing films, now with Hollywood increasing the price of film theaters will have to purchase Digital Cinema formats. If Hollywood continues to keep up these prices, independent theaters will continue to struggle to keep their doors open. When asked about the threats of closure from The Balboa due to new technologies, moviegoers reply, “if The Balboa closes down, might as well bulldozer the entire outer Richmond” and also “I will be very sad if the Balboa closes, it has been a part of my 169


life for over 40 years and still is” (Balboa Theater’s Gery Meyer Moving On). The times of a simple family outing on a weekend night to dinner and a movie at their local theater are being to disappear. Due to big named brands like Netflix, On Demand, and DirecTV and also flashy multiplex theaters like the Metreon, independent theaters are slowly disappearing. With theaters gone, we not only loose the beautiful architecture but also the sense of community and family they bring to San Francisco. San Francisco, being a widely populated city is full of the arts. Every corner you turn there is some sort of street performer or music amongst us. If we lose our local theaters, we lose a huge chunk out of San Francisco’s pulse. Not only that, we lose huge portions of our neighborhood as a whole and we lose that family feel that theaters bring to us. Lastly we lose a big piece of our heart; theaters are and always remain in our heart and our souls. Now picture this, the year is 2011, the age of the X-Box and iPhones, where parents talk on their cell phones and the children play on their Game Boys or text a million words a minute. On this particular Saturday night, a father in his jeans and football jersey holds hands with his 8 year old twin sons, who are wearing matching San Francisco Giants hats, basket ball shorts, and Air Jordans. A few feet ahead of them finds mom, dressed in jeans and sweatshirt. Mom is holding her daughter’s hand while they laugh and talk about the most recent teen heart-

break, Ryan Gosling. As the blissful family walk down the street, they pass friends and neighbors as they share quick hellos, familiar handshakes, and warm embraces. Up ahead there is a glow, a wonderful glow that that lights up the entire block. With excited anticipation, the children quicken their steps. As the family happily approaches the light, they grin with appreciation at the marquee that reads, no make that shouts, “Harry Potter and the Deathly Hollows”. No cell phones, no texting, no video games, just plain, old fashion family fun.

Sources cited Alvin, Rebecca M. "A night at the movies: from art house to 'microcinema'." Cineaste Summer 2007: 4+. General OneFile. Web. 25 Sep. 2011. <http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?&id=GALE%7CA165165676& v=2.1&u=san58140&it=r&p=GPS&sw=w> “AMC Theatres Offers Enhanced Theatre Experience in California." Entertainment Close-up 16 Aug. 2010. General OneFile. Web. 25 Sep. 2011. <http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?&id=GALE%7CA234527891& v=2.1&u=san58140&it=r&p=GPS&sw=w> “Balboa Theater” Outsidelands 7 November 2007 Web. 9 September 2011 <http://www.outsidelands.org/balboa.php>

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Broeske, Pat H. "Where have all the Art Houses Gone?" Writer's Digest 1997: 45-. ProQuest Research Library.Web. 23 Sep. 2011 <http://search.proquest.com/docview/209425379?accountid=38 30 "Don't Let Our Screens Go Dark." The County Theater. Web. 28 Oct. 2011. <http://www.countytheater.org/dCinema.php>. Dorr, Chris. "Future of Film | Movie Theaters Should Think Like Netflix." TribecaFilm.com. 07 Apr. 2011. Web. 28 Oct. 2011. <http://www.tribecafilm.com/tribecaonline/future-of-film/Movie-T heaters-Should-Think-Like-Netflix.html>. Hartlaub, Peter. "Gary Meyer Leaving Balboa Theatre SFGate." Featured Articles From The SFGate. 21 July 2011. Web. 28 Oct. 2011. <http://articles.sfgate.com/2011-07-21/bay-area/29797392_1_b alboa-theatre-single-screen-theater-theatre-owners>.

The Richmond District Blog of San Francisco. Web. 28 Oct. 2011. <http://richmondsfblog.com>. Tillmany, Jack Theaters of San Francisco Arcadia Chicago, Illinois 2005 Print San Francisco Neighborhood Theater Foundation Index Page. Web. 28 Oct. 2011. <http://www.sfntf.org/>. Winston, Rick. "The Dissappearing Movie House." Log in - ProQuest - ProQuest. 13 Mar. 2000. Web. 28 Oct. 2011. <http://search.proquest.com/docview/201121063/132B06DBCD 57F38C74D/1?accountid=3830>. Wise, Naomi. "'Let them eat popcorn': the decline and fall of the great American movie theater - and a front-row look at the Bay Area's best and worst." San Francisco Nov. 1982: 70+. General OneFile. Web. 25 Sep. 2011. <http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?&id=GALE%7CA2501730&v= 2.1&u=san58140&it=r&p=GPS&sw=w

Pomerantz, Dorothy. "Theater Owners Fight Back Against Early Video on Demand - Forbes."Information for the World's Business Leaders - Forbes.com. 4 Nov. 2011. Web. 28 Oct. 2011. <http://www.forbes.com/sites/dorothypomerantz/2011/04/11/the ater-owners-fight-back-against-early-video-on-demand/>.

171


Chessa Yee

The Importance of Music You hear it every day, in the car, while you workout, even when you’re in the elevator, but have you ever stopped to wonder why music is played so often? Other than being fun to listen to, music has a lot of benefits, especially when one learns how to play it. Music programs are being cut out of public school curriculums more and more, even though it is a very important part of education. People, especially children, should be encouraged to learn how to play music not just because it is fun to do, but also because music has been shown to improve memory, advance brain development, and help develop other useful skills. Many public schools are closing their arts programs, specifically music and theater, to promote Math and reading classes. Because of the No Child Left Behind Act that congress passed in 2001, schools have decided language arts and Math classes are more important because of their key role in standardized testing. Although the schools believe they are giving the students a more in depth education of things they will be using,

they don’t understand that arts are a crucial part of a curriculum and a child’s mind. Numerous public schools agree that they would rather their students be up to par on their reading and Math skills than their other subjects and that if the student is not being tested in those other subjects, then what is the point of teaching them. Music is a universal language, but it also has the effect of helping learn other languages as well. Because both music and language are processed through the same part of the brain, the process is the same. Studies done by Harvard University show that among music conservatory students, the occurrence of absolute pitch is much higher for speakers of tone languages and that they have a better grasp of accents. Pitch is used in language and music, and is a key component in both. Because accents are only noticed while speaking, it has the same role as when one sings. Musicians tend to be able to hear a note and immediately imitate the sound with their voice. This is called pitch. It is a key part of learning any language because having the ability to imitate sounds, such as an accent, will help one become fluent in whatever language, especially tonal languages such as Cantonese, Mandarin, and Japanese. In Daniel Levitin’s book This Is Your Brain On Music, Levitin explains how music and language are so similar. When children are learning how to form sentences, they are not just give a list of sentences to memorize and speak from the only sentences 172


they know, they memorize words and then piece them together to create their own sentences. Music is very much the same thing. Musicians are taught chords and then are left for their creativity to make their own chord progressions. Each chord has a meaning the same way each word has a meaning, and putting words together to make a sentence is the same way as putting chords together to create a song. Although many do not realize it, when writing a sentence, they are using their creativity to come up with the sentence. Musicians rely on their ears to tell them if a progression works or not and although there is a right and wrong to how a sentence is, we mainly rely on how it sounds when it is said out loud to tell us whether it is correct or not. Music can help one learn a language because language uses many of the same steps it takes to learn music. In both cases, listening and practicing are main factors in learning and mastering. Although music is very useful for those learning foreign languages, it also has the benefit of helping children with dyslexia and other language-related disorders. Victoria Jagaard of National Geographic explains that children with dyslexia and other language disorders “have a harder time hearing sounds amid the din —a serious problem, for example, for students straining to hear the teacher in a noisy classroom”. Teaching students music helps them understand the importance of relying on their ears to hear for certain parts of a song, such as the guitar part, in an ensemble of at least three or four other instruments. Once

a student learns how to distinguish a single instrument out of a song that has multiple instruments, it makes it easier to focus on just the teacher, in a room full of side conversations. Laurel Trainor, director of the Institute for Music and Mind at McMaster University found that those who know how to play an instrument have larger responses in sound recognition tests and that musical training modifies the auditory cortex, which helps the process of learning. Simon Hooper’s interview proves that “added that musical training, whatever the age, should be universally encourages, since it can play a key role in education, clinical therapies, and even keeping the brain sharp as people age” (“Music a 'megavitamin' for the brain”). Music is helpful for those at any age, but if it is taught in schools, starting at a young age, it can have more of an impact on the child because of the early exposure. Music has the capability of expanding one’s brain capacity because musicians develop a larger corpus callosum, which is the part of the brain that connects both the left and right side, making it easier to make connections between both sides of the brain. For example, when one is trying to memorize poem, writing out while reading the entire poem out loud multiple times helps remember it. Playing an instrument, one uses one’s hands to make shapes and those shapes create sounds, the same way one says the words as they are writing them so that it is easier to remember. Because listening or saying a word uses one side of the brain and actually making the shape or writ173


ing uses another, musicians tend to make the associations quicker, therefore musicians can learn and memorize faster than those who do not know how to play an instrument. Learning how to play an instrument, as a child can be very helpful especially as the child begins to age. Music lessons have shown to have a longer lasting cognitive success because of the way it teaches one to think in many different ways (“Music Improves Brain Function”). For example, when one begins to learn an instrument it is both mental and physical. One has to remember the forms and shapes their hand, fingers, and legs make to produce a certain sound. The thinking process that goes into figuring out how to make that sound is what is so difficult, and once it is mastered, sentences and songs are created. Children who have trouble controlling their energy and have trouble sitting still find that learning how to play an instrument as well as physical activity can help them calm down and focus. Instruments such as drums can help release more energy than others because the entire body is involved when playing. Many children that have ADHD resort to learning how to play an instrument because the learning style is a different form than what they might expect. It is also a way to get there mind off of school work for a short period so that they will be focused on the work in an hour or two after they practice. Music is a subject that can help children with ADHD because it is an educational diversion that can help get them focused so that the work then

becomes the next distraction, which they actually become focused on (Levitin). Music therapy stems from the many different ways music can help a person such as conveying a thought or feeling. The same way books can transmit information music can do the same. Starting with writing classes, music is another form of transmitting a thought. Whether it is through the notes that are being played or the lyrics that are being sung, music is a way of expressing one’s feeling. If students learn how to express their feelings through playing instruments and writing, they could be less focused on outside frustration and more focused on their schoolwork. Like writing an essay, writing lyrics to a song has many different steps. Transmitting a message through a song can in some ways be more difficult to write because of its brevity (“Music Leaves Its Mark on the Brain”). In the end, music is an easier and less formal way of getting one’s feelings out so that they can express how they are feeling. Not only is music a way of letting go of bad feelings, but it also enhances moods. Studies show that music gives off the same satisfaction as food and drugs do. When one listens to music, they go through what is called a musical rush. Music listeners who are listening to a good song begin to crave the preceding notes, and this is why music gets stuck in our heads (“Music Leaves Its Mark on the Brain”). Although there are many prescription drugs relating to antidepressants, many people al174


ready use music as antidepressants because of the musical rush it creates (Levitin). Simply listening to a song you enjoy, has the capability of changing your mood, even if it is a sad song, your body will still send positive signals because it likes listening to the song. Listening to music is a way to enhance moods, but playing music can teach a student to never give up. When one is learning how to play a song, it is inevitable that they will come across parts that are going to be difficult and frustrating. While I was helping teach a music class, there was a ten-year-old boy who could not figure out one of the chords, he kept on trying, but could not figure it out. He began to become very frustrated and eventually started to cry. A few minutes later, once he continued to try, he finally figured out how to play the chord; he became very proud that he finally got it, and seemed to feel very accomplished. His mood had become so much better, even from when the lesson first started, just because he overcame an obstacle in the song ("Making Music Boosts Brain's Language Skillsâ&#x20AC;?). Although many times it is not as easy to figure out in just a few minutes, overcoming an obstacle such as learning how to play a chord can be very rewarding and is a constant reminder to never give up. Children ages ten to thirteen tend to have the most energy, but are also very motivated to learn, this is why it is the prime age to learn music. Because of their willingness to learn music, chil-

dren tend to remember more when it comes to what they learn during their music lessons. Although the capacity for their learning varies depending on the instrument, majority of children have had improved grade point averages after taking music lessons. Even though learning an instrument alone is a challenge, music can be very useful when played with others. Playing in bands gives one the opportunity to learn how to incorporate what they know, as far as music goes, into what others know. Working in a band like format is a multitasking-learning environment because not only does it teach one to pay attention to what they are doing, but it also teaches them to make sure they are on target with what the rest of the band is playing. Learning how to multitask and work with others are skills that may be tough to learn, but in a fun environment can begin to seem effortless. Learning an instrument is not easy and very time consuming. To fully know how to play an instrument, the estimated time it takes is 10,000 hours of practice (Levitin). Like many other subjects in school, music takes a lot of practice and understanding to fully master the subject. Suppose that a student has a music class for 55 minutes a day and practices an extra hour at home on the weekends, the estimated amount of time it will take that student to master the instrument would be almost 4 years. Students spend over four years focusing on Math, English, and science and still have not fully mastered the subjects even after they have finished high school. There is no reason music pro175


grams should be cut out of curriculums considering they are not very time consuming and the benefits they provide are fantastic. Many children find music and theater an outlet for getting rid of stress and frustration they may be dealing with both inside and outside of school. Public schools are forcing children, especially the lowest-performing students, to take more Math and reading classes because they believe it will make them focus more (“Schools Cut Back Subjects to Push Reading and Math”). Public schools are not realizing that by taking away music programs, they could actually be making the situation worse for many students. Lower-performing students have shown better results when they are involved in music programs, rather than children who do not take any arts at all. Although many public schools are focusing more on Reading and Math so that students are more focused, music being taken out of schools is making learning more difficult. Children are no longer receiving the benefits music has on the brain, therefore setting students back as far as memorization and writing goes. Music should not be an option in elementary and middle schools−it should be a necessity. Many schools believe music is not necessity for the brain to reach its full potential. Although it is not on standardized tests and is not as popular of a subject as Math and English are, music is still a key role in a curriculum. The heads of public

schools believe that English and Math are more important subjects due to their magnitude on standardized tests. Public schools also believe that if a student cannot be tested on the subject then it is not a significant class. This is not true because music is educational and also helps students retain information from their Math and Reading courses. The benefits music has on one’s brain are countless and although students should be up to par on their English and Math classes, music should not be cut out of public school curriculums all together. Even though Math and English are key subjects that are the main focuses on standardized tests, music can also help one enhance those skills even further. Music has the capability to expand one’s brain and open it up to different learning strategies, so that students are open to learning in different ways, which can have an even more positive effect on their English and classes. Music is more than just entertainment; it’s a necessity in one’s daily life. I would like to acknowledge the following people: Craig Butz, for editing my first draft. Gibson Buttfield, Amy Andreini, and Weston Kramer for peer editing.

Works Cited Baker, Mitzi. "Music Moves Brain to Pay Attention, Stanford Study Finds."Http://med.stanford.edu. 1 Aug. 2007. Web. 19 Sept. 2011. 176


Cnn, Simon Hooper. "Music a 'mega-vitamin' for the Brain CNN." Featured Articles from CNN. 2 June 2009. Web. 22 Sep. 2011. Deutsch, Diana. "Speaking in Tones: Music and Language Partner in the Brain: Scientific American." Science News, Articles and Information | Scientific American. 29 July 2010. Web. 18 Sep. 2011.  Dillon, Sam. "Schools Cut Back Subjects to Push Reading and Math - New York Times." The New York Times - Breaking News, World News & Multimedia. 26 Mar. 2006. Web. 10 Oct. 2011. Hotz, Robert Lee. "Music Leaves Its Mark on the Brain - Los Angeles Times." Featured Articles From The Los Angeles Times. 13 Dec. 2002. Web. 15 Oct. 2011. Jaggard, Victoria. "Making Music Boosts Brain's Language Skills." Daily Nature and Science News and Headlines | National Geographic News. 20 Feb. 2010. Web. 22 Sept. 2011. Levitin, Daniel J. This Is Your Brain on Music: the Science of a Human Obsession. New York: Plume, 2007. Print.

"Music and the Brain." The Neurosciences Institute, La Jolla CA. Web. 20 Sept. 2011.  Schewe, Phillip F. "Music Improves Brain Function | LiveScience." Current News on Space, Animals, Technology, Health, Environment, Culture and History | LiveScience. 06 Nov. 2009. Web. 20 Sept. 2011. Shulman, Matthew. "Music as Medicine for the Brain - US News and World Report."Health News Articles - US News Health. 17 July 2008. Web. 20 Sept. 2011.  Strickland, Susan J. "Music and the Brain in Childhood Development." Childhood Education 78.2 (2002): 100,100-103. ProQuest Research Library. Web. 16 Sep. 2011. Thompson, Clive. "Music of the Hemispheres - New York Times." The New York Times - Breaking News, World News & Multimedia. 31 Dec. 2006. Web. 22 Sept. 2011. Weinberger, Norman M. "Music and the Brain: Scientific American." Science News, Articles and Information | Scientific American. 25 Oct. 2004. Web. 20 Sept. 2011. 

Mannes, Elena. "'The Power Of Music' To Affect The Brain : NPR." NPR : National Public Radio : News & Analysis, World, US, Music & Arts : NPR. 1 June 2011. Web. 22 Sept. 2011. Murchison, Lane. Personal Interview. 23 Sept. 2011 177


Winter 2012

2

Research in the Community The Bay School of San Francisco


Asha Abdallah

Depression, Mostly in Teenage Girls There are always times when someone feels down on them self. Teens especially have a hard time dealing with the natural stresses of life. Teenage girls struggle with feelings like they are not good enough, trying to get attention from someone they like or care about, or even wanting to cry because they are just sad. These feelings overwhelm many teens, not only girls, but the side effects are more intense when it comes to girl’s hormones and actions. Because of the rise in teen girls becoming depressed, the issue that is that there is not yet a full understanding on the causes of depression in young girls, and how one can help prevent or stop the depression from formulating any further or even from formulating at all. Nowadays, there are an estimated quarter of 80,000 children and young adults who have depression (Late-night Teens). Some of the teens who are depressed never seem to show signs of them feeling so down. Sadly, most of these teens are teenage girls. These young women struggle the most with depression in this day and age. Suicidal thoughts also occur more

frequently in girls, older teens, and teens who think their parents have a very low perception on them (Late-night Teens). Teen girls seem to have a range of issues with perceiving themselves as “not good enough”, wanting to look like a supermodel, have a “perfect body”, and to be beautiful. Most of these goals are unrealistic and unachievable, for these girls are beginning to dig into a hole that most cannot get themselves out of. Teen girls struggle with accepting who they are as people and as women. These struggles range from being insecure with their weight, beauty, and clothing. For the most part these insecurities start by the hand of other teen girls. The idea of wanting to be, “in style” or not “looking stupid” in something that can really take a toll on the way a girls think of herself. Teen girls seem tear each other down, and for reason that should make the girls who are the ones putting down others feel ashamed. These insults and putdowns come from a person who usually has their own insecurities and self doubts, the girl who bullies others is usually self conscious and just thinks the other girl is prettier or better than her so she feels a need to make her feel not as radiant as she might be. Now, these insults create a pattern in which a girl starts to feel vulnerable and starts to shut down, and then begins to feel lonely and to think that no one likes her. Soon she becomes depressed and that depression and self doubt can lead to something as harmful as suicidal thoughts, or even suicide (Akey). Feeling sad is normal, but 179


when teens start to feel threatened by every little stress and hardship that is placed upon them the child has a problem. Depression is a hard and cruel thing, and girls struggle with it not only by their peers but also by the aid of TV and magazines.

TV. Teen girls now think that they have to present themselves a certain way to get the attention of another boy, or even a girl. This can create a teenage girl to feel like she has to look like “Barbie” to be attractive to someone.

Teen girls have shown over the years much lower self esteem then boys do, mostly having to do with their body image. The idea of “thinner is better” has increased largely over the last decade. This idea has been influenced by commercials, magazines and celebrities. These idols that show up on the stage and pages of magazines create a higher risk for eating disorders and depression among young teen girls. The issue is that most of these women have been altered so heavily to look that way. In reality there is no such thing as this perfection. Almost all the women in magazines and TV have been caked in make-up and photoshoped so that there doesn’t appear to be any imperfections visibly on them at all. In France, Norway, and Britain they are making it mandatory to label the digitally altered photos that appear in magazines (Schulten). If this change happens there will be a lower risk of people thinking skin and bones are beauty. Photoshop changes almost every little thing on a woman so that they can look like a porcelain doll. A professor of computer science and digital forensics said, “Fix one thing, and then another and pretty soon you end up with Barbie” (Schulten). Having new emotions and feelings coming in by the time a girl reaches high school they are even more overwhelmed with these “beautiful”, “Barbie” looking women that come up on the

The stereotype of a “man and wife” creates problems in finding out who a girl wants to create a life with. Whether a girl likes a boy or a girl can raise a lot of questions for someone. In a personal interview with a young girl named Becky, I found that in her stories she found it very hard to come to conclusion that she did like a girl. She started experimenting at an early age with a good friend of hers and realized she started to notice feelings emerging. Her friend soon found out and shut her out, the kissing was just for fun. Girls having even more of an emotional connection with their other friends, girls seem to have less of an objection to experimenting with another girl. With this, girls are left confused and puzzled as to who they actually like or want to have a relationship with. Now a day the “normal” thing to do is date a boy or a man because then you get married and have children. This idea can leave a girl not knowing whether her feelings for another girl are correct because it is not “normal” and people will criticize her for it. No one wants to be an outsider or not accepted among their peers. The labels of being bisexual, lesbian or gay can create a lot of problems for a teenager, and eventually become too much for them to handle sending them into a state of depression and confusion. Truth be told, other girls can cause a lot of stress for each other. When gossip, gen180


der slurs, teasing, rejection and insults are being used; even if they are not necessarily used to hurt someone, it can really take a toll on the girl who it is being directed to (Gordon). Most of the time teen girls do create their problems to be even more dramatic than they should be, but most take the emotional bullets very personally. Studies show that the stress is evolved with the amount of sleep the child was getting. All teens need at least nine hours of sleep a night, and the effect of having less then that can greatly affect their judgment, concentration, and impulse control (Latenight Teens). Teens who have less than five hours of sleep a night have a 71%, and 48% higher risk of suicidal thoughts, and depression then those who have at least eight hours a night (Late-night Teens).Teens have a habit now a day to think that going to bed at twelve is okay and will give them enough sleep to function throughout the day, but that makes them 24% more likely to become depressed and moody then those who go to bed before that (Late-night Teens). Parents can be a major culprit in this as well. When parents set bedtimes to eleven or twelve they are just setting their child up for a higher risk of depression. Most parents do set their teens bedtime to around ten, but about one-fourth of parents set their teens bed time to twelve (Late-night Teens). Not having enough sleep can overall, “…affect emotional brain responses and lead to moodiness that hindered the ability to cope with daily stresses” (Late-night Teens). Lack of sleep can play a big role in a teen’s depression

and putting more effort into getting more sleep is a way to help a teen thrive in a stressful environment, like school, social issues, and insecurities that occur for most every teen. When girls start feeling insecure and depressed, methods they use to try and cope with that pain ranges from harming themselves with cutting, drinking, doing drugs, or even suicide. Usually the alcohol and drug use start with experimentation, something that is now very common in the teen years, but it is very harmful. Some hate the feeling the first time, some love it. If someone is depressed and sad when they are not under the influence, when they are under the influence they can feel like a new person and all their troubles go away and they are “happy”. This is all the misjudgment of drugs and alcohol, they tease the brain and make someone who is sad think that they are happier in the state of mind and soon they start to drink and use drugs and alcohol as a way to get away from the pain and cope with the issues they have outside of the world that drugs put them in. When I interviewed a teenage girl named Marcy who had recently had a friend take her own life, she explained to me how her friend had gotten herself into drugs and alcohol because she thought she was better when under the influence, she was “happier”. Most of the time when one starts using they start to think they can handle however much they decide to put into their system, but they are wrong. Soon these teens get to a point where they get into trouble that they cannot get themselves out of. Here is where the problem lies. Most of the time 181


getting in trouble just hurts the teen more and then there are boundaries put on him/her from their parents or guardians where they cannot go out anymore or just very little doses of going out. I know this because being a teenager you find yourself making mistakes and paying for them more often than you think. The best thing to do in those situations is tough it out and wait for when it starts to get better. This can stress the kid out because, now, where has their social life gone? A social life does not have to consist of drugs and alcohol. There are little ways to prevent depression like adding more hours of sleep to a teen’s night, or good exercise can be a big one, as well as eating a healthy meal every day, but even this can sometimes not be enough. If a teenage girl or boy starts noticing signs like, “trouble sleeping, low energy or fatigue, significant weight change, [and] difficulty concentrating” (Depression Symptoms), one should be aware that they are not well. If their symptoms start to worsen with cuts or physical issues, than the parents or someone of higher authority, like principal or a grown adult, should be confronted and told about what is going on. Most of the time if someone is depressed they will neglect to tell you why they are feeling bad or acting the way they are, but even then they need a strong shoulder to be standing firmly there to support them. Without someone sticking by them there is sure a higher risk for their depression to worsen. When depression occurs, even if the person does not want to talk to someone it is always good to get a therapist who knows what

they are doing. The therapist can usually somehow get a thought process through the child’s head that everything is going to be okay. Sometimes the best therapy can be recognizing that you are a beautiful person and having confidence. One great way to find this within you is to look in a mirror when feeling down and smile at yourself. Just keeps smiling and their will soon be a bubbly feeling inside of you, giving you a sense of hope, telling you that it will get better. Another way to keep a smile on is to have music to guide you. The sound of a tune can sometimes be the best way to cope with pain. Music can take one away from the real world and help you concentrate on something new and beautiful. Even sometimes music can bring out the sadness in you, but even then let it out! Crying is probably the most healthy thing one can do when upset. Holding it all back will just later come and bit you with a whole whirl of emotions and confusion. But when those moments come a teen should give a little thought as to why the feelings they harbored were held in for so long, and take a notebook and start writing down how they feel(Emotions and Infertility). Keep going until there is nothing to more to say and that way the weight will be lifted off a little. Lastly, teaching young adults and teens about mindfulness, meditation, yoga, humor, and laughing at them self once in a while will help them add a sense of enjoyment to their lives(Emotions and Infertility). Teaching women about relationship building and spiritual mind-body tools that will help them let 182


loose and not stress up too much is a great way to relieve the pain a little as well (Emotions and Infertility).

"Emotions and Infertility." ProQuest. Woodland Hills American Media, Inc., Dec. 2002. Web. 26 Jan. 2012.

Overall teenage depression can be canceled out if there were less ideas of a perfect body being skin and bones, or if thinking a girl has to like another boy, having to wear certain clothes etc. There is a lot the community around teenage girls can do just by giving a helping hand when someone looks down or making sure that that person knows that they are loved and they can get through the pain, because it will end. There is nothing so horrible that is worth ending a life over, all teens have the chance to live a glorious adventure.

Gordon, Anitra. "Teenage Emotional Harassment." ProQuest. New York Media Source, Jan. 2003. Web. 26 Jan. 2012. Schulten, Katherine. " Do Photoshopped Images Make You Feel Bad About Your Own Looks?.”The Learning Network The Learning Network Blog - NYTimes.com. 30 Nov. 2011. Web. 15 Dec. 2011.

Works Cited Aamodt, Sandra Ph. D. "It's a Girl! Gender Differences." Welcome to Your Child's Brain. By Sam Ph.D. Wang. NPR : National Public Radio : News & Analysis, World, US, Music & Arts : NPR. Web. 15 Dec. 2011. Akey, Kathy. "Teen Depression: You Are Not Alone." ProQuest. New York Media Source, July 2000. Web. 27 Jan. 2012. "BBC News - Late-night Teens 'face Greater Depression Risk'"  BBC News - Home. Web. 15 Dec. 2011. “Depression Symptoms.” PRISTIQ (desvenlafaxine). 2011. Web. 27 Jan. 2012. 183


Shani Abdallah

What Makes It So Hard? How do family and friends affect ones decisions to express their sexual identity and orientation? Discovering one’s sexual identity or orientation is often complicated by an overwhelming fear of adverse reactions—specifically the responses of family members and friends. Such fear can keep gays, lesbians, and transgender individuals from “coming out”. Therefore, it is important that different communities such as schools, work places, religious groups, families and friends, remain supportive of GLBT adolescents as they go through the process of finding themselves. Until the 1970’s, being gay or lesbian was considered to be an illness by society. Michael LaSala said that bad parenting was the cause of this homosexual “problem.” This caused bad reactions from parents when they would find out that their child was homosexual (LaSala). Before homosexuality was classified as an illness it was socially incorrect—it was taboo. Thus, by deeming homosexuality an illness the government was in fact taking

a step forward in that homosexuality became less taboo because it stemmed from an illness rather than a personal choice. Even though these extreme opinions have deduced substantially over time, gays, lesbians, bisexuals, and transgender “adolescents [still] must cope with developing a sexual minority identity in the midst of negative comments, jokes, and often the threat of violence because of their sexual orientation and/or transgender identity” (Morrow). Not being able to find a positive role model or growing up in a negative or disapproving family, often causes GLBT adolescents to deny themselves the right to express and discover their genuine identities. The first hint at awareness of differing sexual attraction occurs during ones childhood or early adolescence, usually between the ages of 12 to 21 (Morrow). People will commonly begin to have an awareness of their sexual orientation at the age of 10. By age 14 a person will often be able to identify themselves with a label. The average age for one to come out to friends is around the age of 16 and with family it is 17 (Morrow). During ones sexual development, many aspects are addressed, like ones “family system and school environment” (Morrow). This is then followed by a period of exploration in which youths find out information about gay, lesbian, and bisexual lifestyles. Most will engage in same-sex contact. Ones identity, as Caitlin Ryan explains,

184


… Is a complex integration of cognitive, emotional, and social factors that make up a person's sense of self. These factors include gender (personal sense of being male or female), gender roles (social and cultural expectations of masculinity and femininity), personality (individual traits and disposition), and sexual orientation (sexual attractions and behaviors) (Ryan).

Adolescence is the time when one is transforming from being a child to being an adult, the time when a person figures out who they are and what they want to be in life (Morrow). By going through this process ones identity can be established, meaning that individuals may have adopted, what Hilary Rose calls a “sexual-minority label, disclosing this sexual identity to others, becoming involved in a same-sex romantic relationship, and celebrating one's sexual identity within a larger social context” (Rose). The ability to be fully comfortable with oneself is a struggle and in most cases comes much later in life. Being able to talk with friends and family about ones sexual identity is a very important and healthy part of one’s development. Ideally, coming out about ones sexual identity to family members will build upon ones relationships and increase levels of trust. In some cases though, when ones parents find out, their reactions are the opposite of what they hoped for: parents are sometimes shocked, disappointed, mad, upset, or embarrassed. Having a parent disapprove of the sexual orientation of their child can prevent the person from having a long term rela-

tionship in the future, because having one makes it difficult to hide their sexual orientation from their family. People will sometimes even distance themselves from their family in order to hide their relationships and orientation (LaSala). Parents are usually the last to find out about their child’s sexual identity (Morrow), and only about 60-70% of gay men and woman decide to come out to their parents (LaSala). Sexual minority friends (Doty), female friends, and sometimes mothers, are usually the first reached out to for help to understand ones sexual identity and any confusion. Friends tend to be better for support over family members when trying to figure out ones sexual identity. In Cary Friedman’s opinion those who are of sexual minorities are most helpful because they help one to unearth more knowledge and get to know others who face the same thing as themselves (Friedman). Issues that are usually discussed are, “dating and romantic relationships, sexual behavior, sexual health, identity negotiation, and discrimination and violence” (Friedman). While friends tend to be the most helpful, ones environment can cause a lot of harm, like ones school environment. School can be one of the most dangerous places for GLBT youth (Morrow). In school many anti–GLBT expressions are casually tossed around, with words like fag, dyke, queer, lezzie, and homo. These terms are usually a reaction to the influence of one’s peers, family, or the media. Expressions like these are usually used to insult other peers or teachers (Morrow). Stereotypes 185


cause many GLBT’s to stay closeted at school in fear of social humiliation, lose of friendships, and being assaulted by other students (Morrow). Some react to the stress from the school environment by “socially isolating themselves, becoming reluctant to participate in school-related activities, and by being absent and dropping out” or some will overachieve “academically or athletically, or adopt the defenses mechanism of reaction formation, which consists of taking on an exaggerated heterosexual image” (Morrow). Being able to find a role model in school is very rare. In fact in some cases teachers will be fired for expressing their own sexual orientation (Morrow). Keeping ones sexual identity bottled up causes many problems with GLBT youths. Sexual stress can cause many issues; it can, “take a variety of forms, ranging from overt rejection or victimization to internalized shame or vigilance regarding a hidden sexual identity” (Doty). GLBT usually feel like they are alone and, “don’t see themselves reflected in their families, among their neighbors, or within their faith communities” (Morrow). Because of this, GLBT youths have shown a higher rate of mental health problems such as, “depression, anxiety, suicide, and substance use” (Doty). Almost 30 to 40% of GLBT youth have tried to commit suicide, and about 50% are ridiculed by their peers (Morrow). Being able to “come out” means that a person is able to acknowledge their sexual identity, which is healthy for gays and lesbians self esteem.

A healthy GLBT individual is often someone who grows up in a supportive life still with friends and family who are accepting and show that no matter what happens they will always be there and love them. For one of my interviews I spoke with Elizabeth Calhoun a 16 year old teenage girl. Elizabeth is lesbian and is a proud representative of her sexuality. If it wasn’t for her parents always supporting her in her self-identification process, she probably wouldn’t be the confident young woman that she is today. When someone is an unhealthy GLBT, they have most likely grown up with unsupportive parents and or an environment that is not accepting. This can cause someone to avoid long term relationship in the future. Along with having unsupportive parents, having a difficult or unwelcoming environment to grow up in, can make it difficult to express ones sexual identity or orientation, causing insecurities and mental health problems in the future. A difficult environment for youths can be one’s school environment where they can be exposed to many different anti-GLBT expressions. These expressions can cause an unhealthy understanding of what it means to be a GLBT person. Some gay and lesbian adolescents must try to understand their identity without any feedback or support. GLBT’s have to, “learn to identify, explore, and ultimately integrate a positive adult identity despite persistent negative stereotypes of lesbian and gay people” (Ryan). One has to learn how to accept oneself, “and to find intimacy and meaning through relationships, work, and con186


nections with the broader community” (Ryan). They have to not only do this, but they have to learn how to protect themselves from “ridicule verbal and physical abuse, and exposure” (Ryan). Until one is able to build good relationships with family and friends, one has to face this struggle on their own. Gays and lesbians all experience a social and emotional isolation, this being, “a unique stressor that increases vulnerability and risk for a range of heal and mental heal problems” (Ryan). For GLBT’s the best way of building a positive identity is by coming to terms with their sexual minority (Morrow). Those who have acquired a positive identity as a GLBT youth have been able to talk about the challenges they face with being socially stigmatized because of their sexual or gender identity and have been able to “inwardly acknowledge and own who they are and they have navigated disclosing that identity to trust others” (Morrow).

cause one wouldn’t be associating themselves in a stressful environment. Families and friends should express to their children at a young age as well, that no matter who they are and what their sexual orientation is, they will always be loved and supported.

In order to begin to help GLBT youth in preventing a fear of expressing their identity, we as a community have to begin by showing people at a young age that being something other than what society tells them to be is okay. That being able to express and share ones sexuality to the world is healthy and they will be supported through their process of figuring themselves out. To do this, we should start with school environments targeting kids at a young age, teaching them that being unique and who they want to be is all right. This can help people grow up and be who they want to be, and help deduce the confusion that evolves in the later years of life, as well as the stress that comes with it be-

Works Cited

Family, Friends, and a person’s environment can be the most harmful, but also the most helpful when trying to figure out or understand their sexual identity. Therefore family, friends, and a person’s environments have to be able to show that there is no harm in being gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgender, and that through their processes of figuring themselves out they will always have support. I would like to acknowledge Rachel C-S for helping to edit and revise my paper.

Doty, Nathan Daniel, et al. "Sexuality Related Social Support among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youth." Journal of Youth and Adolescence 39.10 (2010): 1134-47. ProQuest Research Library. Web. 8 Jan. 2012. Friedman, Carly K., and Elizabeth M. Morgan. "Comparing Sexual-Minority and Heterosexual Young Womens Friends and Parents as Sources of Support for Sexual Issues." Journal of

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Youth and Adolescence 38.7 (2009): 920-36. ProQuest Research Library. Web. 5 Jan. 2012. LaSala, Michael C. "Lesbians, Gay Men, and their Parents: Family Therapy for the Coming-Out Crisis*." Family process 39.1 (2000): 67-81. ProQuest Research Library. Web. 5 Jan. 2012. Lyons, Andrew P. "Sexual Inequalities and Social Justice." Anthropologica 50.1 (2008): 170-2. ProQuest Research Library.Web. 5 Jan. 2012. Morrow, Deana F. "Social Work Practice with Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender Adolescents." Families in Society 85.1 (2004): 91-9. ProQuest Research Library. Web. 8 Jan. 2012. Rose, Hilary A., and Stephen A. Small. "Sexual Identity Confusion and Problem Behaviors in Adolescents: A Risk and Resilience Approach." Marriage & Family Review 40.2 (2006): 131-50. ProQuest Research Library. Web. 8 Jan. 2012. Ryan, Caitlin, and Donna Futterman. "Social and Developmental Challenges for Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youth." SIECUS Report 29.4 (2001): 5-18. ProQuest Research Library. Web. 8 Jan. 2012.

188


Abby Bernard

The Booms and Busts of Fashion “Fashion is a Magic Bullet” –Cintra Wilson As it is commonly known, history repeats itself. That is why when observing the way fashion correlates with the economy it is important to observe the past trends and fashions. According to the mysterious Hemline Index the economy causes fashion to change. However many people disagree that this Index exists. Observing these two sides it is obvious that fashion correlates with the economy. The Hemline Index uses different barometers like the heights of heels or hem lines and compares them to trends in the economy. Throughout the history of fashion in the United States we have been able to track these changes and there is contemplation as to whether it is possible to predict the economy using the Hemline Index and even whether or not it is an accurate measure. In the past two centuries, fashions have changed enormously decade to decade. Every decade there was a new style, trend or fashion. The United States has seen many changes outside

of fashion as well. The United States has endured world wars, the cold war, the Hippie movement and several cycles of economic depression and economic prosperity. In the 1920’s, people began to feel more carefree about life, fashion and money. Because there was a large excess of money in the 1920’s people’s outlook on life changed and transformed fashion trends from the strict Victorian styles into shorter skirts and relaxed figures which became popular because they “allowed freedom to dance” (Monet, “Women”).This looser society caused a fascination with the body of a woman that had never occurred in the past. This interest caused a change in the morals of fashion by causing “plunging necklines and low backs that put more of the female body on display than ever before” (Monet, “Women”). Low heels were preferable during the “Roaring Twenties” because a popular pastime was dancing and it is much easier to dance and have fun while wearing comfortable low shoes. However very quickly after the great depression began in the 30’s this style succumbed to pumps (Smith). As the golden era of the 1920’s came to an end the carefree life that many people had become used to, changed drastically in a way that no one expected. During the economic boom of the 1920’s many people had excess money that they expected would not disappear so very few people saved or even took precautions to make sure they would be safe if the economy ever crashed (this situation was 189


very similar to what happened in 2008) (“What Caused”). However this decade of “optimism and prosperity” ended on October 29th 1929 when the U.S. stock market plummeted (Rosenberg).Before the great depression an easy and popular way for people to become rich was by investing in the stock market. However after the stock market crashed it caused many people to go bankrupt (Rosenberg). This crash cause many people to tighten their belts and stop spending money. When the great depression occurred the changes that affected people socially also affected the fashion trends and their opinions on buying clothes in several ways. When people bought new clothes they wanted basics like “simple skirts as well as pared—down outfits that allowed for ease of mobility in the day time” (“Fashion Forward”). After the loose and comfortable fashions of the 1920’s fashions to revert to clothing that had longer skirts, and more emphasized waistlines, a fashion that was unpopular during in the 1920’s when the objective was to look as shapeless and “flat” as possible. Because of the great crash of the 1930’s people were neither happy nor carefree so styles became conservative, there was less color, and designs were more structured. Cuts also became cleaner and had simpler lines (Monet, “Ladies”). This is because fashion tends to follow the mood of the consumer, at the time because of the uncertain economy people most likely subconsciously felt it was not appropriate to dress in bright colors.

“Comparison of fashions”

Although World War Two was not an economic depression, it was a time of change in America. Women started to gain even more rights, and fashion became creative to combat the short190


ages of resources caused by the war. One example of this was shortages of stockings and women working in factories caused women to become fonder of pants (Laver 254). A shortage of fabric was a very large issue for both fashion designers and consumers because nobody wanted to seem unpatriotic by using excess amounts of resources. It also affected styles of clothes by causing them to become “leaner styles, with narrow hip lines and trim over all appearances” (Monet “Design”). Fashion designers also contributed to the war efforts by creating skirts that were not only lean and trim, but they also cut them to shorter lengths than ever before to help conserve fabrics to contribute to the war efforts (Fashion Forward). Because these skirts were normally worn with silk stockings that became rationed and difficult to locate women became very creative in causing illusions that made it appear as though they were wearing stockings. One way women would combat this epidemic was by painting their legs with makeup and then drawing a black lineup the back of their legs. Once Rayon (a cheap synthetic material) was created, it greatly replaced silk stockings because it was not only cheaper but it was also a material that was not used for the war. This meant that there were no shortages and women would be able to buy it easily (Monet “Design”). Once the war was over, people were no longer content with wearing the minimum fashion designs that were set in place to conserve fabric. Women now wanted the luxurious lives that they had before the war. A way of conveying this was in the

clothing that they bought and wore. This was when Dior produced its “New Look” which consisted of “rounded shoulders, full skirts, and narrow waists” (Fashion forward). The “New Look” was the complete opposite of wartime fashion because the skirts would often have large amounts of cloth and other materials to make it appear larger also the girdle which had been hard to obtain during the war due to lack of rubber reappeared as well. After suffering through a long war where many people went without basic supplies, people yearned for control over their image. This is why during the 1950’s it was very important to some women that they appeared “classy, elegant, and sophisticated” (Laver 256). This fashion eventually was discarded for a sleeker and more modern look that was represented throughout the 1960’s. Following the pattern of economic down turn and fashion we are going to observe what happened four years ago when the economic situation in the United Sates took a turn for the worse, and the economy had a drastic downturn. Since then we have seen many different fashion trends become popular and then go out of fashion. Even though the economy affected many people’s wallets and ability to spend money on new clothes there are still people who want to be stylish and they have created new creative trends in this dangerous economy. Some people have continued staying up to date with the current trends by buying cool items at thrift stores and then getting them tailored or altered to make them hip and new (Wilson). 191


When the economy first crashed in 2008 many clothing companies and fashion designers were worried, scared and unsure of how the general public would feel about consuming and spending money on new clothes. As Korey Watari explained the first winter after the crash was a scary time and clothes remained neutral, in color, style, and cut. This was because companies were unsure about what their customers would feel like buying let alone if they would even shop at all (Watari). Recently some very important factors that have affected consumer’s views have been the quality of garments or rather the lack of quality. Fewer people had excess money at this time that they can buy whatever clothes and new trends they want. So to combat this instead of buying lots of cheap clothes the consumers have started to put quality over quantity, by spending a little bit more on quality garments and not consuming as much cheaply made clothing (Wilson). However on the flip side, “Fast Fashion” stores like Forever 21, H&M, Zara and Top Shop are becoming more popular for people who are more interested in keeping up with short term trends that cost surprisingly low amounts (Sage). As Cintra Wilson, a journalist who has written for the New York Times has explained, “As the economy was crashing large companies created alliances with factories in china that would allow them to make thousands of the same clothes without breaking their bank by selecting both cheap textiles and cuts”.

Spring 2009 fashions were clearly affected by the economy because many trends on the Fall Runway were both constricting and sharp. They had a “harder—edge, more androgynous style that didn’t portray women as delicately” (Reddy). Ruth Sunderland an editor for The Guardian, believes that this fashion is popular because although women have rights and many have high paying jobs in the business world, this world is still run by men. To prevent themselves from appearing as though they can be taken advantage of women are subconsciously dressing this specific way to look hard, confrontational and serious. As Ruth has stated “While the cash was flowing, our footwear was not so tall it would make a man feel small. The subliminal suggestion of the new harder-edged heels is that women want to tower over impoverished males”. However on the other end of the spectrum, Mathew Moore a journalist for the Daily Telegraph has claimed that these trends are brought on by “male fashion execs who want to restrain female rivals in the jobs market” (Moore). Recently men’s fashion has had a renaissance because during the years leading up to the crash, men’s fashion in the work place had pretty much disappeared being replaced by slobby comfort clothing. Now that people are worried about being seen as assets to their company they want to look both professional and fashionable (Tucker). Korey Watari, a woman who has worked for large brands like Gap and BCBG, commented on how she has also noticed that compared to New York and other 192


fashion capitals many San Francisco men have started to wear specific styles like skinny jeans, North Face jackets and other “hipster” clothing that is very trendy right now (Watari). Not only has she noticed this but so has Bill Cunningham, in the February 5th issue of the New York Times Bill Cunningham focused his weekly article “On The Street” on how male outer wear in New York is starting to drift away from more casual jackets to classier and more “dressed up” tailored jackets (“On The Street”). This is simply one of the many ways that the economy has affected men’s fashion. When an economy enters a recession it is often followed by fashions replacing trends due to smaller price tags, social stigma’s and cues from the media. For example in 2009 it was considered social taboo to dress and appear as overly wealthy due to the fact that many people did not have as much money as they did in 2007 (Wilson). Another example of trends changing is as the years since the recession occurred increase, the faces of men’s and women’s watches have been growing to enormous sizes. This is because people have begun to use their watches as forms of communicating both status and wealth (Trebay). In the common public, artistic tote bags have become popular because they are not only unique, rare, and cute, but they are also cheaper than regular hand bags. These totes usually cost half as much as designer hand bags yet they portray “access, ethics, and culture not just money” as New York Times writer Miranda Purves has written (Purves). Mi-

randa Purves also has written that tote bags have increased in popularity because often they are given away at special events. With less money people want to be happy and they have begun to discover that “happiness grows more through experiences than purchases” (Purves). Although the trends have changed large amounts these past two centuries, it is important to recognize defining factors that have reappeared during certain economic situations like hemlines, heel heights and as some believe the sales of cosmetics (Smith). One defining trend that has been followed decade to decade is the heights of heels and how they change with the economy. Rick Smith, the co-founder of WRAL Tech Wire has written that “in an economic downturn heels go up and stay upas consumers turn to more flamboyant fashions as a means of fantasy and escape” (Smith). Many fashion historians have researched the rises and falls of heel heights but it is still a controversial matter because there is debate as to whether or not the correlations that have been found are purely coincidental or point to the existence. Several decades in history when we can pick out major correlations between heights were, during the Great Depression, in the 1970’s platform shoes became popular due to the Oil Crisis which caused the economy to have trouble, in 2001 after the dot-com bust, and most recently in 2008 when the stock market crashed. Some research that IBM has done has shown us that before the crash in 2008 heel heights were below 3 inches however the very next year once the econ193


omy fell heels skyrocketed to a nose bleed height of 7 inches. Some experts also believe that because the current average height is 2 inches the economy should start to improve if this method is a trust worthy way of predicting the economic trends (Smith). Alongside the use of heel heights as economic barometers, hemlines have historically been seen as means of determining economic standing. However this method has recently fallen into controversy due to certain factors that do not play as big of a role in fashion today. This would be the fact that women no longer wear pantyhose as consistently. It is not longer social suicide to appear without your trusty pantyhose in fact it can sometimes be looked down upon by certain female rights groups. The shift away from wearing pantyhose has affected the Hemline Index is because certain historians believed that hemlines would change depending on whether or not women could afford silk stockings at the time. For example during the Great Depression when women did not have extra money to spend on clothing, styles and trends became longer to hide the fact that a woman might not be wearing pantyhose (Valenti). One of the few exceptions to this rule is during world war two skirt lengths rose due to lack of material and pantyhose were not plentiful, this helped to influence women to start wearing pants more often (Fashion Forward). This is why although the Hemline Index seems like it would be somewhat reliable source for predicting

the economy it has become an outdated one because of changes in social style and the gaining of womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s rights. After observing the ways fashion trends have changed and evolved throughout this current century and last century it is clear that there is a correlation between fashion trends and the economy. However it goes much deeper than fashion simply following the trend of the economy. As we can observe a large factor that plays into the trends changing for the economy is what the consumers decide to buy. This means that when we see reacurring themes and trends there is a certain factor that causes these people to either need or feels more comfortable with that product in the certain economic climate. This concludes the question of whether or not the Hemline Index is a suitable measurement for where` the economy is headed next. Observing the data and research that I have collected it is very clear that when placed together, fashion trends greatly rely on the economic climate and the comfort of the consumer. However these climates do not necessarily set the bar for fashion trends, and when these styles become popular during specific economies it is because of a subconscious decision to choose comfort or length.

Working Bibliography Breward, Christopher. Fashion. Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2003. Print.!

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“Comparison of fashions in the 1920’s and 1930’s.” Illustration. Art Deco Society of California. Web. 6 Feb. 2012.

Telegraph and Sunday Telegraph - Telegraph. The Telegraph, 09 Feb. 2009. Web. 03 Jan. 2012.

"Fashion Forward: The History of 20th Century Women's Clothing." Random History and Word Origins for the Curious Mind. Random History, 2 May 2007. Web. 3 Jan. 2012.

On The Street Playlist. Perf. Bill Cunningham. Video Library Home Page - The New York Times. Joanna Nikas, 5 Feb. 2012. Web. 05 Feb. 2012.

Keskin, Esra. "Improvement in Economy Affects Fashion." Today's Zaman. Feza Gazetecilik, 21 May 2010. Web. 8 Jan. 2012.

Purves, Miranda. "A Message on Every Arm." The New York Times 11 Dec. 2011, Style sec.: 1+. Print.

Laver, James. Costume And Fashion A Concise History. New York : Thames and Hudson Inc, 2002. Print.

Reddy, Sameer. "Linking Fashion Trends and the Economy." The Daily Beast. The Newsweek/Daily Beast Company, 2 June 2008. Web. 08 Jan. 2012.

Lewin, Tamar. "How Does Society Change in a Bad Economy?" The New York Times. The New York Times, 18 Oct. 2008. Web. 25 Jan. 2012.

Rosenberg, Jennifer. "Great Depression - A Short History of the Great Depression." 20th Century History. About.Com Guide. Web. 03 Jan. 2012.

Monet, Dolores. "Design Trends of the 1940's." Dolores Monet on HubPages. HubPages Inc. Web. 08 Jan. 2012.

Sage, Alexandria. "Fashion Trends in an Uncertain Economy." Reuters.com. Thomson Reuters, 27 Apr. 2008. Web. 08 Jan. 2012.

---. "Ladies' Fashion Designs of the 1930's." Dolores Monet on HubPages. Hub Pages Inc. Web. 08 Jan. 2012. ---. "Women's Fashions of the 1920's." Dolores Monet on HubPages. HubPages Inc. Web. 08 Jan. 2012.

Smith, Rick. "Falling Heels Buck Fashion-economic History Link, IBM Says :: The Skinny at WRAL Tech Wire." WRAL Tech Wire - Real Reporting. Real Time. WRAL Tech Wire, 21 Nov. 2011. Web. 08 Jan. 2012.

Moore, Matthew. "Great Depression 'skyscraper' Heels Back in Fashion - Telegraph." Telegraph.co.uk - Telegraph Online, Daily 195


Sunderland, Ruth. "When Did Killer Heels Become so Aggressive?" The Guardian. Guardian News and Media Limited, 30 Aug. 2008. Web. 25 Jan. 2012. Taylor, Nick. "Great Depression (1930's) News - The New York Times." Times Topics - The New York Times. The New York Times, 03 Jan. 2012. Web. 03 Jan. 2012. Trebay, Guy. "Is It Bigger Than a Breadbox?" The New York Times 25 Dec. 2011, Style sec.: 1+. Print. Tucker, Jeffrey A. "Dress Like the Great Depression - Jeffrey A. Tucker - Mises Daily." Ludwig Von Mises Institute. Mises Daily, 09 Mar. 2009. Web. 03 Jan. 2012. Valenti, Catherine. "Do Short Skirts Really Mean Better Times?" ABCNews.com. Web. 08 Jan. 2012. Watari, Korey. 20 Jan. 2012. Weber, Caroline. Queen of Fashion. United States : Henry Holt and Company, 2006. Print. "What Caused the Great Depression? The Real Story." Learn Stock Trading with Stocks Simplified. SBI. Web. 05 Feb. 2012. Wilson, Cintra. 15 Jan. 2012.

196


Christian Bolles

The Psychology of Religion Thousands of years ago, mythology took the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s breath away. Today, religion keeps that breath and adds to it as hundreds of thousands of people join in the spiritual journey that consistently kindles a flame in the hearts of those touched by it. But, how did this happen? What is it about religion that so effectively captivates the human mind, and kept it enraptured in its metaphorical glow for so long? Spirituality was founded on curiosity, which lead to the creation of myths, and finally the formation of organized religion, which has taken root deep in the human psyche. As with many things, the story of religionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s success begins with origins. Since the dawn of time, humans have been asking questions. Curiosity is an innate trait that all humans possess; thus, we are all driven to find answers to the questions that are raised on a daily basis by the world around us. Science answers the smaller inquiries, such as where we are and how we came to be, but it cannot find explanations for why we are here and if there is a purpose in life. This is where religion comes in. My-

thology, and eventually religion, explained everything that a person could possibly want an explanation for. Throughout the years, religion has given life meaning, as well as provided a way for people to form communities based on belief. It has served as a light in the darkness during bad times, a rapidly growing flame that those in need of hope huddle around, allowing its values to imprint themselves onto their everyday lives. Curiosity is an inevitable byproduct of intelligence. All intelligent species have a certain amount of curiosity, meaning that humans, being the most intelligent of all the species on Earth, are also the most curious. The satisfaction of curiosity has proven itself to be just as important to the mind as drinking water is to the body; it is an emotional necessity that we simply require. In primal times, humans did not have access to scientific method, yet this curiosity still nagged at them to a much larger extent than it does us. To explain the unexplainable, myths were created. These myths ranged from stories of beings on high creating the elements to fauna undergoing humanlike experiences and inadvertently creating natural phenomena. This mythology grew, as it provided that emotional satisfaction which humans so crave (Pinker). Over time, however, mythology evolved into something much moreâ&#x20AC;Ś Religion is the final, polished product of human inquiry. Although it comes in many different forms, they all have one thing in common: A set of values. These values have shaped the 197


lives of many over the years, for better or for worse. Spiritual laws, in a sense, have always had much more power over the human mind than any governmental law could possibly have, for the former variety has its roots in the essence of being; that is, who we as humans are and how we are molded over the time that we spend alive (Cousineau). The source of the essence of being is one of the things that will be discussed in this paper, but as of now, we will put that aside. So, how has religion maintained itself over the years, one might ask at this point? After all, the presence of science theoretically should have wiped religion off the emotional map with its explanations that seemingly encompass everything with answers that nobody can really argue with. Logic is the inarguable constant, the be-all, end-all of the questions that plague the human mind. Yet, religion still stands strong, and has barely been swayed. Phil Cousineau, an author who focuses on mythology, effectively explains the reason why religion is still around by stating that “a myth is the story that takes your breath away” (Cousineau). Scientific explanations simply do not have that awe factor that most myths do. Myths are mysterious and warm, like a blanket of changing color, whilst pure logic is cold and unforgiving, like a blanket of solid color that refuses to retain any comfortable temperature.  Knowledge itself may satisfy the curiosity of some, but for most people, spirituality is required to fill in the blanks. Mr. Cousineau also asserted in his interview that “spirituality is the flesh on the bones of knowledge” (Cousineau). With-

out that breathtaking addition to the bland actuality of things, the world is a very drab place. It is that unavoidable need for a better explanation that keeps people interested in religion’s explanations. That, however, is not the only reason why the human mind loves religion so. It has already established previously in this paper that curiosity is an innate feature of humankind, and so is, by extent, mythology, and by extent of that, so are spirituality and religion. However, there is one result of organized religion that reaches all the way back to some of our early ancestors: community. When any creature gathers together in large numbers, the group becomes significantly less vulnerable than it was before the congregation. Religion ended up having this effect, as it brought (and still brings) together people with similar beliefs. Also, since people tend to gravitate to those who seem to be experts, anyone who came forward with a grounded set of beliefs attracted followers (“The Evolutionary Psychology of 
 
 Religion”). These groups grew larger over the years; the religions that were less wanted and therefore held less power than others were drowned out by the most prominent ones. The surviving religions were the ones that took people’s breath away the most, for these were the ones with the largest, most tightlyknit communities. These are religions like Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Judaism, and Buddhism. As a wise man named Huston Smith once wrote about, though, there is one commonal198


ity between all of these religions: they all agree that the most direct way to God (or a variation of the term) is through physical means. Whether it be the lengthy, punishing meditation of the Hindi and Buddhists or the more direct, supplicative praying of the Christians, physical stimuli seem to spark deep-seated emotional reactions that the mind ties directly to religion. Until recently, this religious reaction to physical action has been inexplicable. However, Dr. V.S. Ramachandran, a world-famous neurologist, probed deep into the scientific reasons for the intimate relationship between religion and the human mind. Through groundbreaking yet simple studies, Dr. Ramachandran found that religion actually does have a very substantial basis in the human mind; better yet, he was actually able to pinpoint where it originates in the brain. He began his studies with patients who were experiencing seizures in their limbic systems, a structure in the brain that has been revealed to be the center of human emotion. Seizures generally occur when “a tiny cluster of neurons somewhere in the brain is misbehaving, firing chaotically until activity spreads like wildfire...” (Ramachandran 179). Most of the time, these seizures spread to the entire brain, but sometimes they are focused in specific areas. When a seizure occurs specifically in the limbic system, several outcomes are possible. The majority of people who experience limbic system seizures feel intense surges of emotion. These surges can evoke anything from extreme ecstasy to deep depression.

Sometimes, though, these seizures actually cause spiritual experiences. This means that there is a direct connection between the limbic system and religious activity in the brain. To take this surprising discovery further, this proves that there is an intimate bond between religion and emotion. Dr. Ramachandran, though, was not satisfied with these somewhat vague answers. Since the limbic system, also known as the temporal lobe, generates emotion based on the senses, how would images affect the mind of a strongly religious individual as opposed to someone with less faith? To test this, Dr. Ramachandran created a slideshow of images and words, each pertaining to either violence, sex, or religion. The average person would show a good amount of mental stimulation when viewing the images that depict violence and sex, and be less aroused when looking at the images related to religion. However, when electrodes were attached to the strongly religious individuals to monitor their brain activity, it was found that they actually were less aroused than the average person by the former two topics and significantly more aroused by the latter. This means that almost the entirety of religion is based in the temporal lobe, and someone’s “religiousness” can actually be measured. Furthermore, it has been discovered that those who have undergone deep religious experiences actually have increased atrophy in their hippocampus, a part of the temporal lobe. When someone has gone through a spiritual “awakening” that makes 199


it appear to them that they have been enlightened to the meaning of existence or something similar, there is actually a surprisingly significant amount of degradation that occurs in the temporal lobe (“Religious Experiences Shrink Part of the Brain”). This further proves that religion has a very real, psychological basis in the mind. It is unclear, however, whether religion was created before or after the tendency to be religious developed in the human mind. Spirituality, then, has rooted itself deep in the human brain. Most of the reasons for this have already been enumerated, but there is one that remains to be listed, for it is the most important. It has been mentioned that humans are greatly attracted to the idea of origins. Beginnings are held sacred in our minds for reasons that have yet to be explained. As Phil Cousineau said, though, the reason why people are so attracted to spirituality is this: we want to tap into the soul. The soul can be defined as what lies at the center of all things; it is the heartbeat of the world, the pulse that courses through everyone and everything. However psychological the basis for the idea of the soul may be, there is something about it that humanity craves (Cousineau). It is the longing for an explanation of the soul that has impressed spirituality on our minds, and quite an impression it has made. It is worth noting that the previously stated views are not widely accepted truths. There are many who do believe that their relig-

ion was founded for the reasons dictated by the creators of their faith, and there will never be evidence that can disprove their argument. However, one can still conduct research to make the relationship between religion and the human mind a little less mysterious and heighten people’s understanding of the subject through a logical process rather than a religious one. The points provided in this paper are means to that end, and it is certainly an end with meaning.

Bibliography Pinker, Steven. “The Evolutionary Psychology of Religion.” Harvard University. Madison,Wisconsin. 29 Oct. 2004. Lecture. Ramachandran, Vilayanur S. and Sandra Blakeslee. Phantoms in the Brain: Probing the !Mysteries of the Human Mind. New York: HarperCollins Publishers Inc., 1998. Print. Thompson, J. Anderson and Clare Aukofer. “Science and religion: God didn’t make man; man made gods”. Los Angeles Times. N.p., 18 July 2011. Web. 8 Jan. 2012 Grossman, Cathy Lynn. “For many, “Losing My Religion” isn’t just a song: It’s life”. USA Today. N.p., 3 Jan. 2012. Web. 8 Jan. 2012. “America becoming less Christian, survey finds”. CNN.com. N.p., 9 Mar. 2009. Web. 8 Jan. 2012. 200


Newberg, Andrew. “Religious Experiences Shrink Part of the Brain”. Scientific American. N.p., 31 May 2011. Web. 8 Jan. 2012. Cousineau, Phil. Personal interview. 22 Jan. 2012.

201


Ian Child

Stairway to Heaven: Music and the Human Brain Music has been a part of human society for thousands of years. No matter where one looks in our history, music was there with us. Many animals communicate through pitch, as birds do; it is possible that our early ancestors first learned to speak in the same fashion. In the creation mythology of many cultures, the world was brought into being by song. It has played a part, large or small, in every life humans have led since we first began as a species, now more than ever. In the present day, music is everywhere. In the offices of dentists, doctors, and orthodontists, music is always playing. In stores, cafes, bars, restaurants, even elevators, music is present (We wouldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t put music in an elevator if it wasnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t important). We relax with music, dance to it, and listen to it for its own sake. We spend money on it, which is possibly the best gage of its importance to our society. We practically breathe music through radios, TVs, Ipods, and computers. The fact that many phones nowadays are equipped

to play music is yet another sign of its significance. Music is everywhere. But why? There are entire sections of the brain that respond only to music and nothing else (Sousa). Moreover, many other sections of the brain are influenced by listening to music, especially spatialtemporal reasoning. Music elicits an emotional response in most everybody, and is often stimulatory to memory. There are even more long-term and profound effects resulting from engagement in musical training, as opposed to just listening to it. All of these effects from music are built into our brains on a deep level; in fact, music is so tied into our psyche that it could well be deemed as important to our proper functioning as human interaction or enjoyment (Sousa). Whatever the reason, music is meaningful to our species, yet why remains a mystery. From a purely rational standpoint, music is nothing more than a collection of sounds that connect physically and mathematically to each other; so why should they affect us so deeply? The answer is unknown. However, the connection between our brain and music cannot be denied. But does music make the brain more healthy? The answer to this question has been sought after for many years. Only nowâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; 202


after the advent of brain imaging technology has made the human mind more accessible to analysis—has this quest for understanding begun to gain ground. All of the evidence from countless studies—and observation—show that music does indeed make the brain more healthy, more efficient, and more elastic. How these improvements occur is also unknown. Music changes the brain; that much is quite clear at first glance. But are these changes positive? Are they permanent? Are they feasible for use in health maintenance, therapy, and elder care? As evident as the fact of these changes is, it is equally evident that music is no miracle pill. It won’t save someone who has been shot, or badly burned; it will not cure cancer, or rid a human system of AIDs; it will not keep the wear of age at bay. But despite this, music has proven to have startling benefits to physical, mental, and emotional health. It can be a treatment (Wholly or partially) for a plethora of health problems and mental disorders, and can even slow the inexorable march of brain degeneration. At the very least, music has great educational benefits, which is where this paper will begin. Learning, in the first years of life, is experiential. The brain begins its existence as a blank slate, and then it builds on itself, creating connections based in exterior stimuli. Development of the mind is incredibly swift as it collects data from the environment and uses that data to build itself. In these years, humans

learn everything we know, from our native language to how to relate to the people around us. In short, what happens in the years of childhood is vital to the functioning of the child throughout his or her life. Developmentally, experience of music has been shown to have remarkable qualities. A 2004 study by scientist Peter deVries stated, “…music can effectively reinforce learning and behaviour changes in children and adults, both in and out of school” (deVries). A 1999 study on music and play by Ch. van der Linde agreed: “…music [is] the most powerful educational aid” (van der Linde). Both of these stress the beneficial qualities music has in relation to learning. If music is applied to learning, the outcome will be more effective than the subject matter alone. It has been shown that music helps make the brain more elastic, and more adaptable, a quality which aids greatly in the retention of information where the two intersect. That is why it is so easy to remember a tune from years before when the book one read last Wednesday is already slipping away. Our minds have a unique and uncanny affinity for music; where music is concerned, memory can be very efficient. If this principle is applied to education, the benefits could be astonishing. Furthermore, music can help even the most distractible children focus. The deVries study went on to say, “The most obvious effect of music activities was that children were able to release energy, and subsequently focus on other activities such as lis203


tening to a story or participating in art activities” (deVries). An elementary school music teacher confirmed this in an interview, saying that the students who would normally be unable to sit still and give their attention to the subject matter were avid in his class, and willing to focus on the music. Beyond the academic, music still has much to offer: “Engagement in music-movement activities,” the deVries study tells us, “developed motor skills in children” (deVries). Play teaches children many things; movement is one of them. However, the introduction of music into this process could make it more effective, thus giving children more developed motor functions in the long-term. Emotionally, music is developmental in the area of expression. “Music activities provided opportunities for children to express themselves” the study goes on to tell us (deVries). Expression is important to a child’s development, because it will have an effect on the relationships he or she forms later in life. The 1999 study confirms: “Play and music are related activities and are important for the child's development to a well-rounded adult” (van der Linde). All in all, there is little doubt that music can greatly enhance a child’s development if correctly applied. In this troubled economic climate, schools have had to cut back. In these cuts, it is often the case that music and art programs suffer the most downsizing. Many schools either have no music program at all, or—where music programs exists—music

teachers see children only once a week. This is truly an unfortunate situation. As has been stated above, music has massive educational benefits in children. It can be said that music classes have as much value in education as mathematics, or language courses. It is even possible that musical courses in childhood will make the brain more resilient to degenerative diseases later in life. Music should be taught in schools every day of the week, to the intellectual and emotional benefit of the children. Music is beneficial to education because of the parts of the brain it stimulates. Through the use of MRI, fMRI and other neuroimaging technologies, it is possible to see which sections of the human mind light up in conjunction with the experience of music. For instance, musical education enhances the hearing, speech, and attention functions of the brain, as well as ability to discern nuance in rhythm and pitch. All of these things are necessary for verbal communication and language skills, and developing them through music can help with the acquisition of linguistics, especially in early childhood. Continued development of musical training is thought to streamline the functioning of the primary auditory cortex, (responsible for the processing of sound information) which is located in the superior temporal gyrus. Since this part of the brain is responsible for auditory processing, it is integral to our ability to comprehend speech. Musical 204


training helps develop the processing ability of the primary auditory cortex to more effectively analyze sound. In preschoolers, this development is evident as a heightened acquisition of vocabulary, language discrimination, nuance, and rhythm. Beyond the linguistic, music has other benefits, such as memory development, psychological rewards, and pattern recognition (beyond the purely language-based patterns mentioned earlier). Researchers have found at many turns that students who underwent a series of music classes that replaced some of their weekly math classes ultimately preformed just as well on a mathematical exam than did the control group, who did not have any change in schedule and were not exposed to music (Strickland). Beyond that, the students who were given the special classes reaped other academic benefits beside in both reading and language abilities. Music itself is both a kind of language, and a form of math, which could account easily for its aid in the learning of both subjects. As for memory development, the so-called “Mozart Effect” had some truth to it. In a study conducted at the very beginning of MRI technology use, it was found that memory was increased dramatically when listening to music by Mozart, from which the name was derived. The study—though it caused a great stir— was later spurned by neuropsychologists and neuroscientists because it failed to mention that the impressive increase in

memory was temporary, and faded after a few hours. The information gleaned, however, did have some merit. Listening to complex orchestral music causes a slight change in certain processes of the brain that increases working and short-term memory to a degree. This effect—as stated—is temporary, fading after a few hours; however, it has been shown that musical training over time does cause permanent changes to the aforementioned processes that can result in an increase in memory efficiency. The younger the subject at the beginning of the musical training, the more pronounced the memory increase. As far as expressive ability goes, music has been shown to be an excellent medium for expression. Self-expression is psychologically important to human functioning, as the expression of emotions can help relieve stress, anxiety, depression, and feelings of inadequacy. “Sefl-Expression” can quite easily be compared with “Self-Actualization” in Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, which would make it the final—and arguably most critical—on the scale; for without this last, the other four needs are rendered meaningless. While the first four levels deal with basic needs, one could argue, ‘what is the point of living comfortably with actualization?’ and sum up one of the things that makes music so important to us. By the testimony of a school teacher, music brings great joy, both to those who listen to it, and to those who play it. According to a study of musicians, many admitted that music training resulted in higher quality of their lives (Wyverne). 205


All of these benefits can be applied to a number of differing situations outside of the educational.

form of therapy that is somewhat controversial, called Melodic Intonation Therapy.

Because music creates new pathways in the brain, it is ideal for aiding the healing process of the organ after it has been damaged. The prime example is Gabrielle Giffords, an Arizona senator who survived a shooting on January 8th 2011 with massive head trauma. After receiving her wound, she had retained an astounding amount of function—over 50%—which allowed her to move to a limited degree, and respond to commands; however, she had lost the ability to speak.

Melodic Intonation Therapy is designed to stimulate the right hemisphere of the brain to aid in speech production. In a nutshell, the therapy uses singing in conjunction with words to reach the deeper parts of the brain, and use the unaffected section of the brain to support newly-created speech processes. It has proven to be very effective in retraining those who have lost their ability to speak through brain trauma, but is also used to help children with mental disabilities that are unable to learn speech on their own.

Giffords is not alone. There are roughly 2 million head injuries a year (Farley), and though not all result from bullet wounds, the effect is similar. Often, head trauma leaves patients without some of the cerebral functions that are integral to their livelihoods, the lack of which makes for a difficult existence. Senator Giffords, who was a dedicated politician, was forced to step down by her injuries, abandoning the profession she had been involved in for many years. There are likely many people in similar predicaments throughout our country and the world, broken and unable to function in a society that is quick to move on without them. This is where music comes in. Giffords, over the course of a year, has thus far been able to regain her speech ability with great success. She employed a

Because of music’s close ties to linguistics, the success of this method is hardly surprising. Though the details of this connection are not known, its presence is evident, and in this fashion is already being utilized effectively. Music is often used in treatment for psychological disorder as well as physiological. Because of its freeing quality, it is quite useful in a therapeutic capacity. When engaging in musical activity, the sections of the brain responsible for communication have been shown to receive increased blood flow—an indication of neural activity. This a sign of the societal—and evolutionary—impacts music has on the human mind. In early cultures, music was often a community-based event, a communal pursuit that allowed people to come together and overcome differences. Where social interaction is today in any form, music is 206


almost always present as well. In Canada, where folk music is the glue of tight-knit communities, every event is accompanied by live music, so much so that one musician—upon coming to the U.S.—was shocked to go to a party that had no live music. Returning again to the perspective of the elementary school music teacher—who reported that children showed an uninhibited and yet focused joy in his class—we can easily see that music has a remarkable ability to loosen our restraints on our inhibitions, including emotional ones. Because of this attribute, music can be a powerful therapeutic tool, and is used as such quite often to treat problems from depression to behavioral issues. It goes farther, though. It is widely acknowledged that mental health and physical health are inextricably linked. People who are unhappy actually suffer a decrease in immune system efficiency, digestive efficiency, and less neurological growth. Stress is one of the most widespread causes of unhappiness. It seems like such a little thing, but it builds over time, becoming trapped within layers of defenses within the psyche until the pressure is too great. One of the best ways to relieve stress is through music, because music releases emotion in a healthy manner, and it is therefore ideal for use as a therapeutic implement. It could easily be argued that someone who regularly undertakes musical activity would be able to deal with stress more effectively and would therefore be more healthy overall.

Music can be a tonic for many other kinds of psychiatric disorders aside from depression. In the case of extreme learning and developmental disabilities—because of its aid as a learning device—music can help develop and strengthen abnormally slow learning processes that would otherwise remain anemic and underdeveloped. Research has shown that keeping the mind active will keep it healthy, much like a muscle. Because the workings of the mind rely on constant development and evolution, creating new pathways will always be like oil to its organic mechanism. An active mind creates pathways and connections just by doing tasks that require thought. Many neuroscientists recommend that people—especially the elderly (Or soon to be)—keep an active mind by reading, completing mathematical or language-based puzzles, or studying new skills. Because of music’s unique stimulatory effect, it is an ideal exercise to boost the health of the mind by keeping it active; even more so than crossword or Sudoku puzzles. Music can be said to be an elixir of youth, at least where the mind is concerned. Because of this quality, music can also be—if not a treatment—an impediment to the progression of degenerative brain diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, or dementia. As the brain ages, it begins to move slower, and malfunction, deteriorating until either it is incapacitated or the body shuts down. On 207


the deeply personal level, this continued decline can be distressing, not only to the patient, but also to the patient’s family. Memory is often the first to disappear, obliterating everything that made the person who they were. Ask anyone what it is like to lose a parent, sibling, or loved one; though they aren’t dead, they may as well be a stranger. On a slightly more global scale, the maintenance of health in the declining years is becoming increasingly important, due to population structure. Everywhere, in developed countries the world over, the future will see an inversion of the population distribution pyramid: or, in other terms, there will be more people over the age of sixty-five than there will be people to take care of them. Such an inversion can result in a crippling of the economy as the country strains to care for its elderly while still maintaining its economy. Infrastructure collapse would be only one of the repercussions, with many more to follow. A very simple way to head off this dark future would be to keep people working longer, which would mean they would have to be more healthy. Not only that, but even after they retire, if the elderly retain the ability to care for themselves—which mental illness usually deprives them of—less money would have to go into their care. The happiness of the seniors involved—and the lifting of the strain their care places on their family—would be a hefty bonus.

How might this be achieved? Musical training. Not by law or stricture, but by choice. If there was a remedy to cure all ills, who wouldn’t take it? Music—at least where the brain is concerned—can safely be called a miracle pill. Anyone who wants to live a happier, healthier life would do well to pick up an instrument, sing in a choir, or expose themselves to music where possible.

Works Cited Bolduc, Jonathan. “The Effects of Music Instruction on Emergent Literacy Capacities among Preschool Children: A Literary Review”. Early Childhood Research & Practice. 10. 1. Questia. Web. 5 Jan. 2012. Cheek, James R., et al. “Using music therapy techniques to treat teacher burnout”. Questia. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 2003. Web. Feb. 3 2012. Devries, Peter. “The Extramusical Effects of Music Lessons on Preschoolers”. Australian Journal of Early Childhood. 29. 2 (2004): 6+. Questia. Web. Dec. 24 2011. Dye, Lee. “Scientist Learning How Music May Prevent Dementia”. ABC News. ABC News, Jan 23. Web. Jan 6 2012. Friesen, Eric. “Oliver Sacks”. Queen’s Quarterly. 115. 3 (2008): 442+. Questia. Web. Jan. 6 2012. 208


Farley, Dixie. “Head Injuries Require Quick, Skilled Care”. Questia. FDA Consumer, 1990. Web. Feb. 6 2012.

hood Memories?”. Australian Journal of Early Childhood. 33. 4 (2008): 54+. Questia. Web. 1 Jan. 2012.

Geist, Kamile , et al. “Integrating music therapy services and speech therapy services for children with severe communication impairments: a co-treatment model”. Questia. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 2008. Web. Feb. 2 2012.

Sousa, David A. “How the Arts Develop the Young Brain: Neuroscience Research Is Revealing the Impressive Impact of Arts Instruction on Students' Cognitive, Social and Emotional Development.” Questia. School Administrator, December 2006. Web. Jan. 31 2012.

”Healing Power of Music Therapy; Music Is Not Just Good for the Soul, but Great for Your Health Too”. LISA SALMON Discovers a Totally Different Kind of Therapy”. Evening Chronicle. Aug. 5 2011: 6. Questia. Web. Jan 3 2012. James, Deborah. “Playing music can make you more healthy; call for more funds to pay for therapy in the North West”. Questia. Daily Post, 2005. Web. Feb. 2 2012. Knox, Richard. “Singing Therapy Helps Stroke Patients Speak Again”. www.npr.com. Shots, npr’s health blog, Dec. 26 2011. Web. 1 Jan. 2012. Pouliot, Janine S. "The Power of Music." Questia. World and I, 1998. Web. Feb. 3 2012. Sacks, Oliver. Musicophelia. New York: Random House, 2007. Print. Smith, Wyverne. “Learning a Music Instrument in Early Childhood: What Can We Learn from Professional Musician’s Child-

Strickland, Susan J.. “Music and the Brain in Childhood Development”. Association for Childhood Education International. Volume 78. Issue 2 (2001): 100-: Questia. Web. 4 Jan. 2012. Tomaino, Concetta. “How Music Can Reach the Silenced Brain”. The Music Instinct. PBS, May 20 2009. Web. Jan. 6 2012. Van Der Linde, Ch. “The Relationship between Play and Music in Early Childhood: Educational Insights”. Education. 119. 4 (1999): 610. Questia. Web. Dec. 21 2011. Wan Catherine Y., Loes Bazen, Rebecca Baars, Amanda Libenson, Lauryn Zipse, Jennifer Zuk, Andrea Norton, and Gottfried Schlaug. “Auditory-Motor Mapping Training as an Intervention to Facilitate Speech Output in Non-Verbal Children with Autism: A Proof of Concept Study”. www.plosone.org, AMMT in NonVerbal Children with Autism, Sep. 2011. Web. Jan. 6 2012. 209


Jude Driscoll

Advertising: An Art Form? Advertising is one of the most controversial industries in the world, and is often viewed as a contrived machine monotonously producing countless $100 bills. However, advertising is much more than that; it has become an important genre of art in and of its self, producing inspirational ideas, quality work, and a new outlet for creative expression. According to the Oxford Dictionary, art is the product or process of deliberately arranging items (often with symbolic significance) in a way that influences and affects one or more of the senses, emotions, and intellect. The definition of advertisement is very similar to that of art; it aims to influence its audience often emotionally. Elena Salij, a chair at the Art Center College of Design, stated that “Advertising is the most powerful art form on earth”, due to this, it is scrutinized above all others; and not for its artistic value, but for cultural subtleties such as skinny models and sexism. Art sells an idea just as an advertising does. This being said, there is low quality advertising just as there is low quality art. There are many aspects that factor into

the creation of a good ad, but none are as important as its ability to connect with and influence the audience (The Independent, Is Advertising Art?). The connection is what has the ability to move the public emotionally and into action: as George Lois, iconic art director and outspoken enthusiast stated, “Advertisements should tear you apart, choke you up; maybe you should pass out. Advertisements of this quality make food taste better, makes cars run better; it changes the perception of everything” (Art & Copy). Much like that of art, the connection built differs from person to person, but the goal is to instill in the culture’s subconscious a new brand. Good advertisement can also be achieved if the message is important or meaningful. For example, it has been argued by prehistoric historians that the first ever advertisements were the prehistoric cave paintings that are scattered all around the globe: during the Paleolithic age, humans were a race of hunter gatherers; but the percentages were skewed, with 80% of all Homo sapiens only gathering, this lead to malnourishment, hunger, and a loss of structure within the civilization. What saved humanity were the cave paintings tribes slowly started using to advertise to others the benefits of eating meat? The paintings showed tutorials on how to kill the beasts and where to find them, and as the cave men’s culture switched to becoming more meat oriented, their health and muscle mass skyrocketed, and so did the abundance of the cave paintings. Through the 210


advertising of the benefits of protein all of human kind was saved, and today, these paintings are viewed as the birth of art (The Independent, Is Advertising Art?). This type of advertisement survives today; the iconic Got Milk ad campaign saved the dairy industry and along with it millions of jobs, the Just Do It campaign that Nike used famously influenced people to get a hold of their lives; people begun to lose weight, work out, and even leave unhealthy relationships due to these advertisements, and there are the Golden Gate National Parks posters that helped the Bay Area community by raising awareness about these parks. Due to the awareness wrought by these posters, the renovations of the Presidio have been funded, and the parks transition from military base to beautiful national park has been very successful. Besides the obvious grand influence of these posters, is the fact that they can be found hanging in living rooms and apartments across the bay area. They have been embraced as art. (Art & Copy) Looking towards the future is also of utmost importance to the quality of art and advertisement. Milton Glaser, renowned graphic designer who invented ‘I ♥ NY’ has been quoted as saying “advertisers should have aspirations for what the brand could become, not what it is” (To Inform & Delight the Work of Milton Glaser). Quality advertisement, as dose art, looks towards the future using imagination to create enticing pieces.

Another parallel that can be drawn between art and advertisement is that quality varies. There are plenty of horrible advertisements; but what differentiates the bad from the good? One of the most notorious types of bad advertising is those that target the insecurities of the public. This type of advertisement is born from the prominent type of advertising that shows a consumer what they wish they had: fantasies per say. What these insecurity targeted advertisements do differently than the fantastical advertisements is break down one’s self worth instead of entice someone with a vision of their dream life. Often, the former type of target advertising is viewed as cheap and low quality by many of the more respected industry workers. (Art & Copy) Non-revolutionary advertising is also often below par. In the advertising industry one must make some sort of nouveau innovation in each campaign they place forth to capture the audience and create meaningful art instead of monotonous promotion. This value is one of the hardest for the industry to follow through on because, more and more, the balancing of quantity and quality of advertisements is getting difficult, and revolutionary new ideas take time. Other types of art forms, ones less fueled by consumer messages, are critiqued and reviewed; they are called out for being unoriginal Recycling and copying of ideas are to vastly different things. When it comes to advertising, people seem not to care the slightest if an advertising strategy is tired. As an art form, advertisement just isn’t respected enough to be critiqued. (Objectified) 211


Once more, the art of advertising lays in the fact that advertisers are given the ability to shape a product or a brand, to create the future of a brand. If advertising doesn’t look towards the future, it holds little to no value for the consumer or the client. Already, comparisons have been made and parallels drawn in the pages of this essay, but what truly makes advertising a style of art? Well the brief rebuttal to this skepticism can be offered in the form of another question; what makes advertising so intriguing? The answer is art. Looking through human history, many of the most historically remembered and revered achievements of humanity have been artistic ones. People didn’t take time out of their day in renaissance Italy to marvel at everyday life, economy, or war; what caught their attention and what still catches the attention of contemporary culture is the Mona Lisa, the Sistine chapel or the statue of David. Advertisement, just like art, is a form of escapism; it grasps our attention because of the fantastical world it creates. In coherence with this fact that both advertising and other art forms are, in essence, the ability to share ideas and fantasy worlds with a large audience, is the innovation and risk taking that is of utmost importance to art and advertisings relationship. This was not always the advertisement industries reality, up until the early 60’s the business was not even respected by its own workers. (Art & Copy) Creativity was laughed at by the myopic CEO’s and department heads, and advertisements were

created only to please the companies paying them. There was no button pushing whatsoever. A revolution then occurred that challenged this large machine like institutions ineptitude, much of which was fueled by San Francisco’s non-conformist branches. As a whole, advertising firms located in San Francisco were highly disrespected because of their irrelevance, it being the place that the less valuable employees were sent to toil away far from marketing hubs such as New York, Chicago and Boston. Hal Riney, one of the most notorious advertisers in history and a San Francisco Pioneer into modern advertising explained “At the time I got into the business there weren’t many creative heroes because at the time, creativity it was a word that people really didn’t use.” He goes on to explain the important role San Francisco played in his career: “We weren’t afraid to take risks because we figured that in the long run it wouldn’t matter much if we failed so far from the institutions epicenter; what happened was utterly contrary; in a matter of years our acceptance of creativity made San Francisco one of the most important media focal points in the world” (Art & Copy). This reconstruction that occurred in San Francisco wasn’t a novel occurrence, for it mirrored the evolution of art since the beginning of recorded history. The renaissance arose because someone decided flat gold plated church scene tapestries were tired, and from this grew new ideas, technologies and sophisticated art. Again, in the late eighteen hundreds the impressionists questioned the institutionalized art society of Paris, and from this 212


used the deconstructionist ideas to bestow art with groundbreaking emotion and nuance. Impressionism in term lead to post impressionism, then to abstract art, which fed into Pop art. When one studies the trends of artistic evolution, it seemed due time that advertisement evolved into a more respectable art form as it became the largest form of communication ever witnessed by man and in effect, the largest viewed form of art. Another pioneer in the world of Art and Copy is George Lois, known for his poignant, controversial advertisements and a personality to match. “Creativity can solve anything.” George claims over a presentation of his famous political commercial that starts by depicting a young girl picking petals and counting, superimposed with a military voice counting the same numbers, and ends with a nuclear explosion with the conclusion of the counting. It is advertisements like these that have given George Lois such notoriety, when he is commissioned to create his art, he dives in headfirst. His attention grabbing work is born from one core belief; “You can manufacture any feeling you want to manufacture. George Lois’s work is not nuanced, fluffy or comfortable; the fantasy he creates is loud. In a case study of one of his most controversial campaigns his artifice is represented as a keystone of the modern industry, and refreshingly raw. The campaign at hand was one created to help raise recognition of fledgling fashion designer Tommy Hilfiger. George Lois decided that Tommy could either struggle for years in the hopes of gaining some recognition, or George could design one campaign

that would shoot Hilfiger into the Elite class of fashion iconography, He did just that. George released a simple add that read “THE 4 GREAT AMERICAN DESIGNERS FOR MEN ARE: R____L_____, P____E____, C_____K____, T____H_______; THIS IS THE LOGO OF THE LEAST KNOWN OF THE FOUR.” Simple Helvetica print, set against pure ivory white; this campaign embodied all that can be good in an advertisement. Instantaneously controversy erupted; people were angered, humored, skeptical and intrigued. Who was T____H_______? And who did he think he was? Overnight, Tommy Hilfiger became a household name and a permanent fixture on the fashion landscape, but the most impressive result indicative of ingenious advertisement was the fact that Tommy Hilfiger was determined to live up to the iconic add and prove the critiques wrong. The advertisement showed Tommy what he could be, and pushed him to work harder than he ever had. (Art & Copy) That is the beauty of advertisement, when fantasy becomes reality, and the pure artistic weight of it can actually form the future of a product. Mary Wells, a New York based department head understood advertisings ability to reinvent a product in a very unique way compared to others industry workers in the sixties. She realized that in a post-war world people were thirsty for rebellion and expression. These unique understandings of the zeitgeist of the era lead her to take major risks when Braniff airlines commissioned her to market them. Most airlines in post war America where 213


standard, strict, military style plains with tired color schemes and stern mottos. She decided to hire top artists of the time to redesign the plains and uniforms, and gourmet chefs to build delicious menus. The actual advertising was the smallest part o the job; but what Mary was able to do was show Braniff what they could be. Her idea worked, and Braniff became one of the most successful and one of the first luxury airlines. Again, she exemplifies how important looking forward is to what a product can be, rather than what it is. This is what artistic, creative advertising is meant to do. In the consumer oriented capitalist culture that thrives in the United States, it is often forgotten that advertisements can be made to promote many things besides products. In fact, one of the most artistic forms of advertising are those that are created to spread a message; whether that be political, social or subliminal. In the early nineties, milk sales were dropping 4% each year. The dairy industry was sinking and millions of people were losing jobs each year, but know one paid attention. Finally, in 1993, the successful San Francisco based firm Goodby, Silverstein & Partners were hired to do something about this problem. What they went on to create became the largest and longest lasting marketing strategy in history: Got Milk? All Silberstein saw was incorrect grammar, and short and almost ugly phrase, but Goodby understood that “Advertisements should be believable in a connectible way.” The campaign has procured a drastic upswing in the Dairy industry and has saved tens of

thousands of jobs in the past twenty years, promoting health and keeping one of the world’s oldest industries afloat. This same firm designed a series of posters to raise awareness about Golden Gate National parks. These posters are the reason The Presidio is as successful and stable as it is today, because before the National Parks of The Bay Area where promoted, they where obsolete, and therefore had no donations flowing in. Nike’s Just Do It is another iconic campaign that had an impact on society. The slogan, meant to get people to start running and buy Nike shoes, did just that, and much more. People were inspired to take control of their lives; they got in shape, quit smoking, and even left abusive relationships, all thanks to this simple advertisement. Advertising is fluid; it changes with each person’s interpretation, and the Just Do It campaign is a rarity that was able to get people to do exactly what it said, whatever that might have been. With each of these famous campaigns there are two defining artistic factors that propelled them into notoriety, innovation and quality. One of the most prominent art forms in history, Pop Art, is essentially the celebration of advertisement. Think of Andy Warhol’s influential Campbell’s soup cans; the epitome of art and advertising. Obama’s promotional staff during the 2008 elections understood the power of art in advertising. Utilizing Warhol’s iconic pop art style posters were designed to help get 214


Obama elected. These posters are one of the most indelible images from the 2008 presidential campaign. As art, this advertising poster will live on beyond what it was created to sell. Famously, Absolute vodka hired the world’s best artists to create paintings to be displayed on their bottles. Using art to promote their brand and reciprocating this as a promotion of modern art. In many ways, the relationship between art and Advertising is quite reciprocal; art feeds advertising, influences it and shows it what’s next, while advertising does the same by making these art forms accessible to everyone. Catherine Cullman, curator of The National American Advertising Museum of Portland has stated that; “Art has a natural connection to advertisement because art is human expression, and advertising done well connects a product or service directly to a perceived need or desire. Advertising takes arts ‘human expression’ and exposes it to a mass audience; spinning in the sometimes harsh and inartistic intent of increasing product sales.” In Catherine’s mind, “The benefit of using art in advertising is arts attention grabbing quality, arts connection with the soul. It can be said that this is why it’s done and how it succeeds. Art catches your eye or ear, makes you think and can increase the memory of a products name” (Advertising, Art Centre College of Design). Advertisement is a subdivision of art; a form in which more people than ever have access to its message.

In the interview conducted with Anne Salinas, much was learned about San Francisco’s unique species of advertising, and about advertisements relationship with art. On the distinctive style of the west coast she says, “Lots of Digital shops and Silicon Valley start ups create uniqueness to West Coast advertising. There’s an element of experimentation that I like here. , A lot of the agencies in NYC don’t have the same creative environment or innovative clients so the feeling is more businesslike. Here it feels more creative. NYC is catching up fast now.” The fact that New York is quickly becoming more experimentation seems to speak volumes to the influence West coast advertising has had on the industry. Anne points out that in meetings the most important factors of good advertisements are always kept in mind: “Humor, simple truth, single minded credible, likeable, memorable.” She believes that “Advertising is an art form. All of our creative people come from the best schools in the country for art direction, design, film, production, etc.” and that in the future advertising will just keep becoming “More artistic. It’s an exciting time. We are at the tipping point of technology and art convening. Mobile and tablets have changed the game. Advertising is now in the hands of the consumer, more engagement, conversation, interaction, two way dialogue, etc…” It is important that people care about the future of advertising and strive for an even more art driven industry as Anne does, because whether we like it or not, advertisement is the most prominent form of communication in history and is only growing. 215


By 2010 there were 450 thousand billboards across the United States, and that number is constantly growing. The modern child sees at least 20,000 commercials each year, and the average city dweller receives more than 5,000 advertising messages a day. 44% of all satellites launched are for commercial communication, and 70% of US broadcasting revenue come from advertising. (Art & Copy) advertising is an inevitable aspect of modern culture, so supporting the quality and artistic aspects of this field is important: everything is multidimensional, good or bad, innovative or restraining in some way: the future of advertising is art, and the future of culture and connection to art is through advertising.

Work Cited Art and Copy. Dir. Doug Pray. Perf. Lee Clow, Cliff Freeman, Jeff Goodby, David Kennedy, George Lois, Charlie Moss, Hal Riney, Phyllis K. Robinson, Ed Rollins, Rich Silverstein, Mary Wells, Dan Wieden. Cloud Farm Studio, 2009. Online. "Advertising." Art Center College. Ed. Elena Salij. Art Center College, 2008. Web. 17 Dec. 2012. <http://www.artcenter.edu/accd/files/3366_01_Advertising_High Res_07.pdf>. Elliott, Stuart. "Art or Advertising? - NYTimes.com." A Guide to the Media Industry - Media Decoder Blog - NYTimes.com. Web. 08 Feb. 2012.

<http://mediadecoder.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/05/25/art-or-adv ertising/>. Glancey, Jonathan. "Is Advertising Art? - Arts & Entertainment The Independent." The Independent | News | UK and Worldwide News | Newspaper. The Independent, June-July 1995. Web. 05 Jan. 2012. <http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/is-advertising -art-1593252.html>. Helvetica. Dir. Gary Hustwit. Perf. Michael Bierut, Wim Crouwel, Erik Spiekermann, Paula Scher, Otmar Hoefer, Neville Brody, Stefan Sagmeister, Tobias Frere-Jones, Massimo Vignelli. Plexifilm, 2007. Online. Objectified. Dir. Gary Hustwit, Joe Beshenkovsky, Luke Geissbuhler, Kristian Dunn, Swiss Dots (Firm),, and Plexifilm (Firm),. 2009. Salinas, Anne. "The Art of Advertisement." E-mail in person interview. 28 Jan. 2012. To Inform & Delight the Work of Milton Glaser. Dir. Edgar B. Howard, Wendy Keys, David W. Leitner, Hayes Greenfield, Arthouse Films.,, Curiously Bright Entertainment (Firm),, and New Video Group.,. 2010.

216


Isabelle du Moulin

The Rise of the Food Truck Ten years ago, taco trucks were the only restaurants on wheels to be seen. Since then, a gourmet food truck movement has swept across the country, cooking up everything from cupcakes to ramen to rotisserie chicken to anything else one can think of. The roach coaches of the past have been replaced by a fleet of innovative trucks that are part of a long list of street food sources which are frequented by almost 2.5 billion people a day worldwide (Buck). The roots of this movement lie in the collision of America’s economic downturn, the foodie revolution, and the social media boom, the growth in popularity of this new kind of food truck is fueled by convenience for customers and a significant shift in perception. In 1872, entrepreneur Walter Scott parked his horse-drawn freight wagon in front of the offices of the local newspaper, the Providence Journal (Wellner). He sold sandwiches and hardboiled eggs to the workers there as they left the job. Food carts like Walter’s were soon replaced by diners, which were originally “pre-fab” restaurants—buildings manufactured off-site,

then shipped and assembled on the site of the restaurant. These diners became very popular in the 1930s and ‘40s, and many of them were made by J.B. Judkins Co. of Merrimack, Massachusetts (Wellner). With the rise in car culture, these classic, all-American diners eventually gave way to the fast-food chain restaurants found across the country today (Wellner). It was only in 2008 that the first gourmet food trucks, such as New Yorks’ Rickshaw Dumpling Bar and Los Angeles’ Kogi BBQ, started rolling (Buck). This marked the beginning of today’s food truck movement. America’s economic situation, the “foodie” revolution, and the social media boom all played huge roles in the beginnings of the recent food truck trend. If it hadn’t been for this combination of events, it is unlikely that mobile restaurants would have experienced their steep rise in popularity. It can be argued that the main cause of the food truck boom was the failure of the economy in 2008. The bursting of the United States housing bubble sent the country into an economic downspin, leaving Americans with very little money for investments. Aspiring restaurateurs realized that they would not be able to open their upscale, organic, local bistros, cafes, and bakeries in a bricks and mortar form—the costs were simply too high. Food trucks, on the other hand, were a much more feasible option. In an article about the mobile restaurant business, reporter Zachary Sniderman said, “Restaurateurs who were 217


hesitant to drop serious cash on launching a restaurant turned to mobile trucks as a less expensive way to sell food in a down economy” (Sniderman). Sniderman was right. In a recent review of Craigslist San Francisco, a used food truck can be purchased for as little as $5000, while a commercial restaurant space in a bad neighborhood was listed at $765,000. Of course, the cost of repairs and renovations must be factored in as well. There are multiple companies, especially in the Southern California area, that outfit mobile eateries and catering trucks for much less than the cost of a renovating a bricks and mortar eatery. In a traditional restaurant, there are cooks, bakers, dishwashers, and waiters, all of whom must be paid. In a food truck, there are a maximum of three or four people working together. This means less staff to pay, making food trucks a cheaper option in terms of operating cost. Additionally, the location of a restaurant is very important when it comes to making money. A café on a street with heavy foot traffic is going to get much more business than a similar café that is situated in a bad neighborhood with virtually no passerby. For food trucks, this is never a problem. The flexibility of being on wheels allows trucks to easily change their location and follow their customers, greatly reducing the possibility of having a slow day. For instance, a truck might move to the Financial District around lunch time where employees on their lunch break are able to visit the street for an artisan sandwich or a couple of delicious tacos. The same truck might be found in the Mission later that

evening, selling its fare to people looking for dinner. Food trucks are much cheaper to open and operate than their bricks and mortar counterparts, which made them a very popular option for foodie entrepreneurs during the recession of the late 2000s. Many vendors began to see the food truck as an achievable means to realize their dream of creating artisanal meals for people eating out. As people became increasingly aware of the benefits of eating good food, many began to choose nutritious, delectable meals over unhealthful options. A huge push to eat local and organic food resulted in restaurants naming the farms and butchers where their food originated. There was also a push to eat healthier and cook with higher-quality ingredients. This movement was the perfect context with which to start the food truck fire. The proprietors of this new type of food truck wanted to create food that was delicious, local, and healthier than other fast-food options. Katie Baum, the founder and owner of the Skylite Snowball truck, uses only organic, local, seasonal ingredients for making the syrups she adds to her snowcone-like delicacies. Trucks like Skylite are perfectly suited for this “locavore” environment—customers sometimes feel that the food they are eating is a little bit “closer to home” because it is often the chef him or herself who is handing them their food. These new trucks go back to a classic idea—fresh, delicious food—but many are promoted by a very modern tool. 218


The start of the food truck phenomenon coincided perfectly with the social media boom. In the beginning of 2008, Facebook had over 60 million active users (Owyang), with Twitter at 6 million (Wolfe). By creating a page for their food truck, vendors were able to share their location for the day, advertise new menu items, and provide potential corporate customers with information about their business. Without websites like and social media tools like these, food trucks would not have had the same flexibility regarding their location, daily hours, and menu changes. The Skylite Snowball truck tweets its daily location: without Twitter, customers would have no way to find the truck. Cupkates, a company that is working on its third truck, posts status updates on Facebook alerting customers to their trucksâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; locations, and also telling them about new cupcake flavors. This attracts customers who want to try new recipes such as raspberry-chocolate or banana cream cupcakes, both delicious! Cupkates without Facebook might not do as well because they would not get the same high volume of customers for very modest marketing expense. The economic situation, the foodie movement, and the social media boom were catalysts; they helped to launch the food truck movement. It took much more for food trucks to rise to the sustained level of popularity that they enjoy today. The convenience of these mobile restaurants along with media coverage of this trend played a huge role in their increasing prevalence.

For the customers, food trucks became a convenient way of grabbing lunch, dinner, or a snack. The delicious food alone may have been enough to make these businesses popular, but the fact that the fare is less expensive than food from most restaurants adds greatly to its appeal, especially to customers who are pressed for cash. The reason trucks are able to sell tacos for as little as $2 a piece is because customers are not paying for the large overhead that accompanies restaurants. At a bricks and mortar establishment, you pay not only for the food, but for the waiters, cooks, rent, dishes, flatware, appliances, and more. When you buy dinner from a food truck, you are paying for the ingredients, the truck, and the two or three people who work on the truckâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;nothing more. Another thing that sets most food trucks apart from restaurants is the wait time. In a sitdown restaurant, you often have to wait for a table, wait for the waiter to come take your order, wait while the kitchen prepares your food, and then, when you have finished, wait for the waitperson to bring your check. If you are on your lunch break or trying to get home soon, you do not want to spend that much time for a bite to eat. Most food trucks have a wait time of around one to ten minutes, making them perfect for someone who is pressed for time. In addition, parents can bring their kids or dogs without having to worry about them making noise or bothering other customers. At events like Off the Grid in the Bay Area, where food trucks gather in groups, even the pickiest of eaters will be able to find something they like, making them 219


popular with families where the parent wants a gourmet meal, but the kid just wants a grilled cheese sandwich. Many people first try this form of mobile dining after hearing about it on the radio, in newspapers, on television, and often by word of mouth. Food trucks grew in popularity as they developed a coolness factor and as articles, television shows, and radio interviews on the topic reached people across the country. Food trucks soon became a hip way to get your meals. More and more people began to “like” and “follow” trucks’ Facebook pages and Twitter feeds. Flocks of people started showing up at trucks’ daily locations and at events like Off the Grid and the Eat Real festival. The media was quick to catch on, with news services such as the New York Times, USA Today, LA Times, Washington Post, ABC News, Business Insider, and many more soon reporting on this trend. In 2010, the Food Network launched The Great Food Truck Race, a show where seven food trucks travel across the country trying to outsell each other. Shows like this brought the food truck trend to viewers across the nation, spreading its reach even further. However, there is still one thing to wonder about: is this only a phase that will soon go out of style? While some people think the food truck trend will fade away, many believe this nomadic business culture will continue to be popular. Most companies start out with just one truck. Some later expand to have a fleet of two or three trucks in order to

grow their business. Ray Villaman, whose Los Angeles-based company, Mobi Munch, is behind several popular trucks in both San Francisco and Los Angeles, said, “We’re way past the idea of it being a fad or [wondering] whether it’s sustainable” (Ruggless). Villaman has recently seen more multiple-truck concepts, and believes it to be a way of expanding the realm of mobile restaurants. Technomic, a company that tracks the food industry, conducted a survey in which 91% of consumers familiar with food trucks “say they view them as no passing fad” (Barker). Katie Baum, the owner of Skylite Snowball, thinks that while one truck is enough for right now, “growth is important” (Interview). If Skylite was to expand to two trucks, “I envision it not in the Bay Area, but more like in Baltimore, or Los Angeles. In another city,” Baum says, as a “sister truck” (Interview). The gourmet food truck industry, although still young, shows great promise in the future. The food truck movement continues to be a unique way for vendors to provide customers with the mobile meals of their dreams. As people all over the country are discovering, good food does not have to come from a five-star restaurant. Often, it is the small, hole-in-the-wall places that keep customers coming back for more, and any one of the brightly-colored trucks driving around San Francisco today could become your favorite place to grab a bite.

220


Works Cited Baum, Katie. Interview. 28 January 2012. Buck, Stephanie. "The Rise of the Social Food Truck." Mashable Business. N.p., 4 Aug. 2011. Web. 8 Jan. 2012. <http://mashable.com/2011/08/04/food-truck-history-infographic />. Owyang, Jeremiah. "Social Network Stats: Facebook, MySpace, Reunion." Web Strategy. Studio NashVegas, 9 Jan. 2008. Web. 3 Feb. 2012. <http://www.web-strategist.com/blog/2008/01/09/social-network -stats-facebook-myspace-reunion-jan-2008/>. Ruggless, Ron. "Food truck trend." Nation's Restaurant News. N.p., 17 June 2011. Web. 2 Feb. 2012. <http://nrn.com/article/food-truck-trend>. Sniderman, Zachary. "How Social Media Is Fueling the Food Truck Phenomenon." Mashable Business. N.p., 16 June 2011. Web. 8 Jan. 2012. <http://mashable.com/2011/06/16/food-trucks-social-media/>. Wolfe,  Lahle. "Twitter Statistics: How Many People Use Twitter?." Women in Business. About.com, 9 Sept. 2011. Web. 16 Feb. 2012. <http://womeninbusiness.about.com/od/twittertips/a/twitter-stati stics.htm>. 221


Alexis Elliott

Shouting at the Devil: Madness in Heavy Metal Over the years there have been a multitude of misconceptions about Metal music - such as the promotion of sex, drugs, Satanism, and violence – but such labels are derived from misunderstandings, and we cannot live on these interpretations, because music is an art form and should be respected. Rock critics have attacked metal full on, and law suits have been filed against bands, but fans have still stayed loyal to their music. In the dictionary the word heavy metal means power. Rob Halford of Judas Priest says that, “I have been invited to try my hand at explaining heavy metal music. First heavy metal is power…” (Walser 1). Heavy metal evokes potency and power and a person of metal is powerful and daunting. The loudness and extreme intensity of this genre empower fans in many ways. Metal has many sources of power like the use of mythology, violence, madness, and the depictions of horror. One can find power even in the names of bands as sources of power.

Bands have names with electrical/mechanical power, or dangerous animals, or even dangerous people. Metal album covers and stage shows show have “larger- than- life” imagery tied to fantasies of social power. Even clothing and hairstyles marked social spaces claiming these people in the name of heavy metal. As one can imagine, “…These aspects of power provoke strong reactions from those outside heavy metal, including fear and censorship” (Walser 2). This feeling of power, relating to lyrics and larger than life images was the appeal of heavy metal music. Critics like Tipper Gore who do not understand and mostly feared what this music was doing to society, mounted full on attacks to the genre. Gore lead parents to censor heavy metal music and the result of her efforts are seen today by the “Parental Advisory, Explicit Content” labels on albums. Mrs. Gore said rather confidentially that “You’re talking to someone who really understands rock music” (Gore Quotes). She went on and on criticizing this genre of music like she understood every aspect of it. Critics for years have said that this is unsophisticated music for unsophisticated people. Metal first appeared around the 70’s. Metal was mainly influenced by the blues and classical music genres. “From the beginning, blues was known as the ‘Devil’s Music’” (Bayer, 75). Many musicians used the “devil’s note” or the tritone along with distortions to produce heavy metal sounds (Dunn). Tritones are notes known to create a heavy and uncomfortable dissonance 222


so heavy and uncomfortable that it became known as the Devil’s note (Tritones). The use of this note sparked criticism, since it had been frowned upon for such a long time. The first metal bands were Black Sabbath, Deep Purple, and Led Zeppelin (Dunn). Black Sabbath was where everything started. “It was Black Sabbath who gave the blues the impetus to morph into heavy metal” (Bayer, 79), even though, Black Sabbath just considered themselves as being a heavier 12-bar blues band. Ozzy Osbourne, a former member of Black Sabbath, recalls walking past a cinema playing an Italian director’s movie, Black Sabbath, when his band mate Tony Iommi said, “Isn’t strange that people pay money to see scary films? Perhaps we should start writing scary music” (Bayer, 80). This was that core idea of metal music. Later on in their career, the band wore satanic embellishments and incorporated devilish themes in their performances. Many actual Satanists called up asking for Black Sabbath to perform at their Black Masses, but the band declined. Whence touring the United States, the band got death threats. Many of their performances were cancelled because of “the dark imagery of their lyrics” (Bayer, 80). Black Sabbath said that they were surprised about the whole Satanism thing because it really did not shock the Brits. Forbidden, a metal band scheduled, is just about to play along with several other thrash metal bands. There are church officials rioting outside with signs that say “God Loves us All” … there are people surrounding the theater with anger and calling

the bands pure Satanists. Matt Camacho of Forbidden takes one look and laughs. He says, “When you look at the extremes these people go to, to prevent us from playing, all you really end up doing is laughing” (Camacho). He recalls that a band member from another band “went on and rioted with the church officials” (Camacho). Satanism is the most common misconception of metal music. With a song called God Hates Us All by Slayer and with the signs of the devil and rather violent lyrics and imagery that comes with most other heavy metal music, it is not hard to understand how people may mistake these people for real Satanists. For most metal musicians, all of this is an act; it is just for fun and to create a more shocking picture. Why? Because it creates more attention and publicity. When Slayer came out with the song God Hates Us All, they put that title on it because of the shock factor. They wanted to shock people and creep them out. When people are shocked and outraged, the band gets more attention and publicity. In fact Matt of Forbidden was disappointed that their band never got the “Parental Advisory, Explicit Content” sticker. The more controversy a band got the more publicity and attention they received. Earlier I said most metal bands were not true Satanists. That is because Norway is home to Death Metal (Dunn). The musicians of death metal are real Satanists. In Norway, these band members have burned down several churches trying to “deplete 223


any trace of Christianity” said the leader singer of the Norwegian band Gorgoroth. These musicians go on to say that Satan is there true person/figure they look up to. Satan is the way to freedom for them. The Norwegian band, Mayhem, is probably the most controversial band. When their vocalist shot himself in the brain, the rest of his band mates fashioned the remains of his skull as a necklace around all of their necks (Dunn). Norway is where metal music can be a bit scary and people who hear of this might make this generalization for all the other metal bands in the world. Metal music was taken to court several times being blamed for kids committing suicide. The most famous lawsuit was against Judas Priest in 1990. Two boys, Roy and Jay, made a suicide pact; these boys happened to also be Judas Priest fans. People said that their song Do It gave them the message to go out and kill themselves (Walser, 145). The prosecution immediately blamed the music before looking into these kids’ backgrounds. Jay Vance was beaten and abused by an alcoholic father. He showed trends of violent behavior in grade school. Roy had a similar background. He was abused by his dad and so was his mom. Yet, these environmental family backgrounds seemed to be completely ignored. The prosecution continued on to say that people have bad lives but it does not mean that they kill themselves (Walser, 146). The plaintiffs said when they played the song backwards it said “suicide is in” (Walser, 145). They went further to say that these coincidental “hidden messages”

can be decoded without a conscious awareness. Judas Priest laughed it off and showed the court humorous backwards messages in their music. After all why would a band be crazy enough to put subliminal messages to fans to go kill themselves when the fans are the ones who buy their albums? In the end, the case was dismissed with lack of proof. Another case was brought against Ozzy Osbourne’s song Suicide Solution because a kid committed suicide while listening to this song. The title of this song is very controversial and can easily be misunderstood. If a person looks deeper the lyrics say: Wine is fine but whiskey's quicker 
 Suicide is slow with liquor 
 Take a bottle, drown your sorrows 
 Then it floods away tomorrows 
 Away tomorrows … Now you live inside that bottle 
 The reaper's travelling at full throttle 
 It's catching you but you don't see 
 The reaper's you and the reaper is me … Breaking laws, knocking doors 
 But there's no one at home 
 Made your bed, rest your head 
 But you lie there and moan 
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Where to hide, suicide is the only way out 
 Don't you know what it's really about (Osbourne).

devil, and suicides but as one fan said “to talk about something is not the same as promoting it…” (Walser,150).

Ozzy claims that the lyrics were inspired by the alcohol-related suicide of a friend and that the song was anti-suicide and antidrug (Walser 147). In reality he is really saying that drowning away your sadness with alcohol is slow and painful and in the end does not resolve anything. He continues to say that when you live for the next drink that death is coming for you yet you are oblivious to the harm. You are killing yourself, and I am killing you by not doing any preventive measures. He goes on in one last verse to say because you drowning your life away in alcohol, you are not really addressing your real problems and maybe you do not even know what they really are anymore. Yes the title seems like it is clearly saying go commit suicide, but if this kid was that serious about Ozzy, a person would think he would pay closer attention to the lyrics and meaning (Dunn). It was yet again another case dismissed for lack of evidence.

Many people tend to think metal is bad for children and teens because of the violence, imagery, and drug related lyrics, especially the PMRC. Tipper Gore is probably the most famous critic. She led the campaign to censor this genre of music. Gore mobilized parental hysteria by saying metal is a threat to their kids. Recent studies show no link between a teen’s preferences in music to behavioral problems at school (Walser, 145). In court cases, they could not even connect metal directly to suicides and other acts of violence. Critics like Struessy say that metal is held responsible for harming listeners, but neglects violence in the classical music genre. In Beethoven’s Symphony Fantastique there was the glorification of drugs, violence, and Satanism. People dare not question classical music because it is a genre of “higher” class and metal music is for “infusing dirtbags and worthless puds with the courage to grow up and be a dickhead” (Walser, 21). So society says metal is violent, yet we see violence all around us during video games, movies, and even at sports events.

Metal means power. This music is meant to feel powerful. For this reason no one listens to heavy metal to feel hopeless, but strong. The fact that metal promotes suicide doesn’t make much sense if these people listened to metal to feel empowered. One fan wrote to Metallica thanking them because their song about suicide, Fade to Black, actually prevented him/her from killing themselves. Fans value metal because it deals with issues of importance to them. Yes, metal talks about death, the

Judas Priest, Motley Crue, Twisted Sister, and many other bands were on the list called the filthy fifteen because their music was deemed offensive in the eyes of the parents. Dee Snider of Twisted Sister was actually asked to testify in court against the censoring of metal music. When he came in with 225


makeup on and crazy clothes people did not even think he could construct sentences, but they were surprised when he read from a three page paper he wrote himself. Dee said that songs allow people to put their own imagination, ideas, and dreams into the lyrics. People can interpret it many ways. One fan said “adults tend to take everything too literally, not understanding more sophisticated allegorical or figurative meanings” (Walser 152). Lyrics in heavy metal are metaphors for how they are actually feeling. Dee went on to say his music was “no more violent than the declaration of independence” (Dunn). While lyrics are meant for free interpretation, this does not mean they should be taken literally. Alice Cooper’s music got banned in many countries for the use of violent imagery in his stage shows. Yet he exclaims, “There is more violence in Macbeth and that is required reading for school!” (Dunn). He has a song called Welcome to My Nightmare. Cooper says he is not just going to sing that but he is going to show people the nightmare. Metal explores the unknown and feared topics like death. In album covers, bands have depictions of dark creepy images. This music is just harmless entertainment and for understandable reasons, critics tend to think otherwise. It seems that every time there is a murder or someone commits a suicide and that they listen to metal, it is automatically metal’s fault. People blame metal for the reason these people committed such crimes. Yes

metal can be violent but is not to be taken seriously. It is like Halloween…fun and games. Metal is no more violent than horror movies, murder shows, and television. Another stereotype is that metal is the core promotion of drugs. In a special from Newsweek, the title of the article said “the age of Aids, crack, and heavy metal” (Newsweek). Music and drugs have had a long history in many genres and metal is no exception. Both music and drugs are ways for coping with particular circumstances. Yes this music does talk about drugs in their lyrics but whether or not a person does drugs or does not, people can still understand the meaning behind these lyrics. In most cases musicians cannot even afford to indulge in drugs because their music would suffer too much. In general lyrics mostly represent self pity, anger, rebellion, love, and actually antidrug as well. All the misconception of heavy metal music comes from just a misunderstanding. People tend to misinterpret lyrical meaning and think an outsider to this genre will interpret the lyrics just as a fan would. Because metal is different, people are more quick to judge and it seems that “All of these critics share the notion that heavy metal is bad because it is perverse deviance in the midst of a successfully functioning society” (Walser, 144). Metal is not afraid to question things and this freaks people out. No matter the unabashed criticism this genre receives, head bangers from all around have still stayed loyal to their music. 226


But why? The reason is because metal discusses topics other music does not dare to sing about. Fans can relate to lyrics that hold a certain importance to them. One fan said, “You find a strong sense of confidence in heavy metal because it is powerful music” (Dunn). Metal gives people a feeling of strength. Metal’s larger than life images gives fans something to be a part of that is larger than themselves. One fan said, the lyrics, gave him the confidence in the dark times in his life. Metal has inspired people for years and years. It is because of these loyal fans that metal as been kept alive.

"What in the World Is a “tritone”?" Piano Lessons & Piano Chords. 6 Oct. 2011. Web. 07 Feb. 2012. "Newsweek." The Daily Beast. Web. 15 Feb. 2012.  Osbourne, Ozzy. "Suicide Solution Lyrics." Lyrics Freak. Ozzy Osbourne, 2010. Web. Camacho, Matt. Personal Interview. 11 Jan. 2012.

Works Cited Walser, Robert. Running with the Devil: Power, Gender, and Madness in Heavy Metal Music. Hanover, NH: University of New England, 1993. Print. Bayer, Gerd. Heavy Metal Music in Britain. Farnham: Ashgte, 2009. Print. Metal: A Headbanger’s Journey: Disc. Sam Dunn, 2005. DVD. "Top 10 Myths About Metal." Top 10 Lists - Listverse. The Black Frost, 9 July 2011. Web. 14 Jan. 2012. "Tipper Gore Quotes - BrainyQuote." Famous Quotes at BrainyQuote. Brainy Quote, 2001. Web. 07 Feb. 2012. 

227


Aaren Field

The World of Illegal Animals Wouldn’t it be exciting to own an exotic wild animal? To be able to show it off to your friends, yet at the same time, have a lovable companion? Whether a chimpanzee, parrot, tiger, or boa constrictor, the idea of owning an exotic wild animal is exciting and tempting to pet lovers. It is so tempting, that each year millions of exotic animals are exported illegally out of their native habitats to meet the demands of individuals who are seeking to buy exotic animals. These “animals are captured…and transported to various countries to be sold as pets.”("The Dangers of Keeping Exotic ‘Pets’"). Once the trafficked animals reach the international market, their value sky rockets almost instantaneously. The poachers, traffickers, and sellers are not watching out for the well being of these animals; they just want to make money. Once the animals reach the market, they end up in hands of individuals who are not educated in how to care for an exotic “pet”. Illegal wildlife trafficking has become one of the largest illegal trades in the world; if stricter trading regulations are not enforced along with educating the public about this lu-

crative crime, it could easily mean the extinction and harm of many endangered species worldwide. Exotic animals are smuggled from all across the globe; countries in South America, Central America, Asia and Africa mostly contribute in supplying wild animals to the global black market (Colombo). Peter Laufer, who is a research journalist, said that “just about every protected animal has been found crossing into international borders.” (Laufer XII). The most common animals targeted by smugglers are piranhas, stingrays, rare species of song birds, brightly colored parrots, reptiles such as boa constrictors, great apes, along with large cats. A large majority of the sting rays and piranhas are smuggled from South America, due to their ample supply of exotic animal species (Lovgren). Jungles in South America have very fragile ecosystems, yet these rain forests have become the main “sources of wild animals that are being trafficked” into European countries (Colombo). It is difficult to watch this happen because in the following generations, there will be much less wildlife diversity in those, once heavily diverse jungles. Jaguar pelts, tigers, and Asian leopards are all smuggled from different countries in Asia, because of this, it is significantly decreasing the numbers of large cats living in the wild (Lovgren). The high demand of exotic animals is causing a large amount of unnecessary death amongst endangered species, which could lead to the extinction of many innocent animals. 228


Orangutans are one of the many endangered species that are poached in Indonesia. Orangutans are usually captured as pets at a young age and because their mothers are so protective, it means that they are usually killed while the baby is being taken away (Laufer XIV). It is sad to see that innocent animals are killed in the process of smugglers trying to meet the high demand of exotic pets. Currently the demand for exotic animals is at an all time high. If there was no demand for exotic animals, there would be no market for them. The only thing that drives illegal animal trafficking is the fact that people are willing to purchase them at any given time (Wassener). Poachers and smugglers have to poach thousands of rare animals to meet the demands of the collectors in other countries. Much of the illegal animal trade is driven by the East Asian markets, who crave exotic species of wild life ("WCS: Organized Crime Wiping out Wildlife"). Yet out of every country in the world, the “U.S. is the main destination for exotic and endangered animals” ("Inside The Exotic Animal Trade"). There are no hard numbers to say how much illegal wildlife come into the U.S. annually, but it is a fact that smugglers and poachers are working hard to keep up with the demand of U.S. consumers of wild animals (Lovgren). A significant amount of the individuals who purchase exotic species off the black market are exotic animal collectors, this means that they look for specific animals that they desire to

own. The prices that some collectors are willing to pay for an exotic animal are shocking, because of this, they are encouraging the smugglers to continue poaching animals. In the eyes of many collectors, the rarer the species is, the more value it holds. Collectors are willing to pay any amount of money to purchase an animal they believe holds a significant value (Laufer XIV). Prices of animals vary quite significantly; in Central America a hunter might get paid $50 for a rare parrot, but once it reaches the U.S., it can sell up to $1,000 on the Black market (Lovgren). A pink Macaw captured in Brazil can be worth around $15, but once it reaches Europe’s black market, it can sell for up to $2,000. Local poachers and hunters receive very little for capturing the animals; it is the sellers and smugglers who make much of the profit (Colombo). The price an animal is sold at depends on where the animal is exported to and how rare the animal is. The rarer the animal is, the more expensive it is. Collectors like to spend big money on animals that are hard to find ("Inside the Exotic Animal Trade”). Poachers, smugglers and seller are well aware of that and take advantage of the fact that they are willing to pay almost anything for an animal they desire. Collectors are willing to search high and low for rare species, but in recent years the internet helps reduce some of the labor intensive searching they would have to do manually. Due to technological advantages in communication, the internet has now become a large player which helps support the lucrative 229


business of illegal animal trading. Traders and smugglers are able to use the internet to reach customers on an international level ("A Cyber Crackdown on the Wildlife Trade”). Their products are on display to potential buyers and collectors worldwide, which only escalates the demand for these endangered animal species. This market of exotic animals, known as the “the cyber black market”, is making endangered species more accessible to the general public. It has been found that “more than 1000 internet sites offer to sell (wild animals), give care advice, and provide chat rooms where buyers and sellers can haggle over a price” ("The Dangers of Keeping Exotic ‘Pets’”). The cyber market aids to facilitate this illegal trade, because of this, thousands of animals are put into harms way. This market is making itself open to a large venue of rare and protected species, which would otherwise be hard to come by (Mott). Now in days when people decide to by exotic pets they are able to search for them online, and can usually find the animal of their choice with very little hassle ("Inside the Exotic Animal Trade"). The IFAW (International Fund for Animal Welfare) has found that thousands of exotic animals, protected and endangered, as along with animal parts are sold and offered online every single day (Laufer, XIII). This new online black market is becoming one of the many ways that could lead to the extinction of many species. Law enforcement agents are trying to use the cyber black market to find online leads that could help them make more arrests in the future ("A Cyber Crackdown on the Wildlife Trade”).

With this illegal trade growing exponentially, law enforcement agents are finding it increasingly difficult to crack down on the individuals who partake in this illegal trade. Law enforcement agents are beginning to trace online advertisements to individuals who were suspected of selling protected animals ("A Cyber Crackdown on the Wildlife Trade”). Although efforts are starting to be taken to preserve protected species, traffickers and poachers significantly outnumber law enforcement agents who are attempting to help. Bettina Wassener said that, “the trade in endangered species has soared in recent years, with significant seizures on a near-daily basis” (Wassener). Even though exotic animals are being seized every day, it does not mean that it is decreasing the number of animals being trafficked. There are more cases of animal smuggling that are being investigated than ever before and there are not enough officers to take on the job (Lovgren;“Inside The Exotic Animal Trade”). Law enforcement officers who are trying to protect the wild life are being killed by smugglers and poachers in third world countries and law enforcement officers in first world countries are being outnumbered by the smugglers (Laufer, XI). The government needs to make an effort to increase the number of ground officers so that more arrests can be made. Even when the authorities prosecute an animal smuggler, which is hard to do, the punishment is minimal. The penalties for getting caught trafficking illegal animals are minimal, because of this, smugglers have every reason to take 230


the risk due to the huge profit that can be made. This profit is one of the reasons why so many individuals partake in this activity. Smuggling is easy to do and is hard to get caught doing. Punishments include short periods of time in jail along with fines, or just fines alone. Because the risk of getting caught is minimal, smugglers are finding easy ways around the law enforcement. Organized crime is becoming more sophisticated in wildlife smuggling. Traders, smugglers and seller are now becoming quite “adept at eluding authorities” (“Wanted: Tougher Enforcement Against Wildlife Crime”). The two major methods for transporting wildlife are by flight and Trans-Atlantic ships (Colombo). A large amount of wildlife is smuggled in sea cargo containers because cargo inspection is minimal (Lovgren). To confuse authorities; the smugglers forge certificates, camouflage their live animals, place legal shipment items in their cargo, change their trade routes rapidly, and use shipment containers with hidden compartments. Placing protected species among legal species makes it difficult for uneducated authorities to verify if the animal is illegal or not (Colombo; "WCS: Organized Crime Wiping Out Wildlife”). These are all very elaborate methods that help keep authorities uneducated on the smugglers methods of transportation. Because the smugglers are trying to keep the wildlife hidden from authorities, they are subjecting them to cruel shipping conditions. Almost every animal must go through horrible conditions along the transportation process. Smugglers are willing to

do almost anything to get their cargo to where it is needed, even if it means making the animals suffer. Exotic animal trade is not only deadly to the animals that make it past transport, it is also deadly to the animals we don’t see; many of them die along the way (“Inside The Exotic Animal Trade”). Francesca Colombo states that, “90% of the animals die in the process or being caught or during transport” (Colombo). Most of the animals die because of the ways smugglers pack them into shipment containers. Birds get their beaks and feet taped, then stuffed into stalkings or plastic tubes so that they can be easily hidden. The smugglers might also drug the birds to make sure that they won’t make noises during transport. Stolen bird and reptile eggs have been known to be put into special vests that allow them to get past airport x-ray machines. Baby turtles have been found taped shut into their shells and shoved into socks to make sure they would not move or escape. Baby pythons have been found shoved into CD cases, with little to no room to move (“Inside The Exotic Animal Trade”). It is unsettling to know that even if an animal reaches their final destination alive, they are still subjected to abuse and inadequate living conditions. Most of the time, the animals suffer even more once they leave the hands of the dealers and are sold to buyers. First time buyers who purchase the exotic animals do not realize that the animal requires special care, such as diet, housing, and maintenance that the average person does not have the resources to usually provide ("The Dangers of Keeping Exotic “Pets”). They 231


often do not know what they are getting themselves into before it is already too late. The animals can suffer from loneliness, malnutrition, and the terrifying stress of confinement in a small area. The housing that is provided for the animal is an unnatural and uncomfortable environment for an exotic animal to be housed in. A lot of the time animals can die because of this stress, which might stem from lack of attention or being uncomfortable with their environment (“Inside The Exotic Animal Trade”). The individuals who purchase these animals try to change their nature as wild animals “by confinement in small barren enclosures, chaining, beating “into submission, or even painful mutilations, such as declawing and tooth removal” (“The Dangers of Keeping Exotic “Pets”). Private owners soon realize that they no longer want the responsibility of owning an exotic pet once they see the animal act out or become aggressive. Private pet owners do not realize that exotic animals are wild and because of that, they are unpredictable. Exotic animal species pose a safety and health risk to the individual who possesses the animal, along with anyone who comes into contact with the animal ("The Dangers”). Animals are wild creatures by nature and are very dangerous and unpredictable. In the U.S., there have been many documented incidents where exotic animals that were held in private hands attacked humans, other animals, and have escaped from their enclosure. When an animal escapes from its enclosure it means that they roam freely in the community, causing potential harm

to whoever is unlucky enough to come across its path ("The Dangers”). Steve Sipek, an actor, who owned a tiger and had it escape from his enclosure. Animal control looked for the tiger for 24hours, and once they located it one of the authorities had to kill it because it lunged at him (Laufer XV). This incident could have easily become a lot worse if the animal was not located it time. Each year there are recorded incidents of children and adults have been mauled by tigers, bitten by monkeys, and asphyxiated by snakes. When an individual first buys an exotic pet they do not initially realize how much work the animals are going to become once they fully mature. Once the pet owners realizes that they can no longer take on the responsibilities of owning an exotic pet they either try to donate the animal to a zoo or release them into the wild. A majority of the time when the animal is donated to a zoo, it usually has to be euthanized. The zoo cannot pose the risk of endangering the rest of the zoo’s population by introducing a new animal, whom they know nothing about, into an enclosure (“Inside The Exotic Animal Trade”). Even if a zoo does not euthanize the animal, it is impossible for zoos to “accommodate the number of unwanted exotic animals” that are abandoned by irresponsible people (“The Dangers”). If a private owner is too lazy to donate their “pet” to a zoo, they just release them into the wild. Private pet owners might think this will benefit the animal, but it does the exact opposite. Once an animal is released into the wild they either will starve, fall victim to the elements, or will 232


thrive and disturb the very delicate ecosystem. If animals thrive after being released into the wild they usually are predators and end up killing off the indigenous species in area (“Inside the Exotic Animal Trade”). This changes the natural balance of the environment. In the end whether a private owner donates their unwanted animal to a zoo or releases it into the wild, the animal and the environment are put at risk. The only way to put an end to the harmful business of animal trafficking is make the demand for exotic animals decrease and to increase the effectiveness of law enforcement. People need to be educated about the repercussions owning an exotic animal can have on their life and the lives of people around them. Exotic animals trade is so high because of the demand of the consumers, once people stop buying exotic species, innocent animals will stop being killed (Mott). Maryann Mott believes that “each of us has a responsibility to stop buying and selling wild animals and wildlife products” (Mott). The only way to completely end this illegal trade is to stop buying exotic animals all together. Until the day people stop buying exotic pets, a short term solution is through better law enforcement in order to keep up with the advances in smuggling strategies. Punishment for breaking the laws needs to be enforced more; this is difficult because animal trafficking is often tolerated in society. And because of that, the perpetrator is not pursued by the authorities as much as

someone who deals in drugs or arms trafficking, which have a direct harm on people (Colombo). Joe Walstor, the director of the WCS-Asia highly stresses that, “If governments want to protect their wildlife resources, they need to be serious about enforcement” ("A Cyber Crackdown on the Wildlife Trade”).  The government can help fight against these organized crime organizations by increasing the “numbers of highly trained and wellequipped enforcement staff at all points along the trade chain, using more sniffer dogs, conducting DNA tests to search for wildlife products, and employing smart-phone apps with species identification programs” ("Wanted "). If more efforts are taken by law enforcement agents, it could mean the survival of many endangered species. Ways that individuals can help put an end to this horrible business in their community are by supporting legislations that would make owning an exotic animal illegal and also banning the sale and trade of exotic animals. Instead of searching for an exotic pet, individuals should purchase animals that are in need of a good home. There are hundreds of animal shelters that are filled with dogs, cats, and birds that are in need of loving companions ("Inside The Exotic Animal Trade”). If more people purchased these animals in need, it would benefit the lives of the owners and exotic animals that are being smuggled. Exotic animals do not make good companions; they belong in their natural habitats and not in the hands of private, ignorant, individuals as “pets” ("The Dangers of Keeping Exotic “Pets”). Exotic ani233


mals are always going to be wild; they can never be domesticated or tamed. For the sake of the exotic animals, people should never buy exotic animals as “pets”. If animal smuggling is not stopped it could mean a very ecologically diverse world for the future generations. Hundreds if not thousands of endangered species will cease to exist if nothing is done to prevent the trade of animals and animal products. A world that was once exploding with ecological diversity and majestic wild life would no longer be full of as much wonder. Do we really want our children to grow up in a world where tigers, monkeys, and many more species are no longer found in the wild? The answer is no, and we as people can help make sure that that never happens. Right now we have the opportunity to try and put an end to this, to stop the declining wildlife populations. I would like to acknowledge help from my dad for reading over my paper for me and giving me suggestions, Alex Jonasse, Chessa Yee and Matthew Morgan for peer editing my paper and giving me helpful feedback and Craig Butz for reviewing my paper and giving me feedback on how I could improve it.

Works Cited Colombo, Francesca. "Animal Trafficking - A Cruel Billion-Dollar Business." Home | Common Dreams. Inter Press Service, 6 Sept. 2003. Web. 03 Jan. 2012. <http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0906-06.htm>.

"A Cyber Crackdown on the Wildlife Trade ." Wildlife Conservation Society. Wildlife Conservation Society, 17 Feb. 2011. Web. 07 Jan. 2012. <http://www.wcs.org/news-and-features-main/a-cyber-crackdow n-on-wildlife-trade.aspx>. "The Dangers of Keeping Exotic “Pets”." Welcome to Born Free USA. Born Free USA. Web. 30 Jan. 2012. <http://www.bornfreeusa.org/facts.php?p=187> "Inside The Exotic Animal Trade." People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA): The Animal Rights Organization. PETA.org. Web. 07 Jan. 2012. <http://www.peta.org/issues/Companion-Animals/inside-the-exo tic-animal-trade.aspx>. Laufer, Peter. Forbidden Creatures: inside the World of Animal Smuggling and Exotic Pets. Guilford, CT: Lyons, 2010. Print. Lovgren, Stefan. "Wildlife Smuggling Boom Plaguing L.A, Authorities Say." National Geographic News. National Geographic, 26 July 2007. Web. 4 Jan 2012. Mott, Maryann. "Protected Species, Animal products for sale Online." National Geographic News. National Geographic, 26 Aug 2005. Web. 6 Jan 2012. "Wanted: Tougher Enforcement Against Wildlife Crime." Wildlife Conservation Society. Wildlife Conservation Society, 27 July 234


2011. Web. 07 Jan. 2012. <http://www.wcs.org/news-and-features-main/wanted-tougher-e nforcement-of-wildlife-crime.aspx>. Wassener, Bettina. "Seizure Highlights Illegal Wildlife Trading." The New York Times. The New York Times Company, 11 Feb. 2011. Web. 07 Jan. 2012. <http://green.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/02/11/seizure-highlightswidespread-illegal-wildlife-trading/?scp=10>. "WCS: Organized Crime Wiping Out Wildlife." Wildlife Conservation Society. WCS.org. Web. 07 Jan. 2012. <http://www.wcs.org/press/press-releases/oryx-wildlife-trade.as px>.

235


Ben Foster

Schools Shoud Offer a Class on Sustainable Agriculture We depend on food every day of our lives to survive, yet many people in the last two generations have no idea where their sustenance comes from or how they affect the world through eating it. Children and young adults in the United States need a better understanding of the source of their food. They need to understand the intense amount of work which goes into it, its impact on the environment, and the way it will affect them. To give them this understanding, both public and private schools in America need to offer a hands-on class on agriculture, taught through the use of school gardens, connections between local, sustainable farms, and various books and movies on the subject. This class would benefit the physical and mental health of the students as well as the ecosystem and other countries. Most importantly, such a class would not take away from any

parts of a studentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s education; it would boost their understanding of how different topics fit together and interact in the real world. A course in agriculture should be offered to middle school students and high school students in all locations to maximize the impact it would have. While students in rural areas have options to study farming, students in the city have few opportunities for an education on where their food comes from. In fact, only ten percent of the Future Farmers of America organization, or the FFA, is made up of students who live in an urban environment (FFA). When compared to the eighty nine percent of students who live in small towns and rural environments, a clear imbalance is evident (FFA). ! A class on agriculture would need several components in order to be successful. It would need to be hands-on to achieve the most success (Louv 47). Part of the strength of a course on the outdoors is how fascinating it is to children. Currently, schools use terrifying images and articles of the problems humans are causing in the environment. On the Environmental Protection Agencyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s website, there is a lesson plan for teachers, which shows all the terrifying problems facing the globe (United States, Climate). This method of teaching is favored by most schools as well. It is causing children to associate nature with serious problems, and stop thinking about nature out of fear 236


(Louv 134). Schools need to take a different, more positive, approach. A better way for schools to educate students on environmental problems would be to institute a school garden or visit a local community garden. Many schools in the Bay Area have begun creating gardens for this exact purpose, such as The Edible Schoolyard garden at the Martin Luther King Jr. School in Berkeley (Waters 2) or Sherman Elementary in San Francisco. In order to make the information interesting, this class would also need to show the students real life examples of sustainable farming by visiting real farms or having farmers visit the schools. Tara Smith, a Sonoma County resident farmer, has found that when she teaches students, they respond with far more interest when they are being shown positive practices rather than negative ones (Smith). Another option would be to have farmers come and visit the class to talk about sustainable agriculture. Mrs. Smith often visits schools to explain the current practices in the farming industry in comparison to how we should be farming. She also talks about the way these practices effect nutrition and the environment. Generally, she spends an hour explaining, and also allows students to ask questions at the end. This course should also have students read literature connected to the topic, such as “The Omnivore’s Dilemma” or have them watch movies like “Food Inc.” or “The True Cost of Food”

to back up what they learn outside. This is something many schools are already doing (Smith). These documents provide a good way to cement understanding. Finally, schools should change the lunch menu to make it healthier and less processed by establishing a connection with local farms (Cooper, “School Lunches”). According to Doctor Marilyn Briggs, “Menus are at the heart of the whole system” (Briggs 224). If schools made the lunch even slightly healthier, it would familiarize students with eating healthier and make them think about their food. The last five generation’s understanding of where their food comes from has atrophied dramatically, despite the fact that agriculture’s importance has never changed. According to the FFA, farming is still the largest job source in America, employing seventeen percent of citizen workers (FFA). Around 1825, schools began offering classes which taught methods of growing crops. The FFA was founded in 1928 to help students learn about farming. The number of students in farming classes increased to about 583,000 students in 1970, and then it began to drop (AITC). In 2004, there were thirty public school districts out of one thousand providing a farm to school education in California (Zeltser). There has been a dramatic decrease in the understanding students possess of farming in the past twenty years (Louv 24). In fact, in a recent study done by Alan Goddard of one thousand children ranging from six to eight year 237


olds, less than one quarter of the students knew burgers were made from beef (Survey reveals). Other answers stated that french fries were made of rabbits or butterflies (Survey BBC). The children in this study lived in the country where farming was prevalent in daily life, yet they were extremely ignorant about their food. In response to this rise in ignorance of the source of food, schools have been instituting gardens and other small lessons on nutrition (Louv 220). Schools provide a very small amount of information compared to organizations such as FFA or the 4H. The current problem is finding a balance between setting children up to become farmers, and just giving them a basic understanding of where their food comes from. This allows them to make informed decisions on what they eat and the way they treat the environment. The main reason presented by schools for a school garden right now is to teach the students where their food comes from. Many students have no understanding of what farm animals and plants certain foods come from (Smith). This lack of understanding is causing something Richard Louv calls “Nature Deficit Disorder” (Louv 36). NDD is characterized by a “hyperintellectuallized perception of other animals” and “a diminished use of the senses” (Louv 36). A study was done by the American Institute for Research in 2005 of 225 at risk 6th graders; It showed that a group of students who attended only 3 ”outdoor education programs” had a twenty seven percent increase in measured mastery of science concepts, learning motivation,

gains in self esteem, and good behavior (Louv 230). Robin Moore, a learning environment designer, says that “natural settings are essential for healthy child development” (Louv 86). It could be argued that the students were suffering from Nature Deficit Disorder, and the test program helped treat them. It is also important because students need to be familiar with foods or they will be unwilling to eat them (Waters 5). This unwillingness to eat unknown foods often causes children to make unhealthy decisions about what they eat. Schools need to offer this course to improve the health of children across the nation. America is an immensely unhealthy nation. Four citizens die every eighteen minutes from unhealthy eating (Oliver). Poor diet and physical activity will cause 1200 people to die early each day; this number is about the same as tobacco (Briggs). Children are set to live life spans ten years shorter than their parents (Oliver). In fact, seventeen percent of children ages 2 to 19 are obese (CDC). The CDC lists the three main factors of obesity as genetics, disease, and the environment. It is hard to fight genetics, and disease is impossible to prevent all the time, so the best place to fight obesity is through the environment. A child’s environment encompasses three areas, home, school, and work (CDC). One of the best ways to fight this enormous problem is to eat healthier, and schools already make an enormous impact on the nutrition of students, so they should be changed to be healthier. Fruits and vegetables are clearly proven to carry numerous health benefits 238


(CDC). It is recommended that children eat about 5 servings of fruits or vegetables each day, although that number varies slightly according to body type, but in 2000, about ten percent of children ate five or more servings of fruits and vegetables a day (Lineberger and Zajicek). Several studies were done in 1990 and 1991 by the Texas Dept. of Human Resources. They found that, “a senior gardening program resulted in improved nutritional attitudes and consumption in the participants.” The other study likewise found that students in a school with a gardening program ate more fruits and vegetables than those who were not (Lineberger and Zajicek). A simple school garden would help to fix the nutritional problems facing many students. When Americans spend two hundred billion dollars each year on diet related illnesses, it seems important to try to prevent this, even if it does cost slightly more for schools (Cooper, “School Lunches”). Simply letting students spend more time outside would make them healthier as well through the exercise they would receive (Louv 220). A course to teach students about their food would also help to fix many attention problems as well as other problems. There has been little research done on the way knowledge of the outdoors effects the mind, but the tests and surveys which have been done agree on one thing. According to two studies done in Canada called, “Gaining Ground” and “Grounds for Action”, students who were exposed to an environment with “diverse natural settings” were more physically active, nicer to each

other, more creative, and more aware of nutrition (Louv 220). Another problem facing many students of this generation is learning differences such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. ADHD medicine prescriptions have increased by 600 percent from 1990 to 1995 (Louv 101). It is becoming an enormous problem, and a lack of time spent outside is often attributed to its rise (Louv 101). A study done by the Human Environment Research Laboratory found that exposure to nature reduced the symptoms of ADHD in children (Louv 106). Another study, conducted in Sweden, found that day cares which offered the toddlers more access to nature had children with noticeably better focus and motor skills (105). Many parents and farmers also feel that a connection with nature lessens a person’s desire for “stuff” (Smith) and builds self esteem (Louv 98). The purpose of schools is to help prepare students for life as adults, and if there is a clear way to help children learn and cope with stressors, then the schools ought to use that method. Schools should also offer a hands-on course on farming for a more global reason. The United States needs to consume less, and the best way to make the citizens consume less would be to educate children on how to live healthier lifestyles for themselves and others. In the United States, the average ecological footprint is eight global hectares per person, twice our biocapacity (Global Footprint Network). The world is facing deforestation, overgrazing, global climate change, fishery collapse, food insecurity, and rapid extinctions; all of these problems are di239


rectly related to our farming practices (Global Footprint Network). By teaching the future generations about all the work which goes into feeding them, they would become more grateful and less likely to waste their food. Food waste is a serious problem in the U.S.A.; in 2010, 33.79 million tons of food waste were discarded (United States, Basic). About twenty seven percent of food available to be eaten is thrown away. This amounts to one pound of food wasted per person. Rotting food produces greenhouse gasses, further impacting the climate negatively (Martin, One Country’s). Almost all the traditional courses on farming currently offered to college students are funded by Monsanto, DuPont, and several other agribusinesses (Cooper, “School Lunches”). None of these companies practice sustainable farming, and they all support the use of pesticides and large quantities of fertilizer as it is one of their main products. Ann Cooper, a director of nutritional projects in Berkeley, proposes that someone, “teach children the symbiotic relationship between a healthy planet, healthy food, and healthy kids.” Another interesting way that an exposure to nature effects people is the sense of wonder it fills them with. Thomas Tanner read through over three hundred autobiographies of different naturalists and ecologists in 1978, and found that nearly all of them listed their inspiration for protecting the environment as childhood experiences (Louv 150). Children of the last few gen-

erations have been almost completely deprived of these experiences, and the population will desperately need environmentalists in the future to help keep humans in balance with the ecosystem. With the pressing problems of overpopulation, American citizens need to be conscious of what they eat and who they support when they buy food. It is also in the interests of schools to include a farming class because it helps the students excel in other classes as well. A study done by Harvard medical school showed that students at the Martin Luther King Jr. middle school had a much better understanding of ecology and better academic progress in general than students at a similar school without access to a school garden (Stone 229). An understanding of how food reaches the table, “requires some understanding of natural processes…it also requires an understanding of educational, agricultural, economic, social, and political systems” (Stone 228). These understandings would be further improved if the class were taught in a hands-on way. Improving school lunch programs to make them offer healthier foods would make it much easier for students to pay attention and learn by decreasing sugar, fat, and salt content (Evans 253). Schools must take the lead in educating young adults because the current groups which do this are not providing a complete education. Even the young adults taking advantage of organizations such as FFA or the 4H group, an organization for children 240


to learn about healthy living, are still not receiving a complete education on sustainable farming. FFA is funded in part by agribusinesses such as DuPont and Monsanto, who support farming using Genetically Modified Organisms and pesticides, which can be harmful to the environment (Smith). Even 4H does not teach fully sustainable farming to students, the animals the students raise are fed with the intent of raising the biggest animals possible, despite the fact that smaller breeds of cows are more efficient to raise for meat production (“Why Miniature”). These education opportunities for students are teaching them where their food comes from, but they are teaching with a focus towards conventional farming rather than sustainable. According to the Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education program, run by the University of Maryland, there are several courses on agriculture at most colleges, often sustainable, but they are designed for students trying to make farming their career (University of Michigan, SARE). What schools need to create is a course which gives students enough basic information that they can apply it to other ideas. This entire facet of a student’s education must be provided by the school instead of any other group, to be the most effective because it will create a much stronger impression on the students than any other group could. In a survey taken in the United Kingdom of 883 students, seventy nine percent said school affected their attitudes toward foods. All television sources combined placed in second; sixty nine percent of stu-

dents said it affected their attitudes towards foods. Family and friends ranked third with only thirty one percent of students identifying them as an important influence in what they ate (FSA, Children’s Attitudes). Another study in the United States showed that ninety five percent of children said they learned about nutrition at school. Only eighty six percent said they learned about nutrition at home (Lineberger and Zajicek). School consistently plays the largest role in determining what children eat and the way they view food. It is the only institution which can compete with the advertising agencies which spend twenty billion dollars each year marketing unhealthy foods to children (Cooper, “School Lunches”). Another reason why schools need to become the leading proponent for healthy eating and a sustainable attitude towards nature is because parents will not. The University of Illinois suggested to parents that they “encourage their children to play outside and plant trees and other vegetation” (Louv 107). Almost none of the parents followed through with this, so none of the children received the education in this area which they needed (Louv 108). Parents seem to be unwilling or unable to give their children access and education on nature. Some group needs to do this, and schools are the best candidate because they have access to their students for long periods of time, they are an important source of education on good eating habits, and they could have the resources to do so. In 1995, Delaine Eastin, the superintendant of Public Instruction in California, requested that every 241


school create a garden to further education (Evans 256). She was not successful then, but the idea is rapidly gaining ground now, so leaders in education should take advantage now. There are several problems facing any attempt to create a class on agriculture, and the largest two are a lack of money in public schools and the enormous number of schools this class would need to be implemented in. California has one thousand public school districts, and a school district can range in population from nine students to 750,000 students (Stone 233). Each school has a school board which would need to be convinced to spend the time and money on a class on farming. Attempting to make any rigid plan would never be successful. Also, the National School Lunch Program currently spends eight billion dollars each year to feed 30 million students. To provide a much healthier lunch for students, they would need to spend 16 billion each year (Cooper, “School Lunches”). Such an increase would be difficult for the government to manage, especially in our current recession. These problems can be overcome, however. The creation of the Edible Schoolyard was funded entirely by parent and faculty donation, and Alice Waters simply had to work with the people in charge of the school on a small scale to institute it (Waters 24). If every school board was approached by some parent or student, they could come to an agreement on what to add. Schools could educate the parents about the ways this course

would benefit their children, and then host a fundraiser (Waters 25). Public schools could make their lunches meet nutritional standards so that they become reimbursable by the federal government (Cooper, “School Lunches”). The National Agriculture in the Classroom program, or NAITC, offers grants to schools who take steps to explain agriculture to their students. In 2009, they gave away 900,000 dollars total in grants to about one hundred schools (United States, AITC). The Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education program from the University of Michigan offers grants to schools building a program which relates to sustainable agriculture (University, SARE). These problems can be surmounted, but they will require many small scale efforts which take into account the way the school is run instead of blindly instituting a rigid system. Howard Gardner, an American psychologist, came up with a theory of multiple intelligences in 1999. Among the typical ones such as musical, linguistic, or logical intelligences, he stated that there was an eighth “natural intelligence” which related to the real world. This intelligence was similar to the others, but it dealt with the way comprehended nature. If his theory is true, then students all around the globe, but particularly in the US, have allowed this type of thought to go to waste. Middle schools and high schools, particularly grades seven through ten, should be taught about the source of their food, so that they can handle the problems experienced by the most recent generations. They should be taught in an interesting way which 242


uses the wonder nature fills everyone with as a strong part of the course. This means that the course needs to be outdoors; the students need to be planting crops, visiting farms and talking to farmers, and examining the school lunch program. All of this should be done with a focus on sustainable agriculture, so that students know what needs to be changed as they enter the real world. I would like to recognize Zachary Migdail, Asha Abdallah, and Craig Butz for editing my paper and giving advice on organization.!

Works Cited Briggs, Marilyn. “Rethinking School Lunch.” Ecological Literacy: Educating Our Children for a Sustainable World. The Bioneers. Ed. Stone, Michael and Barlow, Zenobia. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 2005. 241-249. Print. Center for Ecoliteracy. What is schooling for sustainability. CEL, 2009. Web. 3 January, 2012. “Children learn on mini-allotment.” BBC News. 27 Jul. 2008: Web Cooper, Ann. “School Lunches.” TED talks. TED. Dec. 2007. Web. 18 Jan. 2012.

Evans, Ann. “Changing Schools: A systems view.” Ecological Literacy: Educating Our Children for a Sustainable World. The Bioneers. Ed. Stone, Michael and Barlow, Zenobia. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 2005. 250-257. Print. Global Footprint Network. Advancing the science of sustainability. 2003-2011. 25 Nov. 2011. Lineberger, Sarah and Zajicek, Jayne. “School Gardens: Can a Hands-on Teaching Tool Affect Students’ Attitudes and Behaviors Regarding Fruit and Vegetables?” HortTechnology. Web. July 2000. Louv, Richard. Last Child in the Woods. Chapel Hill, NC: Algonquin Books of Chapel Hill, 2005. Print Martin, Andrew. “One Country’s Table Scraps, Another Country’s Meal.” New York Times. NY Times, 18 May, 2008. Web. 18 Jan. 2012. FFA Organization. FFA Statistics. FFA. Nov. 2011. Web. 2 Jan. 2012. Oliver, Jamie. “Teach every child about food.” TED Talks. February 2010. Web. 11 Nov. 2011. Smith, Tara. Personal Interview. 7 Jan, 2012. Stone, Michael. “Sustainability: A new item on the lunch menu.” Ecological Literacy: Educating Our Children for a Sustainable 243


World. Ed. Stone, Michael and Barlow, Zenobia. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 2005. 227-240. Print. “Survey reveals children's food knowledge worrying.” BBC News. 2 Feb. 2010: Web United Kingdom. Food Standards Agency. Children’s attitudes towards food. London: FSA, 2007. Web. United States. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Overweight and Obesity. CDC, 15 Nov. 2011. Web. 10 Jan. 2012. United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Basic Information about Food Waste. EPA, 29 Dec, 2011. Web. 16 Jan. 2012. University of Maryland. Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education. Sustainable Agriculture Grants. SARE, 2010. Web. 3, Feb. 2012 Waters, Alice. Edible Schoolyard. Chronicle Books, San Francisco. 2008. Print. “Why Miniature Cattle.” International Miniature Cattle Breeders Society. Minicattle, 29 Jan. 2012. Web.

244


Kyle Fowler

The Danger and Consequences of an Avalanche An avalanche is a very dangerous type of natural disaster that kills people every year. An avalanche is a large mass of snow, ice, etc., detached from a mountain slope and sliding or falling suddenly downward. Today there are many different types of technology related to avalanche protection, but are these really enough to save a skier from an avalanche? People want to ski out of bounds and in remote places, including helicopter skiing. The skier is responsible for protecting himself from an avalanche and a skier cannot rely on technology saving him from an avalanche. This number has been rising steadily in the past 20 years because the sport has been progressing and people are going to more dangerous places to ski. But the number of deaths has also increased (Colorado Avalanche Information Center).

With the advances in safety equipment, people are tempted to ride in areas outside of their abilities where they could die. Avalanches are dangerous but they are predictable and preventable. When a skier goes out onto the hill they are putting themselves in danger, especially when a skier goes onto a slope that is 38 to 40-degrees steep because these types of slopes are where avalanches occur most often (FAQ| Utah Avalanche Center). I think that people rely on safety technology to save them if they are caught in an avalanche. People are putting themselves in danger but without taking the right precautions skiers are less likely to die. They feel as though they do not have to check for signs of avalanches because if they get caught in an avalanche the technology will save them. But with all this new technology, 245


people don’t always go though the steps of still checking the stability of the snow. The new technology includes things such as backpacks with airbags, avalanche lungs, beacons, and Recco. There are now backpacks that are designed with airbags, which keep a person afloat in an avalanche. This means that the person will not be buried and will have a lower chance of dying and sustaining injuries. For the airbag to be triggered the skier must deploy the airbag when they think the avalanche might be occurring. Another technology is called AvaLung for avalanche lungs. The AvaLung is a filtration device that takes air directly from the snow pack. This device even works in dense avalanche debris that consists of only approximately 50% air. The AvaLung membrane increases the area from which the skier breathes, making it possible to get oxygen from the snow around the skier. This system within the AvaLung separates the O2 from the exhaled CO2, which is taken away from the oxygen intake and goes out the back of the vest to circulate through the snow pack (Black Diamond AvaLung II from Backcountry.com). This can allow a skier to survive after being buried in an avalanche because the skier can breathe while he or she is buried. All the skier needs to do is put the mouth piece in his mouth and breathe. The only problem with this system is that the skier might forget to put the mouthpiece in before they are buried and then while the skier is buried he breathe into the snowpack with using the filtration system and he will likely get carbon monoxide poisoning. Black Dia-

mond has done a test where they have buried a person in snow for one whole hour and after that hour they have dug him out and the only thing wrong with him was that he was a bit cold. This reliance on technology can cause people to go places where they probably should not be riding and get caught in avalanches or starts an avalanche. The third system is one that has been around for years and years, which is the beacon. The beacon is definitely the most common option of the four because it is cheapest and most widely used. A beacon transmits can transmit and receive signals. The way this works is that when someone is going down the slope the skier turn the beacon to transmit so that it will transmit a signal of where the skier’s location. This is helpful because if the skier gets stuck in an avalanche they will be able to find where location is and dig them out (Avalanche Preparedness in the Adirondacks). The fourth system is called RECCO and this system has been incorporated in ski and snowboard outerwear. RECCO is a little reflector sewn into some clothing. It reflects a signal to the detectors, which are devices that pick up the signal and tell the person with the detector the location of the skier wearing the reflector (The RECCO® System – Recco).This helps rescuers find the buried victims faster and it increases the victim’s chance of surviving. Skiers should not rely on these technologies to save them in an avalanche, so before they go down a slope and get themselves 246


caught in an avalanche, the skier should personally check backcountry snow conditions for its stability. The morning after a big storm every skier and snowboarder is eager to get up to the mountain early so that they can get first tracks and ride all the new powder. But before the ski resort can open the lifts, the ski patrol must give them the go ahead that all open slopes are safe. John Cross, the head of the Ski Patrol at Sugar Bowl Ski Resort, goes out every morning with his team to check all the slopes for avalanche danger or places where an avalanche might occur. He said that they check for four major situations where avalanches can occur as a result of winterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s natural phenomenon. Weather in mountainous areas, can also affect the snow pack. There are four processes, which create an unstable snowpack and thus could cause an avalanche and a skier should know of processes because they are things that they should look to avoid in the mountains. One situation is when new snow falls. This creates a soft layer of snow on top of a hard layer and the loose new snow can slide. Another way that loose snow can collect and slide is when wind blows snow into an area that is somewhat like a gully. This process called windblown, creates a deep layer of soft and light snow, which is very unstable. The third process that creates an unstable layer of snow is something called spring slides. This happens when the temperature gets higher usually later in the year during the spring. The

higher temperature makes the snow melt and then the snow turns into water and starts flowing down hill under the snowpack. This makes snow above the water very wet and heavy. This heavy snow is very prone to an avalanche (Tutorial). The fourth thing that could happen is when it is very cold. This situation is called Death Hoar; it mostly happens in Colorado when it is really cold, usually -10F. Since the air is very cold this causes the water to move through the snow pack and evaporate. With most of the water evaporated from the snow this creates an unstable layer of snow. These four natural processes are what sometimes cause an avalanche to occur naturally, but a skier can also trigger an avalanche by skiing in an area that has these conditions developing. Another natural factor that increases the likelihood of an avalanche is the slope of the mountain. Areas on a mountain that are 35 to 45-degrees steep are potential avalanche danger zones (FAQ Utah Avalanche Center). Slopes that are more than 45 degrees steep and less than 35 degrees are significantly less likely to have an avalanche because the snow does not build up into slabs of snow, which slide down the mountain. There are double the number of avalanches on slopes that are 38 to 40 degrees steep compared to slopes with steepness only a few degrees less. This graph shows us the number of avalanches depending on the degree of the slope and more specifi-

247


cally slopes with the steepness of 38-40 degrees are where the most avalanches occur.

FAQ| Utah Avalanche Center

But more importantly when there is new snowfall it creates a potentially dangerous avalanche situation. Once the skier is aware of all these naturally occurring conditions, he must check the weather because the weather is the main factor that causes all of those processes to happen. The skier cannot control the weather but there are things he can look for in the weather to protect his safety. This is why a skier

should always check the weather and they should be looking for temperature changes and new snowfall because these are signs of avalanche danger (Avalanche Awareness: Information About Avalanches and Avalanche Safety). In addition to checking the weather, there are many other things that the skier can do to protect himself from an avalanche. After the skier has taken the long hike up the mountain or the long chair lift ride, a skier should do some checks before he goes down the hill. The first thing the skier can do is stick his pole into the ground and try to go through some of the layers of snow. A skier should do this to test to see if the layers are the same thickness and feel the amount of pressure it takes to push the ski pole through each layer. More experienced skiers can do this test rather doing more time consuming tests like a snow pit. This pole test is a very simple way to test the snow but does not really give an inexperienced rider a sufficient answer about the snowpack. A more comprehensive and recommended way is to dig a snow pit. To dig a snow pit you should find a place away from trees in an area that has new snow. Just like rocks or eroded trees, sections or layers of snow will collapse if weak layers are mixed with the strong layers. The skier needs to look for darker and lighter layers, which indicate strong and weak layers. Using your hand is another way of testing the layers in a snow pit. It is called a stress test. A skier counts how many times he can pat the shovel on a section of the snow in the pit before it collapses. This shows a skier how 248


strong the snow is and how much force and weight it can take without collapsing. This test is definitely the best way to test the snow pack so that a skier knows if this stable. Once a skier has chosen to go down, the skier should just hope that his tests were correct and that an avalanche will not occur. In the year 2012 there are no laws that say a skier needs any knowledge of avalanche safety to go into the backcountry and ski. It is appalling that skiers don’t have to have any knowledge of such a danger because they can go out into the middle of a slope and put themselves in a life-threating situation. People should have to take a class on avalanche safety before they go into the backcountry otherwise they will have no idea what the consequences of an avalanche are. Also, I think that everyone should have a beacon because even if you have no training beacons are easy to use and very affordable. They should also be carrying a backpack with a shovel and a probe, which is a long thin foldable metal pole that has measurement on it. This probe can tell the rescuer how deep an avalanche victim is buried after they use their beacon to find the location of the victim. These tools are essential basics for rescuing a victim. In addition to the requirement of these tools, skiers should know that when going into the backcountry, that if he or she gets caught in an avalanche they are responsible for paying for all the costs of the rescue and they should not be able to sue the owner of the property just because they were not responsibly prepared.

Biography "Avalanche Awareness: Information About Avalanches and Avalanche Safety. “National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). The National Snow and Ice Data Center. Web. 12 Jan. 2012. (“Avalanche Safety Tutorial.”) American Avalanche Association. N.p., Web. 13 Jan 2012. “Avalanche Preparedness in the Adirondacks” New York State Department of Environmental Conversation. Avalanche Preparedness in the Adirondacks. New York State Department of Environmental Conversation, N.D. PDF. 13 Jan 2012. "Black Diamond AvaLung II from Backcountry.com." Backcountry.com. Backcountry. Web. 16 ! Jan. 2012. Bruce Tremper "FAQ | Utah Avalanche Center." Home Utah Avalanche Center. Web. 17 Jan. ! 2012. "Danger Signs: Avalanche." Backpacker 2006: 42-. ProQuest Research Library. Web. 12 Jan. ! 2012. "Snowpit." Forest Service National Avalanche Center. Forest Service National Avalanche ! Center. Web. 17 Jan. 2012.   "The RECCO® System - Recco." Home - Recco. Web. 12 Jan. 2012. 249


“Tutorial.” Avalanche.org. N.p., N.d. Web. 13 Jan. 2012. "US Fatalities By Season." CAIC: Colorado Avalanche Information Center. Colorado Avalanche ! Information Center. Web. 16 Jan. 2012.

250


Ben Gerstein

Invasive Aquatic Species in the San Francisco Bay A recently conducted study found that, “the San Francisco Estuary was the most invaded aquatic eco-system in North America” (Chapter 2 - Invasive Species). These Invasive Aquatic Species in the San Francisco Bay damage the native ecosystem, food webs, biodiversity, and productivity. Although they do make some contributions to the eco-system, they must be controlled now before more problems occur, which could result in the destruction of the San Francisco Bay. An Invasive Aquatic Species is an organism that is introduced in a new environment and threatens the native species or causes damage to the environment and people. There are approximately 250 Invasive Aquatic Species found in the San Francisco Bay, but there are five specific species that are causing the most damage. These Invasive Aquatic Species are the Asian Clam, the Chinese Mitten Crab, Water Hyacinths, Atlantic Cord grass and the Striped Bass.

The Asian Clam, native to China, Japan and Korea, is one of the most dangerous Invasive Aquatic Species in the San Francisco Bay. It is a very adaptable creature, as it can live in fresh or salt water, which allows it to live in the San Francisco Bay as well as Lake Tahoe. In the San Francisco Bay the Asian Clam lives primarily in sand, mud, clay, and peat with typically 1/2 to 2/3 of its shell is above the sediment. This type of environment is all around the Bay, so the Asian Clam can live everywhere. The Asian Clam is a danger to the San Francisco Bay due to its overwhelming population that is changing the Bay quickly, and for the worse. The reason for their large numbers is due to its prolific reproductive system. Reproduction occurs for the Asian Clam from mid-September through mid- October. With the Water at 16-20 degree’s Celsius, the Asian Clam will lay approximately 45 micrometer diameter eggs. After 22 hours, settlement of the eggs occur. A study on the Asian Clam in the San Francisco Bay by James T. Carlton, Janet K. Thompson, Laurence E. Schemel, and Frederic H. Nichols suggests that, “tens of millions of eggs can be discharged into the San Francisco Bay every year by Asian Clam[s]”(Carlton etal). The population of the Asian Clam would be controlled in a normal habitat as many predators would eat the eggs as well as many full grown Asian Clams, but unfortunately not in the San Francisco Bay because it has no natural predators. As a result, the Asian Clam population is sky high. An example of this population growth is demon251


strated by the fact that almost 48,000 Asian Clams are growing in just a 3 foot area in some parts of the San Francisco Bay. According to Andy Cohen, a leading researcher on Invasive Aquatic Species, “the Corbula amurensis represents 95% of the benthic biomass in many parts of the Bay” (The Great Invaders). This means the Asian Clam (Corbula amurensis) represents 95% of the underwater population in many areas of the San Francisco Bay. The Asian Clam is also causing interspecific competition, which is when the Invasive Aquatic Species is better at competing for a resource than native species. This can result in the native species becoming extinct, and thus drastically altering the ecosystem. For example, the San Francisco Bay is a key reproduction area for phyto-plankton, what is a valuable food resource for all sorts of aquatic species in the Bay and Delta. As the Asian Clam is more adept at eating Phyto-Plankton then native species, the Asian Clam are consuming almost all of the PhytoPlankton. This is reducing the Phyto-Plankton standing stock, resulting in a declining amount of substances for native species. The reduction of food has impacted many animals in the Bay, but most heavily the smelt in the Delta. Christopher Brown, a researcher at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Lab explains that the Asian Clam, “is being implicated in the decline of Delta Smelt as well as some of the other fish.”(Brown).

The Asian Clams affect on interspecific species competition is just one of the many ways that it is negatively affecting the San Francisco Bay. Further, the Asian Clam negatively affect’s the San Francisco Bay through altering sediment, which allows the San Francisco Bay to have structure and avoid water from coming up onto the land. Sediment also helps create small currents in the San Francisco Bay. However, the Asian Clam is changing these occurrences. A study on the Asian Clam in the San Francisco Bay by James T. Carlton, Janet K. Thompson, Laurence E. Schemel, and Frederic H. Nichols showed that, “that Asian Clams create tracks and groves altering the sediment in the San Francisco Bay” (Carlton etal). Altering the sediment leads to greater bottom turbulence, thus changing currents in the San Francisco Bay. The altered bottom also leads to a tendency for sediment re-suspension which will eventually result in the collapse of the shoreline. Another negative impact that the Asian Clam has on the Bay is due to its filtration system. The Asian Clam has a very powerful filtration system to collect food, and with their large numbers, they are removing suspended sediment and diatoms which are having a clearing affect on the Bay’s water. The Asian Clam is destroying sediment, and thus causing a drastic change for the San Francisco Bay. The introduction of the Asian Clam in the San Francisco Bay was silent, and as a result more devastating. Researchers 252


speculate that the Asian Clam was first introduced into the Bay as veligar larva in the seawater ballast of cargo ships from Asia. A ship takes in ballast water in one port along with the Invasive Aquatic Species, and dumps the ballast water at another port releasing the Invasive Aquatic Species into a foreign habitat. After the Asian Clam was introduced to the San Francisco Bay in a small area, the population boomed and the Clam spread throughout the Bay area. A study on the Asian Clam around the San Francisco Bay after introduction showed that, “by May 1987 the Asian Clam was the most abundant macroifaunel organism in Grizzly Bay” (Carlton etal). The Asian clam negatively affects the Bay, but does have some positive impacts. One example is that the native Dungeness Crabs feed off the Asian Clam shells. A study on the relationship between the Asian Clam and native species showed that it, “may become an important prey item for benthic predators such as fish and diving birds” (Carlton etal). Although the Asian Clam will be killing off native species, for some native animals the Asian Clam will provide an abundant food source. While the Asian Clam does contribute as a food source, it does not outweigh the negative impact it has on the San Francisco Bay. The second most threatening Aquatic Species in the San Francisco Bay, the Chinese Mitten Crab, is on the 100 most dangerous invaders list and is illegal to own in the state of California, Oregon, and Washington. The Chinese Mitten Crab is an omni-

vore, which means that it preys on small invertebrates as well as seaweed. Similar to the Asian Clam, Chinese Mitten Crabs are very good at reproducing. The California department of Fish and Game suggest, “a single female can carry 250,000 to 1 million eggs” (Chinese Mitten Crab: Life and History). To reach maturity, the Chinese Mitten Crab has to live 2-3 years. At maturity, the Chinese Mitten Crab reaches 3 inches long. In addition, the Chinese Mitten Crab is very adaptable. Not only has it been established in the United States, but also in many parts of Europe. One problem that the Chinese Mitten Crab causes to the San Francisco Bay is the same as the Asian Clam. As a member of the crab family, it burrows in sediment at the bottom of the bay for protection against predatory fish and birds. Research conducted by California Fish and Game suggests, “mitten crab burrow densities as high as 30/m2 (2.7/ft2) have been reported from South Bay creeks, with most burrows no more than 20-30 cm (8-12 inches) deep”( Chinese Mitten Crab: Life and History). This high burrowing level is causing a major problem with the structure of the San Francisco Bay. After extensive research, this dark truth is shown as research from the Nusicane Aquatic Species organization states, “another concern about the Chinese mitten crab is its high burrowing density, which has been linked with bank and levee weakening, and even collapse in some areas where this species has been introduced (Chapter 2). The natural burrowing instinct of the Chinese Mitten Crab is having a great toll on the structure of the San Francisco Bay. 253


The Chinese Mitten Crab is also causing interspecific problems for native species in the San Francisco Bay. Like the Asian Clam, the Chinese Mitten Crab is causing interspecific competition. The Chinese Mitten Crab is causing issues for the red swamp crayfish, where they are competing for food resources. The Chinese Mitten Crab is better at getting food then the red swamp crayfish, and this is causing the crayfish numbers to decline. The large population boom is also causing a major problem with the entire fish hierarchy. After the California Fish and Game conducted the upmost research on this booming Invasive Aquatic Species, they came to the conclusion that the Chinese Mitten Crab “poses a potential threat to native invertebrates and to the ecological structure of freshwater and brackish estuarine communities (Chinese Mitten Crab: Life and History). The Chinese Mitten Crab causes a major problem to the San Francisco Bay’s fishing industry and economy. First off, the Chinese Mitten Crab is a huge nuisance for fisherman, especially shrimp trawlers. When talking to shrimp trawlers in the Bay, California Fish and Game discovered the horrible effects the Chinese Mitten Crab has been causing, “the mitten crab has become a nuisance for commercial Bay shrimp trawlers in South Bay, as it is time consuming to remove the crabs from the nets one trawler has reported catching over 200 crabs in a single tow several times. Shrimp trawlers have also reported that a large catch of Mitten Crabs damages and even kills the shrimp,

making them unsuitable for the bait market. Shrimp trawlers have been able to move to areas with fewer crabs, but as the mitten crab population grows, this option diminishes” (Chinese Mitten Crab: Life and History). The Chinese Mitten Crab is also a nuisance as it clogs intake valves. Specifically, fish salvage facilities and engineering projects. As the population of the Chinese Mitten Crab grows, they have caused more problems for people in the San Francisco Bay by damaging the shrimp trawling business and clogging all kinds of valves with their huge numbers. The Introduction of the Chinese Mitten Crab was recent and sudden compared to other Invasive Aquatic Species. The Chinese Mitten Crab is native to the yellow sea in China. Experts speculate that the most likely way that the Chinese Mitten Crab entered the San Francisco Bay was through ballast water of Cargo Ships from China, and an accidental fishery release. The Chinese Mitten Crab was first discovered by fishing trawlers in the South San Francisco Bay in the winter of 1992. The Chinese Mitten Crab population then spread like wildfire. Extensive research conducted by California Fish and Game shows that, “Mitten crabs were first collected in San Pablo Bay in fall 1994, Suisun Marsh in February 1996, and the Delta in September 1996. As of August 1998, the known distribution of the Chinese Mitten Crab extended north of Colusa to Hunter's Creek (near Delevan National Wildlife Refuge) in the Sacramento River drainage, east to Roseville (Cirby Creek) and eastern San Joa254


quin County near Calaveras County (Mormon Slough and Little johns Creek) and south in the San Joaquin River to Highway 165, near San Luis National Wildlife Refuge” (Chinese Mitten Crab: Life and History). The Chinese Mitten Crab most likely came into the San Francisco Bay through ballast water or an accidental release, and the species quickly spread through the San Francisco area and beyond. As the Chinese Mitten Crab caused more and more damage to the San Francisco Bay, great concern was generated. However, 3-4 years ago all the Chinese Mitten Crab suddenly died off in the San Francisco Bay. The Smithsonian Environmental Research Center conducted a study and discovered only a few adult Chinese Mitten Crabs in the entire San Francisco Bay. So what happened to this booming species? Christopher Brown, the lead researcher for invertebrates at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center explains, “a lot of time when a species comes into a new system they will go through boom and bust cycles. They had a huge boom cycle, as they were everywhere… and for some reason they weren’t able to sustain their number. It could be food related, competition related, or it could be anything [that was limited]” (Brown). The Chinese Mitten Crab had a large boom cycle after coming into the San Francisco Bay, but then due to a limited resource their population dropped. Another boom cycle could happen at any time.

Plants are another type of Invasive Aquatic Species specifically Water Hyacinths. The Water Hyacinth is a floating plant. The plant is native to the Amazon River basin of tropical South America. The Water Hyacinth plant is very beautiful. It has bright green waxy leaves, with attractive violet flowers that have yellow stripes on the banner petals. The flower is a plant and is found near muddy soils near the edge of aquatic systems. The plant can also be seen floating down rivers or streams. Water Hyacinth is normally found below 660 feet in the Central Valley San Francisco Bay, which is the location of the San Francisco Delta. Although Water Hyacinths look pretty, and add color to a delta or pond, they have damaging results on any aquatic area. The reason that Water Hyacinths cause so much damage is due to their large number, a result of their reproductive system. Debbie, a lead researcher for the organization Eco-Pros Invasive Non-Native Species explains, “However, some are listed as the worst aquatic weeds in the world, growing so rapidly they double in 12 days - and seeds can survive for 30 years!”(Eco-Pros). Water Hyacinths can quickly become a major problem. When Water Hyacinths grow in such large numbers they can cause a lot of problems for an aquatic area, such as in the San Francisco Delta. One problem that Water Hyacinths cause is that they directly affect submerged plants. Invasive Aquatic Plant researcher Deb255


bie explains, “Water Hyacinths are so dense they prevent sunlight and oxygen from reaching the water and submerged plants” (Eco-Pros). The plants large numbers and fast reproduction also crowd native species above water, and ultimately cause them to become extinct. The fast growing quantities of Water Hyacinths also degrades habitat for waterfowl by reducing the open water available. The San Francisco Bay is a key place where ducks and other types of birds migrate for the winter. These three damaging affects will also ultimately limit biological diversity in the San Francisco Bay, which will lead to a change in the food web. Water Hyacinths also affect the San Francisco Bay by blocking waterways. After doing research, Debbie explains, “they also can block waterways, cause rivers and streams to change course, and interfere with human activities such as boating, swimming and fishing” (Eco-Pros). Water Hyacinths can also cause irrigation problems by clogging pipes, which can cost farmers a lot of money to fix. An example of the destructive powers of Water Hyacinths has been seen before. After doing research, Eco-Pros has found this example, “ A lake in China has suffered a decline in fish species and reduced water levels, which brought on notable local climate changes - all because of  Water Hyacinths”(Eco- Pros). Another example is in Louisiana, “by 1975 700,000 hectares of waterways in Louisiana alone were infested, and river’s were blocked for distances of forty kilometers”(Cal-IPC). Water Hyacinths bring beauty to any area, but also disaster for native plants, fish, ducks, and

birds. The sheer number of Water Hyacinth’s can also destroy bays and lakes by clogging river flow. The introduction of Water Hyacinths into the San Francisco Bay is mainly due to its beauty. Researchers speculate that Water Hyacinths spread out of water gardens into bays and lakes in California. Water Hyacinths were first found in California in 1904. What spread the Water Hyacinths all around California is debated, but there are some speculations. First, Water Hyacinths are floating plants so they may have floated from river to river, and eventually into bays and lakes. Another way that Water Hyacinths spread may have spread is due to ducks. The California Invasive Plant Council states, “Dispersal also occurs by water-borne seeds and by seeds that stick to the feet of birds” (Cal-IPC). Water Hyacinths came to California as a Garden plant, but spread and have taken over the San Francisco Delta and many places of California. Although Water Hyacinths contribute a lot of negatives to the San Francisco delta and other parts of California Water Hyacinth’s can be a beneficial plant if used properly. The remarkable ability that Water Hyacinths have to suck up waster in the water could be used for natural water purification. Debbie from Eco-Pros Non-native Invasive Aquatic Species states, “[we] [could] [use] Water Hyacinths to absorb and digest water pollutants” (Eco-Pros). Another way other ways that Water Hyacinths could be used as a beneficial plant is for, “harvesting these 256


pollution-gorged water Hyacinths and turning them into fertilizer”(Cal-IPC) due to their large number and easy decomposition. Also Water Hyacinths are good livestock food due to their rich nutrients. Invasive plant researcher Debbie explains the positive aspect when saying, “harvesting and solar drying water hyacinths for livestock feed saves agricultural lands to grow food for humans” (Cal-IPC). Finally, Water Hyacinths can also be used to create electricity. A study conducted by Eco-Pros Invasive Non-Native Species showed that Water Hyacinths combined with other products can produce methane gas. Water Hyacinths can be a beneficial plant that would positively impact society if used correctly.

cause a change in the mudflats. Christopher Brown a researcher at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center explains, “It traps sediment differently than the native cord grass and causes higher mudflats” (Brown). This is causing a large problem for species that rely on the marsh. The director of California Coastal Conservancy states that higher mudflats would, “[affect] the invertebrates and other species at the bottom of the bays food chain” (Kay). The Atlantic Cord grass does not only affect the invertabres, but also many types of ducks and birds. The Atlantic Cord grass will affect ducks and birds by taking over the pickle weed and other native grasses that birds such as the song sparrow and clapper tail use for nesting.

Another plant that is invading the San Francisco Bay is the Atlantic Cord-grass. The Atlantic Cord grass is the most dangerous threat for marshes in California. The Atlantic Cord grass is a plant that grows to 7 feet tall and is a beige-ish brown color. They are dense and clumped together. The Atlantic Cord grass also has a sharp tip on top.

The introduction of the Atlantic Cord grass into the San Francisco Bay was for a good cause. In the 1970’s the U.S. Army core of engineers was stationed in San Francisco and they saw many destroyed and ugly marshes. They had the idea to restore a marsh in the San Francisco Bay area. Not knowing the damage of Invasive Aquatic Species they brought in the Atlantic Cord grass. The Atlantic Cord grass quickly replaced the native marsh species and spread to all different parts of the San Francisco Bay destroying other marshes. The U.S. Army Core of Engineers tried to help restore marshes, but in the end they did exactly the opposite.

The most significant problem that the Atlantic Cord grass causes is that it is able to overwhelm the native grasses because they can grow extremely fast and double the height of native marsh grasses. The director of the California Coastal Conservancy states, “In most places were the Atlantic Cord grass has been for a long time, it’s now a dominant plant” (Kay). As the Atlantic Cord grass becomes the dominant species it can

The next Invasive Aquatic Species is one that most people believe is native to the San Francisco Bay. This is the Striped 257


Bass. Striped Bass live all around the San Francisco Bay in medium deep, and deep waters. The Striped Bass is most commonly associated with fishing as they are widely known for the fight that they put up. The Striped Bass has a silver body with black horizontal stripes going along its body. The average weight is 13 -15 pounds and around 28 inches long. Although many people believe that the Striped Bass is just another fish in the Bay, it is causing thousands of people to lose jobs and billions of lost dollars in economic activity. Striped Bass are causing people to lose their jobs and money through competition with Smelt and Salmon. The Striped Bass is a better hunter then Smelt, and a as result Smelt have limited food resources and cannot produce a large population. With lower populations, Smelt fisheries have been suffering and many places have gone out of business. In addition, Striped Bass are also taking a large toll on the Salmon of the San Francisco Bay. As there are so many Striped Bass in the San Francisco Bay, they have therefore reduced the supply of food and have recently been feeding on the young Salmon. Michael Boccadoro, a researcher on Stripped Bass, states this real danger when saying, “Commercial salmon fishermen are facing another tough year that has already resulted in the loss of $1.4 billion and 23,000 lost jobs” (Invasive). Furthermore, Striped Bass are also causing problem for many farmers in the San Francisco area due to imposed pumping restrictions. Michael Boccadoro a researcher on Striped Bass and their affects ex-

plains, “While Fish and Game has taken these actions to protect and expand Striped Bass in the delta, Salmon populations have steadily declined leading to devastating government imposed water pumping restrictions for residents, farms and businesses, and the closure of the last two commercial Salmon fishing seasons.  Hundreds of thousands of acres of productive farmland has been fallowed since 2008, resulting in the loss of tens of thousands of jobs and billions of dollars in economic activity” (Invasive). The introduction of the Striped Bass dates back to the late 1800’s. In the early to middle 1800’s, trains became a major mode of transportation and traveling became easier. People as a result wanted to bring what they thought were beneficial species in and near the San Francisco Bay. A common favorite was the Striped Bass, as it tasted good and was a good sport fish. Due to those reasons, the Striped Bass was introduced into the San Francisco Bay and it thrived. The numbers increased, and people believe that it is now neutralized in the San Francisco Bay. While Striped Bass cause damage to Smelt and Salmon in the San Francisco Bay, and as a result causes a lot of people to lose their jobs, they do have one positive that is bringing a lot of revenue to the San Francisco Bay. The Striped Bass was brought into the San Francisco Bay for its fight and taste, and people still enjoy the fight and then eating the Striped Bass for 258


lunch. Christopher Brown at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center explains that Striped Bass contribute a lot of negatives to the community, but also bring quite a bit of revenue to the San Francisco Bay Area(Brown). The Striped Bass does contribute to the San Francisco Bay through revenue, but the negatives still outweigh the positives. Invasive Aquatic Species have definitely caught the attention of people in the San Francisco Bay, and officials in the government. As a result, the government has established control measures to be put in place, but unfortunately not all of them work. Control measures have been shown to work the best with plants. For the San Francisco Bay, Water Hyacinths and the Atlantic Cord grass have had control measures work the best. While Water Hyacinths are a major problem, means have been discovered to impact their removal. There are three main ways to control Water Hyacinths. The first is through chemicals. Chemicals works well using a glphosate as a foliar spray, and copper complexes used only as a following spray. This works, but risks killing other plants and native aquatic species. Another form of control is biological. The San Francisco Estuary Institution, along with other researchers, has tested “water hyacinth-eating weevils (Neochetina spp.) and a moth (Sameodes albiguttalis) at selected sites in the Delta, but results were less successful than expected, in part due to colder winter temperatures” (Cristina). However, the best way to control Water Hyacinths is through education. Educating people on the Inva-

sive Specie will inform people on how to stop the spread and any new infestation. The next plant species where control methods have been shown to work is the Atlantic Cord grass. With the Atlantic Cord grass, there has been one control method which has met with great success, solarization. The San Francisco Estuary Institution, along with other researchers, explain how solarization works, “Solarization—mow stems and cover with geotextile fabric or heavy-duty black plastic; covering must be well secured; most effective if covered for one or more years”(Cristina). Although solarization is expensive, and can take a lot of time, the results are great. Animals, on the other hand, have been shown to be much harder to control as they are able to move. Therefore prevention is the only option. This is the case for the Asian Clam, Chinese Mitten Crab, and Striped Bass. For the Asian Clam, many methods of control have been tried, but none have been effective due to their large population. Christopher Brown at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center explains, “unfortunately there is really nothing as far as control because there are too many, as there are 10’s of thousand of them per square meter” (Brown). Due to the Asian Clams number, there is no way to control them in the San Francisco Bay. In the case of the Chinese Mitten Crab, unless they have a boom cycle, they will not pose a real threat to the San Francisco Bay. However, if they do 259


have a boom growth cycle, there is no known way to control them as chemical treatments could harm other specie’s? Right now, educating people on the Chinese Mitten Crab is showing the best results. The Striped Bass is an entirely different case. Although they are an Invasive Aquatic Species, and cause damage to fisheries and jobs, the government is protecting Striped Bass. There are regulations on catching Striped Bass, and how big and long they have to be. With the regulation in place, and the government protecting Striped Bass, there is really nothing the people can do to get rid of this Invasive Aquatic Species. The Invasive Aquatic Species that are the Water Hyacinths and Atlantic Cord grass can be controlled, but others such as the Asian Clam, Chinese Mitten Crab and Striped Bass cannot due to their vast numbers or being protected by the government in the Striped Bass’s case. In order to stop the further spread of Invasive Aquatic Species, new regulations are being put in affect to limit the amount of Invasive Aquatic Species that are being brought into the San Francisco Bay. Christopher Brown, the lead researcher at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center states, “There have been many new ballast water regulations in the last couple years. The existing regulations for California are that you have to dump your ballast water 200 miles off shore, the theory being whatever you have picked up in another port can’t survive in water deeper than 2 miles. This has been shown to have great results”(Brown). Although these new regulations have had great

results, the Coast Guard is making stricter regulations that will allow for no life in the ballast tanks. Julia Scott a reporter on Invasive Aquatic Species and the regulations states, “California recently set the nation's strictest standards for discharge of ballast water from newly constructed ships, standards that would prohibit even the smallest organisms from escaping into coastal or inland waters. It would affect ships built after 2012, which won't be delivered until 2014 at the earliest, and existing ships don't have to comply with the law until 2020. About 700 ships discharge ballast water in California each year, and 5 percent of the fleet is replaced each year” (Scott). In the San Francisco Bay and Delta, Invasive Aquatic Species have become a significant problem. The Invasive Aquatic Species come to the San Francisco Bay through different means such as ballast water, dumping by individuals, and intentional introduction. Once these species are introduced, they can have detrimental impacts as seen through the impact of the Asian Clam, Chinese Mitten Crab, Water Hyacinths, Atlantic Cord grass and the Striped Bass. In response to these problems, the government is putting in place new regulations to stop the spread of Invasive Aquatic Species. While this is having an impact, educating people like us can make the biggest difference through a few simple steps. First, become educated on Invasive Aquatic Species in the San Francisco Bay and report any invaders. Furthermore, do not dump any fish or fish bait into the water of the San Francisco Bay or Delta. Finally, become edu260


cated on recreation boating regulations regarding Invasive Species. Invasive Aquatic Species must be stopped, and working together we can save San Francisco’s eco-system.

Works Cited Brown, Chris. Personal interview. 20 Jan. 2012 "California Aquatic Invasive Species Management Plan." Department of Fish and Game.! California Resource Agency, Jan. 2008. Web. 1 Jan. 2012. "Cal-IPC: View Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands Online." Cal-IPC: California Invasive ! Plant Council Home, Web. 05 Jan. 2012. Carlton, James T., Janet K. Thompson, Laurence E. Schemel, and Frederic H. Nichols. !! "Remarkable Invasion of San Francisco Bay (California, USA) by the Asian Clam." !Caf.wvu.edu. Web, 3 Jan. 2012. “Chapter 2 – Invasive Species.” San Francisco Bay Watershed, Web. 04 Jan. 2012 “Chinese Mitten Crab (Eriocheir Spp.) « The Aquatic Nuisance Species Project." The Aquatic Nuisance Species Project, Web. 04 Jan. 2012.

"Chinese Mitten Crab: Life and History." California Department of Fish and Game, 5 Aug 1998. Web. 08 Jan. 2012. "ECO-PROS Invasive Non-Native Species." ECO-PROS - Ecology Protectors Society, Web. 08 Jan. 2012. "European Green Crab (Carcinus Maenas) - Aquatic Invasive Species." Washington Department of Fish & Wildlife, Web. 08 Jan. 2012. Godfrey, Kris. "Invasive Plants of California's Wildland." California Invasive Plant Council, ! Web. 5 Jan. 2012. "The History and Effects of Exotic Species in San Francisco Bay." Access USGS - San Francisco Bay and Delta, Web. 04 Jan. 2012. Cristina Grosso, Josh Collins, Michael May: Practical Guidebook for the Identification and !Control of Invasive Aquatic Plants in the San Francisco Bay- Delta Region. Oakland, U.S ! Fish and Wildlife, 2003. PDF file. "Invasive Striped Bass Identified as Major Threat to Salmon.” PR Newswire. 02 Nov. 2011. Kay, Jane. “San Francisco Bay Exotic Grass Attacks Marshes, Mudflats Invasive Plant Eliminates Natives, Threatening Wildlife.” San Francisco Chronicle.7 Nov. 2004. 261


Martin, Glen. "The Great Invaders / A New Ecosystem Is Evolving in San Francisco Bay. We Have No Idea What It Is, or Where It's Going." SF Gate. 24 Jun. 2011. Scott, Julia. "What Lurks Beneath: Bay Area’s Battle with Invasive Species in Ballast Water?" SF Gate. 04 Dec. 2010. Taugher, Mike. "Aliens Species Infest Waters of Bay, Delta." Contra Costa Times. 22 Jun. 2005.!

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Zachary Heller

Getting Truly Prepared for College College is expensive, but it is a necessary quid pro quo. All aspiring students should strive for a college degree, as according to Representative Chaka Fattah, “no matter […] the cost of higher education, ‘ignorance costs more’” (Rep. Fattah). While we expect that a high school graduate should go to college, the question is whether their academic credentials are the sole criteria to gage their success or maximize their college experience. So, what should a student do to be best prepared for college? One option might be to find something useful to do for a year before college. Spending this time is called a ‘gap year.’ In a gap year, there are many opportunities for high school graduates, they only have to decide what their real goals are. John Dewey, American philosopher and educational reformer, wrote that for education to “accomplish its ends both for the individual learner and for society[, it] must be based upon experience—which is always the actual life-experience of some individual” (Dewey 89). John Dewey agreed that one must learn

from life experiences, and gap years may be the most accessible way to get some. High school graduates have to decide for themselves whether or not to take a gap year as it gives them real world experience, knowledge, a new outlook, and a chance to narrow their academic focus, but it can have permanent, though unnoticeable, economic effects. To evaluate the usefulness of a gap year, let us first explore why we go to college in the first place. In this day and age, most students strive to obtain a college degree, but is it the correct choice? One purpose of schooling is to educate the public to prepare them for entry into society and that is no longer possible with only a high school education. Even though the U.S. seems to be declining in educational standards, Edward Walsh, a writer for the Washington Post, says its “population is becoming more and more educated [because] the high school diploma—once the highest education goal for the bulk of Americans—is no longer enough to keep up with the average wage earner” (Walsh). College graduates will make more money than their less educated counterparts, but they also identify gaining all types of skills in college that are useful later in life. Colleges want their students to be mature, responsible, and thoughtful, but being away for the first time at college without their previous restrictions tends to lead them to experiment with ignorant decisions and bad ideas. According to Tim Patterson, 263


from Matador Abroad News Network, “students who arrive at college with a full year of life experience under their belts are less likely to engage in risky behavior than students for whom college is their first intoxicating dose of freedom from parental supervision” (Patterson). Gap years in general make graduates more responsible. By postponing one’s higher education, one can prepare themselves for the outside world. In college, there are many more day to day responsibilities that students may have never had before. Gap years provide new life skills can help them handle these. Some have never had to get themselves ready for classes by themselves, clean their rooms, live on their own, or make decisions about what kind of food they are going to eat. Most freshman entering college enjoy the campus all-you-can-eat cafeterias and do not realize the consequences of filling their stomachs until afterwards. Students often gain the “freshman fifteen” which refers to the weight that one gains during freshman year. It would be more reasonable for students to arrive responsible enough to survive in college. There are five different types of gap years between high school and college for students to choose from. Uppsala University Economists Bertil Holmlund, Qian Liu, and Oskar Nordström Skans from the Institute for Labour Market Policy Evaluation at Uppsala distinguish these bridges between learning are distinguished as: “(i) gaps as investment in skills, (ii) gaps as leisure,

(iii) gaps as waiting for better educational opportunities, (iv) gaps as learning about ones’ preferences and/or ability, and (v) gaps as military service.” The least valuable of these options is to take a gap for a year of relaxation. With larger benefit, is the voluntary or involuntary gap year where one waits to apply to colleges again the next year as they did not get into the college they desired. A more meaningful type of gap is one where a graduate takes years off to train to fight for their country or join the reserve. A worthwhile gap year would be used to help a graduate decide what they want to study in college, and the most valid gap year entails work that relates to what one already intends to study in college or anything that improves their abilities. There are no tangible benefits to taking a year off besides stress relief. While taking a break might seem like an attractive idea, research shows that a gap year with the sole purpose of relieving stress and forgetting about school does not help you academically or prepare you for college. As G. Jeffrey MacDonald states in his article in USA Today, “to be beneficial, [a gap year] needs to involve more than rest and relaxation” (MacDonald). One should avoid taking a gap year whose motivation is solely vacation. Some students take gaps years as periods to wait for better educational opportunities. If they did not get into the college they wanted, high school graduates now have the opportunity 264


to postpone college for a year to try again. There are good reasons for being picky about which college to go to, but taking an entire year off because a college did not send an acceptance letter is a waste of time and money. More educational opportunities will not arise by just waiting around and resubmitting an application. It is essentially a year of relaxation and has the same costs and detriments. However, if one makes the most out of their time, they can add their experience to their college applications. Joining the U.S. military has several benefits and a specific drawback. Dedicating oneself to military service is honorable and appealing not only to high school graduates, but to many Americans. The military recruitment site Inspired to Serve, says that soldiers will return home with “training, honor, education, travel, pay and self-discovery” under their belts (Inspired to Serve). For high school graduates, there is a two-year enlistment program that allows them to get those and to continue on to college. The site also says that military service “requires self-discipline, intense physical work and time away from family and friends while protecting America and its citizens at home and abroad” and this may be too hard for some high school graduates (Inspired to Serve). The significant consequence to military service is its contract. Josh Hilborn, Military Network Columnist, says that two-year enlistment means a commitment of more than two years, as one is later required to reenlist in active duty, serve in the national guard, or serve in the reserves

(Hilborn). One can still go to college, but must eventually fulfill their commitment afterwards. They must spend four more years in military affiliated programs for a total of eight years of service. The fourth type of gap year is where a graduate digs deep to learn about themselves, their interests, and builds skills. Instead of going straight to college and taking courses that will be related to one’s ultimate career, a high school graduate can spend a year pursuing various interests to find what they are good at and what they like to do. Sue Shellenbarger, Senior Writer for the Wall Street Journal, says that students could experiment with potential careers during a gap year, so that they do not spend four years in college to find that they cannot handle it (Shellenbarger). By becoming an apprentice, or switching between one’s favorite jobs, one could see what the day to day life would be like. Working will earn you money for college and allows one to pursue and perhaps rule our careers, as well as increasing good work habits. Taking time off to test your careers interests would be a responsible thing to do. By the time you attend college, you will spend your time more productively, taking classes that are not only more relevant to your interests, but will prepare you for your career. Gaps that are meant to improve a student’s abilities are the best option to choose. Any work done in this year that is relevant to their future in college or their careers, such as taking on265


line courses, training for sports, volunteering or working. These experiences are also helpful in the development of the student’s character and maturity by working with others. Dr. Randall S. Hansen, founder of Quintessential Careers, said that if a graduate has always had “an interest in a particular trade, such as technology or construction, seek out jobs in the trade that will not only give you valuable experience but guide you toward advancement by helping you with the certifications or licenses you need to succeed.” Taking academic courses during one’s year off is possible at a community college or on the internet, and while they will not give you life experience, will prepare you academically for the future. Lei, Simon, and Gupta from the Department of Educational Psychology University of Nevada, Las Vegas said that web-based courses were originally made for people who could not physically reach colleges, but it is a good option to further one’s education as well. Traveling during a gap year has positive or neutral potential. Positively, one can learn a foreign language and social skills, but admittedly the line between vacation and relaxation is easily blurred. Shellenbarger writes that while taking a year off is common to earn money for college, “programs involving international travel or service work are more common among affluent students or those from competitive high schools, where pressure to get good grades and gain admission to an elite college is most intense” (Shellenbarger). When work is strenuous, a re-

laxing year abroad is tempting. Traveling is also only possible in families that can afford it. Volunteering overseas, however, is not a viable gap year option for high school graduates according to Julia Bolz, founder and former executive director of Ayni Education International. Third World overseas organizations may have many challenges that need committed volunteers. Non-governmental organizations do not want to invest in training volunteers making minimal one year time commitments. It takes nine months to give language training to a volunteer in what is called the “forming” period, several more in what is called the “norming” period to get used to the country, and do not start working in the “performing” period until two years after arrival (Bolz). The only real way to make a gap year worthwhile is to spend it pursuing a meaningful improvement in oneself. All of these alternatives for a gap year can be rewarding if they incorporate structure. Through the use of these gap years, freshman entering college can be more prepared mentally and socially than their counterparts who did not take gap years. Journalist for USA Today, G. Jeffrey MacDonald, writes that in the U.K., “11% of the 300,000 college-bound seniors take a gap year before enrolling” compared to only “1.2%” of U.S. students (MacDonald). This means that only a small percentage of the college population in the U.S. has gained responsibility due to gap years. Gap years do not have a large enough impact on 266


the majority of the college population for much research to be done, but there are general disadvantages. A gap year might be the time when a graduate pursues their passion or finds their dream, but in order for any progress to be made, there must be structure. Structured gap year programs where one travels to a different country to both study and do community service costs between $10,000 and $20,000 (MacDonald). Finding places to do this by oneself is unsafe and basically impossible in another country. U.S.A. Gap Year Fairs say that these types of programs end up “[giving] students a developmental advantage over their peers by providing them with an opportunity to expand their perspective and gain direction that give the college years meaning and focus” (Why Gap Year?). Online classes can get boring and one can grow lax in their self-enforcement, so the students taking them will not actually gain the skills that the courses offer. A gap year should still be a time for growth, so high school graduates should structure their gap years on the stricter side. On the other hand, however, too much structure can have the drawback of decreased development. The main disadvantages of taking a year off going to college are that a gap year student loses knowledge and they postpone when they start making money. While a gap year with no structure might seem fun for a while, but with nothing to do, one’s value as a student is degrading. If one compares the amount of summer vacation to the “[approximate loss of] 2.6 months of grade level equivalency in mathematical computation skills[,]”

that Dr. Ruth A. Peters writes about in MSNBC Today, one could assume that a high school graduate would effectively lose the knowledge they gained senior year (Peters). While they assumedly had a fun year off from school, their learning loss would make them unprepared for college the coming year. In the Uppsala study, they examined the register data of Sweden, a country well-known for gap year participants as 40% of students take more than five gap years before entering college. Their results suggested “that gap years are associated with lower future earnings” as they estimated that if one takes off two years, they lose “40–50% of annual earnings [by] age 40” (Holmlund, Liu, and Nordström Skans 3). While the estimation is based on Swedes who participate in two gap years rather than one, this data shows that delaying the time when one starts their career has a large effect on their earnings. There are a lot of variables, but the more one delays getting a job, the larger the amount of work they have to make up for. One misses paychecks and raises that they would not get if they joined a company a year later, and perhaps one’s job opportunities will be completely different and they will not get the job at all. The compounded amount of money that one does not earn by taking gap years is shown to add up by age forty. Though the research only commented on two year gap years, one has to speculate that the effects on one year gaps are noteworthy as well. One does not feel the effects on their total earnings; one just starts their career later and earns less cumulatively. 267


Each person has to make the decision for themselves whether taking a gap year is worth it in the short term or not. To be fully prepared for college, one should take a gap year.

have to decide whether or not it is worth the effects of being less prepared for college as well as the reduced economic potential.

While taking a gap year may be a welcome break from years of nonstop schooling, and students can arrive in college more mature than their younger counterparts, they can lose accumulated knowledge and they can permanently damage their total future earnings. These gap years are encouraged by colleges as students arrive with experience, and while that gives graduates many options, pursuing their desired career is the most productive in the long run. Structured gap year programs are the most worthwhile if one can afford them, but too much structure can sometimes be detrimental to the growth of the college freshman-to-be. The downsides to gap years are that learning loss can occur during the time away from school and that one loses effectively half of what they would have earned by starting their careers earlier. The benefits of gap years are large and one will almost certainly be happier pursuing their dream job as a more fulfilled, educated, and established person, but the detriments of being unprepared for classes and the long term effect on one’s earnings are significant. High school students will graduate and go to college, but even if they do not know precisely what they should do with their lives, they have an opportunity to start making adult choices in high school. Research shows that a gap year can be useful. A gap year is a good decision if the high school graduate is productive; however, they

Acknowledgements: I would like to acknowledge Craig Butz for editing my first draft, Aaren Field and Alex Jonasse for editing my second draft.

Works Cited Bolz, Julia. Telephone interview. 1 Jan. 2011. Dewey, John. Experience & Education. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1938. Print. Hansen, Ph.D., Randall S. Next Step After High School? Some Alternatives to College. Quintessential Careers. Web. 20 Jan. 2012. Hilborn, Josh. Two-Year Enlistments and the National Call to Service Initiative. Military Network. Web. 02 Feb. 2012. Holmlund, Liu, and Nordström Skans. "Mind the Gap? Estimating the Effects of Postponing Higher Education." Oxford Economic Papers 60.4 (2007): 683710. Web. 31 Jan. 2012 Inspired to Serve. Today's Military, 2011. Web. 20 Jan. 2012. 268


Lei, Simon., and Gupta. "College Distance Education Courses: Evaluating Benefits and Costs from Institutional, Faculty and Students' Perspectives." Education 130.4 (2010): 616-31. ProQuest Research Library. Web. 14 Dec. 2011.

Why Gap Year? USA Gap Year Fairs, Web. 09 Jan. 2012.

MacDonald, G. Jeffrey. 'Gap Year' before College Gives Grads Valuable Life Experience. USA Today, 18 July 2008. Web. 09 Jan. 2012. Patterson, Tim. 10 Good Reasons to Take a Gap Year before College. Matador Network, 6 July 2009. Web. 09 Jan. 2012. Peters, Ruth A. Stanch Your Kid’s Summer Learning Loss. MSNBC, 21 June 2005. Web. 17 Jan. 2012. Rep. Fattah Says "Ignorance Costs More" than the Cost of College Education. United States, Lanham: Federal Information & News Dispatch, Inc, 2011. ProQuest Research Library. Web. 14 Dec. 2011. Shellenbarger, Sue. Delaying College to Fill in the Gaps. The Wall Street Journal, 29 Dec. 2010. Web. 09 Jan. 2012. Walsh, Edward. Education Producing Wider Earnings Gap; Non-College Graduates Fall further Behind; Women Making Strides in Earnings. The Washington Post, Dec 10 1998. Web. 14 Dec. 2011. 269


Nik Inalsingh

Oyster Farming: Sustainable or Unsustainable? Oyster Farming has existed in the San Francisco area ever since the gold rush and has been a large part of the culture. Oysters start out as larvae, as like other underwater species. They then attach onto a crushed up oyster shell and then the growing process begins. It then takes up to one year for the oyster to grow to its full size. This may seem like a simple process, however it is very time consuming and there are a lot of different factors that a business must consider. Currently different oyster companies throughout the Bay Area are farming oysters and selling them as a business, however with that comes some controversy. These businesses are putting oysters into the water where they are not natural to the area. This could cause different species in the area to be effected by the oyster’s growth. There are both positive and negative effects of oyster farming. The filter feeding and oyster production are beneficial to the environment and economy of the area. However, the fact that oyster farming can affect the animals lifestyle in the area where oys-

ters are grown are not a good impact toward the environment. With these negatives in mind it is still clear that oyster farming will not only benefit people, but the different species that live in the water. “The positives of oyster farming outweigh the negatives” Stated Terry Sawyer, who is the head of Hog Island Oyster Company in Tomales Bay. Terry Sawyer runs one of the most sustainable oysters companies in the country. Which means while running their operation they perform the least harm to the environment. A business cannot just call themselves a sustainable company. They must perform tests to prove that they are a sustainable company. What really got Hog Island on that next level of sustainability is they got a week long inspection from Food Alliance. Food Alliance is an organization that inspects companies and see’s if they are sustainable or not. If this business passes then they get a certification proving they are a sustainable company. The reason Hog Island is ‘on that next level’ is because they are one of the only oyster company with this certification. Hog Island is not the only ones who see the good in farming oysters. There are many other groups who see that there a lot of positives that surround oyster farming. The Monterey Bay Aquarium state, oysters produce very little pollution (“Oysters”). Oysters require no help to grow: they do not need help to get food or help to begin growing. With other animals such as cows, you need to put effort into feeding them like growing grass which re270


quires resources, thus making a bigger impact. “With low habitat impacts, farmed oysters are the best choice” (“Oysters”). Others view the same opinion of oyster farming, and it is not just one business. Oysters are filter feeders, which means while growing they take in a great amount of water and then clean it. After that the oysters put it back into the environment where it is growing. This action that these oysters make not only benefits them, but neighboring species in the eco-system. Some other positives to oyster farming that Terry Sawyer said was that there was no introduction to food while the oyster are growing. While the oysters are growing in the waters they have to find the resources for them to grow. Second, there are almost no interaction between the oysters and people while they are growing. This makes growing oysters have a smaller impact on the environment. This prevents people from harming any other species that might exist in the area where the oysters are growing. However, “we have an impact on the environment” said Terry Sawyer. As people we have an impact on everything we do. Simply if we go on a 10 minute drive around your neighborhood the exhaust of the car will go up into our air thus decreasing the air quality and increasing your carbon footprint. Your personal effect may be small, however the combined environmental effects of everyone in that same town can add up. Even if you have a Pruis as a car, you are still making a small impact on the environment.

Even a very sustainable business like Hog Island, there is still actions that they make that could potentially hurt the environment. Hog Island Harvests their oysters by having the employee’s go out on boats and collect the bags of oysters. These boats that they use are run by gasoline which can hurt other species. Man is not affected by gasoline; however gasoline is toxic toward fish and other aquatic animals (“Gas impact on fish and other marine organisms”). Additionally on the boat there is a motor which can also possibly hurt different animals in the waters of where the oysters grow. Lastly, these oysters that are being grown in the water are unnatural to the area. This can cause these oysters to cause other species in the area to die or be hurt. However with the sustainable mindset that Hog Island has they are always trying to look for ways to improve on their flaws. The business has a mindset that with every negative impact they try to make up for it. For example, at their oyster farm in Marshall all the lighting there is florescent. Hog Island even does the smallest of things to make up for the carbon footprint. Since Hog Island does this they are or should be looked upon very highly in the oyster business. So does this mean that all businesses with the same goals of Hog Island should be respected as well? Unfortunately this is wrong; Drakes Bay Oyster Company is at risk of getting shut down because of their operation. Drakes Bay Oyster Company is located in Drakes Estero, which is a national park, unlike Tamales Bay. Drakes Estero is 271


one of the most untouched and natural estuaries in California with lots of species thriving in it. It has 86 species of birds which include Black Brant and Osprey’s. There are also up to 30 different species of fish which 3 of are endangered species. What really sets Drakes Estero apart is it has the largest inhabitant’s harbor seals in California, with a population over 1800. It seems that Drakes Estero is very harmonious, different species working together to make a happy ecosystem. People’s opinions begin to change now that Drakes Bay Oyster Company is a part of the Drakes Estero community. These oysters are unnatural to the environment some people think they are hurting the animals living in Drakes Estero. Currently this situation is a huge controversy because the Oyster Company’s lease ends in 2012 (Kortun). This would make the company move locations, or go out of business. The National Park Service (NPS) is trying to remove Drakes Bay Oyster Company from the area. The National Park Service has always viewed oyster farming as unnatural for the Drakes Estero environment. In 1976 Congress promised that Drakes Estero would receive the best possible wilderness protection after the oyster operation lease ended in 2012 (Letters to insight).The 2012 year has just started and now the government is asking for the oyster farms to leave, however, Kevin Lunny the owner of Drakes Bay Oyster Company will not go down without a fight. Currently, he is trying to extend the lease for oyster farming in Drakes Estero. This argument has gotten big enough that other

people are getting involved, such as the San Francisco Chronicle. The San Francisco Chronicle ran an editorial about how what Drake Bay Oyster Company should not be removed from the area and how the oysters were a natural fit for the area. The following week a lot of the letters had to do with Drakes Bay, and how people were disagreeing with the statements about Drakes Bay Oyster Company being beneficial for the environment. “We are incredibly lucky to have such a natural public treasure. It would be a shame to risk degrading or losing it” (qtd. In letters to insight). Oysters have been viewed as helping the environment, if you look at the progress Hog Island had made then one would think oyster farming is great for the environment. However, the real issue is about the use of a national park. NPS believes that Drakes Estero should be protected and have no oysters in the area, while others view it would be great for the environment to have. The NPS has waited a long time to finally get their chance at starting to preserve and restore the wilderness. To accomplish their goal they have some good evidence to support their argument. Jon Jarvis who was quoted in a San Francisco Chronicle article stated, “Our research shows there are some negative effects” (Fimrite). One of the main reasons that they want the oyster farms to go is because you are taking something un-natural and putting it in a environment where it does not belong. This can effect the growth of other species that are living in Drakes Estero. In a picture in the letters to insight there are oysters be272


ing harvested from Drakes Bay Oyster Company. Julia Stalker stated that there was a kind of seaweed or moss that covered the oysters that did not seem natural to the Drakes Estero area (Letters to insight). Could this mean that the oysters could have started a growth of an non-native species to the area? Yes, it is possible. This means that Drakes Estero has to be more aware of the interaction the oysters are having in the water. This is one of the many arguments that the NPS is using to rid Drakes Bay Oyster Company from the area. Additionally NPS is saying that due to the oysters being the in Bay, it is affecting the harbor seal; especially when it is breeding. (Current level of oyster farming unlikely to have Sustainable Impact on Drakes Estero). In addition to the Harbor seal, a breed of eelgrass is being affected by the oyster’s presence. At Drakes Bay they have a bunch of oysters growing on a rack and the grass is having trouble grow underneath it.

ment. The oysters are cleaning the water, thus making it a better environment for all of the species in the ecosystem. These two also brought up a very good point. The state constitution states there must always be a right to fish, and oysters are considered fish (Nabhan). This shows that the state cannot touch this oyster farm. However, the government did make the lease expire at 2012. A lot of people have promised stuff, but nothing was really made out in writing. If Drakes Bay Oyster Company or NPS looked at the lease expiration date of the lease and what the constitution state then they could of came to an compromise a lot earlier, which could of made this controversy go about a lot smoother. Terry Sawyer, the head of Hog Island also has good thoughts of the Drakes Bay Oyster Company. “My heart goes out to them.” Hog Island and Drakes Bay Oyster Company may be rivals in business but overall, they are after the same goal, to produce sustainable oysters.

Drakes Bay Oyster Company does not only have people criticizing the business, there is lots of support from by standers and other oyster business. People view Drakes Bay Oyster Company is as sustainable and benefiting the environment the same way Hog Island is. In the San Francisco Chronicle Article written before the letters to insight the authors Gary P. Nabhan and Jeffrey A. Creque stated, “The 80-year tradition of shellfish aquaculture in Drakes Estero is a quintessential example of exactly such a productive harmony” (Nabhan). Gary and Jeffery have the logic that these oysters are benefiting the environ-

Both of these sides bring forward excellent points why oysters should or should not be farmed in areas. The NPS thinks that Drakes Bay Oyster Farm should be removed from the area and not be allowed an extension on the oyster lease. Drakes Bay Oyster Company feels that they should be given an extension because they are producing benefits toward the environment. This decision will be made by Ken Salzar who is the secretary of interior at the white house. Overall his decision will be based around scientific evidence and opinions from other people, stated Melanie Gunn (Gunn). If you look at the evidence then 273


there is clearly no doubt that there are more positives to Oyster Farming then negatives. The question is will Ken Salzar view the same thing. The issue is not just if oyster farming is good for the environment or no. It is about is knowing if this oyster company hurting the native area of Drakes Estero. That is an a lot bigger issue, however I think the same science and opinions will still help keep Drakes Bay Oyster Company located in Drakes Estero. I would like to acknowledge Craig Butz, Erik Spangberg, and Justice Skolnik for proofreading my research paper.

Works Cited “Current Level of Oyster Farming Unlikely to have Sustainable Impact on Drakes Estero Ecosystem.” Proquest. Ed. Targeted News Service. Washington D.C. 2009. Proquest. Web. 9 Jan. 2011.

Kortun, Bill. “Drakes Estero marine wilderness must go forward.” The San Francisco Chronicle. 18 Dec. 2011. Web. 3 Jan. 2012. “Letters to insight.” San Francisco Chronicle. 25 Dec. 2011. 3 Jan. 2012.! Nabhan, Gary and Jeffery Creque. “Drakes Estero oyster farm a natural fit” The San Francisco Chronicle. 18 Dec. 2011. Web. 3 Jan. 2012. “Oysters.” Monterey Bay Aquarium. 1999-2012. Web. 10 Jan. 2012. Sawyer, Terry. Personal Interview. 17 Jan. 2012.!

“Dispute over Oysters in Drakes Bay pits harvester against park service.” San Francisco Chronicle. 28 Dec. 2007. Web. 10 Jan. 2012. Fimrite, Peter. Dispute over oyster in Drakes Bay pits harvester against park service. San Francisco Chronicle. 28 Dec. 2007. Web. 3 Jan. 2012. “Gas impact on fish and other marine organisms.” Offshore Environment. Web. 19 Jan. 2012. 274


Stefan Jandreau-Smith

Veterans Care: Is It Enough? When troops are deployed in times of war, they know their life is in great danger because they know that at any moment a bomb may explode nearby causing them either serious injury or death. When these men and women return from war, what do we, as the American people, owe them? There are many programs set up by organizations and some by the government that help veterans of war return to being citizens. Even though there are many different programs and many different people helping the veterans once they come back to the United States, the help being given isnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t enough and more importantly, even though the people trying to help them have good intentions, the system isnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t efficient enough to help every veteran. In many cases the help given to veterans who need is either not the right type of help or not enough help. At the same time keep in mind that the majority of veterans that return from the war return to normal life. Who exactly are the veterans and what kind of problems are they currently dealing with? There are currently 22,234,000 vet-

erans living in the United States (Veterans Affairs). There are also 1,972,000 veterans in California alone (Veterans Affairs). For every 1,500,000 troops deployed 37,851 of those troops have to be air-evacuated for injury or illness (Katel Wounded). Using these two numbers allowed to you figure out that there are means around 560,000 veterans alone were air-evacuated from the battlefield for either injury or for illness. The majority of these veterans then required additional care once they returned to the United States. The military not only has to factor in these troops but they also have to factor in the veterans with mental illness, TBI (Traumatic Brain Injury), veterans that require amputations, and all veterans with other minor and serious injuries, whether it be mental or physical. This number alone is a big reason of why the VA, short for the Department of Veterans Affairs, is having so much trouble keeping up with the demands. It is estimated that there are over 1,000,000 claims that are backlogged at the VA (Katel Caring). This extremely high amount of backlogged claims and because of that processing the average claim can take about 6 months. The level of care required by the veterans is very high as well as very specific. Most veterans return from war with extreme cases of burns, damage to their body from bombs or bullets and traumatic head/brain injuries. In an article released by ABC news it was found that hospitals sometimes donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t accept patient transfers after a certain time (ABC). Experts on this subject say 275


that due to the severity of these cases, such as serious physical injuries (burns, amputations, and head injury primarily) hospitals always need to accept veteran transfers. Also veterans are sometimes discharged in ways that make it impossible for them to receive care. For example one veteran claimed that he had PTSD and shortly after was discharged by the military for having a “personality disorder” (Katel Wounded). As he was later to find out, if you were discharged for something like this, you cannot receive any of the veteran benefits. This was a case of people in the military not completely understand mental illness. The funding provided for veterans is also not enough. Since we are in a deficit at the moment the government is trying to save money in as many ways as possible, one of them being to cut funding from veteran programs. A survey taken in 2007 states that 90% of the veterans believe that they have lost many benefits within the last ten years (Triplett). Not only do they believe the benefits have gone down but also the level of care given to the veterans has deteriorated. Some, “recovering outpatients were coping with moldy, vermin-infested outpatient housing and overworked, sometimes incompetent staff” (Katel Wounded). The lack of funds provided from the government makes it hard to support veterans once they are outside of veteran hospitals. One of the biggest “silent” problems that veterans have is the problem of mental illness. The most common form of mental ill-

ness is Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. As the VA puts it, “Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can occur after someone goes through a traumatic event like combat, assault, or disaster. Most people have some stress reactions after a trauma. If the reactions don't go away over time or disrupt your life, you may have PTSD” (Va.org). In a study conducted by the VA it was found that 11% to 20% of the veterans that returned from the Iraq/Afghanistan War and 30% from the Vietnam War showed signs of PTSD (Va.gov). Not only is PTSD a problem, TBI (Traumatic Brain Injury) and Depression are also very common in veterans. Around 660,000 veterans have either PTSD, TBI or Depression when they return from war (Katel Caring). There are 100,000 veterans that have all three. In a separate survey it was found that 19% of veterans return from war screened positive for some sort of mental problem. These numbers wouldn’t be as big of a problem is medical care was easier to get. One of the biggest problems with receiving care is that veterans have to prove that they have a mental illness. This is not always easy to prove. Adam Hoch, a veteran of the Gulf War said, “With PTSD, once [the VA] knows you have it they are great, with amputees or head injuries they’re fantastic. With less obvious things they are not so fantastic” (Hoch). Sexual harassment is a problem in the military that is now constantly on the rise. Nothing about war is fun. War is obviously war is filled with stressful situations, but there have been a lot of cases in the last ten years of people having PTSD not only from 276


the fighting in the war, also from sexual harassment/abuse in the war. Since the wounded per death rate has decreased greatly since wars such as WWII (from 1.6 wounded for every fatality to 16.0 wounded to every fatality in the Iraq/Afghanistan (Katel Wounded)) so has the PTSD rate. At the same time there has been a nearly 30% increase in veterans committing sex crimes (Bummiler). There were 3,191 sexual assault cases reported in the military alone last year (Swords to Plowshares). On the other hand experts believe that there are 19,000 sexual assaults in the military each year, a low percentage of them are reported (Swords to Plowshares). In a survey conducted 55 out of 100 women soldiers reported being sexually harassed after being in the military for a year, 38 out of 100 men soldiers reported being sexually harassed (Va.gov). This is what makes the solution a difficult one, to lessen the problem of mental illness in the army, the military as well as the VA need to work together to put in place and enforce stricter sexual harassment policies. To further enforce the sexual harassment policies it would be educated the soldiers on the severity of the penalties as well as make it easier for the soldiers to access help. One of the biggest problems both in the military and for returning veterans is suicide. According to The New York Times 164 veterans took their lives in 2011 (Bummiler). Also in the army there were 278 suicides by active duty soldiers (Bummiler). Even though 164 might seem like a small number, it adds up over time. From 2005-2009 alone there were more than 1,100

veterans who committed suicide (Katel Military). There were approximately 1,639 suicide attempts in 2009 (Army Times). That roughly adds up to one successful suicide by a veteran every 36 hours (Katel Military). The number of attempted suicides is much higher. According to the Army Times there are around 950 attempted suicides by veterans every month, with a 7% success rate (Maze). From a recent study done, 60% of the military suicides occur during the first year of enlistment (Bummiler). The cause for the suicides are clear. “[The suicides] have to do with a military force that’s under an extreme amount of stress” states Tom Tarantino, the senior legislative associate for the Iraq War (Katel Suicides). Due to the extremely high amount of stress the reason that veterans commit suicide seems fairly clear. A very big problem related to this is that the veterans aren’t always able to receive care. One of the biggest problems with veterans not always being able to receive care is when the veterans end up homeless. In a report released by the NCHV (National Coalition for Homeless Veterans) it was released that 23% of the homeless population is made up of veterans. There are approximately 744,000 homeless people in the United States so that means around 178,000 of them are veterans. Out of those 178,000 or so veterans there are approximately 67,000 that are homeless on any given night (Schum). That means that 67,000 veterans are living on the streets. Also the NCHV released that 37% of the veterans who are living on the streets need help finding housing. 277


The other 63% are either living with friends or in shelters. Many organizations attempt to help these veterans but they need help with the funding they receive. Steven Schum from CSH (Corporation for Supportive Housing) he said that, “Organizations such as Swords to Plowshares receive funding from the VA, but some of their funding has to be made up through loans and private donations.” With the organizations not being able to fully rely on the government providing enough money to support all of their programs it makes it hard to have enough to support such a large number of homeless veterans. In a separate personal interview with a man by the name of Leo Joslin, the program manager at Swords to Plowshares, he told me that the programs are funded through a government program that pays a certain amount for each individual that Swords to Plowshares helps house (Joslin). Also the old veteran population is quite large so that population requires a lot of additional care. On the NCHV a HUD report was released with information that stated that around 48% of homeless veterans are over the age of 62 years old (NCHV). As many problems as there are with the VA and within the military that don’t allow veterans to acquire proper treatment, there are also many things that have been done right. For example 3.35 million veterans are currently receiving disability compensation (Va.gov). Also many veterans believe that the care given related to PTSD and other mental illnesses is very good care (Katel Treatment). In 2008 the government authorized free medi-

cal care for all Iraq and Afghanistan veterans (Katel Caring). This greatly increased the care given to veterans and did solve a lot of problems. Also at the same time veterans with one of sixteen specific types of cancer get automatic care (Katel Caring). Even with these added benefits, there still is a lot of room for improvement. Over the years there have been many suggestions for ways to improve the VA. Luckily one way some of the pressure will ease up off of the VA is that because Vietnam and especially WWII vets are started to die from old age, the number of veterans will decrease from 22,000,000 to 15,000,000 veterans by 2030 (Katel Treatment). Even though the number will sharply decrease, it will hardly solve all of the problems that the veterans need help with. According to the NCHV veterans need “Secure housing, nutritional meals, basic physical care, substance abuse and aftercare, mental health counseling, job assessment and training” (NCHV). The NCHV stresses that the mental health counseling is one of the most important aspects of this because not all veterans always admit that they have some sort of mental problem. These are very basic needs of the veterans, but even though they are very basic it takes a lot to make sure that every veteran has all of these. Of course one of the easiest way to solve this problem is to give more money to the Department of Veterans Affairs, but since the United States is in a deficit at the 278


moment there is not enough money to solve these problems. The amount of money needed to provide these services to veterans hasn’t been found yet because each veteran requires different care, but the cost for a program like this would be a lot. A Blue Ribbon commission was put together to study care for veterans and decided what need to change for the VA to work well. They decided that the VA needs to “simplify the disabilityratings system, assign a care coordinator to each seriously wounded service member, increase care for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and TBI, and increase support for relations to care for wounded service members, including the expansion of the Family Medical Net” (Katel Wounded). Many of these things might sound complicated but things such as simplifying the disability-ratings system is something that could be done quite easily and is something that would make a huge difference in the veteran world. Some organizations such as Swords to Plowshares help veterans with many of these things and it has been shown that veterans do the best if the person helping them is another veteran. These programs are known as “veteran to veteran” programs and the NCHV has said that out of any program used to help veterans so far they have helped them the most. Even though the care offered to veterans has a lot of aspects of it that are very good, there are a lot of things that need to be fixed. For example there needs to be more care given and more

information for people around mental illness. Not only that, veteran homelessness needs to be ended. The VA needs to devote some more of their money to programs that help homeless veterans get back on their feet. From the research I’ve found the VA does provide a lot of things that veterans need, the problem is, that they don’t always provide enough care.

Bibliography Adams, Rebecca. "Medicaid Reform." CQ Researcher 16 July 2004. Web. 6 Jan. 2012. Bummiler, Elisabeth. "Active-Duty Soldiers Take Their Own Lives at Record Rate." New York Times. Web. 23 Jan. 2012. <http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/20/us/active-duty-army-suici des-reach-record-high.html?_r=1>. Clemmitt, Marcia. "Health-Care Reform." CQ Researcher 11 June 2010. Web. 10 Jan. 2012. ---. "Medication Abuse." CQ Researcher 9 Oct. 2009. Web. 10 Jan. 2012. Hoch, Adam. Interview. 1/12/12 "How Veterans' Hospitals Became the Best in Health Care TIME."  TIME.com. Time Magazine, 27 Aug. 2006. Web. 10 Jan. 2012. <http://www.time.com/time/mag azine/article/0,9171,1376238,00.html>. 279


"HUD-VASH Vouchers." HUD/U.S. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, 26 Dec. 2008. Web. 10 Jan. 2012. <http://portal.hud.gov/hudportal/HUD?src=/program _offices/ public_indian_housing/programs/hcv/vash>. Joslin, Leo. Interivew. 2/4/12. Katel, Peter. "Caring for Veterans." CQ Researcher 23 Apr. 2010. Web. 10 Jan. 2012. ---. "Housing the Homeless." CQ Researcher 18 Dec. 2009. Web. 10 Jan. 2012. ---. "Military Suicides." CQ Researcher 23 Sept. 2011. Web. 10 Jan. 2012. ---. "Wounded Veterans." CQ Researcher 31 Aug. 2007. Web. 6 Jan. 2012.

Swords to Plowshares. Swords to Plowshares, 2011. Web. 10 Jan. 2012. <http://www.swords-to-plowshares.org/>. Triplett, William. "Treatment of Veterans." CQ Researcher 19 Nov. 2004. Web. 6 Jan. 2012. U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. Veterans Association, 9 Jan. 2012. Web. 10 Jan. 2012. <http://www.va.gov/>. "Veteran's Suicide Reveals Problems in VA System." ABC News. ABC. Web. 23 Jan. 2012. <http://abclocal.go.com/kgo/story?section=news/iteam&id=794 7431>. Zimney, Ed. "VA Hospital Problems." Everyday Health. Web. 23 Jan. 2012. <http://www.everydayhealth.com/blog/zimney-health-and-medic al-news-you-can-use/va-hospital-problems/>.

Maze, Rick. "18 Veterans Commit Suicide Each Day." Army Times. Gannett Company. Web. 29 Jan. 2012. <http://www.armytimes.com/news/2010/04/military_veterans_su icide_042210w/>. "National Coalition for Homeless Veterans - Background & Statistics." National Coalition for Homeless Veterans. 2012. Web. 24 Jan. 2012. <http://nchv.org/background.cfm>. Schum, Steven. Interview. 1/24/12 280


Chase Johnson

Recruiting Your Classmates What determines some of the Bay Area’s students in high school classes? Recruiting middle school athletes determines part of the composition of classmates and sports teams for high schools in the Bay Area. This recruitment determines which students attend which high schools and this process occurs in most, if not all states in the nation- not just in the Bay Area thus creating an unfair bias for accepting students into high schools across the country. High schools create exceptions for students who are more skilled then other students at sports. This then creates an even more limited acceptance rate for students who aren’t as good at sports or student’s who don’t play sports at all. Recruiting middle school athletes to high school should not be allowed because it creates an increase on stress and focus to the athletes as well as a status increase to other students at the high school these middle school athletes go to. The change from middle school to high school is a very stressful time period. This is a time when students have to deal with pressure in many areas, including academics, their families,

and their bodies. Most middle school students at least try to participate in sports sometime in their middle school career (“Stress and Depression”). Of course there are people who are better athletes than others and high schools will recruit the better student athletes. When being a recruited skilled to high school there are many aspects of stress that increase. Once the student athlete is accepted to the high school, the student athlete is expected to perform for the school. Students are accepted to the school to play sports at the high school. This creates an immense amount of stress on the student athlete because he or she is expected to perform at the high school (“Stress and Depression”). The change from middle school to high school is a great increase of stress and recruitment for middle school student athletes creates an even greater stress level on students. Once a student is in high school, the demands of academic stress increase, which can be expected because students are moving to a higher grade level. Student athletes have more academic stress because of the amount of physical stress they create while playing a recruited sport in high school. The expectation of recruited students to do well in high school sports is physically demanding which creates physical stress (“Athletic Insight”). Once this physical stress is created by the high school demanding so much skill commitment from the athlete, the student athletes have to focus on their sports career as well as 281


their academic career. Academics in high school become much more intense for all students, but especially for athletes- because the student athlete has to focus on both developing physical skill level for sports and remaining academically sound. Along with the increase in physical and academic stress from middle school to high school, another stress increase involves relationships with people in the student athlete’s life. These people include family members, classmates, teachers, and coaches. Recruited student athletes are expected to do a whole lot these four categories of people. Family members, (mainly parents), expect the student athlete to do well academically and play the recruited sport well. Student athletes’ relationships with classmates become stressful for two reasons. The first is because when joining high school student athletes have new classmates and it can be stressful to create new friends (“Student Family”). The second reason it can be stressful is since the student athletes are athlete’s classmates who do not play sports have an existing bias towards the athletes for being athletes and it can be challenging to be friends. Teachers in the student athlete’s life in high school can be stressful because the teacher expects the student to master the material that is presented in the class. Teachers create pressure for students in the class because they want the students to thrive in the class (Yorio Nicole). This can be especially challenging for student athletes because there is a constant stress about both sports and each individual class. The last relationship in the student

athlete’s life that can be stressful is the coach in the student athlete’s life. The coach demands skill from the student athlete- for this was the reason the student was accepted to the school. The relationship between the student athlete and the coach is stressful because the student has to give the team his best effort because that is the reason the student athlete is at the school. Relationships between student athletes and the people around them can add to the student athletes stress level to an even greater extent- which shouldn’t be allowed because the student athlete shouldn’t have to deal with stress from people around them because the student athlete is good at sports (Yorio Nicole). Recruiting increases stress in relationships but also says something about school culture and social hierarchy. Schools in the Bay Area are becoming more and more popular and competitive against each other more than they have ever been (“College Student Athletes- Recruiting”).This is because the schools in the Bay Area are realizing that middle school students are becoming more and more involved with sports rather than academics. High schools are doing the very best they can to have the best athletes and the best of everything at the schools. This really resembles that these schools really want to be better and win against the other schools to prove their school is the best. What this says about school culture instead of sports is that these schools are becoming more and more focused on sports and recruiting the best players to play at their school to have the best teams. There is a controversy of phi282


losophy to this. If schools practice hard and schools have the best practices then schools have the best teams and it wouldn’t be necessary to recruit. When students are recruited it creates a social hierarchy for these students that shouldn’t exist. Recruiting middle school athletes to high school not only but says something about school culture and social hierarchy also creates popularity for the student athlete to the people around them. When middle school student athletes get recruited to high school for their skill ability in sports to high school, the student can become popular (Livia McCoy). It is true that most kids enjoy being popular. However, this creates a negative influence on the recruited athlete. Students, families, other schools, and even media become involved in the student athlete’s life. The student can become over whelmed (Carrisa Rogers). When a student athlete becomes popular, classmates start looking up to the student athlete because of this popularity. It isn’t fair to the student athlete that he or she is popular to the rest of the school because of athletic ability. This creates a pre-known bias for the student athlete that shouldn’t exist. The student athlete is exactly like every other student at the school, unique (“Student Family”). Every student is unique in their own way and just because a student athlete has a skill at a sport doesn’t mean that that student athlete’s uniqueness is more than any other. It is just projected as more accomplishment through media and the

school. This is done so by creating the student to be popular at the school and media. Since student athletes are popular, many things of them can be expected. When student athletes are recruited by high schools they become popular because they are skilled at a sport. When student athletes become popular there are a few things that happen to the student athlete. What happens is popularity causes student athletes to be pressured into leading by example and can be expected to be especially social or set tones for the class. No student should have to be pressured into role modeling or setting tones of a class (“Problems of Fame”). This creates pressure on the student to an even greater extent. When a student athlete is in high school, classmates look at how the student athlete acts. Classmates might imitate the student athlete’s behavior because the student is popular. Classmates will do this because they too want to be popular. Student athletes should not be forced to be social at all (“Problems of Fame”). There is no reason that the student athletes should be expected to be social or interact with other students just because they play a sport well. It isn’t fair to the student athlete that they are popular and also have the responsibility to set tones for other classmates or interact and be social with other classmates just because the student athlete plays a sport. Not only is becoming a student athlete unfair because of the popularity but also because there are more demands of the student, and the intensity and focus of the student increases. 283


When a student athlete is recruited to high school life becomes more demanding, more intense, and more serious. The demands of the sport and academics are intense in itself just because the student was recruited to play. The intensity level of the school picks up academically and socially. Students become more mature, and classes become more difficult. Life becomes more intense when entering high school because things start counting for college (“Student Family”). When being recruited for a sport in high school, life becomes more serious as well. Middle school sports are fun and aren’t as competitive. When recruited to high school, sports become serious because students are at the school to play the sport and play it well. The students who are recruited have to worry about playing the sport well and it isn’t just for fun anymore. Not only is life more intense but student athletes who are recruited need to adjust to a whole new set of environment. The transition from middle school to high school can be difficult because student athletes have to adjust to a whole new environment of school, teachers, and classmates. Students in middle school develop an attachment for their school environment and become used to their daily routine at school (“Student Family”). Each school is different and has a different daily routine which is why the change from middle to high school environment is significant. Students also have to change their teachers when coming to high school and get used to new teachers. This can be difficult based on the way teachers grade or teach subjects.

Students also have to change their classmates when coming to high school. This can be difficult to make new friends in high school. Changes from middle school to high school are significant and difficult for any student not just athletes (“Student Family”). But the difference that makes athletes lives so much more intense is the fact that athletes have sports to deal pressure to deal with because they were recruited thus making the changes of the environment from middle school to high school more intense. Recruitment for middle school student athletes should not be allowed, but why does it happen? High school recruitment happens because admissions of schools want their school to be known for having the best of everything. This includes sports programs and some schools recruit students athletes from middle school to have a better sports program then the school would have had if they did not recruit student athletes. The reason that recruitment happens is because someone at the school (mainly the athletic director) wants to do his job to the best of his or her ability (“Athletic Insight”). They then recruit middle school athletes and do whatever it takes to persuade the student athlete to go to the high school. The reason it happens is because someone is just doing their job to the best of their ability and if students who come to the school because of the recruitment this person who is persuasive recruiting is doing their job very well. How would these needs become met if recruitment stopped? 284


If recruitment stopped schools would have to find a way to make their school the most “appetizing” to students in middle school with greater skill. Examples of this would be to have the best program for sports. This could be done by having the best coaches, or having the best practices which will eventually lead to the best teams. Students might consider the thought of bigger schools, which might mean that there is a possibility for greater players based on the size of the school. If recruitment stopped there is no doubt that students would be more independent. But the needs would have to be met by schools broadcasting to the Bay Area how much better their schools sports program is then other schools. This is only if sports recruitment stopped, the question is how can sports recruitment be banned?

! Sports recruitment should not be allowed and should rely on practices and coaching to be the best team. Schools should have the best discipline and will if they would like to be the best at sports. It isn’t fair to recruit students and influence the students in such a negative way. Even though it isn’t allowed schools still seem to get away with recruiting players and negatively affecting them in other ways. Student Athletes have to deal with stress like any other student. The difference is when student athletes are recruited it adds another aspect of the student athlete’s life to make it more stressful then other students lives. In theory this is a really selfish act upon the school and can be viewed as lazy for not influencing a disciplined sports program to make students better without recruiting. Sports recruitment should not be allowed for these reasons.

Sports recruitment can be banned from the Bay Area by passing a rule that students’ can only be accepted to high school based on their grade point average and standardize test scores. Sports are an activity in the school that students should be able to participate in once the student is accepted into the school. The student should have to prove worthy academically and playing sports at the school should come as privilege of attending the school. Students’ should also be based off the high school essays so high school can assess what kind of character the student truly has.

Works Cited "Adolescent Stress and Depression." University of Minnesota Extension. Np. Web. 9 Jan. 2012. <http://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/youthdevelopment/ da3083.html>. "Athletic Insight - Comparing Sources of Stress in College Student Athletes and Non-Athletes." Athletic Insight - The Online Journal of Sport Psychology. Np. Web. 10 Jan. 2012. <http://www.athleticinsight.com/Vol7Iss1/StressAthletesNonathl etes.htm>. 285


"Causes of Stress on Students." Np. Web. 9 Jan. 2012. <http://www.stressmanagementblog.com/causes-of-stress/caus es-of-stress-on-students-18/>. "College Student Athletes- Recruiting." Welcome to College Athletes. Web. Np. 06 Jan. 2012. <http://www.collegestudentathletes.com/recruiting.cfm>. "Dealing Popularity and Friendship Problems” Schoolfamily.com - Helping Parents Help Their Kids Succeed at School. Np. Web. 9 Jan. 2012. <http://www.schoolfamily.com/school-family-articles/article/1017 9-dealing-with-the-tough-issues-popularity-and-friendship-probl ems>. "Managing Stress in Middle School" Schoolfamily.com - Helping Parents Help Their Kids Succeed at School. Np. Web. 8 Jan. 2012. <http://www.schoolfamily.com/school-family-articles/article/1068 1-managing-stress-in-middle-school>. "Middle School Insider" MyVeronaNJ. Np. Web. 9 Jan. 2012. <http://www.myveronanj.com/2011/01/25/middle-school-insiderlose-the-stress/>.

<http://www.youthworker.com/youth-ministry-resources-ideas/y outh-culture-news/11599528/>. "Recruiting and Placement Options." Web. Np. 06 Jan. 2012. <http://spot.pcc.edu/~rjacobs/career/recruiting_and_placement _options.htm>. “Sports and Drugs” Np. Web. 9 Jan. 2012. <http://sportsanddrugs.procon.org/>. "The Problems of Fame." Battling Stress. Np. Web. 9 Jan. 2012. <http://battlingstress.com/the-problems-of-fame>. Worsnop, Richard L. "The CQ Researcher Online." CQ Press Electronic Library. Np. Web. 06 Jan. 2012. <http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/document.php?id=cqr esrre1995092200>. Yorio, Nicole. "School Stress Management"WebMD - Better Information. Better Health. Np. Web. 9 Jan. 2012. <http://www.webmd.com/parenting/features/coping-school-stres s>.

"More than Child's Play" Youth Ministry, Group Games, Youth Lessons, Ministry Curriculum, Christian Bible Study Resources | YouthWorker.com. Np. Web. 9 Jan. 2012. 286


Alex Jonasse

Shakespeare and Modern Teens Shakespeare is widely respected as one of the world’s greatest authors and, as such, is taught in most English-speaking schools around the world. According to Steve Seidel, Shakespeare’s plays are “at the core of every high school curriculum… virtually every graduate of an American high school will have been expected to read one of Shakespeare’s plays. It would be hard to make this claim of any other author or specific body of work” (Seidel). There are many different views about teaching Shakespeare to teens; some say that it enriches the cultural education of the students, but students often don’t see it that way. Unfortunately many teens are not open to learning and acting Shakespeare, even if they have never done it before and don’t know what it will be like, it will probably be a good experience for them. Acting Shakespeare is beneficial to teens because it helps them with both in their schoolwork and their personal lives. Teaching and acting Shakespeare is especially valuable, because much of the reason that literature are taught in school is

to show students what came before and the foundation that modern literature and our society was built on (Wells). Shakespeare revolutionized not only writings of later authors, but helped to shape how we speak today. Shakespeare created over 1500 new words, not including all the common phrases that we still use like “tongue tied” and a “laughing stock” (Levin). That is why Shakespeare is taught in almost every high school in the United States (S&C). This is also part of the reason that Shakespeare should be taught, although it is most beneficial to teach it as acting. All acting is, of course beneficial to teenagers’ confidence and empathy, but Shakespeare goes deeper. Because the language is so beautiful and poetic and the characters so intricate, the actors can connect with the text, story and characters on a deeper and more profound level. Another reason that Shakespeare should be taught is because it is a complex text. The complexity of the texts taught in schools now is going down while the complexity of texts taught in college and needed in the workplace is increasing (CCSS). One of the main things that differentiated the people who scored above average on the ACT from the ones who scored below was the ability to comprehend and make inferences about complex texts (ACT). In the English language arts course standards for California, there are four qualities of a complex text; levels of meaning, structure, language conventionality and clarity and knowledge demands (CCSS). Shakespeare has mul287


tiple levels of meaning, a complex plot structure, complex language and it demands some prior knowledge of the reader. These qualities make Shakespeare’s works complex texts and therefore valuable to teach. Acting Shakespeare is beneficial in a number of ways that not everyone thinks about. Emily Nappi, a student who has been acting Shakespeare for many years, thinks that learning Shakespeare is important because acting helps you to express your emotions, not just when you’re acting, but in social situations as well. When you learn about the emotions and the characters in order to act them; you begin to feel the emotions yourself, no matter how experienced you are. It is important, especially for teens, to be able to feel and express emotions in a safe and constructive environment. Our culture does not value the expression of emotions, we are taught to hold back our thoughts and feelings, but this is not healthy (Price). Becky Kemper, who has devoted her whole career to Shakespeare and is currently the Education Outreach Director for the San Francisco Shakespeare Festival, tells a story that illustrates this point: When you are born, you cry and scream for the things you want and the adults around you appease you. However when you grow older and you try to get things by throwing a fit; you are refused and told that you should know better than to behave that way. Our culture teaches us to lie about our and hide our emotions and acting Shakespeare helps to allow our real feelings to resurface. Teens have different, stronger emotions and hormones

than anyone else, so it is important that they are allowed and able to feel and understand these emotions (Price). Rainier Pearl-Styles, a student who has been acting Shakespeare for almost six years now, said that “Shakespeare is especially important because of the emotions and the base reactions he portrays.” In Shakespeare, you get straight emotions and reactions; you know what the characters are feeling instead of having to guess (Di Prisco). When the feelings of the characters are communicated clearly, it helps students empathize with and understand the characters. This helps them understand their own feelings and empathize with others more easily, both of which are skills that they will need later in life. Aside from helping with social skills, acting Shakespeare can help with schoolwork. In fact, “students who participate in the arts for at least three hours on three days a week through at least one full year are four times more likely to be recognized for academic achievement” (Arts Education). Acting Shakespeare has more benefits than many other arts. Aside from simply helping students do better in English; reading and understanding texts that are not written in our modern vernacular, Shakespeare can help with math, science and critical thinking as well. Having previous experience with Shakespeare helped students with “math and physics texts as well as approaching other literature” (Seidel). Shakespeare does not just help with reading, but many other subjects as well. Kayla Moreno, a student from Pleasanton, said that “because I started Shake288


speare so young, I have learned essential problem solving and critical thinking skills which are needed in almost all subjects in school.” When performing Shakespeare, you must understand and take apart the text as a group so that you can figure out how to most effectively bring it to life; this teaches important and useful critical thinking skills (Kemper). These skills, which are essential in school are also essential in acting Shakespeare. By acting Shakespeare, students will practice and reinforce these skills and become better both in school and in Shakespeare.

dents know little to nothing of what Shakespeare actually was; and yet they are still against learning one of his plays. The language is obviously a barrier, they come with the notion that they cannot understand, so they don’t. As long as students see Shakespeare as something incomprehensible, they will not be able to learn it (Kemper). The language, as well as the age of the plays disconnects students from Shakespeare. Students see Shakespeare as part of a ‘classical education’; something that was a necessity for rich Victorians, but is irrelevant now (Di Prisco).

Despite all the benefits of Shakespeare, students still have an adverse reaction when told that they will be learning it in school. Even Peter Breech, who has an MA in Shakespearian studies thinks that Shakespeare is out of date, prejudiced, and should not be used in school curriculums today. Breech’s opinion is shared by many students who have less knowledge of Shakespeare. When going into a class, most students have a different idea than what Shakespeare actually is; all they know is that he wrote plays in language that nobody can understand, lived a long time ago, and is now dead (Eaton). People have heard things like ‘a tragedy of Shakespearian proportions’ but this is not really Shakespeare. The modern idea of Shakespeare is far departed from what Shakespeare and Elizabethan England really was. We have a romanticized view of Shakespeare, crafted from the movies that we see and the references that are made (Garber). When going into a Shakespeare class, most stu-

One of the problems is that classes tend to over interpret Shakespeare and make it harder than it needs to be. Shakespeare was written to be seen, to be acted; not to be studied and analyzed (Gamekian). For years, English teachers everywhere have been trying to find good, nonthreatening ways to introduce Shakespeare to their students. They draw parallels between cartoons and Othello, the Rolling Stones and Hamlet (Wells, Steinberg). These methods only work to a certain extent, they get students more engaged, but the students still do not understand the depth of the emotions that Shakespeare conveys in his plays. It all means nothing if you cannot get the students to relate to Ophelia’s suffering or Macbeth’s confusion (Di Prisco). Stephanie Brannon; a student who has been in at least one Shakespeare play a year since she was seven, says that “when students feel the emotions in the plays, rather than just read them, they will have a better experience than just reading the 289


plays as a simple text.” If the students empathize with the characters, they will have a better time and not be as opposed to Shakespeare in the future. The most effective way to teach Shakespeare is to turn the classroom into a stage, take the formality and lectures out (Eaton). If the students are fed parts of the text auditorily then speak and physicalize just that part; they will understand it. Then, when they go to read the play, they recognize some of the language and are able to understand it more easily (Kemper). For many students, learning the plays by performing them will help them to retain the knowledge more easily because they are hearing it, speaking it, and standing and actively moving with the words (Wells). If students perform the plays instead of reading them, they will be forced to be more engaged and interested in the work. Actress Helen Mirren says, “I think children’s very first experience of Shakespeare should always be in performance, in the theatre, or on film – mostly in theatre, but it should be a performance because that makes it alive and real” (Nelson). Performing the plays is a different way of learning than students expect, it becomes a break from the other classes and an enjoyable activity that they may go on to become more involved in later in life. Shakespeare is an indispensable learning experience, but most students are not open to it. Acting and feeling the words of Shakespeare will help students with their future academic and

working lives, their emotional wellbeing, and their current schoolwork. If the students simply let go about their ideas, their preconceptions about Shakespeare; they will find that they might actually enjoy it.

Works Cited Reading between the Lines: What the ACT Reveals about College Readiness in Reading. ACT Inc., 2006. Web. 25 Feb. 2012. "Arts Education Facts." Americans for the Arts, 24 Feb. 2009. Web. 02 Feb. 2012. <http://www.artsusa.org/public_awareness/artsed_facts/001.as p>. Becky Kemper, Personal Interview 2/2/2012 Council of Chief State School Officers, and National Governors Association Center for Best Practices. Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy in History/ Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects. 2 June 2010. Appendix A. Di Prisco, Joseph "Shakespeare With Tears” The New York Times. 6 Nov. 1988. Web. 03 Jan. 2012. <http://www.nytimes.com/1988/11/06/education/shakespeare-wi th-tears.html?scp=6> 290


Eaton, Walter Prichard. "A Crime to Teach Shakespeare as We Do" Editorials, Columns, Op-Ed, Letters, Opinionator and More Opinion - The New York Times. 27 Feb. 1916. Web. 03 Jan. 2012. <http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F50B1FFD34 5C13738DDDAE0A94DA405B868DF1D3> Emily Nappi, Telephone Interview 1/24/2012 Gamarekian, Barbara. "Project Shows Teachers How to Make Texts Live" The New York Times. 19 Aug. 1990. Web. 03 Jan. 2012. <http://www.nytimes.com/1990/08/19/theater/project-shows-tea chers-how-to-make-texts-live.html>. Garber, Marjorie. "First Chapter - 'Shakespeare and Modern Culture,' by Marjorie Garber - NYTimes.com." Mytimes.com. NY Times, 10 Dec. 2008. Web. 10 Jan. 2012. <http://www.nytimes.com/2008/12/11/books/chapters/chapter-s hakespeare.html?scp=61>. Kayla Moreno, Personal Interview 1/25/2012

Price, Alan. "Managing Teen Emotions." Psychology Articles. Web. 10 Feb. 2012. <http://www.psyarticles.com/emotion/teen-emotions.htm>. Rainier Pearl-Styles, Personal Interview 1/28/2012 Seidel, Steve. Stand and Unfold Yourself. A Monograph on the Shakespeare & Company research study. Lenox, Massachusetts. Steinberg, Jacques. "Visual Play's the Thing; Teacher Uses Cartoons to Win Converts to Shakespeare" The New York Times. Web. 03 Jan. 2012. <http://www.nytimes.com/1998/05/10/nyregion/visual-play-s-the -thing-teacher-uses-cartoons-to-win-converts-to-shakespeare.ht ml?scp=5>. Stephanie Brannon, Personal Interview 1/25/2012 Wells, Stephen. "Alas, Poor Yorick, Teach Him Well" The New York Times. 1 Aug. 2004. Web. 03 Jan. 2012. http://www.nytimes.com/2004/08/01/nyregion/alas-poor-yorick-t each-him-well.html?scp=7

Nelson, Sara. "The Tempest Star Helen Mirren Says Reading Shakespeare in Schools Is a Waste of Time." Mail Online. 4 Mar. 2011. Web. 23 Feb. 2012. <http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1362576/Helen-Mirrensays-reading-Shakespeare-schools-waste-time.html>. 291


Andrew Kaminsky

He Just Got Clocked! Concussions in the NFL ! Concussions are type of head injury that is occurring more and more throughout the sports world. They are becoming more prevalent in every sport, and it needs to be addressed. The National Football League (NFL) is one of the most dangerous places as far as getting concussions go. There are many types of legal and illegal hits and certain rules that allow concussions to happen. However, the NFL has taken many steps in the right direction towards eliminating concussions. The NFL needs to make harsher punishments when players break certain rules and also needs to change what helmets they use. ! So, what is a concussion? Many people have a vague idea of what a concussion is but don’t understand what it is. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) defines a concussion as “a type of traumatic brain injury, or TBI, caused by a bump,

blow, or jolt to the head that can change the way your brain normally works” (“Concussion in Sports”). A concussion is when you put extra pressure on the brain and skull which causes it to shake and move. This is why if you get another one, then the severity of the concussion could increase. People don’t realize how significant TBI’s are in the real world. According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC) “TBI is a contributing factor to a third (30.5%) of all injury-related deaths in the United States” (“Concussion in Sports”). Therefore TBI’s are a highly underrated cause of death and is not thought about often by the people. Thus, society should be more informed about the signs of a TBI not only for sports, but for any purpose as concussions can be very dangerous to the point they can be fatal if not treated properly. Due to the seriousness of concussions, people need to realize when they have a concussion. A lot of people don’t realize that they might have a had a concussion and go one in their lives acting as if it was nothing putting themselves at danger to possibly get another concussion which would really damage their brain in the long run. There are many signs and symptoms that can tell one if they have a concussion. The symptoms and signs are “confusion, nausea, headache, sensitivity to noise, amnesia/difficulty, sensitivity to light, remembering, double/ fuzzy vision, balance problems, slowed reaction, irritability time, dizziness… Sleep disturbances, feeling sluggish, loss of foggy 292


or groggy consciousness” (“Concussion PDF”). Although one might not get all of these symptoms after suffering some kind of head injury, they should still go see a doctor or physician because they might have had a concussion without knowing it. The safest thing to do is always see a doctor or go to the hospital to get diagnosed properly and treated if needed. The “Cantu Grading System” (Barton) was used in 1986 to diagnose the nature and symptoms of the concussion immediately using three different levels which were mild, moderate, and severe. This was only the original grading system that was used. However, there were two other grading systems that were introduced that modified the original grading system (Barton). According to Dr. Mitch Berger doctors abandoned the grading system because “it didn’t mean anything in terms of how a player recovered.” Doctors are seeing recovery as the most important part of concussions rather than the immediate affects. We should be grading their concussions on how they recover as opposed to what happens to them right after. It is no surprise that of all contact sports football has the most concussions. Even though we fans love to see those hard hits where a player gets decked, it can be extremely dangerous for the player and it can result in long term damage. The two main factors in concussions in the NFL are rules and helmets. The NFL has a very detailed set of rules and instructions that tell what the proper role of players, referees, and coaches to

make sure everybody follows the rules and everyone is safe. More specifically there is a certain set of rules that tells players what types of hits and tackles they can make and under what circumstances they can do so. According to the NFL rule book a player may not use “any part of his helmet (including the top/ crown and forehead/”hairline” parts) or facemask to butt, spear, or ram an opponent violently or unnecessarily” (NFL). “Spearing” is when a player drops himself down and rams into the opponent using his head which can be extremely dangerous. These are all examples of the kinds of hits players may not make. Other examples of illegal hits are when players are “unnecessarily running, diving into, cutting, or throwing the body against or on a player who (i) is out of the play or (ii) should not have reasonably anticipated such contact by an opponent, before or after the ball is dead; or throwing the runner to the ground after the ball is dead” (NFL). These rules both full under the unnecessary roughness category in the NFL rule book. Unnecessary roughness is basically when a player takes an action on an opponent when it is not needed and can hurt the other player for a bad cause. However there are certain points in the game where making an unfair hit might be necessary. For example, if the game was on the line and you were the last defender chasing the person with the ball and the only way to bring him down was by an illegal hit then yes it could be necessary to do that. The current penalty for unnecessary roughness is either a fifteen yard penalty to the team that committed the foul and if 293


the act was deliberate and the player looked like he was trying to harm the opponent then the referee can eject that player for the rest of the game. For defensive players, it is important to know what a legal tackle or hit can be. There are many possibilities and ways for a player to tackle another player fairly. A defensive player can tackle a ball carrier as long as it is to stop the player’s progress going forwards. A very common mean of tackling that is legal is that “the defensive player can grab his opponent's jersey or body in an attempt to stop his forward process” (Davidson). The player may also trip the opponent to try and impeded forward movement (Davidson). However when a player does trip another player, it can’t be a trip that is meant to hurt the opponent or put him in danger, it is only to bring him down to stop forward progress. The rules and tactics that are used for offensive players are much different. The only circumstance, in which offensive players can tackle defensive players, is if the defensive players acquire the ball (Davidson). In which case, if the offensive player is not trying to block the defensive player from taking down the ball carrier and is tackling him just for the sake of tackling then it is a penalty. When trying to prevent defensive players from tackling the ball they can still be physical and use their hands as if they were on defense. An offensive player may “use his

hands to keep the defensive player in front of him, but he cannot drag that player to the ground” (Davidson). The majority of concussions that occur in the NFL happen to an offensive player or a special team’s player and are caused by the defense (Berger). Football is a sport that requires the teams that are playing to get the football to a certain area (touchdown) to score. The obvious way to prevent a team from scoring a touchdown is by stopping the balls forward progress towards the touchdown. This means the offensive players are going to be the majority of the players that get hit. Running backs (half back), wide receivers, and quarter backs are the most likely to get hit and have a concussion because they are the players who have the ball for the majority of the game (Berger). In figure A we see that the quarter back is right behind the center so the center can snap the ball to him. The quarter back is the person that initiates the play and then distributes the ball to another player via a pass or giving it to a running back or full back to run the ball or he can just run the ball himself. The quarter back position is not only a great danger because they can get hit but sometimes from what is called “the blind side.” The blind side in football is the side of the quarter back that he can’t see. This means that if he gets hit from behind he would not be able to prepare to get hit and would be very sudden. You could prepare for a hit by shielding the ball and to adjust your body in such a way that would reduce the impact of a hit. If a defensive player came from behind a quarter backed him and this would 294


cause in figure A we see that full back and running back are right behind him in this particular formation. The full back is one of the two runners in a formation and is mostly used for blocking and protecting the quarter back. The running back is the person furthest back in any formation and is primarily used for running the ball. The running back can get a pass on a play as well. When a running back runs the ball, he usually goes through the middle where all of the line backers are both offensive and defensive. When this happens they have a very strong chance of getting hit not just by one person, but by multiple defensive players. This puts them at a very high risk of getting hit in the head which could lead to a concussion. Many times in the NFL offensive players get tackled but don’t go down immediately in which case another player can come over and tackle the same player to make sure he goes down. So if an offensive player is about to hit the ground and his head is at chest height of defensive player when he gets hit he could suffer a very powerful hit and get a concussion. The wide receiver is also a position that is very dangerous because a wide receivers job is to run different routes depending on the play and the quarter back will then throw it to them if they are open. Sometimes when wide receivers catch a pass, they are facing towards the quarterback who threw it to them. This means that they don’t know what is behind them which could be another team mate or a defensive player. If it is a de-

fensive player that comes up on their “blind side” they could get hit very hard in the head and get a concussion.

Figure A: Frei, Regis. “American football field positions,” Image, Wikipedia, 28 Nov 2008, Web, 5 Feb 2012.

! The NFL does not require its players to use a certain kind or brand of helmet. It is their choice which helmet they use. There are hundreds of different kinds of helmets used by NFL players. However, there are a few main ones that are used by the majority of the players. According to a study done by Virginia Tech students, “39 percent wore one of the various mod295


els that fall under the Riddell Revolution name or the new Riddell 360” ("Study Shows NFL Players Wore Inferior Helmets in 2010"). It was found that players preferred these helmets due to their comfort as opposed to some of the other helmets on the market (Study Shows NFL Players Wore Inferior Helmets in 2010"). Riddell is a helmet company that produces the majority of the helmets used by NFL players. In their study they used a five star grading system and evaluated each helmet to see how safe it was for NFL players. A whopping “38 percent of NFL players wore the low-rated VSR-4 in 2010” ("Study Shows NFL Players Wore Inferior Helmets in 2010"). The VSR-4 got rated one out of five stars which means it is lowest in safety for head injuries. This is a very scary statistic considering this helmet is the most worn out of all NFL players. On the brighter side of all this is that the Riddell Speed Revolution got a perfect five out five star rating which means it is very safe for protecting head concussions ("Study Shows NFL Players Wore Inferior Helmets in 2010"). The NFL needs to make the Riddell Speed Revolution mandatory for all NFL players to use. It shouldn’t matter if a player has a contract with a helmet company, if they want to play in the NFL they must wear this helmet. Not only will this decrease chances of players getting concussions, it will make all players more even as far as susceptibility for concussions goes. Football is a very high contact and dangerous sport that give players a very high chance of getting injured. If people break the rules and make these kinds of illegal hits they need to be

punished way more than they currently are. They need to be punished way more to teach players a lesson. If a player spears another player, not only should they get kicked out of the game, they need to be fined and suspended. This is the only way to teach them a lesson to tackle properly and fairly. This may come at the expense of the team and fans, but there needs to be more punishment in order to keep the players safe.

Works Cited Barton, Lindsay. "Concussion Grading Scales Have Been Abandoned." MomsTeam. Web. 26! ! Jan. 2012. http://www.momsteam.com/health-safety/concussion-grading-g uidelines-!abandoned-in-favor-of-symptom-based-approach-toreturn-to-play. Berger, Mitch. Personal Interview. 12 Jan. 2012. "Concussion in Sports " Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Web. 23 Jan. 2012. http://www.cdc.gov/concussion/sports/. Davidson, Jeremi. "Difference Between A Legal & Illegal Football Tackle." Livestrong.com. 26 May 2011. Web. 30 Jan. 2012. http://www.livestrong.com/article/436433-difference-between-a-l egal-illegal-football-tackle/. Frei, Regis. “American football field positions.” Image. Wikipedia, Web. 28 Nov 2008. 296


"High price of concussions." The Progressive Oct. 2010: 42. General OneFile. Web. 10 Jan. 2012. NFL, Official Playing Rules And Casebook Of The National Football League. NFL, 2011. PDF. "Study Shows NFL Players Wore Inferior Helmets in 2010" ESPN: The Worldwide Leader In Sports. 10 May 2011. Web. 10 Jan. 2012.

297


Kai Karrasch

The Effects of Media on Teens People at a very young age are set to a standard on how their body should look. Girls look at the media and try to relate to skinny super models and while boys relate to muscular super heroes. This is caused from teens idolizing retouched celebrity photos and videos and flawless, unrealistic models. People need to be more aware of the media and fake edited photos because this can cause many problems for teens in the future. In movies, the ideal female star is depicted as tall and slender with flowing long hair and intensely vivid eyes while men are depicted as muscular, tall, lean and athletic. The idolization of flawless-looking movie stars may seem harmless, but the industry is promoting the attitude of “You’ve got to be skinny to be happy,” and because kids have a fear of being fat or not fitting in, they will do anything to avoid gaining weight (Greey). Kids don’t understand how much photos are edited. Photographer Brad Adams states, "Usually the eyes and teeth are whitened, makeup and skin problems corrected, and hair cleaned up. Models are already thin, but I've done jobs where even skinny mod-

els are made to look skinnier"(Mehta). The majority of magazine photos, commercials, and advertisements are retouched or completely edited. ! Many companies target youths to try to sell their products. For example, one Victoria Secret ad campaign tries to entice teen girls and women with “Your Ticket to Sexy.” Photos of curvaceous, slender, beautiful women influence girls to strive for an unrealistic body image and shape what they buy and how they express themselves. Although these companies are only trying to sell their product they still have the most effect on teens (Millard). The most effective commercials are the ones that show someone whom the customer desires to be or look like. Many teens would die to have a “perfect” figure like the models selling designer clothing brands and many try to alter themselves through dieting or changing their style. Although companies are aware of the power of advertising and how the depiction of unrealistic images can have a negative and sometimes harmful influence on teen girls and boys, they continue to try to market sex and false body images to teens because they can make a lot of money from the products they sell. One company is fighting back though. Unlike many brands, Dove is trying to change the way beauty is portrayed and set a mission to rebuild women’s self-esteem (Millard). In a commercial, Dove takes you behind the scenes to see a model being transformed from a normal-looking person to a super model. 298


She is applied with cover up, mascara, eye liner, and eye shadow. Not only do they add on a load of makeup but after the photos are taken, but more retouches are added, such as plumping the model’s lips, elongating her neck, adding more cheek bone, and moving her hair. On the opposite side is Victoria Secret, which uses only models have sexy curves, large breast, perfect skin and beautiful faces. I know after watching or looking at a Victoria Secret model, most girls feel discouraged about their own body. In an online article, I read about a Victoria Secret model quitting her job. She decided to resign because of her religious faith and because she wanted to be a good role model for girls around the world. “As long as my actions positively impact one girl, it will have been worth it,” she said. The Victoria Secret model didn’t believe stripping down to her underwear was a good message for young girls. During the interview, she discussed the dark side of modeling, touching on a world filled with a pressure to achieve “perfection” by losing weight, which, in many instances, leads to debilitating eating disorders” (Gabbay). At around age 6, kids start to feel discomfort with their body (Greey). Girls have more discomfort because during puberty girls can usually gain up to 25 pounds (Kowalski). Girls feel like they’re getting fat, because they are gaining weight fast and unexpectedly. Many question what they are doing wrong, even though their body is just changing and developing (Greey).

What they don’t understand is that reaching the body type of a celebrity and/or model is not possible. Only 2% of women are the same size as models and the photos teens look at are unrealistic and retouched (Kowalski). The ways boys respond to their insecurities are very different. Many find that sports make them feel better about themselves and some tend to rely on that. This is because many guys feel like they have to be big in size and strength (Maynard), and sports give them a way to exercise and let go of their insecurities. Unlike girls, guys like to act more confident than they really are, they don’t like to admit to feeling any discomfort. Since they are so competitive in general, they cannot afford for people to think of them as weak or not confident (Maynard). One thing that boys and girls can both face is unhealthy habits. Some have bad body image, low self-esteem, anorexia and bulimia. A bad body image is more in the mind; it is the way you think of how your body looks. If you look in the mirror and only see and name the bad things about yourself you have a bad body image (Maynard). A bad body image and a low selfesteem might seem so common and not a very big deal, but these vulnerable thoughts can leave teens not feeling good about themselves. This can then lead to anorexia, which is an eating disorder that causes a lack of appetite. Anorexia is a lifethreatening disease that many teens can go through (DrydenEdwards). It causes dehydration, pale skin, and can decrease 299


the amount of bone density in your body (Kowalski). Another eating disorder is bulimia, which is when someone feels so insecure they have the need to throw up their food. This makes your body very unbalanced when it comes to nutrition. People can go through bulimia in many different ways; a common one is throwing up, but people can also misuse diet pills, laxatives, or even over-exercise. In studies, 3% of all women, 6% of teen girls, 5% of college females are bulimic. And 10% of bulimic patients are men (Stoppler). These problems are very extreme, and the media and edited photos are only encouraging it. A study done in 2007 by a group of psychiatrists tested anorexic patients. They collected data from 2,881 women. They discovered that 270 per 100,000 of women ages 15-19 were anorexic, and that 66.8% of woman recovered in a 5 years. Some reached full recovery after 5 years and others still had to face issues with anorexia (Keski-Rahkonen). Even after full recovery, women and teens still have to carry around there past. We need to make sure teens get the help they need if they ever go through these problems. We can still prevent these problems by noticing what’s being shown in the media and realizing if it is reality or not. Teens need to be more aware of how much they are being influenced by commercials and photos, because the media is changing the way they view themselves. An average American is exposed to 3,000 advertisements a day; this alone influences

teens extremely on how they view themselves. Soon then the majority of them are comparing themselves to retouched advertisements and magazine photos. Many companies don’t notice it but they can cause these future problems. Promoting a stick figure body is tough not only on teens but almost everyone. What teens don’t realize is, models get help from personal trainers and nutritionists, and they are able to keep their weight low and stay fit. Also Psychologist David M. Garner says, "The media show an image of the perfect woman that is unattainable for somewhere between 98 and 99 percent of the female population” (Maynard). Also, some models don’t even need to worry about their flaws, because the flaws can always be edited out. Models still may not be good enough for the model industry” (Mehta). Not only are teens in danger of being extremely affected by the way our society defines beauty, but so are models. I interviewed a 15-year-girl who used to be a professional model. She talked about how much fun she had but also mentioned how competitive it is to be a model. She said the pressures of being the right size and shape can really be overwhelming, especially for young models. She explained that many of them don’t know how to control their weight and will look for the easiest solution to their problem. There are so many pressures for a young model, and one flaw could end a career.

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We don’t recognize the amount of pressure models are put under. Yes they may have full-time body trainers and major surgery done (Maynard). But that doesn’t change the way they feel; they could feel used or still not good enough. Minor flaws can turn into huge problems. They might look beautiful in pictures and advertisements, but is that reality for them? Yes, images and advertisements are only trying to promote a product, but the way they portray women and men, set a huge standard for teens. They set a standard on what’s beautiful sexy and healthy. Sexy is small waists, long legs, tall, and big eyes; healthy is toned bodies, small legs, muscles, and flat stomachs. They might not say it but what they are expressing are stereotypes, describing how teens should look. There is not much we can do to stop the media from promoting these certain types of photos, but we can let schools, parents, and teens be more aware of this problem. Educating teens will help them understand how the media is influencing them. Many may look at this problem as minor, but the effects on teens, young adults, preteens, and models are not. Many teens are faced with low self-esteem, poor body images, and even the extremes – anorexia, bulimia, and more. These problems may only seem physical but they are not. Teens can lose confidence in themselves and their abilities to succeed. We need to be more aware of how to express natural beauty and not promote fake, edited photos and advertisements. Let’s not let the media and magazines redefine beauty.

Work Cited Dryden-Edwards, Roxanne. Anorexia. MedicineNet.com. Web. Feb 1, 2012. Gabbay, Tiffany. “Victoria’s Secret model who quit over faith tells Beck: ‘There’s no happiness’ in getting ‘half-naked’. TheBlaze. Web. Feb 26, 2012. Greey, Madeleine. "Fear of Fat: Why More and More Young Children are Dieting." Todays Parent 2000: 114-. ProQuest Research Library. Web. 8 Jan. 2012 . Jaret, Charles, Donald C. Reitzes, and Nadezda Shapkina. "Reflected Appraisals and Self-Esteem." Sociological Perspectives 48.3 (2005): 403-19. ProQuest Research Library. Web. 9 Jan. 2012. Keski-Rahkonen, Anna, et al. "Epidemiology and Course of Anorexia Nervosa in the Community." The American Journal of Psychiatry 164.8 (2007): 1259-65. ProQuest Research Library. Web. 16 Feb. 2012. Kowalski, Kathiann M. "Body Image: How do You See Yourself?" Current Health Teens 2003: 6-. ProQuest Research Library. Web. 4 Jan. 2012.

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Maynard, Cindy. "How to make Peace with Your Body." Current Health Teens 1998: 6-11. ProQuest Research Library. Web. 4 Jan. 2012. Mehta, Julie. "Pretty Unreal." Current Health Teens 2005: 15-8. ProQuest Research Library. Web. 4 Jan. 2012. Millard, Jennifer. "Performing Beauty: Doves "Real Beauty" Campaign." Symbolic Interaction 32.2 (2009): 146-68. ProQuest Research Library. Web. 8 Jan. 2012. Stoppler Conrad, Melissa. Bulimia. MedicineNet.com. Web. Feb 1, 2012. Tiggemann, Marika. "The Role of Media Exposure in Adolescent Girls Body Dissatisfaction and Drive for Thinness: Prospective Results." Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 25.5 (2006): 523-41. ProQuest Research Library. Web. 8 Jan. 2012

302


Sam Koch

Mindset and Probability The Equation For as long as there have been sports, people have been guessing the outcome before it really happens and why that is. Until about 10 years ago these guesses were usually made by the “tales of the tape” (a boxing reference referring to the height, weight, reach and fist size of the boxer). That was until recently when it was realized that the mindset of the athlete could be even more important than their natural skills. There are still two very different mindsets on how to predict sports; one way to think about it is that the bigger stronger faster player will always win. The other way is that the person who works harder and trains harder will win. Before we jump into how the different mindsets can affect the outcome, it’s worth knowing a definition of probability. MerriamWebster defines probability as “the chance that a given event will occur” (Probability - Definition). Now, what that means is very simple if a basketball player shoots a free-throw, what is the percentage chance that they makes the free-throw? The an-

swer to a that equation is not simple, to figure that out you would need to know all the factors that go into the shot, (i.e fatigue, crowd noise, density of the rim, distractions) otherwise one could not predict the outcome. Luckily there is another way. By analyzing previous data, we can merge all of the smaller pieces of the equation together. In essence we can calculate the probability that a shooter can make or miss their shot (Dr.C) . Now since we can see that probability emerges from player’s performance how would a player improve their performance to improve their probability of victory. Every athlete would agree that to become better, they have to cut down on mistakes; some athletes can run into problems when they try to cut down on mistakes. It is because the athletes think that they have to be perfect to stop them from making mistakes (Hewitt).This is a very negative approach to mistakes and can be very detrimental to the player’s performance. As Doctor Gordon Flett, a professor of human sciences says “perfectionists who do not achieve their goals often will become depressed and can lead to worse performances in the future”. Worse performances are very common when an athlete can only accept success and are incapable of tolerating failure. Nurse Mary Gorgan’s thinks that, "'setting high expectations may be a good strategy, if you can also allow the experience to be different from what you imagine... Often in clinical work, I ask clients what it means about them if their expectations aren't 303


met. A sense of not being good enough is a common answer'"(Tugnend) A sense of not being good enough is very common, that is how players can go from the top to the bottom. It is very simple “When perfectionist's fall, they fall hard because their entire world is about success and when they are not successful they don't know what to do” (Hewitt 16). Billy Beane was a baseball player who out of high school was supposed to be the best, he was “perfect” and everyone believed he would be a star. However sadly they were all wrong. Billy became one of the biggest disappointments in baseball history. Why was this, it was because he could not accept his mistakes so he couldn’t get past them to become a better athlete. One of Billy’s teammates once said that "it wasn't merely that he didn't like to fail; it was as if he didn't know how to fail"(qtd. in Dweck 82). This mind set he was locked into was one which couldn’t accept failure so when he started to fail he just couldn’t accept it and instead of trying to do better he just kept failing. Beane is just one example a person who could not accept that he was human, and could make mistakes so he stopped getting better. Disappointment of failure is a very common human experience as a recent study from one of the top brain study institutes Neuro leader institute suggests, “If we expect x and get x, there's a slight rise in dopamine. If we expect to get x and get 2x, there's a greater rise. But if we expect to get x and we get

.9x, then we get a much bigger drop" (Tugend). It might have been that Mr. Beane expected too much of himself and when he didn’t reach the level of intended play his level of dopamine decreased a lot resulting in a downward spiral (for those who don’t know what dopamine is, it is a chemical in the brain which went made causes adrenaline and happiness). We will never know, we do know of other people who could succeed from failure. These people have a different mindset then the perfectionists mentioned before, instead of having a large drop when they get “.9x” instead of “1x” they actually have an increase in dopamine. Instead of shunning failure and denying its existence these people embrace it, and use it to better themselves as people and as athletes. These people have something called a growth mindset. That is where you believe that you can always improve no matter what happens. This is how athletes get to the top and stay at the top (Dweck). When one thinks about it, the idea makes sense a positive outlook and resilience while playing sports leads to better play. “When players are concerned about their mistake they are more likely to have negative outcomes. These outcomes can include anxiety, low confidence and low self esteem” (Flett 15). If a player is concerned about mistakes they are more likely to make them and thus hurting their play. The opposite is also true, if a player can focus on the good things they are doing then they can improve on them. The player can continue to improve on them and also enjoy the 304


sport more (Dweck). There exists a very fine line though because as sports probability expert Ken Anglund says, “Over analyzing your performance level becomes an epidemic, thus creating a game of mental mistakes versus a game of fluid play when your game is in top form"(Ken Anglund). So people who are thinking positively still need to be careful about how they are thinking about things. Overanalyzing the information of performance can sometimes be almost as bad as thinking about it negatively(Lapay).

Jan. 2012. <http://www.ultimatecapper.com/sports-betting-articles-31.htm>.

How does this all relate to probability though? Well, probability is using factors to create a logical guess about the outcome of an event (Dr.C). In this case we are looking at one of the factors in the probability and that is the mind of the athlete. In the end that is really all that matters in probability is the athletes mindset, because as anyone who follows sports can tell you things happen that should not happen and that is because of the athlete’s mindset. This leads me to a conclusion about sports probability, all the factors in sports boil down to one thing and that thing is effort. Without effort, skill and talent are not as important, and when people stop trying to become better they lose.

Hewitt, Paul L, Gordon, Flett L. "The Perils of Perfectionism in Sports and Excersise." Current Directions in Psychological Science. By Gordon L. Flett. Vol. 14. Sage Publications.inc, 2005. 14-18. JSTOR. Web. 9 Jan. 2012.

Works Cited Anglund, Ken. "Sports Betting Articles - Hot and Cold Streaks in the NBA." Free Sports Picks: NFL, NCAA College Football, NBA, NHL, Bovada Sportsbook. Coverexperts.com. Web. 05

Carty, Derek. "How Pitcher Cold Streaks Predict Their Future Performance." Cash Fantasy Football, Baseball, Basketball, Hockey Leagues | FanDuel. 7 June 2011. Web. 05 Jan. 2012. Dweck, Carol S. "SPORTS : THE MINDSET OF A CHAMPION." Mindset: The New Psychology of Success. New York: Random House, 2006. 82-105. Print.

Lapay, Simone. "Sports Interview." Interview by Sam N. Koch. Print "Probability - Definition." Merriam-Webster Online. MerriamWebster. Web. 30 Jan. 2012. Rykoff, Amanda, Sarah Spain, Adena Andrews, Melissa Jacobs, Jane McManus, and Whitney Holtzman. "Tim Tebow Craze." ESPN: The Worldwide Leader In Sports. Espnw, 14 Dec. 2011. Web. 09 Jan. 2012.

305


Tyler Krill

Video Games and ADHD: Can There Be Benefits?! It is amazing that although over 20% of American children go hungry each night ("US Hunger"), somehow 91% of American children and adolescents between the ages of 5-17 are very likely to play video games. American children with ADHD are even more likely to play them ("Gaming Statistics"). A full 9% of the US population has been diagnosed with ADHD (Dcowan and "Prevalence of ADHD"). With the prevalence of both ADHD and these games in our culture the real question is: Can there be value in playing video games for people with ADHD or is it just a useless waste of time? I assert that video games can benefit people with ADHD in three ways; through stress relief, an increased release of dopamine for short term beneficial effects, and the training of the brain with specifically designed games. Knowing more about ADHD gives us an insight into why video gaming is so important to teens with this affliction. ADHD (Atten-

tion Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) is a common learning disability in children, teens, and adults. A major problem for people with the disorder is the invisible nature of ADHD. Although those with the disorder are generally fully functioning members of their communities, their Executive Functioning abilities can be altered (Zenger Dendy). For children and adolescents, this can negatively affect their performance in school, socially, with family, and many other ways. The overwhelming nature of this can bring into question their self confidence and ability to have any control over their environment. One place of control is playing video games because they are interesting and that makes them easier to focus on. "Young people with ADHD can find it difficult to feel good about themselves. Many things that others take for granted are hard for them" ("ADHD- How Can it Affect Teenagers"). There are three different types of ADHD: predominantly inattentive type (ADD), predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type, and combined type. People with ADD typically have problems with focusing on things that they find hard or boring, finishing schoolwork, making careless mistakes, procrastination, and being forgetful. However, they can also â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Hyperfocusâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; on things they find interesting, such as video games or self initiated projects. People with the predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type of ADHD tend to talk without thinking, fidget when they have to be still, and act as if they always have somewhere to be, like they are 306


driven by a motor. They tend to be somewhat anti-social and can be awkward in many situations. The combined type has near equal symptoms from both sides, meaning that they both struggle with attention, and with hyperactive-impulsiveness (Brown). The value of stress relief for these adolescents and in fact all adolescent is enormous (Nauert). At a time in one's life when transition is commonplace, the ability to cope with change in a less stressful manner becomes a lifelong skill set. Stress release needs to come in a number of forms including regular exercise and a well rounded social life. For a teen with ADHD, this takes on additional dimensions, even figuring out how to incorporate these typical releases in their life to cause more stress. Video games, even those not designed for ADHD, can be a place to be successful. Team sports can be very intimidating for teens with ADHD. "...These teens are prone to pushing, hitting. Shoving or running into team members when participating in sportsâ&#x20AC;? (Langham). The Wii Gaming system offers physically interactive games that focus on personal accomplishments and let anyone progress at their own particular pace without the pressure of outside influences such as coaches, parents, or teammates adding to what can already be a stressful environment. Teens with ADHD also often have weak social skills. "According to the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychia-

try, these teens have difficulties adapting to social situations where good social skills are essential" (Langham). Instead of the worries of uncomfortable face to face encounters, online gamers can communicate about the game at hand initially. This takes the focus away from social awkwardness of the ADHD teen but still allows for a friendship to grow. The camaraderie of playing with others is more manageable and therefore happens with less effort as a result. From a personal perspective, I was diagnosed with ADD, a predominantly inattentive type of ADHD, in the fourth grade. I also have extensive experience with video games and have found that video games are both extremely easy to focus on, a great outlet for stress relief in my life and an opportunity to connect with friends online. According to Carole Jacobs and Isadora Wendel, Ph.D., MSCP, in social situations, for those with ADHD, "Pick your activities carefully and avoid those that stress or wear you out. Instead, choose those you enjoy the most and find most relaxing." But the main stress relief for those with ADHD comes with Hyperfocusing ("Hyperfocus: The Other Side of ADHD"). Hyperfocus is a byproduct of ADHD that is not commonly thought of as possible. However, the problem with ADHD is not a lack of focus, but a lack of control over that focus (Roth). Things that people with ADHD find interesting can be extremely easy to focus on, so much so that while doing the interesting thing they virtually canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t be distracted. In this state, the person has very little stress from the outside world ("Hyperfocus: The Other Side 307


of ADHD") Most players of video games experience kind of state of Hyperfocus, but to a player with ADHD, it provides time to exist without misunderstanding or confusion. Life for an adolescent with ADHD confronts unseen additional stressful hurdles at every turn that brings down their self esteem. Reducing stress for these teens allows them to go forward with more confidence into adulthood where they can gain better perspective on their particular disorder. Physiologically, those with ADHD have an imbalance in brain chemicals. ADHD is the most researched mental disorder in the world (Roth). Video games have shown to have a relation to it, but do video games actually affect the symptoms of ADHD in a positive way? ADHD is caused from issues with the dopamine in the synapses of the brain. Synapses are the connections between the brain cells and dopamine is the substance that allows the brain cells to communicate through those connections. The axon terminal is the part of a synapse that releases the dopamine to send the signal to another brain cell. It releases the dopamine from small pockets in its membrane, and then the postsynaptic membrane, which is the part of the synapse that receives the signal (dopamine), receives the dopamine and pumps it back to the axon terminal to be reused later (Brown). The two largest problems with people who have ADHD are, the pumps that put the dopamine back into the system are weaker, and there is a shortage of dopamine overall (Roth).

Video games can have an effect on these dopamine levels. Research has shown that â&#x20AC;&#x153;playing video games triggers the release of dopamine in the brainâ&#x20AC;? ("Computer Game Addiction") and also, "The researchers discovered that Dopamine production in the brain doubles during video game play" (The Vanier Institute of the Family). This release of dopamine can temporarily reduce the symptoms of ADHD because it allows the brain to cycle more dopamine, which the slow cycle is one of the causes for ADHD symptoms. Therefore, they can control their focus better and have a temporary reduction of the rest of their symptoms. This could possibly be used therapeutically, but the person would have to balance the video games with the work for this to be effective (Roth). Based on this, I assert that, yes; video games temporarily improve dopamine levels and therefore improve symptoms of ADHD affected by lowered dopamine levels. Monitoring dopamine levels, among other factors, allows for ADHD to be treatable, but still an incurable disorder that is caused at or before birth. 80% of ADHD is caused by genetics, and the other 20% is caused by birth complications or drugs and/or alcohol in the womb (Roth), but it cannot occur later in life. "Experts do know that ADHD has a strong genetic component. In addition, they think that genes that control the levels of certain chemicals in the brain call neurotransmitters seem to be different in those with ADHD" ("Attention-Deficit/Hyperactive Disorder"). !Also, ADHD is a gene and therefore must have been 308


evolved, but why would have something like that evolved to us. The most likely explanation for the evolution of the ADHD gene is people with ADHD tend to be more risk takers, and they can have the ability to look at a challenge from multiple perspectives (Roth). In addition, "people who take risks get an unusually big hit of dopamine each time they have a novel experience"(Park). The virtual illusion of high risk behavior in video games creates a "safe" environment to engage in risky activity to increase dopamine. It is reasonable to see how those with ADHD can be less conservative and accomplish more with their lives; lives that will be keep safe when exploring high risk behavior virtual instead of in real life. Another approach to ADHD therapy is through a company called Cogmed who has designed specific video games that are used in a therapeutic way. Cogmed has created specialized video games developed to improve the “working memory” of a person with ADHD. Working memory is like RAM in a computer, it can help one keep track of what they are doing at the moment or serve as short term memory. People with ADHD tend to have low working memory and are therefore forgetful, which is one of the ways they have trouble controlling their focus (Roth). It is very important that ADHD is not seen as a lack of intelligence. There are many stereotypes about people with ADHD, including not putting as much effort into what one is doing, not listening when spoken to, and a lack of valuable contribution ("Common Myth, Misconceptions, and Stigma Surround-

ing ADHD"). Often times the contribution of a person with ADHD can be presented in a way that may be hard to recognize. ADHD affects performance, but it has absolutely no effect on intelligence (Sullivan). For example; someone with ADHD may do very well in a subject they enjoy, but when it comes to subjects that involve things that they find uninteresting, it is hard to focus on, and they will struggle very much. It’s not that they don’t understand the subject, but they simply can’t control their focus enough to work on the subject in any meaningful way without being distracted by outside sources, or even their own conscious (Roth). Cogmed has addressed this specific issue of memory with a 5 week program that consists of 25, 3045 minute long sessions with the game and an individual coach to work with the person taking the program. This program has proven to be been beneficial for people with ADHD because it has improved their working memory reducing this aspect of their symptoms (Cogmed). This is the most direct correlation of video games benefitting those with ADHD. Although clearly not a cure, it is evident that video games can benefit people with ADHD through stress relief, increased levels of dopamine and memory function games. Stress relief in today's fast paced society is marked as a healthy necessity by healthcare professionals universally. With the additional stress of living with ADHD, the benefits of stress relief are essential and easily accessed by turning on the gaming screen. Through the increased release of dopamine through gaming, ADHD suf309


fers can find short term relief of symptoms and a safe outlet for the tendency toward risky behavior; no pharmaceuticals required. The genius of Cogmed merging the joy of gaming with the power of better access to working memory may seem trivial until one truly knows the many hardships ADHD sufferers encounter daily because they ' just can't recall'. ADHD is as pervasive in one's life as breathing, but with none of the life sustaining benefits. It can suck the breath out of suffers who are looking for just a little understanding. Any and all benefits, especially from the most unlike source of gaming are welcomed with open arms from those of us who suffer.

Works Cited "ADHD - How Can It Affect Teenagers." Object Moved. 28 May 2010. Web. Mar. 2012. <http://www.cyh.com/HealthTopics/HealthTopicDetails.aspx?p= 243>. 

Cogmed Working Memory Training Research. 2002-2011. Web. 31 Jan. 2012. <http://www.cogmed.com/research>. "Common Myths, Misconceptions, and Stigma Surrounding ADHD." Health.com. 12 Apr. 2010. Web. Mar. 2012. <http://www.health.com/health/article/0,,20434636,00.html>. Dcowan. "Nine Percent of Children Have ADHD?" Scribd. Web. 2012. <http://www.scribd.com/doc/2273690/Nine-Percent-of-ChildrenHave-ADHD>. "Gaming Statistics." StatSpotting! Web. Feb. 2012. <http://statspotting.com/2011/10/gaming-statistics-91-of-kids-ag ed-2-17-playing-video-games/>. "Hyperfocus: The Other Side of ADHD." VAXA. Web. 14 Feb. 2012. <http://www.vaxa.com/hyperfocus.cfm>.

"Atention-Deficit/Hyperactive Disorder." WebMD. WebMD. Web. Mar. 2012. <http://www.webmd.com/add-adhd/guide/adhd-causes>. 

Jacobs, Carole, and Isadore Wendel. "Adult ADD / ADHD." Making Friends. 2010. Web. Mar. 2012. <http://www.netplaces.com/adult-add-adhd/coping-with-adult-ad hd-in-social-settings/making-friends.htm>.

Brown, Thomas E. "ADD as Developmentally Impaired Executive Function: Description of the ! Model." A New Understanding of Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD/ADD) from Dr. ! Thomas E. Brown. Web. 31 Jan. 2012. <http://drthomasebrown.com/brown_model/index.html>.

Langham, R. Y. "ADHD Symptoms in Teens." LIVESTRONG.COM. 1 July 2010. Web. Mar. 2012. <http://www.livestrong.com/article/161078-adhd-symptoms-in-te ens/>. 310


Nauert, Rick. "Stress Has Long-Term Consequences For Teens." Psych Central.com. 16 May 2008. Web. Mar. 2012. <http://psychcentral.com/news/2008/05/16/stress-has-long-term -consequences-for-teens/2304.html>.

Zeger Dendy, Chris A., and Alex Zeigler. "Executive Function." Home. CHADD's ATTENTION Magazine, 2011. Web. Mar. 2012. <http://www.chrisdendy.com/executive.htm>. 

Park, Alice. "Why We Take Risks - It's the Dopamine." Time.com. Time, 30 Dec. 2008. Web. Mar. 2012. <http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1869106,00.ht ml>. "Prevalence of ADHD." The ADHD Information Library. 2008. Web. 2012. <http://newideas.net/adhd/about_attention_deficit/prevalence_o f_adhd>. Roth, Charles. "ADHD." Personal interview. 31 Jan. 2012. "U.S. Hunger." Bread for the World. Web. Mar. 2012. <http://www.bread.org/hunger/us/?utm_source=adwords>.  Sullivan, Grace. "The Relationship Between ADHD and Superior Intelligence." Http://ezinearticles.com. 2 Apr. 2009. Web. Mar. 2012. <http://ezinearticles.com/?The-Relationship-Between-ADHD-an d-Superior-Intelligence&id=2176479>. The Vanier Institute of the Family. Web. Feb. 2012. <http://www.vanierinstitute.ca/>. 311


Zack Migdail

Learning Languages: What’s Most Important Eighty percent of Americans are monolingual, whereas 50% of Europeans can carry on a conversation in another language by age 15 (“Learning Another Language”). It is vitally important to learn other languages. Having a second language can be very helpful in many situations, such as communicating with others or obtaining a job. These are just some of the criteria that can be used to judge what languages to teach. However, there are many languages out there, so what languages should The Bay School of San Francisco teach?

less useful in less diverse places. Having another language will also enable one to have an easier time getting a job in general or getting a job in another country. According to a report funded by the United States Department of Education, “leaders in many professions now realize that fluency in a foreign language and multicultural sensitivity are essential in their fields…” (Voght). There are two criteria that must be met for a language to be useful in a job setting. The first is that the language must be widely spoken if it is used for communication. Languages that are not spoken by many people will be useless when trying to talk with other people because few others will know the language. Leigh Hafrey, a senior lecturer in communication and ethics stated that “Speaking the language [of where one is] confers a huge advantage for anyone who wants to do business in a non-English-speaking country” (qtd. in Lauerman). The other criterion a language needs to meet is that it must be widely used in the business world. This ensures that the language one learns will be useful in obtaining a job.

The first criterion to consider when learning a language is how useful it will be when getting a job. Getting a job is one of the reasons why people learn languages (“Learning Another Language”). Language can play a role in this process by helping with communication, should one choose a job that requires communication with strangers. In the United States this is especially useful due to the diverse population; however it will be

The remaining criteria are related to how The Bay School teaches and Bay’s philosophies. Stephen Krashen, an expert in language acquisition, created the Communicative Language Teaching Method based on the principal that all students learn grammar at a given rate, and that that rate cannot be changed (Victoria). The method focuses on use in the real world and less on the use of grammar. Bay uses a curriculum that is simi312


lar to this, only it focuses on grammar as well. From this teaching method one can infer that Bay values languages that are useful in the world. In addition, part of The Bay School philosophy is “Accurate and elegant communication in more than one medium and language” (Bay School Handbook). This means that Bay values communication with everyone. The more useful a language is in the world, the more opportunities for communication there will be. One way that usefulness in the world can be determined is by the number of people who use the language. This can be divided into three categories: use on the Internet, use in the US, and use in the world. The next three paragraphs will lay out the criteria for the importance of a language based on use. Technology holds an important position in Bay School learning, as evidenced by the section of Bay’s mission statement declaring the school’s intent “to emphasize the centrality of studying science and technology…” (Bay School Handbook). As technology becomes more advanced, easier to use, and more available, the Internet continues to grow larger. Since the Internet plays such a large role in the use of technology, and since 2,267,233,742 people use the internet (Internet World Stats), there are many languages that are used on the internet. To maximize the usefulness of the Internet, and, by extension, current technology, it would be a good idea to learn the languages that are most commonly used in that medium.

Another important criterion when determining the real world value of a language is how useful it will be in the United States. This is important because we live in the US and so it is important to be able to communicate with other citizens. In the US, 55,444,485 people speak a language other than English in their home (Department of Commerce). There are many languages that are spoken in the US, as will be examined below. Some of these languages are spoken more than others. It is wise for a person to know the languages that are most often spoken by the other people living in the same country. It is also important to have a criterion that judges how important a language is when traveling or getting a new job outside the country. The criterion for this is how many people speak the language in the world. There are 6,909 living languages that are spoken in today’s world (Nations Online). Most of these languages are spoken only by a few countries and therefore are less practical than some languages that are spoken by many countries. An examination of the aforementioned criteria has resulted in five languages whose frequency at the top of each list makes them strong candidates for languages to be taught at the Bay school. Given all the criteria that have been discussed so far, English is the language that best addresses those criteria. Since 80% of Americans are monolingual, many other people have learned English to communicate with Americans (“Learning Another Lan313


guage”). As the New York Times states, “English dominance has made it possible to navigate more and more of the world with just one language…” (Leland). In addition, speaking English can help someone get many different jobs. Most of the business world uses English, as shown by the statistic that English is used by “approximately 80%” (English Language Stats) of the business world. Also, speaking English will make all communication easier. English is the most commonly spoken language in the US, used by 225,505,953 people out of a total population (over the age of five) of 280,950,438 (US Department of Commerce), and the third most spoken language in the world, spoken by 328 million people (Nations Online). For comparison, there are currently 6,892,000,000 in the world (Nations Online). It is has only one million fewer speakers than the language that is the second most commonly spoken in the world, which is a comparatively small amount (Nations Online). This means that it is almost as widely spoken as the second most used language. Finally, English is also a very useful language for communication on the Internet. It is the most used language on the Internet, used by 536.6 million people (Internet World Stats). This means that command of English will give a person the broadest access to information on the internet. Mandarin is the second most important language to learn. Mandarin is the second most spoken language on the internet, used by 444.9 million users (Internet World Stats). This makes it very useful in tracking down information that may not be pre-

sent in another language. Mandarin is also the most used language in the world, spoken by 1,213 million people, making it the best language to know for communication purposes (Nations Online). Mandarin is also frequently used in the United States, spoken by 2,464,572 people (US Department of Commerce). It is the third most spoken language, excluding English, used in the US (US Department of Commerce). Mandarin is also a very useful language in the business world. A study was conducted by Bloomberg L.P. that aimed to find out the most useful languages in the business world after English, which they stated was the most useful. The study took into account factors such as the number of speakers of a language, the number of countries where that language is the official language, and what the GDP (Gross Domestic Product) of those countries was. It used a total of 12 criteria to give languages a score out of 100 relative to each other. Mandarin scored the highest of any language other than English, scoring a 57.0 (Lauerman). Spanish is another language that meets many of the criteria. Due to the large number of speakers, it is likely that Spanish may become one of the top three business languages in the future. Currently, according to the aforementioned Bloomberg study, Spanish places fourth, with a score of 49.2 (Lauerman). Although not used as much on the internet as Mandarin or English, Spanish is still the third most used language on the internet, used by 153.3 million users, making it useful for gaining in314


formation (Internet World Statistics). Spanish is also the second most used language in the world, spoken by 329 million people (Nations Online). Excluding English, Spanish is the most spoken language in the US, used by 34,547,077 people (US Department of Commerce). This makes it one of the most useful languages for communication. A language whose usefulness is increasing is Arabic. Arabic is very useful in the business world. It ranks third, with a score of 50.1, in the Bloomberg study. Arabic is not currently used that often on the internet. On the Internet, it is only the seventh most used language, with 65.4 million users (Internet World Statistics). It is one of the most useful languages to know for communication, since it is the fourth most spoken language in the world, spoken by 221 million people (Nations Online). Although some people in the US speak Arabic, it is only spoken by 767,319 people, as opposed to Spanish and Mandarin, each of which is spoken by over 2 million people (US Department of Commerce). Although this language is not used with high frequency on the internet or in the US, it is still a very useful language to know because its use is growing. French is a language that many people want to learn, but it is not very useful in terms of the criteria under discussion. It is used less on the internet than Arabic is, falling in as the eighth most used language, with only 59.8 million users (Internet World Statistics). It is not even in the top ten languages most

used in the world, spoke only by 67.8 million people (Nations Online). These two things make it less useful for communication than other languages. It is spoken in the US by 1,355,805 people, which is more than Arabic but less than either Mandarin or Spanish (US Department of Commerce). Although it is the third most useful language in the business world, scoring a 51.7 on the Bloomberg study (Lauerman), this is the only criterion in which it excels, making it the least useful language to teach of the five that I have listed. Below is a table that summarizes the aforementioned data. The table compares the languages to each other in terms of the criteria using a scale of one to five, with five being the highest score. In each category the numbers one through five can only be used once. The higher the total points the more that language exemplifies the criteria, and hence is better to teach at Bay.

Language

Usefulness on the Internet

Usefulness in Business

Frequency of use in the US

Frequency of use in World

Totals

English

5

5

5

3

18

Mandarin

4

4

3

5

16

Spanish

3

1

4

4

12

Arabic

2

2

1

2

7

French

1

3

2

1

7 315


The Bay School should continue to teach only Spanish and Mandarin. English is the most useful language to know. However, since all non-language courses are taught in English, one can infer that everyone at the Bay School already knows English as their primary language or is fluent in it as a secondary language. Spanish and Mandarin are the best choices besides English for a second language since they best fit the criteria. If Bay chooses to add an additional language course, the next most suitable language is Arabic. Despite the fact that Arabic and French have the same total score, given the current global situation with the conflicts in the Middle East and the continuing importance of oil, Arabic is likely to be more useful in the 21st century. The ability to communicate using language is an essential part of how we live our lives. As the world become smaller and the boundaries of our communities expand, it is increasingly important to command more language tools to communicate with a more diverse population.

Works Cited

Krashen, Stephen D., Robin Scarcella, and Michael A. Long. "Age, Rate and Eventual Attainment in Second Language Acquisition" TESOL Quarterly 13.4 (Dec 1979): 573-582. JSTOR. Web. 5 Jan. 2012. “Languages of the World.” One World-Nations Online; 2012. Web. Jan. 22 2012. Lauerman, John. “Mandarin Chinese Most Useful Business Language after English.” Bloomberg. Bloomberg. Aug. 30th 2011. Web. Mar. 17, 2012. “Learning Another Language: Goals and Challenges.” Modern Language Association. 24 May 2011. Web. 8 Jan. 2011. Leland, John. “Teenage Master of Languages Finds an Online Fellowship.” New York Times, 11 Mar. 2012. Print. 22. Russel, Victoria. “Where do we stand today?” Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching 6.1 (2009) 21-31. Web. 8 Feb. 2012.

“The Bay School of San Francisco Handbook 2011-2012” The Bay School of San Francisco. 2011. Web. 13 Mar. 2012. Jan. 2012.

United States. Commerce.gov. United States Department of Commerce. 5 Jan. 2012. Web. 5

“Internet World Users by Language.” Internet World Statistics. Miniwatts Marketing Group, 31 Jul. 2011. Web. 5 Jan. 2012.

Voght, Geoffrey M. “Foreign Languages and International Business.” Center for Applied Linguistics. Center for Applied Linguistics. Sep. 1992. Web. 14 Mar. 2012.

316


Matthew Morgan

Social Networking, Privacy Protection, and Civil Rights for the American One of the greatest inventions of mankind is the Internet. It has completely revolutionized the way we practice business, how we organize our lives, and how we spend time with our friends. Arguably the largest addition and revolution to the Internet in the 21st century was the advent of new and streamlined ways to share our information about ourselves with friends and others. These websites have come to be known as social networking sites, and they have quickly become some of the most iconic, visited sites by over half of the adult users of the Internet (Madden). While being able to share one’s personal information on social networking sites over the Internet can increase people’s positive connections to friends and associates, the subsequent loss of privacy can have a negative effect on Americans’ civil rights.

The United States Congress must increase legislation requiring that social media companies inform their users about how their information may be accessed by third parties for commercial purposes that cause serious violation of their civil rights. This will require social networking companies to provide better protection for peoples’ privacy by informing them about how they are selling their personal data and how they can protect their privacy when signing up to use social media websites (Opsahl). Since users are not able to create social networking accounts anonymously, people’s private information can be accessed and used against them. This invasion of privacy can result in problems ranging from serious discrimination, such as the loss of equal access to employment, financing, and insurance, to minor social embarrassments, such as unflattering photographs (Andrews). Google, Facebook, and hundreds of other companies profit from the use people’s online data by depositing software called cookies or other tracking methods on people’s computers and in their browsers. Lori B. Andrews, law professor at ChicagoKent College of Law and the author of I Know Who You Are and I Saw What You Did: Social Networks and the Death of Privacy, observes that two of the most serious threats normal people risk for having their private information accessible through the internet are financial and employment discrimination. She de-

317


scribes the magnitude of this problem for innocent, unsuspecting individuals in the following way: “The term Weblining describes the practice of denying people opportunities based on their digital selves. Ads that pop up on your screen might seem useful, or at worst, a nuisance. Whether you can obtain a job, credit or insurance can be based on your digital doppelgänger …you might be refused health insurance based on a Google search you did about a medical condition. You might be shown a credit card with a lower credit limit, not because of your credit history, but because of your race, sex or ZIP code or the types of Web sites you visit” (Andrews). Facebook and Google, the two powerful technology companies headquartered in the San Francisco Bay Area that have reaped the largest profits from sales of users’ personal data, are under growing scrutiny to improve their privacy practices for their combined 1.1 billion users (Andrews). Facebook, founded in 2004 by Mark Zuckerberg, is the world’s largest social networking site, according to The New York Times (“The New York Times”). As of February 2, 2012, Facebook had 845 million monthly users and 43 million daily users (“Facebook, Inc.”). In 2011, Facebook earned $3.2 billion in advertising sales (Andrews). Google Inc. is more than ten times as profitable as Facebook (Andrews). Started in 1996 by Stanford University graduate students Larry Page and Sergey Brin as a search engine called

“BackRub,” the company was founded in 1998. Google maintains an index of Web sites and other online content for users, advertisers, and Google network members and other content providers (“Google Inc.”). Google earned $36.5 billion in advertising revenue in 2011, by analyzing what people sent over Gmail and what they searched on the Web, and then using that data to sell ads (Andrews). On January 10, 2011, Mark Striebeck, Google’s Engineering Director for Gmail development, reported the number of users sharing personal information through Gmail to be 350 million people. (“Mark Striebeck”). However, Google’s social network, Google Buzz, was retired on February 3, 2012 only two years after its launch due to privacy complaints from users (“Google Inc”). These astronomical profits indicate the high value advertisers place on Facebook’s and Google’s product, which is its users’ personal data. In 2011, the combined earnings of these companies from sales of users’ personal data to advertisers exceeded $39.7 billion. On January 28, 2012, when Facebook filed documents with the government that will allow it to sell shares of stock to the public, analysts valued the company to be worth between $75 billion and $100 billion (Andrews). These profits are in violation of individuals’ privacy rights. Since there are no fees to use Google or Facebook and their websites are available to everyone who can access the Internet, these companies appear to support the democratic ideal of 318


freedom of speech, which is protected by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution (“First Amendment”). Users can easily and almost instantaneously share personal news and images with family and friends around the world, meet new people to expand their circle of associates, become educated about issues and events, and entertain themselves. Their behavior appears to indicate a growing tolerance for sharing private information (Rainie). However, Americans’ behavior on social networking sites and their levels of tolerance for the changing nature of privacy is emerging as one of the most important civil liberties issues of this decade (Opsahl). Judging from the sheer size of the number of social media users, it appears that people consider the benefits of sharing their private information over the Internet to far outweigh the risks. At the same time that Facebook is filing its initial public offering, analysts are studying the impact of social networking on our culture and on people’s behavior. “I can’t think of another piece of passive software that has gotten so embedded in the cultural conversation to this extent before,” says Sherry Turkle, a professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and author of Alone Together. This company is shaping how we think about and define ourselves and our digital selves.” Facebook’s potential to become a public company valued at least $75 billion “crystallized a set of issues that we will be defining for the next decade – the notion of self, privacy, how we connect, and the price we are willing to pay for it,” says

Professor Turkle. “We have to decide what boundaries we’re going to establish between ourselves, advertisers, and our personal information” (Wortham). In the United States, few steps have been taken to regulate people’s ability to protect the privacy of their personal information over the Internet. In 1986, Congress passed the Electronic Consumer Privacy Act (“ECPA”). The ECPA is a federal statute that protects wire, oral, and electronic communications while those communications are being made, are in transit, and when they are stored on computers. The Act applies to email, telephone conversations, and data stored electronically (“Privacy and Civil Liberties”). Yet, in 1986, few people could have predicted how social networking would shape the need for privacy over the Internet. In fact, it was not until the late 1990s when most Americans first started using email and the Internet (“AOL News”). Both Google and Facebook have privacy policies that users can view on the companies’ websites (“Data Use Policy”). For example, Google’s policy promises “…we are keenly aware of the trust our users place in us, and our responsibility to protect their privacy” (“Privacy Policies”). However, until March 1, 2012 when a single Google Privacy Policy takes effect, Google will have over sixty different privacy policies (“Privacy Policies”), making it difficult for the average user to find and clearly understand how to protect their personal data. “Facebook has always 319


been committed to being transparent about the information you have stored with us, said Mark Zuckerberg, and we have led the Internet in building tools to give people the ability to see and control what they share” (Zuckerberg). Despite Mr. Zuckerberg’s expression of honesty, Senator Charles Schumer, Democrat from New York, wrote to the Federal Trade Commission in April 2010 expressing his concern about Facebook features. Schumer called on the agency to craft guidelines for how social networking websites can use and share personal information about their users. In his letter, Schumer wrote that changes to Facebook's privacy policies "have limited the ability of users to control the information they share and keep private…These changes can adversely affect users and, currently, there is little guidance on what social networking sites can and cannot do and how disclosure is provided" (Schumer). Schumer said the problem applies to other social networking sites as well. He offered to introduce legislation if the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), the agency whose missions include policing anticompetitive business practices and protecting consumers, felt it needed additional authority to create such guidelines (Sangupta). As a result, the FTC recently enacted a settlement with Facebook requiring the company to dramatically increase its privacy policies. Facebook's privacy practices were the subject of complaints filed with the FTC by the Electronic Privacy Information Center and a coalition of consumer groups. On November 11, 2011, Facebook agreed to settle FTC charges that it deceived

consumers by telling them they could keep their information on Facebook private, and then repeatedly allowing it to be shared and made public. The settlement requires Facebook to give consumers clear and prominent notice and obtaining consumers' express consent before their information is shared beyond the privacy settings they have established. "Facebook is obligated to keep the promises about privacy that it makes to its hundreds of millions of users," said Jon Leibowitz, Chairman of the FTC. "Facebook's innovation does not have to come at the expense of consumer privacy. The FTC action will ensure it will not." The FTC complaint lists a number of instances in which Facebook allegedly made promises that it did not keep, including promising users that it would not share their personal information with advertisers when it did. The settlement bars Facebook from making any further deceptive privacy claims, requires that the company get consumers' approval before it changes the way it shares their data, and requires that it obtain periodic assessments of its privacy practices by independent, third-party auditors for the next 20 years (Salazar). American citizens’ digital rights to privacy are also supported through the activities of two citizens’ advocacy groups, the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) and the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU). The EFF has even drafted a reasonable “Bill of Privacy Rights for Social Network Users” (Opsahl), in320


cluding three basic privacy-protective principles that social network users should demand: The right to informed decisionmaking about who sees their data and how it is used; the right to control the use and disclosure of their data, and the right to leave a social networking service and freely take their uploaded information away from that service and move it to a different one in a usable format. "Tracking data can be used to figure out your political bent, religious beliefs, sexuality preferences, health issues or the fact that you're looking for a new job," said Peter Eckersley, projects director at Electronic Frontier Foundation, a digital rights organization. "There are all sorts of ways to form wrong judgments about people" (Ghazli). In conclusion, Congress must do more to legislate the social media websites to protect people’s privacy. Congress has already taken positive steps in this direction as a result of multiple inquiries into social media sites over their deceptive practices with the use of private individuals’ personal data. However, information collection continues, and new measures should be passed enforcing social media sites to inform their users about how their information may be handled. If a law was passed requiring social media sites to inform their users of the potential commercial of third party uses of their data, the sites would have greater incentive to direct users to privacy controls, where they could either opt in or opt out of sharing their data. While this might have a negative impact on Facebook’s profits, many people may agree to share their data with advertisers promot-

ing only the products and services they want and trust. In this regard, the United States lags behind Europe, where laws give people the right to know what data companies collect and share about them (Andrews). If American citizens are to continue to have the protection of their civil rights without the risk of unwanted invasions of their privacy, they must be well informed of these rights and these risks. People can access this information from the Electronic Frontier Foundation and the American Civil Liberties Union and support their legal actions to strengthen the laws surrounding Internet privacy. Informed citizens can write to their Congressional representatives and educate their friends and families. By bringing more attention to this serious issue, hopefully more action will be taken by Congress and by the FTC to secure individuals’ privacy over the Internet. I would like to thank Craig Butz, Paul Gabriel, Matt Hannibal, Andrea Morgan, and Charles Roth for helping me with this paper.

Works Cited Andrews, Lori. “Facebook is Using You.” The New York Times. 5 Feb. 2012. Web. 6 Feb. 2012. "AOL News - The New York Times." Times Topics - The New York Times. Web. 12 Feb. 2012. "Company." Google. Web. 11 Feb. 2012. 321


"Data Use Policy." Welcome to Facebook - Log In, Sign Up or Learn More. Web. 11 Feb. 2012. "ECPA - Modernizing the Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986." American Civil Liberties Union. Web. 11 Feb. 2012. "Facebook, Inc.: Private Company Information - BusinessWeek." Investing & Stock Research by Company and Industry - BusinessWeek. Web. 11 Feb. 2012. "Facebook Settles FTC Charges That It Deceived Consumers By Failing To Keep Privacy Promises." Federal Trade Commission. Web. 11 Feb. 2012. "First Amendment | LII / Legal Information Institute." LII | LII / Legal Information Institute. Web. 11 Feb. 2012. Ghazli, Cynthia. "Facebook Keeps Tabs on Users Even after They Sign Off”. New York Daily News. 18 Nov. 2011. Web. 24 Dec. 2011. "GOOGLE INC-CL A (GOOG:NASDAQ GS): Stock Quote & Company Profile - BusinessWeek." Investing & Stock Research by Company and Industry - BusinessWeek. Web. 11 Feb. 2012. Madden, Mary. "65% of Online Adults Use Social Networking Sites.” Pew Research Center's Internet & American Life Project. 26 Aug. 2011. Web. 12 Feb. 2012.

Opsahl, Kurt. "A Bill of Privacy Rights for Social Network Users." Electronic Frontier Foundation | Defending Your Rights in the Digital World. 19 May 2010. Web. 6 Feb. 2012. "Preview: Privacy FAQ @ “ Policies & Principles." Google. Web. 11 Feb. 2012. "Privacy & Civil Liberties." IT.OJP.GOV Home. Web. 12 Feb. 2012. Sangupta, Somini. “Facebook Agrees to FTC Settlement on Privacy.” The New York Times. 29 Nov. 2011. Web. 6 Feb. 2012. Salazar, Cristian. "Senator Schumer Asks FTC To Regulate Facebook, Social Networks." The Huffington Post. 26 April 2010. Web. 12 Feb. 2012. Rainie, Lee. "The Tone of Life on Social Networking Sites” Pew Research Center's Internet & American Life Project. 9 Feb. 2012. Web. 12 Feb. 2012. Wortham, Jenna. "It's Not about You, Facebook. It's about Us." The New York Times. 11 Feb. 2012. Web. 12 Feb. 2012. Zuckerberg, Mark. "Our Commitment to the Facebook Community." The Facebook Blog. Facebook. 6 Nov. 2011. Web. 7 Feb. 2012.

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Zeke Mostov

Corn Subsidies and Food Prices In Lester, Iowa, a silo stands, overflowing with golden kernels and towering above the corn stalks that fill the landscape. The overabundance of this agricultural gold is clear, as the dirt roads that circumnavigate the endless cornfields are littered with superfluous kernels. The wasted kernels are the fallout from policies that were instituted from a place with more than just a few tall structures lining the skyline -- place drastically antithetic, where the currency is not kernels, but votes. In Washington, D.C, the lawmakers of the Unites States of America have decided year after year to subsidize the production of corn, handing out money to farmers and businesses as an incentive to overproduce the hidden staple food. Corn in its purest form does not directly appear on the nutrition labels of the food Americans consume everyday, but its derivatives do. Cleverly named, textured and flavored, corn derivatives create the illusion of variety that the American consumer craves (Pollan 28). Corn subsidies affect the price of corn, which creates biases in the market that promote the inclusion of corn byprod-

ucts, discourage diversification in production and consumption, and lower the prices of processed foods. The federal governmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s first efforts to manipulate agricultural production and food prices took place in 1924 with temporary restraints on crop production aimed at raising the prices of basic commodities (Hosansky 444). This practice only lasted for a few years; however, when the Great Depression started in 1929, commodity prices crashed, so Congress established the Federal Farm Board to buy surplus crops. This program did not work due to inadequate funding. In 1933, because of plummeting food prices that threatened the livelihood of farmers, President Franklin Roosevelt instituted the Agricultural Adjustment Act, which raised the prices of several basic commodity crops, such as corn, by limiting the number of acres planted and providing price supports. Though this program was supposed to be temporary, it initiated the federal governmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s involvement in controlling farm prices, which continues in various forms today. These agricultural programs have had several purposes, including helping to support family farms, maintaining the economic basis of rural communities, stabilizing prices, and ensuring ample supplies of food (Hosansky 435; Pollan 39). At the end of World War II, the growing economy and thriving manufacturing industry returned the United States to a position of economic health; as a result, demand for commodity agriculture increased. In an effort to meet an additional goal of increas323


ing American agricultural exports, Earl Butz, an agricultural economist who served as Secretary of Agriculture under Presidents Nixon and Ford, promoted a “cheap food” policy to encourage maximum production (Wallinga 405; Pollan 51). This action is characteristic of a larger trend in which the government has moved away from limiting acreage planted and thus the supply of crops, to maximizing production (Wallinga 405). These trends have continued ever since with legislation supporting these farm programs being reauthorized every five to seven years; major overhauls take place every decade or two. The result of the numerous farm bills over the last five decades has been a substantial increase in the production of subsidized crops. In fact, farm production in the U.S. increased by 260% from 1948 to 2002 with corn production, in particular, increasing to 87 million acres planted in 2009, the second highest total in 62 years. Indeed, since Earl Butz instituted the “cheap food” policy, further efforts have been made to increase the amount of raw product on the market. The 1996 Farm Bill, for example, removed the remaining provisions for restraining production, so the only remaining components were rewards for farmers to maximize production (Wallinga 405). This bill was the result of an effort by Congress to move toward a free market system in agriculture. However, commodity prices dropped precipitously in the next few years due to overproduction and a global recession; Congress responded with a series of “emergency” payments to help

farmers avoid bankruptcy (Wallinga 405). By 2001, commodity prices had, on average, dipped 40% and federal subsidies had increased threefold to more than two billion dollars annually. Under President George W. Bush, a 2002 re-authorization of the farm bill was passed, making these subsidies permanent, with almost $120 billion in payments to farmers scheduled to be distributed by 2012 (Hosansky 435; Fields). Several major factors contribute to the persistence of subsidies, despite repeated efforts by critics to eliminate them. Valid arguments stand that contend that the abrupt termination of subsidies would result in economic disaster. In fact, even the critics of subsidies, “concede that ending the subsidies could cause economic havoc because so many farmers have come to depend on them” (Hosansky 439.) In addition, rural America, which has already been subject to a major population reduction, would most likely see even more population decline if economic conditions worsen and subsidy programs end, as farmers would seek work outside of agriculture. “’I don’t think anyone can comprehend the decay in rural America when people move off the farms,’ says [Mike] Korth, who began farming with his father 28 years ago … ‘What our school enrollment will look like in eight or ten years is scary. A lot of towns feel that when their school closes, the town really dies’” (Hosansky 438). Mr. Korth summarizes what many people feel about the depopulation of farming communities. The risks of both economic collapse and depopu324


lation in farming communities are just two of several factors that have worked against the abolition of farm subsidies. A second factor that has helped preserve subsidies is the concern that the United States will not be competitive in the global food industry without them. Mexico, for instance, subsidizes its farmers in order to compete with American corn production (Wise 47). Moreover, farmers in the European Union (E.U.) receive far greater subsidies than farmers in the U.S.; indeed, farm subsidies in the E.U. make up half of the E.U.’s budget (Avery 38). The U.S. also competes with Canada, which has charged the U.S. of perpetuating a policy of granting unfair subsidies to undermine competition (“WTO Case”). These examples illustrate the role that competition between nations plays in influencing many governments, including that of the U.S., to subsidize their farmers; this interest in ensuring that farmers can compete has led to international battles over subsidies. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, farm subsidies have enormous political support. As Dennis Avery, director of the Hudson Institute's Center for Global Food Issues and former senior agricultural analyst for the U.S. Department of State, bluntly states, “Farm subsidies are just a way for politicians to buy votes” (Avery 38). Huge industrial corporations, such as Archer Daniels Midland, benefit greatly from low corn prices and therefore finance large lobbying efforts (Hosansky 445-447). In addition to major corporations, family farmers, though only 2% of the

population, have a disproportionate influence on election year politics (Hosanksy 436). In particular, several crucial Senate races generally occur in farm states. Even though farm states are often primarily rural with relatively small populations (California being an exception), since these states each have two senators, they are very important to control of the Senate (Hosansky 436). All these factors contribute to the strong political backing of farm subsidies.       ! Through subsidies, the government can manipulate corn supply and maintain strong control over domestic and international corn prices (Spitter). By offering farmers financial incentives to grow more, the federal government effectively lowers the price of corn and floods the market with product. Therefore, subsidies lead to the overproduction of corn. In a report, the Bush administration concluded, “that decades of subsidies have ‘produced unexpected and unwanted consequences,’ including inflated land values and overproduction” (Hosansky 437.) In fact, subsidies have led the United States to become the world’s largest corn producer. Interestingly, the flooding of the markets and the extremely low price of corn that result from subsidization bolster the apparent need for further financial supports, as evidenced by the fact that Congress has made a series of “emergency payments” to farmers (Wallinga 405). Since Washington offers the most generous subsidies for corn production, farmers have little fiscal interest in diversifying their 325


crops. From mayonnaise and licorice to whiskey and cheese, many packaged goods that one picks up off a supermarket shelf today are mainly just processed corn, colored and flavored to appeal to the American consumer. There is a surprisingly small amount of variety on supermarket shelves today (Pollan 16). Due to the overabundance of corn on the market, farmers generally have to sell corn at a cost that is 19 percent below the cost of production; therefore, subsidies are the only way for farmers to make a profit. This agricultural phenomenon lends itself to a vicious cycle for the farms; in order to generate a profit, farmers produce more corn, which floods the market with product and decreases the price paid to farmers for corn, which in turn leads them to constantly seek to produce more only to maintain the same income (Wise). In other words, farmers plant more and more acres with corn in order to make a negligible profit. Since corn has declined significantly in price over the last decade, producers have found creative ways to derive useful ingredients. A recent compendium listed more than 60 classes of products that contain corn-derived ingredients (Heisey 10). Many are quite surprising, everything from aspirin to yogurt. Non-edible items range from automobile tires to wallpaper. The average supermarket sells many thousands of items that contain corn-derived products (Pollan 17). The overwhelming major-

ity of these items are processed foods, with long lists of ingredients. Many of these ingredients, such as citric acid and preservatives, are corn derived, even though they do not necessarily have the word “corn” in their name. However, the best known and certainly one of the most abundant classes of corn product are sweeteners, especially high fructose corn syrup, which consumes 4.7% of all corn produced in the U.S (Wallinga 40). The artificial lowering of corn prices due to U.S. corn subsidies is a main factor in the choice of corn to produce many of these derivatives. Corn sweeteners are the most prominent example. As a result of the unrestrained increase in corn production under Agriculture Secretary Earl Butz, corn sweeteners largely displaced cane sugar and beet sugar in many major products, such as soft drinks (Fields). Corn sweeteners are so cheap that they make up a very small fraction of the price of soft-drinks and other sweetened products that contain corn. One consequence of this is very low prices for such drinks; this includes “supersizing” of drinks. Whereas a six or eight ounce single-serving bottle of soft-drink was once common, now soft drinks are often sold in single servings of 20 ounces or larger, such as 32 or even 40 ounce drinks in fast food restaurant. The additional cost of the larger drink and the corn syrup in the larger drink, is very small compared to the increase in size of the drink. Increased corn sweetener consumption also has terrible health consequences in terms of obesity and obesity related illnesses, 326


such as type II diabetes mellitus, which are rapidly growing to epidemic proportions. The large increase in obesity is due, probably in part, to an increase in calorie consumption (300 extra calories per day in the last 30 years), which is very likely connected to the cheap price of corn sweeteners (Fields ). As explained by Darius Lakdawalla, an economist at the RAND Corporation, “Declining food prices can account for as much as half of the increase in obesity that we’ve seen” (Fields). While the U.S. Department of Agriculture spends billions of dollars annually on making corn and other foods cheaper, the U.S. Department of Health spends billions combating obesity, which is a result of overly cheap food. Indeed, “’In the United States, consumers spend a little over 9 percent of their disposable income on food, which is the lowest in the world,’ says the Farm Bureau’s Franc” (Hosansky 440). An indirect consequence of the artificially low price of corn and other subsidized crops is that non-subsidized crops are relatively and artificially more expensive. Consumers will buy less of these due to their relatively high price, and farmers will produce less because they can get less income than from producing subsidized crops (Gomiero 403). The most important class of such crops are fruits and vegetables. As a group, fruits and vegetables are very important to health, but because of their artificially high relative price, they are under-represented in American diets on the whole (Foulkes 8). This is particularly true for Americans with lower incomes, who are very sensitive to price

in choosing what to buy and eat (Blas 21). Some fruits and vegetables are made into processed foods, such as ketchup, tomato sauce, and frozen or canned fruits and vegetables packaged with various sauces. These food usually contain corn products, such as high fructose corn syrup and preservatives. They are generally less healthy than simple, unprocessed produce, but are economically advantageous for big food companies to produce, in part because of the low price of corn. This problem is intensified by a lack of availability and diversity of fresh produce in markets in low income neighborhoods. It is more profitable for food stores to carry processed, corn-derived food than fresh produce. Another major corn derivative, especially in the last few years, is ethanol used as fuel in automobiles and other transportation. Shortages of petroleum and political problems with importing oil has led to the Federal government to provide subsidies and tax incentives to convert corn to ethanol (Johnson 25). Currently, 33% of US corn is used to make 9 billion gallons of fuel, which is only 1.3% of oil used in US. Corn to fuel conversion is very inefficient; it takes 22 pounds of corn to make one gallon of fuel. Even if 100% of the US corn crop were converted to fuel, this would come to only 4% of total fuel consumption in the U.S. (Angelo). The subsidies provided by the federal government effectively amount to subsidies to the price of corn, which are in addition to the traditional Federal corn policies described above (Johnson, 25). However, unlike the lowering of corn prices and 327