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Battle of Gate Pa 150

TH

IVERSARY N N A APRIL 29

1864-2014

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Battle of Gate Pa

The Legend of Mauao The story of how Mauao (Mt Maunganui) was named is one of the most well-known legends in the Western Bay of Plenty

T

here was once a hill with no name who lived on the edge of the Hautere forest. This nameless hill was a pononga (slave) to the great chiefly mountain, Otanewainuku. To the southwest was the shapely form of Puwhenua, a beautiful hill, clothed in all the fine greens of the ferns and shrubs and trees of the forest of Tane. The nameless one was desperately in love with Puwhenua. However, her heart already belonged to Otanewainuku. There seemed like no hope for the lowly slave. In despair the nameless one decided to end it all by drowning himself in the Pacific Ocean, Te Moananui a Kiwa. Calling on the patupaiarehe, the people with magical powers who dwelled in the forests of Hautere, the pononga asked them to plait ropes with their magic and then haul him down towards the ocean. Chanting their song they began to haul the nameless one slowly towards the water, gouging out the valley where the river Waimapu now flows. They followed the channel past Hairini, past Maungatapu and Matapihi and finally past Te Papa to the water’s edge.

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By this time it was very close to daybreak. The sun rose, fixing the nameless one to that place. Being people of the night, the patupaiarehe were forced to flee back to the shady depths of the Hautere forests before the light of the sun descended upon them. The patupaiarehe gave the name Mauao to this mountain, which marks the entrance of Tauranga Moana. The name means “caught by the morning sun”. In time, he has assumed greater mana than his rival Otanewainuku. Today he is known by many as Mount Maunganui, but to the Maori people, he is still known as Mauao. Source: www.tauranga.kete.net.nz

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Battle of Gate Pa

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Battle of Gate Pa

T

his year marks the 150th anniversary of the Battle of Gate Pa, fought on April 29, 1864.

To understand how the battle came about, it is necessary to understand something of Tauranga’s history. This fertile area, with its abundance of seafood, was marked by conflict from the 13th century, when the first ocean-going canoes arrived from Polynesia.

There was a long absence of European contact till early missionary Samuel Marsden sighted the area in 1820. His glimpse from afar of the place he called Towhranga was followed by the arrival of Church Missionary Society missionaries, among them the remarkable Archdeacon AH Brown, who lived with his family in a raupo hut before the Elms mission house was completed in 1847.

The first Europeans to sight land were Captain James Cook and his crew aboard the Endeavour in 1769.

This publication, the first in a series of five, looks at preEuropean Tauranga and the arrival of missionaries and traders.

Next in the series: Events Leading up to the Battle of Gate Pa Bay of Plenty Times - Tuesday, March 25

Earliest Years Page...... 4-6

The Missionaries Page.....7-9

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Battle of Gate Pa

4

Tribal conflict marked Tauranga’s earliest years T

he Tauranga region has been occupied and fought over since the 13th century.

The earliest recorded arrival of Maori from Polynesia dates back to about 1290 when

the first canoes are said to have arrived from the mythical Hawaiki. First to occupy land in and around Tauranga were the Purukupenga and the Ngamarama,

who settled in the area stretching from the Waimapu Stream to the Kaimai ranges. Their populations flourished thanks to the mild climate and easy availability of fish, shellfish,

When this photo was taken of Mt Maunganui around 1937, shell middens and other evidence of Maori occupation were clearly visible.

Our Origins and History “You can’t understand where you should be going until you first understand where you have been” In May 1952, about 30 tennis enthusiasts met to investigate ways and means of reviving theTauranga SouthTennis club. It had gone into liquidation in October 1940, due to the country being at war.This club had played tennis at what is now Memorial Park. Working bees and fundraising started immediately and after a year enough funds were raised to open the club. On opening day, 24th October 1953, the MP forTauranga Mr Walsh declared the season open and congratulated the members on their work. Mr E. S. Hylton,Trustee of the disbanded Tauranga SouthTennis Club, outlined the steps taken leading to the club being formed. AYankee tournament was held and the winners were Duncan Ross and Sylvie Stevenson Club days were Saturday and Sunday afternoons and public holidays, with Wednesday afternoons for ladies day. Saturday mornings were for the use of juniors. For all club members, including juniors, the dress was to be all white. In 1989, Gate PaTennis club decided to resurface theTennis courts from asphalt to decarol, a rubber base synthetic paint.Then in 1999, they decided to resurface in pro-grass.There were 4 courts, a fairly big gap, then a step down of about 2 feet to 2 grass courts, and the now Number 8 Court was just concrete with a Volley board at the end. George Osbourne was asked to come to dig up the 2 grass courts and fill them in to make all the courts even. On excavating, he discovered a massive Kauri log, extending the length of the court.There was no way it could be removed, so dirt was used to fill the area. The log remains under court 8 and its speculated purpose was likely to be the origins of an uncompleted waka. Gate Pa Tennis Club celebrated its 50 year jubilee in 2003

gatepatennisclub@xtra.co.nz

and food and building materials from the forest. In fact so large were their numbers that when the Tainui canoe reached New Zealand and


Battle of Gate Pa passed through Tauranga harbour, her crew quickly decided it was best to move on. The Arawa canoe landed further east at Maketu. Some of her crew occupied land between Tauranga harbour and the Kaituna River, their descendants becoming known as Waitaha-a-Hei. The Takitimu canoe was the next to check out Tauranga harbour. Legend has it that the canoe’s captain, Tamatea Arikinui or Tamatea Pokaiwhenua, climbed the summit of Mauao (Mount Maunganui) to bury the mauri (life force) of his people. He later built a fortified pa on Maungatawa hill, where his people settled. Hundreds of years later the ancient pa became a quarry, but the remains still stand as a proud local landmark. Tauranga’s Ngati Ranginui tribe is descended from Tamatea’s son Ranginui, and his wife. Nga¯iterangi and Nga¯ti Pu¯kenga both trace their descent to people who arrived on the Mataatua canoe. Originally opting to live in the eastern Bay of Plenty, Ngaterangi lost a battle resulting from

a dispute over ownership of a tui and settled near Whangara on the East Coast. Eventually, however, they moved back into the Bay of Plenty, driven by the need for more land. They travelled west led by Rangihouhiri and settled on the coast at Maketu. Conflict continued down through the centuries and in about 1700 Ngaterangi assaulted Ranginui’s seemingly impregnable pa on Mauao (Mount Maunganui). Cunningly planned in what appeared at first to be a friendly visit, the fierce battle that resulted saw the pa fall into the hands of Ngaterangi under the command of Kotorerua. A major challenge accomplished, Ngaterangi’s conquest of the rest of the Tauranga district quickly followed. The tribe spread the length of Tauranga harbour’s coastline, including Matakana Island and Bowentown. Ngati Ranginui managed to hold on to their pa further inland and their marae exist to this day in locations from Huria (Judea) to Whakamarama and Te Puna.

Otumoetai Pa site opened as a public reserve in December 2012. Pictured at the formal opening are Ngai Tamawaraho Kaumatua Peri Kohu and Tauranga mayor Stuart Crosby.

New Zealand Historic Places Trust regional archaeologist, Rachel Darmody, and the remains of what is believed to be a pre-European Maori dog. The skeleton was discovered during an excavation at the site of what was once the Otumoetai Pa. The site is one of the most significant in Tauranga’s early history. The photo was taken in May 2005.

FIND OUT MORE ABOUT TAURANGA’S HISTORY Tauranga City Council can help you to find out more about the rich history of Tauranga.

Check out the following online sources: How Well Do You Know Your City factsheets - search ‘City Facts’ www.tauranga.govt.nz/about-tauranga-city/history/city-facts Tauranga’s heritage collection and our object lending library www.handsontauranga.co.nz Local history and genealogy library.tauranga.govt.nz/local-history ‘Taratoa and the Code of Conduct’ is a bilingual children’s book which tells a story from the Battle of Gate Pā, by local author Debbie McCauley. For more information visit http://bit.ly/1gGO8bw

5


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Battle of Gate Pa

Carved Maori ancestral figures are a highlight for visitors to the reserve.

Tribal conflict was about to take a terrible turn. In 1818 the first firearms arrived in New Zealand, and supplies were quickly acquired by Bay of Islands tribe strong and well armed Ngapuhi. A Ngapuhi force attacked Tauranga

and took the Ngaterangi pa on Mauao, driving its occupants into the sea off north-western side of the mountain. Next the Ngapuhi fighters planned to take Tauranga and war was only narrowly avoided.

Ngapuhi subsequently devastated Thames, Waikato and Rotorua, but spared Tauranga till the summer of 1831, when they unsuccessfully attacked the Ngaterangi pa at Maungatapu.

Inter-tribal conflict was a fact of life for many years, making life difficult for early missionaries and traders attempting to gain a foothold in Tauranga.

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Maungatapu School

A brief history

Maungatapu School was opened as a Native School on July 4th, 1881, with a roll of 26 pupils. It was located at the Church of England Mission Chapel, now the existing Anglican Church site in Te Hono Street, Maungatapu. The first Headmaster was J W Dufus. Records available for the first day pupils show that there was a great range of ages in the children present. The youngest pupil enrolled was 5 years old, the oldest was 33. He was put in primer 4 and not surprisingly, lasted only two weeks at school. The school had fluctuating attendance up until 1895, due to tribal migration and the school was eventually closed for a period of 18 years.

race rting a swimming l 1914 – 1938, sta Mr Roach, Principa ay. tod is ge Brid rini near where the Hai

A new school and teachers residence was completed and opened on the present site at Maungatapu Road in 1913. The Head teacher was Miss H Baker, who resigned shortly after due to poor health. Mr P Roach was appointed as Headmaster assisted by his wife, Mrs Roach. Mr and Mrs Roach served at the school until 1939. During this time a new detached open air classroom was authorized by the Department of Education. This building still stands and is presently occupied by the Puwhariki rumaki classes. In January, 1962, the Maungatapu Maori School was dis-established and the school became a public school under the control of the South Auckland Education Board. Today Maungatapu School has a roll range of 440 to 520 pupils. Parent involvement and interest in the school are a community strength. Maungatapu School recognizes the unique position of Maori within New Zealand society and is privileged to offer families the option of enrolling their children in the school’s full immersion rumaki unit.

l gardens, Planting schoo 1987. approximately Spiers Teacher: Mrs

Pet Day, late 1970’s

CONTACT DETAILS: Ph: (07) 544 0858 • Fax: 07 544 2028 • office@maungatapu.school.nz

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Battle of Gate Pa

7

Missionary first to spot Tauranga harbour

I

n November 1769 the legendary British explorer Captain James Cook sailed past Mauao (Mount Maunganui).

According to his journal of that year, he passed between Motiti Island and the mainland before shifting his course towards Mayor Island, thus missing the entrance.

Missionary Samuel Marsden is thought to have been one of the first white men to sightTauranga (he called itTowrangha). In 1820 he spotted Tauranga Harbour from the top of Mount Hikurangi near Waihi. In a remarkable twist of fate, Marsden also met an old Maori chief who claimed to have remembered Captain Cook’s visit. Marsden wrote: “So far as I could learn, no ships had been atTowrangha since Captain Cook was there, and I saw an old chief who remembered seeing that great navigator.They are much in want of tools of every kind as they are not visited by the Europeans. Supplies for ships might be got here as they had plenty of potatoes and also pork.” The first European vessel thought to have visited the area after Cook was the missionary schooner Herald in 1828.The skipper was Gilbert Mair, father of Captain Gilbert Mair, who played a prominent part in the Bush Campaign which followed the battles of Gate Pa andTe Ranga, and later settled in Tauranga. Aboard were three missionaries from the Bay of Islands – Henry Williams, James Hamlin and Richard Davis.

Historian Judge Wilson’s account of the journey describes Tauranga as “densely populated”. There were large pa at Otumoetai (Ngaiterangi), Maungatapu (Ngati He) and Te Papa. The people occupying the latter pa were Ngati Tapu and Te Materawaho, who included many Ngai Tukairangi. Wilson said the Tauranga people were known by the general name of Ngaiterangi and in 1828, numbered at least 2500 fighting men. Wilson counted at least a thousand canoes “great and small”, on the beach between Otumoetai and Te Papa. Ten days later, fleeing a gale which struck near Opotiki, the Herald turned back toTauranga and the missionaries were astonished to findTe Papa destroyed and the Ngatitapu tribe, which made up about a third ofTauranga’s population, slaughtered in an attack by Ngatimaru from Hauraki. This turn of events had an important sequel Waikato chiefTe Waharoa asked Ngaterangi to help him fight the Hauraki tribes, forging a link that was to have repercussions in events leading to the Battle of Gate Pa. Fighting continued in the area for six years, preventing establishment of a mission station in Tauranga. In 1836 Alfred Nesbitt Brown joined other missionaries and their families at Puriri near Thames, where a base was established. On April 9, 1835 Brown opened a CMS station at Matamata nearTe Waharoa’s pa, but inter-tribal warfare forced it to close in October 1836. One

New Zealand’s most famous early missionary, Samuel Marsden, is believed to have been the first white man to see Tauranga.

notable convert from the area wasTe Waharoa’s son, WiremuTamihanaTarapipipi, who was baptised in 1839 and as Kingmaker to the Maori King Movement, was also to play a prominent role in later events that occurred in Tauranga. The CMS subsequently established a temporary mission station at Te Papa and Brown, his wife Charlotte and their family took up residence in January 1838.

Captain James Cook, from an early portrait.

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Battle of Gate Pa

Archdeacon Brown Scientist’s impressions German scientist Ernest Dieffenbach visited CMS Mission Station at Te Papa on June 16, 1841 after a journey to Rotorua and provides a snapshot of the mission station as it looked at the time: “Towards sunset, after a very fatiguing journey, we approached the homely looking buildings of the Church Mission station, surrounded with gardens, and a splendid shrubbery of acacias, ricinus and peaches, which was almost the only vegetation in the shape of trees which we saw, as for several miles around the station there is no wood.”

Archdeacon Brown’s residence, now known as the Elms, is Tauranga’s most important historic building.

Visiting Mount Maunganui, he observed: Some time before my arrival 11 natives have been seized and slaughtered and these mutual depredations have now been carried on tor several years, to such a degree that the natives of Tauranga were unable to plant sufficient ground to supply them with food, having been besieged and hut up in their fortified places. The fertile district in which they live has therefore been of no use to them.” Dieffenbach estimated about 3000 Maori were living in three heavily fortified villages around Tauranga. “Most of them had been converted to Christianity by two missionaries of the Church of England and two Roman Catholic priests, the number of converts to each creed being about equal.” A group of Christina Brown’s mission school girls in front of one of the buildings at the CMS Mission Station. The photo is thought to date from the early 1860s.

extended almost to Gate Pa, which marked the boundary of Maori land to the south.

By the next year Alfred Brown had purchased 1,333 acres of land in the Te Papa for the CMS. Evidence shows he was not a “land grabber”, but wanted to attempt to protect the area and its Maori population from the influx of European settlers that would inevitably follow the missionaries and traders.

Bishop GA Selwyn granted Brown his licence as minister of the Tauranga district on December 19, 1842 and appointed him the first archdeacon of Tauranga on December 31, 1843. The Elms was completed in 1847.

The subject of numerous ownership disputes, the land took in the whole of the fledgling borough, minus the sandspit destroyed when the Sulphur Point reclamation was built and

Brown was a prominent figure in most of the events that occurred in the settlement over the next few decades and was well-meaning and tireless worker. The harshness of the

conditions the Browns endured cannot be over-emphasised and they constantly battled isolation, loneliness and illness. Fortunately Alfred had plenty of support from his wife who ran the infants’ and girls’ mission schools. Charlotte supervised the station during her husband’s frequent travels on foot around the Bay of Plenty and despite a chronic illness, was quick to help the wives of other missionaries. Charlotte Brown died in

Auckland in November 1855 and five years later, in February 1860, Alfred married Christina Johnston. Events that would have a huge impact on the mission and its relationship with Maori were beginning to take shape. In the face of mounting political pressure and conflict between Maori and Pakeha over land, Brown was soon to face some major moral and spiritual dilemmas in protecting and caring for his flock.

Ko whanau ora te putake o te Hauora Maori Mana Whakahaere

Mauri Ora

Mana Whakahaere

Commerce Lane | PO Box 148 | Te Puke 3153 | Telephone 07 5730091 | Fax 07 5736316 | www.poutiri.com


Battle of Gate Pa

9

A simple rush house preceded construction of what is now known as the Elms.

Archdeacon Brown.

This copy of Brief Memorials of an Only Son (third English edition), was signed in the mid-1960s by Rev Marsden, the great-great -grandson of Rev Samuel Marsden, the Bishop of Aotearoa andTe WaharoaTarapipipi, great-great-grandson of the Maori Kingmaker,WiremuTamehana. Source: Cameron Scott

Byron Drury, Commander of HMS Pandora, had this to say about Tauranga when he visited in 1852: “Te Papa, the residence of Archdeacon Brown, is a thoroughly comfortable English establishment, the site well-chosen on lifted ground on the south side of the harbour three miles from Maunganui. Two miles to the westward of it is the village of Otumoetai where there is a Roman Catholic establishment and a very neat church, the interior gorgeously decorated by native wickerwork.

“Four or five Englishmen reside here, chiefly engaged in building small craft, and I am informed three Frenchmen live at the mouth of the Wairoa. The total native population of Tauranga district is estimated at 1,000 and large tracts of land are under cultivation.” “Four or five Englishmen reside here, chiefly engaged in building small craft, and I am informed three Frenchmen live at the mouth of the Wairoa. The total native population of Tauranga district is estimated at 1,000 and large tracts of land are under cultivation.”

OUR LEARNING VISION To develop assessment capable students, teachers, school leaders and parents.

My School is ace a great place to think. Nina Rejthar

A sketch of Archdeacon Brown’s son Marsh, who died in 1845. Source: Brief Memorials of an Only Son – third

English edition

Our Vision At St Mary’s we aim to be Christ-like through prayerful hearts and willing hands. With reflective and creative minds we challenge ourselves to be the difference

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St Mary’s Catholic School | 13th Avenue, Tauranga a | www.stmarystga.school.nz www stmarystga sch hooll nz


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Battle of Gate Pa

Deadly trade: Flax for guns T

raders played a prominent part in life in Tauranga in the earliest days of settlement when few Europeans other than missionaries lived here.

machine which was used for 20 years by local Maori.

While they were pioneers of the local economy and the area’s first international exporters, they also directly contributed to the deadly toll from inter-tribal warfare, exchanging flax fibre and later pork, potatoes, maize and wheat, for muskets and gunpowder.

Faulkner and his first wife had 12 children and their descendants have spread all over New Zealand. The close links between Maori and Pakeha forged by their marriage

survived the Battles of Gate Pa and Te Ranga, and subsequent troubles. After Ruawahine's death in 1855 Faulkner married Elizabeth Humphreys. They had one child, who started the ferry service between Tauranga and Mount Maunganui. Eric Faulkner,

a great-grandson.of John by his second wife, was Mayor of Tauranga in 1977. John Faulkner died in 1882, "universally respected" and "without a single enemy". He is buried with Ruawahine in the Mission Cemetery.

James Farrow was the Bay of Plenty’s first major trader, arriving in Tauranga in 1829 to buy flax fibre for Australian merchants in exchange for firearms. In 1838 he bought half an acre of land at the western end of the Otumoetai pa from the chiefs Tupaea, Tangimoana and Te Omanu in the earliest authenticated land purchase in the Bay for which a Crown Grant was later issued. Soon after Phillip Tapsell arrived at Maketu as flax trader for Te Arawa in late 1830, Farrow became his Tauranga agent. Tapsell, probably the best known of the flax traders, married into the Te Arawa tribe, exposing him to danger as war raged between Ngaiterangi and their Te Arawa rivals. As the flax and arms trade declined Tapsell turned to boatbuilding.

The Missionary Cemetery headstone marking the grave of early Tauranga trader John Lees Faulkner and his wife Elizabeth.

Farrow and his brother Daniel dealt mainly with the legendary chief Te Waharoa of Matamata, whose tribe cut and scraped the flax. Loads of up to 70 tons were carried over the Kaimai range by the Wairere track for shipment from the Te Puna river mouth to a Sydney merchant. By the late 1830s the flax export trade had declined, being largely replaced by that in pigs, salted pork, potatoes, maize and wheat. These locally-produced commodities were sold to ships visiting New Zealand, especially whalers in the Bay of Islands. From 1840, the growing town of Auckland provided an expanding market for Maori produce and Tauranga Maori prospered sufficiently to buy their own sailing vessels. Farrow left Otumoetai before the Waikato land war spread to Tauranga and the Battle of Gate Pa took place in 1864.

John Lees Faulkner Faulkner settled near the Otumoetai pa with his wife, Ruawahine, about 1839. He constructed many small trading ships, some of which were skippered by himself or his son-inlaw Daniel Sellars, while others were sold to Maori. He also owned a four-horse threshing

School girls through time

Early trader John Lees Faulkner has many descendants in the Tauranga area.

TAURANGA GIRLS’ COLLEGE Setting the scene for girls to excel since 1958

At Tauranga Girls’, across the curriculum, we are acknowledging the 150th anniversary of the Battle of Gate Pa and creating deeper understanding of its place in Tauranga’s history. In English, Social Studies, Business Studies, M Mathematics, Art and Innovation students are ex exploring, contributing and evaluating their p perspectives on the events of 1864.

930 Cameron Road, Tauranga www.tgc.school.nz

“empowering tomorrow’s women”

Congratulations to Emily McCarthy, winner of the Battle of Gate Pa Commemorative Poetry Competition

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Timeline

1826

First visit to Te Papa by Henry Williams on the mission schooner Herald. Maori asked missionaries to come to live in the district. Second visit. Maori supplied 200 baskets of potatoes, 22 pigs and some flax and were keen to obtain muskets and powder.

1827

Third visit by missionaries. Herald anchored off the Te Papa peninsula.

1828

Fourth visit. Maori had obtained guns and ammunition and no food was offered to the missionaries. Once populous Te Papa pa (Otamataha) sacked by a war party from Ngati Maru (Thames).

1831

Birth of Alfred Marsh Brown. Henry Williams sailed in Karere for the Bay of Plenty with Thomas Chapman, in search of a site for a Rotorua mission station.

1832

Henry Williams and WT Fairburn accompanied a Nga Puhi war party headed for Tauranga in the vain hope of preventing an attack on the Otumoetai pa.

1833

Williams tries to prevent open warfare among Bay of Plenty tribes. Brown and Henry Williams visit Te Waharoa at Matamata.

1834

Site for Te Papa Station chosen by William Williams and Alfred Brown. They arranged for two raupo houses to be constructed.

1835

Brown opens mission station at Matamata with JA Wilson. Mission work begins at Te Papa by Messrs Wade and King. They found one of the raupo houses had been taken to Maungatapu pa for the trader Peter Dillon. Sarah Wade opens a school for Maori women and girls.

1836

J.A.Wilson and family transferred from Matamata to Te Papa in January. Te Waharoa (Ngati Haua) attacks Te Arawa at Maketu. Brown comes to Te Papa to help broker peace. Te Waharoa protects the missionaries. Chapman arrives from Rotorua, where an attack was expected. Matamata station closed.

1837

Birth of Marianne Celia Brown. Te Papa station closed because of unrest between Tauranga tribes assisted by Te Waharoa of Ngati Haua and Rotorua tribes. Te Papa station reopened by Rev James Stack and family in late 1837.

1838

Alfred Brown, his first wife Charlotte and children Marsh and Celia arrive on the mission schooner Columbine from the Bay of Islands in January. Lay reader John A. Wilson and family arrive at the same time. Chapman opens mission station on Mokoia Island, Rotorua. Brown purchases 30 acres of land at the northern end of the Te Papa peninsula from local chiefs in September. Death of Ann Wilson in November. First missionary burial in the Mission Cemetery.

1839

1300 acres of the Te Papa peninsula purchased by Brown on behalf of the Church Missionary Society. Library completed.

1840

Treaty of Waitangi brought to Te Papa mission station for missionaries to gather signatures. Rotorua station moved to Te Ngae. Wilson sent to Opotiki.

1841

Visit by Dr Ernst Dieffenbach, scientist.

1842

Acting governor Willoughby Shortland, Bishop Selwyn and Chief Justice Martin stay at Te Papa during a period of unrest, along with the commanding officers of the troops stationed at Hopukiore (Mount Drury).

1843

First permanent chapel completed. Brown appointed Archdeacon of Tauranga.

1844

Marsh sent to St John’s College at Te Waimate in the Bay of Islands.

1845

Christopher Davies stationed at Te Papa to help Brown with school for one year. Death of Marsh Brown of erysipilas, aged 14.

1846

Publication of Brief Memorials of an Only Son, written by Alfred for Marsh’s sister Celia. Marsh Scholarship established.

1847

Mission house completed in October. Brown declines Bishopric. Preece at Ahikereru (Te Whaiti). Spencer stationed at Te Wairoa.

1850

Dispute with local Maori over boundaries of land purchased.

1854

Maori Kingmaker Wiremu Tamihana moves to the Tauranga area, staying until 1856, possibly at the mission station.

1855

Missionary Carl Sylvanius Volkner arrives at Te Papa to assist Brown by running a boys’ and girls’ school.

1857

John Kinder’s first visit to Te Papa.

1859

Celia Brown marries Rev John Kinder and moves to Auckland. Scientist Ernst Dieffenbach visits Chapman at Maketu and in the absence of Archdeacon Brown stays with the Volkners at Te Papa. Volkner leaves Te Papa.

1860

Brown marries Christina Crombie Grant Johnston in Wellington. Construction of the Mission Institute.

The Bay of Plenty Times gratefully acknowledges the assistance of the Tauranga Public Library in preparing this series of tabloid newspapers commemorating the 150th Anniversary of the Battle of Gate Pa. Other sources include The Story of the Battle of Gate Pa by Captain Gilbert Mair NCZ (Bay of Plenty Times, 1937), The New Zealand Wars and the pioneering period by James Cowan (Government Printer, 1955) and A Centennial History of Tauranga by Gifford and Williams (Reed, 1940). Invaluable help was also provided by Buddy Mikaere, Cliff Simons, Alistair Reese and others.

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Battle of Gate Pa

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Battle of Gate Pa 150

TH

IVERSARY N N A APRIL 29

1864-2014

Series 2 – Events leading to conflict

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2

Battle of Gate Pa

Significant Landmarks Downtown Tauranga’s rich history is reflected in its street names Devonport Road was where the British naval troops established their camp before the Battle of Gate Pa. It was presumably named after a naval base of the same name in England and was originally divided into sections: Devonport Road, Devonport Street, Devonport Lane and Simson Street. In 1913 all these names were merged to become Devonport Road.

Hamilton Street is named after Captain J F C Hamilton, commander of the HMS Esk, who was killed at the Battle of Gate Pa. Harington Street is also linked to the Battle of Gate Pa - it is named after Colonel Harington, who commanded the 1st Regiment of the Waikato Militia. Monmouth Street leads to the historic Monmouth Redoubt, where the 43rd Monmouth Regiment was stationed in the 1860s.

The Mayor of Tauranga between 1919 and 1929 was Bradshaw Dive who gave his name to Dive Crescent, while Durham Street is where the 68th Durham Light Infantry was stationed in Tauranga during the Land Wars.

There once was a spring near where Mid City Mall (aka Red Square) is now located, leading to the name Spring Street, while a town wharf lay at the end of Wharf Street.

Elizabeth Street was named after Mrs Elizabeth Tunks, the wife of Captain Thomas Tunks, a retired Imperial Army Officer. She was the mother of A F Tunks, mayor of Tauranga from 1933 to 1935.

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Battle of Gate Pa

3

Battle of Gate Pa A

lthough not present at Gate Pa, Captain Gilbert Mair NZC compiled The Story of Gate Pa, April 29th, 1864 from various records and first-hand accounts of survivors.

Though coloured by the colonial views of his time, the book also provides a unique insight into events leading up to the battle.

When fighting broke out at Tauranga during the brief Bush Campaign of 1867, Mair volunteered, achieving the rank of lieutenant. In 1869 he led arduous campaigns against Te Kooti in the Urewera and was promoted to captain. Later he commanded a contingent of loyalist Maori known as the “Arawa flying column”.

During his military career Mair became particularly skilled in guerrilla tactics and was known for his strength and courage. He was presented with many taonga (ancestral treasures) by Ma¯ ori communities throughout the North Island which were passed to the Auckland Museum in 1890 In peacetime Mair became a Crown land purchase agent, later serving as a parliamentary interpreter and Government Agent. He lived his last few years with the Norris family in Devonport Road and died in November 1923 aged 80. He was interred at St Faith’s Church at Onhinemutu, Rotorua.

Captain Gilbert Mair (1843 – 1923)

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4

Battle of Gate Pa

‘Era of prosperity’ shortlived

A

ccording to Mair, 1845 largely saw the end of hostilities between Ngati Maru (Thames), Ngapuhi, Arawa and Waikato tribes, which had turned the whole of the Bay of Plenty into a battleground. Though Mair was not present at the battle and his description of events has to be understood in the light of colonial attitudes and beliefs, they provide a unique insight into events leading up to the Battle of Gate Pa, especially as he enjoyed a close relationship with Maori. His book included a personal account of the fight dictated to him by Ngatiraukawa chief Hitiri Te Paerata. He also drew on official records and obtained illustrations ‘from various sources’. WH Gifford, editor of the Bay of Plenty Times in 1937 wrote that supply of the original 1926 edition having been “exhausted,” he had decided to re-publish it with additional matter and illustrations.

I

n 1842 a Major Bunbury with a detachment of the 18th Regiment was sent to Tauranga with a view to ‘curbing the Arawa tribes’.

“In 1845 peace was happily inaugurated between the contending parties and a stone inscribed ‘Te Maungarongo 1845’ (the peace making) was set up at Maketu,” Mair wrote.

“At last, after a period of several hundred years, peace reigned supreme throughout the Bay of Plenty.” “For Ngaiterangi and Tauranga, a new era of prosperity had dawned. “Wars and rumours of wars had ceased entirely, only to be rudely dispelled in 1864 when numbers of the young men of the tribe, actuated by a love of adventure and the desire to help their kinsmen and old allies, joined the disaffected natives fighting against the Queen’s troops in Waikato. “I should have stated that the tribal aphorism or boast of the Ngaiterangi is ‘Raurukitahi’ (‘one mind or pledge given never broken’). “This makes it easy to understand their chivalrous conduct during the war.” Up to this time, Mair says, Ngaiterangi as a tribe had committed no “overt acts” against the Queen’s sovereignty beyond permitting intermittent parties of “young hot-heads”to join their kinsmen and hereditary allies fighting against the Pakeha at Waikato.” “Though in general sympathy with the Maori King movement, they were living in perfect

amity with the missionaries and Europeans in their midst. “But it was rumoured that a force of 1400 or 1500 well-armed rebels from the East Cape districts, projected breaking through the loyal Arawa territory to join the Waikato insurgents. “This may have been one of the factors that induced Governor Grey and his responsible Ministers to take strong measures.” On January 21, 1864, three naval vessels were seen entering Tauranga harbour channel, anchoring off what was known as “Maketu Mound.” A force of 700 men under Colonel Carey was also landed at Te Papa in two small colonial vessels, the Corio and the PS Sandfly. Mair says they were immediately entrenched at the place known as The Camp, “natives in large numbers looking on with friendly curiosity and wonderment.” “Shortly afterwards HMS Miranda with the 68th Durham Light Infantry under Colonel Meurant, and the 43rd under Colonel Booth, arrived, and directed by Colonel Mould, rebuilt and garrisoned the Durham and Monmouth Redoubts respectively, each being defended by 12 and 6 pounder Armstrong field pieces. “Then the Flying Column of 500 men, consisting of drafts from the 12th, 14th, 50th, 65th and 70th under Major Ryan, arrived, also the medical ambulance transport and all other necessary services.”

Captain Gilbert Mair

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Battle of Gate Pa

5

Bid to cut supply route

This sketch by Lieutenant Horatio Robley shows the design of the underground bunkers that protected the inhabitants of the pa throughout the British bombardment. Source: The New Zealand Wars and the pioneering period Vol 1 by James Cowan.

O

ne reason behind the Government’s decision to send a military force to Tauranga in 1864 was to cut off an important supply route for supporters of the Maori King in the Waikato. It was said that a large store of gunpowder was held by Maori in the forest behind Tauranga.

Ngaiterangi, Nga ¯ti Ranginui and other Tauranga Ma ¯ori who had been fighting in Waikato in support of the King Movement returned home to oppose occupation of their lands and Ngaiterangi rebuilt an old pa ¯ at Te Waoku, Oropi, about 20 km to the south of the British camp at Te Papa.

The location of this pa was unknown for many years, but was rediscovered in the 1990s by an archaeologist mapping pa and other cultural features in the Oropi area. Up to 20 years ago, the trenches and rifle pits were still deep and in good condition. The pa was cleverly designed and strategically located with a swamp on its approach and a sheer drop to one side. A successful attack by the British would have been difficult. Ngaiterangi chief Rawiri Puhirake invited the commander of the British forces to bring his soldiers to fight at Waoku, even offering to build a road to assist the

troops. When this challenge was ignored Maori moved nearer to their adversary, fortifying another pa at Poteriwhi beside the Wairoa River and issuing a second challenge. This too was ignored. Tired of waiting, the Maori forces moved the potential battle site to Gate Pa ¯ (Pukehinahina), just 3km from Te Papa. Designed by Pene Taka Tuaia, Gate Pa’s ingenious defences made clever use of anti-artillery bunkers and concealed trenches.

occupying the main one. A ditch and bank led to a smaller and the land sloped on either side to swamp. The reason for Greer’s apparent reluctance to take on Maori forces on their terms became obvious on April 21, 1864 when HMS Esk and the Falcon arrived in Tauranga Harbour with reinforcements. Aboard the Esk was British military commander General Duncan Cameron, who set up headquarters at Te Papa.

A fighting force of about 230 was divided between two redoubts, with 200 Ngaiterangi and Pirirakau fighters

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6

Battle of Gate Pa

Code of conduct

M

air’s account of events in early 1864 says that before the British forces arrived, “disaffected” Maori had held a general meeting at Potiriwhi (Port of Relief) near the Wairoa River and drawn up a chivalrous and humane code to be observed in the looming battle.

“They then dispersed to their respective stations along their front, the edge of the great forest extending 16 miles (25.7km) from Te Puke, where they confidently expected an attack owing to its deep water facilities, to the head of the Waimapu River where they re-built an old pa named Waoku (the Silent Forest Shade). “From here their leader, Rawiri Puhirake, despatched a formal message notifying the commanding officer of the position they had occupied and that if attacked, they would accept the ordeal of battle. “They further detailed the solemn rules for governing the fighting. The message further stated that with a view to lessening the fatigue of the Qeen’s soldiers, they had prepared eight miles of road leading to Waoku. “These noble sentiments were written out by an enlightened young mission student named Henare Taratoa who had been educated by Archdeacon (afterwards Bishop) Hadfield of Otaki. "Six weeks after the Battle of Gate Pa, Henare fell at Te Ranga and on his body were found copies of the chivalrous rules…” According to Mair, many weeks passed and “further accessions” of troops were made.

S U R R O U N D I N G

“Some of the officers used to go out shooting on the Waimapu and Judea swamps, which brought a protest from Rawiri warning the General against permitting anyone under his command to wander at large, concluding by saying: “In future all the hills and plains, valleys and streams may be trodden on by our feet and should harm befall those persons, the Maoris would be blamed unjustly.” By now, some of the younger Maori warriors were becoming weary of the long wait for action and it was proposed to make an attack on Te Papa camp – “a sort of a feeler,” as Mair describes it. “Accordingly small detachments from the various defensive points collected and a mild attack was made on the gamp. A gun, accidentally discharged, wounded one of their number which was considered an evil portent, and when the troops advanced in large numbers, opening fire from 12-pounder Armstrongs, the enemy retired, two soldiers only being wounded. “A verbal message was sent to Te Papa, saying that as their position inland was evidently too far off for the troops to march, the natives proposed to take up a position nearer Te Papa. This skirmish had happened on April 2, and on the next day the enemy was observed energetically entrenching on Pukehinahina Ridge a narrow neck where swamps from the Waimapu and Waikareao branches of the harbour were about 300 yards (274.32 metres) apart. “The missionaries had built a deep ditch and high bank across, on which a gate was placed; hence the name of Gate Pa.”

Rules laid down by Maori for fighting during the Tauranga Campaign are still celebrated as an example of outstanding chivalry. A note containing the proposed rules of conduct were delivered to Colonel Greer on March 28, 1864.

To the Colonel, Friend, salutations to you. The end of that, friend, do you give heed to our laws for (regulating) the fight. Rule 1: If wounded or (captured) whole, and butt of the musket or hilt of the sword be turned to me (he) will be saved. Rule 2: If any pakeha, being a soldier by name, shall be travelling unarmed and meet me, he will be captured and handed over to the direction of the law. Rule 3: The soldier who flees, being carried away by his fears and goes to the house of the priest with his gun (even though carrying arms) will be saved; I will not go there. Rule 4: The unarmed pakehas, women and children will be spared. The end. These are binding laws for Tauranga. By Terea Puimanuka Wi Kotiro Pine Anopu Kereti Pateriki Or rather by all the Catholics at Tauranga. A copy of these rules was found on Henare Taratoa’s body at Te Ranga. They ended with a quotation from Romans 12, verse 20:

“…If thine enemy hunger, feed him; If he thirst, give him drink.”

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Battle of Gate Pa

7

Tension builds… B

y early April 1864, with Maori forces beginning to dig fortifications at Gate Pa, the situation in Tauranga had become very tense. In The Story of Gate Pa, Gilbert Mair says that at about this time, a “large body” of East Coast rebels landed from war canoes at Otamarakau in the Eastern Bay of Plenty and marched inland. However, they were driven back by Arawa forces with ‘severe loss’, after three days of fighting. “They resumed their march, and brushing aside the weak resistance of the Arawa, crossed the Waihi lagoon and took up a position facing Pukemaire Pa on the Whareo Te Rangimarere ridge. “Fired on by loyal natives and by the Armstrong guns and shelled by HMS Falcon from seaward at 1600 yards [1463 metres], they were driven back along the beach, followed by about 400 Arawa, who attacked them in the act of embarking at Otamarakau, and forced them to retire. “They...finally took up a strong position along a deep stream from the foot of the 600 feet high cliff to the sea beach. The Arawa were directed by their grand old chief, Tohi Te Uruangi, from the top of a small sandhill. He fell mortally wounded, then a brave young Taupo chief, Para Pahupahu, broke through the enemy’s line…. “They were then pursued as far as Matata, where they lost the remainder of their canoes. Their total killed during this expedition was about 125 men...” By this time the First Waikato Regiment, under Colonel Philip Harington, had arrived at Te Papa, increasing the force there to 2000 men.”

Mair says General Cameron and his staff arrived in Tauranga from Auckland on HMS Esk on April 21. On April 26, 600 naval men and marines disembarked from HMS Miranda, Curacoa, Esk and Harrier. The Esk unloaded a 110 pounder Armstrong gun and two 40-pounder Armstrongs to add to the 14 other artillery pieces which had been landed previously. These were taken out by 800 troops to within easy distance of the Gate Pa fortification and fixed in emplacements on Pukereia (Green Hill) and other vantage points. Light defences were built around the guns, which were camouflaged by newly-cut fern. As for the Maori defences, Mair says that since work had first begun, the Maori forces, ‘energetically assisted by their women folk in the heaviest work’, had converted a harmless looking grassy knoll into a work that would soon test the calibre of the British troops to the utmost. “Probably there never was an instance in modern warfare where more deliberate and carefully conceived plans had been devised for securing a crushing defeat of the enemy. “From the extended length of their front along the edge of the forest from Te Puna, the Gate Pa garrison never exceeded 230 men…” The work of skilled fortification designer Pene Taka Tuaia (c1809-1889), Gate Pa made use of a ditch running across the ridge which marked the southern boundary of the land Archdeacon Brown had purchased for the Church Missionary Society in 1839, On the western slope near the crest of the ridge, a small

A plan of the cunningly-designed fortifications at Gate Pa, sketched by Lieutenant Horatio Robley shortly after the battle. Source: The New Zealand Wars and the pioneering period by James Cowan.

oblong redoubt had been built and garrisoned by the chief Heta and 26 men, Mair said. “…then a clear space of about 30 paces intervened, consisting of the aforesaid ditch only. This gap had been left as the point of honour in expectation of 600 Ngatihaua and Waikato natives – who, however, never came – occupying it. “Here was constructed the citadel or main work, extending eastward 40 or 50 pages, decreasing in strength and width toward the eastern extremity, to where the ditch connected with the swamp and water supply. “The whole of the main works were enclosed by a single light fence lashed to two rails with flax, the interior being a network of traverses, covered ways and shelters, cleverly covered over with a scanty supply of timber and blinded with flax and titree and earth, hardly any proper timber being available apart from some house building material and a dismantled stockyard.”

Day before Battle On April 28, the day before the Battle of Gate Pa, General Cameron launched an afternoon ‘sham’ attack on Gate Pa. It continued till dark, with no

From pa to redoubt, to peaceful park

casualties on either side. However it was helpful to the British forces in one respect, Captain Mair said in his later account of the fight. “The Waimapu contingent, conceiving the attack to be real, rushed to join their countrymen, thus enabling Colonel Greer, with about 700 men of the 68th Regiment, to leave camp at 9pm, guided by a young settler, Mr William Purvis, and travelling along the mudflats unobserved, they took up a position several yards in the enemy's rear, completely cutting off their retreat inland.” It was raining heavily and throughout the night the men of the 68th could hear the enemy talking in their trenches, Mair says. “About midnight the General became anxious at receiving no report from Colonel Greer, so despatched Deputy Assistant-QuartermasterGeneral, Colonel Gamble, with a detachment of 60 bluejackets from HMS Curacoa…to ascertain the position. Colonel Gamble… posted the naval detachment on the enemy’s extreme right, where they performed excellent service in preventing reinforcements coming in from the east or those in the pa making their escape during the attack next day.”

The three carvings commissioned for the new Tauranga Police Station opposite the redoubt.

No sign remains today of the redoubt, built on high ground to guard against invasion from the west. This earthworks were eventually flattened to raise the level of Hamilton Street. The southern part of the Tauranga Domain was used as a parade ground by the 68th Regiment. Afternoon shadows follow the contours of the remains of a perimeter trench at Monmouth Redoubt

Monmouth Redoubt as it appeared in the 1870s, with the troops’ barracks intact.

N

ow part of a tranquil park facing north over Tauranga Harbour, Monmouth Redoubt was built beside a cliff at the north end of The Strand in an area known to Ma¯ ori as Taumatakahawai Pa. It had been abandoned in 1828 after an attack on the northern end of the Te Papa peninsula by Ngati Maru. It guarded high land at the northern end of the Te Papa peninsula and was rebuilt in the late 1830s for protection in case there was an attack on the mission station by Te Arawa raiding parties. Early in 1864 the 43rd Monmouth Regiment rebuilt the fortifications which then became known as the Monmouth Redoubt. British troops occupied the area for four years until the late 1860s when it became the headquarters for the Armed Constabulary.

In 2013 to acknowledge the history of the area and the pa site, carvings were commissioned for the new Tauranga Police Station. Mounted on the wall facing Taumatakahawai Pa/ Monmouth Redoubt, the three pou were carved by highly regarded local artists Whare Thomson and Damian Kohu. They represent Archdeacon Alfred Brown, Taumatakahawai Pa, and the Battle of Gate Pa¯. In 1864 the 68th (Durham) Light Infantry (‘The Faithful Durhams’) arrived in New Zealand from Burma. They arrived in Tauranga aboard the HMS Miranda under Colonel Meurant. The 68th built a defensive earthwork at Te Papa known as the Durham Redoubt which was built over in the 1870s to raise the level of Hamilton Street. The redoubt was situated on the modern day area bounded by Durham Street, Hamilton Street, Cameron Road and Harington Street.

A view of the remains of the interior of Durham Redoubt as it looked in 1907 when this picture was taken by an Auckland Weekly News photographer.

A plan of Monmouth Redoubt drawn by journalist James Cowan in 1920.

Only one cannon now remains in the grounds of Monmouth Redoubt.

A plaque erected on the site of a blockhouse within Monmouth Redoubt. The small building sheltered local women and children before they were evacuated to Auckland.


8

Battle of Gate Pa

Battle of Gate Pa The People Leading figures on both sides at the Battle of Gate Pa are remembered for their heroism and chivalry. Some paid the ultimate price, sacrificing their lives. Henry Jackson Parkin Booth (1830-1864)

Colonel Henry Harpur Greer (1821 – 1886)

Lieutenant-Colonel Henry Jackson Parkin Booth (1830-1864) was a key figure in the Battle of Gate Pa (Pukehinahina). Leading the attack, he received severe gunshot wounds to the spine and right arm and died the following day. He is said to have told Dr Manley, who dressed his wounds while under fire, that a Maori woman who spoke English had given him water as he lay dying, However, afterwards it was thought more likely to have been Henare Wiremu Taratoa, who is remembered in a memorial window in the private chapel of Bishop Selwyn’s Lichfield Cathedral in England and on the memorial to Rawiri Tuaia Puhirake in the Mission Cemetery. Historian and journalist James Cowan who interviewed her many years later, was certain it was a woman, Heni Te Kiri Karamu.

Colonel Greer came to New Zealand in 1864 as commander of the 68th Durham Light Infantry. He led the division in the Battle of Gate Pa in which the British were resoundingly defeated. A few months later Colonel Greer was again in charge at the bloody battle at Te Ranga, a few kilometres inland from Gate Pa. This time the Maori resistance led by Rawiri was crushed. He was later promoted to a Lieutenant-General. Greer returned to Britain and died at his residence in Moy, Ireland, aged 64. His name is remembered in the Tauranga suburb of Greerton.

Henare Wiremu Taratoa (1830-1864)

A group outside Colonel Greer’s home, known as High Trees.

Captain John Fane Charles Hamilton (1820-1864) Captain Hamilton was killed during the Battle of Gate Pa. His cousin Robert Thomas Francis Hamilton (1835-1864) was also killed. From 22 May 1863 he was captain of the Esk, sent to New Zealand during the New Zealand Wars. At the battle Hamilton had under his direct command a detachment of the 43rd regiment and a party of sailors. He was struck in the head by a bullet and died on 29 April 1864. The city of Hamilton, founded in 1864 at the end of the Waikato War, was named after him as is Hamilton Street in Tauranga.

Edward Hay (1835-1864) Commander Edward Hay was captain of the Harrier and led the Naval Brigade storming party at the Battle of Gate Pa under heavy fire. He fell mortally wounded and died from his wounds on April 30, aged 29. His headstone and plaque can be seen at the Mission Cemetery.

Chief Te Ipu Hikareia (?-1901) In 1896 Hikareia claimed that it was he who had given water, bread and berries to the fatally wounded Colonel Booth rather than Henare Taratoa or Heni Te Kiri Karamu, even though as chief Hori Ngatai pointed out, Te Ipu had been shot through the knee and could not have been capable of walking. According to reports in the Bay of Plenty Times, Te Ipu was the son of Hikarei and was a renowned fisherman, living at Matapihi. A well-known figure in Tauranga, he was often recognised on The Strand because of his limp, a legacy from the Battle of Gate Pa. He died in July 1901.

Ngaiterangi leader Henare Wiremu Taratoa was born about 1830 and lived on Matakana Island. He was taught and baptised by the CMS missionary Henry Williams and later studied at St John’s College in Auckland. Taratoa was present at the Maori victory at Gate Pa, and is said to have been narrowly escaped being shot while carrying a calabash of fresh, cold water to the fatally wounded Colonel Booth. This act is also attributed to Heni Te Kiri Karamu and was claimed by others. At the Battle of Te Ranga on June 21, 1864, Ngaterangi were defeated and Taratoa and over 100 warriors killed. A copy of the rules of conduct was found on Taratoa’s body. The writing included a prayer and ended with the words, ‘If thine enemy hunger, feed him; if he thirst, give him drink’. (Romans 12:20). His body, initially buried in the trenches at Te Ranga, was later placed in the Mission Cemetery at Otamataha pa.

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Battle of Gate Pa

Pene Taka Tuaia (c1809-1889)

9

Assistant Surgeon William George Nicholas Manley (1831-1901) Serving with the Royal Artillery, Manley was among the party which stormed Gate Pa following a massive British bombardment. He was awarded the Victoria Cross for attending to Commander George Hay as he was carried away mortally wounded and for returning to the pa to search for more wounded. Of the 12 officers who gathered for dinner at the Elms with Archeacon Brown and his wife the night before the Battle of Gate Pa, Manley was the only survivor.

Major-General Horatio Gordon Robley (1840–1930)

The skilled engineer of the Gate Pa fortifications was born about 1809 and fought in the Ngapuhi invasions of Tauranga in the 1830s and the 1835-45 war with Te Arawa. His pa, which he helped to design, was at Poteriwhi above the east bank of the lower Wairoa River. Tuaia learnt his military engineering during the Northern War of 1845-1846 and used his experience to design the defences at Gate Pa, making extensive use of anti-artillery bunkers (rua). The pa’s cunningly concealed trenches were designed to lull the British into a false sense of security when they stormed it. A month after the Maori defeat at the Battle of Te Ranga groups surrendered to Colonel Greer at Tauranga, with the main body of warriors coming in on 25 July 1864. After the war Tuaia lived at Papawhare, on the east bank of the lower Wairoa River, helping to operate a flour mill. He took up arms again with Rawiri Tata of Pirirakau during the Tauranga Bush Campaign of 1867, saying he was seeking revenge for the death of Rawiri Puhirake at Te Ranga. He died on July 3, 1889.

Samuel Mitchell (1841-1894) One of two men awarded the Victoria Cross for his actions during the Battle of Gate Pa, Mitchell was HMS Harrier Commander Edward Hay’s Coxswain. Mitchell stayed close to Hay during the assault on Gate Pa and carried his mortally injured Commander out through the rear of the pa under heavy fire, even though Hay had ordered him to abandon him. As Samuel was carrying Hay he was met by Manley who dressed Commander Hay’s wounds before attending to other wounded in the pa.

Robley arrived in Auckland from Burma with the 68th (Durham Light Infantry) Regiment of Foot in January 1864. In April Robley took his troops to Tauranga to join General Cameron in the attack on Gate Pa. An accomplished artist, he stayed in Tauranga for 19 months, completing a series of detailed sketches of the Maori defences at Gate Pa, Maori wounded, the surrender of Maori at Te Papa and other contemporary scenes. A number are in a collection held by the Tauranga City Council. The author of several books, he had a deep interest in moko (Maori tattoo) which controversially extended to a large collection of preserved heads. During his time in New Zealand Robley met Harete Mauao and they had a son named Hamiora Tu Ropere. Robley died in London on October 29, 1930.

Ngaiterangi chief Hori Ngatai (c1832-1912) Hori Ngatai was a veteran of both Gate Pa and Te Ranga. He was born at Maungatapu, and his father signed the Treaty of Waitangi at Tauranga in 1840. He surrendered arms in 1864 promising Ngaiterangi would never return to warfare, and later became the largest grower of maize and wheat in the Tauranga area. In 1903, Ngatai related a graphic account of what Maori had experienced at Gate Pa to Captain Gilbert Mair. After confirming the chivalrous behaviour Maori had exhibited towards the wounded soldiers, Ngatai told Mair: “Ah, those were glorious days. Every fighter was a rangatira and one was proud to meet each other in battle. Whatever the reverses were to either side, no bitter feelings were engendered to form any permanent hatred. We were all friends immediately there was no fighting.” Ngatai died at his home at Whareroa on August 24, 1912. His memorial at the Mission Cemetery was unveiled eight years later.

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Battle of Gate Pa

Between the devil and the deep blue sea

A

listair Reese is a farmer and public theologian who lives with his wife Jeannie on a kiwifruit and livestock block near Te Puke. For the past 25 years he has studied the mission of God in New Zealand, with emphasis on issues of reconciliation at a local and national level. He taught at Faith Bible College, Tauranga for 15 years and has delivered Public Theology courses at the University of Auckland. Alistair holds postgraduate degrees in History, Tikanga Maori and Theology from Massey, Waikato and Cambridge University, and has completed his PhD thesis, Reconciliation and the Quest for Pakeha Identity at the University of Auckland.

N

ew Zealand’s political situation was a massive challenge for Tauranga CMS missionary Archdeacon Alfred Brown, says Mr Reese.

In an article written for the New Zealand Church Missionary Society with he says that in Archdeacon Brown’s own words, the missionary found himself, “between the devil and the deep blue sea – In time Government would require more land … to steer clear of giving offence ‘to the powers that be’ and at the same time to sustain our character as Guardians of the Natives will require much of the ‘wisdom that cometh from above’.” Although reluctant to involve himself in politics, Brown acknowledged the need for the Treaty of Waitangi and hosted its signing in the region. The treaty was signed at Tauranga on April 10, 1840 by 21 chiefs, witnessed by Hoani Aneta and CMS missionaries, Henry Taylor and James Stack.

But despite the signing of the treaty, Reese says, the political situation across the region remained complex and contested. “The Tauranga region became immersed in the complex interplay of the Maori-Pakeha encounter, politics and inter-hapu rivalry. Brown, like other missionaries around the country, became increasingly involved in inter-hapu peace negotiations and also the increasingly complex political interplay between the Crown, European settlers and local Maori.” Reese says Brown and the other missionaries were viewed as holding a ‘pro-Maori’ stance during the 1840s and early 1850s as the flood of immigration placed more and more pressure on Maori to sell land. “The Taranaki wars in 1860 evoked a strong critical response from many CMS missionaries, including Brown, who held that Crown’s military opposition to Te Ati Awa chief Wiremu Kingi over the Waitara Purchase was unjust.”

Archdeacon Brown’s opposition to the involvement of Maori Christians in the King Movement forever changed the relationship between the CMS missionaries and local Maori.

“He and others lobbied on behalf of the indigenous cause and his ‘philo-Maori’ response earned the disapproval of local Pakeha settlers who questioned the honour of their cultural allegiances.”

Alistair Reese pictured at Waitangi Marae in February this year.

heralded the beginning of a seismic change in the overall relationship between the CMS missionaries and local Maori.

The emergence of Kingitanga (the King Movement) in the Waikato signalled a paradigm shift within the local region, Reese explains.

“This tension was not aided by the arrival of government troops in Tauranga Harbour in January 1864, the subsequent battle of Gate Pa and on-going relational difficulties between the Crown and Maori residents.

“After initially giving approval, Alfred Brown later saw Kingitanga as disloyal to the Crown and supported the invasion of the Waikato.

“What followed was a breakdown in relationship between the Crown, the mission and local Maori.”

“Brown’s opposition to the involvement of Maori Christians in the Kingitanga movement

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Battle of Gate Pa

11

Significant Landmark Bethlehem

T

he Maori name for what is now one of Tauranga’s most popular and fastgrowing suburbs is Peterehema.

Bethlehem received its scriptural name after the Land Wars from missionaries responsible for resettling Maori whose land had been confiscated.

The area has been settled by Maori for centuries and was the scene of much intertribal and inter-hapu fighting before the first Europeans arrived. The people of Ranginui conquered the people of Ngamarama and consolidated their position in the coastal lands of Tauranga Harbour, establishing a number of new villages. By the 1880’s the main Ngati Ranginui settlements included those at Bethlehem. There are two Ngati Ranginui marae in Bethlehem: Peterehama which belongs to the Ngati Hangarau hapu, and Wairoa belonging to Ngati Kahu hapu. The land where Bethlehem is now situated was originally purchased by Gordon Cummings and consisted of 820 acres of land from Cambridge Road to the sea. He leased some land back to local Maori. Harold Oliver from Taranaki purchased the block in 1899, and after moving there with his family in 1909, subdivided it amongst his sons. There was a Maori school at Peterehema, known as the Paeroa Native School, and children from far afield as Huria (Judea) attended. The first shop was built in Bethlehem in the 1930s and in 1956 the

community hall was built. With its warm micro climate, Bethlehem was popular with horticulturalists and farmers from the time of the first European settlers, with tobacco among some of the more exotic crops trialled. Dairy farms and citrus orchards were prolific, later giving way to kiwifruit orchards. The area changed quickly from the late 1980s when residential development began in earnest. The centre now boasts some

of Tauranga’s best schools as well as retirement villages, churches, Mills Reef Winery, an awardwinning restaurant and the bustling Bethlehem Town Centre. Sources: "Tauranga 1882-1982, the Centennial of Gazetting Tauranga as a Borough", edited by A C Bellamy, published by Tauranga City Council 1982. "A History of Tauranga County" by Evelyn Stokes, Dunmore press 1980. Source: Archive press clippings from the Mirror and the Bay of Plenty Times. www.bethlehem.net.nz/history

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Battle of Gate Pa

Strategic, Focused & Committed Kia u ki te kaupapa o Ngai Te Rangi – taking our iwi into the future”

N

gai Te Rangi is a Mataatua tribe. We have a rich history which began from our journeys from the East Coast. After many battles and

many gruelling battles, finally settled where we are today in Tauranga

conflicts, Ngai Te Rangi resided in Whangara, then Opotiki, and through intermarriage and

Ngai Te Rangi. With the arrival of Europeans to this region, it was

Moana. Our historical journey is known as Te Heke o Rangihouhiri.

the Battle of Gate Pa which changed our city forever. Our leaders of

We were originally called Ngati Rangihouhiri but after our ancestor

that time Rawiri Puhirake and Henare Taratoa were at the forefront of

Te Rangihouhiri died in one of the country’s most bloodiest battles

the Gate Pa war, and lost their lives fighting for our people, and our

at Poporohuamea, his brother Tamapahore, led and renamed us

survival. Their leadership is a characteristic we retain to this very day.

Ngai Te Rangi Prior to Battle of Gate Pa

B

Ngai Te Rangi Education Unit The Education Unit provides a variety of projects and initiatives to assist with the educational development and aspirations of Ngai Te Rangi. The Unit strives to support educational success for all rangatahi who school in Tauranga Moana. We support the 150th Anniversary of the Battle of Gate Pa and Te Panga. Please contact Te Runanga o Ngai Te Rangi Iwi Trust if you have any enquiries.

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Battle of Gate Pa

Significant Landmarks

The Avenues T

he Avenues are some of Tauranga’s earliest and best known streets. Today, they are favoured locations for people to live or establish businesses, but they haven’t always been known by their present names First to Eleventh Avenues are said to have been named at the suggestion, of John Harris McCaw – a member of the 1st Waikato regiment who settled in Tauranga, became clerk for the Highways Board and first town clerk for the borough. Avenues 12 to 23 originally had names which commemorated early settlers. However the Tauranga Borough Council made the decision to change from names to numbers in 1956. It wasn’t a totally popular move, the Bay of Plenty Times noting somewhat sarcastically that the council seemed bent on further emulating the city of New York by designating more of its streets as numbered avenues. 12th Avenue was formerly Briarley Street, named after the Briarley estate along which it ran. 13th Avenue was Morris Street, remembering Captain George Bentham Morris

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14th Avenue was previously known as Roberts Street after Lieutenant-Colonel John Mackintosh Roberts. 15th Avenue was originally known as Hunter Street and 18th Avenue as Pitt Street. Hunter was probably Inspector William Hunter of the Armed Constabulary and Pitt the Inspector Cholwell Dean Pitt who commanded the Poverty Bay District of the Armed Constabulary. 16th Avenue was first named Wrigley Street, named for the Wrigley family. There were two unrelated Wrigley families in the area at the time, but the name is most likely connected to Thomas Wrigley who was elected to the first town board and was twice elected mayor of Tauranga. He established a store in Maketu in 1861 and another in Tauranga in 1863, and also owned other stores and a flax mill. His Tauranga store was destroyed by fire in 1881 when the Tauranga Hotel also burned down. 17th Avenue as called Hospital Street, despite the fact that there was no permanent hospital in Tauranga until October 1913. 19th – 23rd Avenues received names relating to well known Tauranga families. Tanner Street, (19th Avenue) was named after the Tanners, who were butchers, while a well-known local doctor gave his name to Macdiarmid Street (21st Avenue). The Tebbs family was remembered by Tebbs Street (22nd Avenue). Sellars Street is probably named for the family of John Lees Faulkners’ son-in-law, Daniel Sellars, the captain of some of Faulkner’s coastal trading ships. www.econtent.tauranga.govt.nz

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Battle of Gate Pa

Day of battle dawns...

T

he British force which attacked Gate Pa on the morning of April 29, 1864 was made up of 1650 officers and men – a sharp contrast to the defenders, who numbered only about 230. The guns and mortars used in the attack were devastatingly powerful, including a 110-pounder Armstrong gun, two 40-pounder and two 6-pounder Armstrongs, two 24-pounder howitzers and eight mortars. Shortly after dawn they opened fire against the main redoubt.

In his two-volume work The New Zealand Wars and the pioneering period, journalist and historian James Cowan says that in the midst of the massive bombardment Ngaiterangi chief Rawiri Puhirake strode fearlessly up and down the parapets encouraging his people. “To his tribesmen he cried reassuringly, in the height of the cannonade, “Ko te manawa-rere, ko te manawa-rere, kia u, kia ua’, (Trembling hearts, be firm, be firm).” At noon a 6-pounder Armstrong gun was hauled across Kopurereua swamp to a hill above, opening fire on the left flank of the main redoubt. The aim was to create a breach in the defences for an assault party. The small amount of return gunfire from the Maori position indicated that the bombardment had suceeded and at 4pm General Cameron ordered an assault party of 300 to attack a breach in the left side of the pa. In Wellington in 1903, Hori Ngatai gave a verbal account of the battle from a Maori perspective to Captain Gilbert Mair and three Members of Parliament. Mair included this account in his book, The Story of Gate Pa.

At the height of the cannonade, Ngatai recalled, the Maori position seemed desperate: “All our defences above ground had been demolished and levelled flat, while as we took shelter in our trenches, we were all more or less covered with mud and drenched with the rain. Our leaders, Rawiri, Tuaia, Hakaraia, Mahika, Timoti and Poihipi showed valiant front, directing our affairs with cool courage. They ordered us not to utter a word or fire a shot till the proper time came for the order. “The Brtish assault on the pa was delivered about four o’clock in the afternoon. The storming party…rushed gallantly to the attack. Then we loosed our fire on them when they got well within range – still they charged on, with bayonets fixed and swords waving, cheering as they came. Through and over the breach walls they rushed. They entered the ruins of the larger pa; most of it was in their possession. But all at once the tide of war was changed. Up leaped our men from the rifle pits as if vomited from the bowels of the earth, and together with those who had been forced back by the 68th Regiment in the rear, began a deadly hand to hand fight with the storming party.”

Tauranga Mission Cemetery and the memorial to the soldiers of the Forty Third Regiment killed at Gate Pa. Photographed by an unknown person about 1865. Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand.

Men fell “thick and fast,” Ngatai said. “Tomahawk clashed on cutlass and bayonet – tupara (double and single barrel shotguns) met rifle and pistol. Skulls were cloven – Maoris were bayoneted – Ngaiterangi patiti (hatchets) bit deep into white heads and shoulders. The place was soon full of dying and dead men, pakeha and Maori. We in the eastern position of the large pa stood firm. It was terrible work, but soon over. The pakehas were driven clean out of the pa; as they ran our men falling upon them. They fell

In 1893 WH Overend depicted the storming of Gate Pa by the 43rd and 68th Regiments and the Naval Brigade. The scene shows Naval Brigade men carrying swords and rifles. A wounded man is in the foreground. An officer is seen attacking a Maori through the pa palisade, which appears partly on fire. The uniform may not be the actual uniform worn, given that the print was published 33 years after the battle. The naval brigade consisted of 429 officers and men from a flotilla of Australia Squadron ships including HMS Curacoa, Esk, Falcon, Harrier and Miranda. The inscription on HenareTaratoa’s memorial at theTauranga Mission Cemetery.

Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand.

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Battle of Gate Pa

Tauranga Mission Cemetery and the memorial to the soldiers of the Forty Third Regiment killed at Gate Pa.

A plan showing the British and Maori positions at Gate Pa.

back on their main body below our works, many of their dead and wounded strewn on the battle ground.” With many of their officers killed or wounded, the assault party retreated in confusion. The inside of the pa was strewn with dead or dying, most of them pakeha. Maori casualties were about 20 killed and an unknown number of wounded, while British casualties totalled 111 killed and wounded. That night Maori forces split into small groups and retreated to other pa in bush to the south of Tauranga. The work of an unknown artist, this watercolour shows the tents of Te Papa military camp to the right and the buildings of Tauranga in the distance. The spired building on the right was the Church Missionary Society’s Mission Institute, taken over as a commissariat by the troops. Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand

Hori Ngatai takes up the story: “In the night we collected arms, accoutrements and ammunition from the British dead. Then recognising that our defences no longer existed, we abandoned the ruined pa under cover of darkness, retiring in good

order and spirits. We crept quietly through the lines of the 68th at the rear. The soldiers kept firing on us but none of us were killed, only a few wounded. I believe that some of the soldiers were accidentally killed by their own comrades. We retired to the Waoku pa and then dispersed to our various stations along the edge of the forest.” Troops took possession of the pa the next morning. They were met by a terrible scene, with officers and men lying dead or badly wounded. A newspaper correspondent, referred to only as “Mr Wilkinson”, described the scene. “Colonel Booth…was leaning against the rear palisade of the pa, his spine smashed by a big Tower musket ball and his arm broken. He was still living and on being carried out saluted his

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Battle of Gate Pa

5

The scene in the pa the morning after the Battle of Gate Pa, with dead still lying in the trenches.

General, and expressed his regret at not having succeeded in carrying out his orders.” Mair wrote: “the rings, watches, money, trinkets, clothing, etc of our dead were

untouched. This was the finest action of the enemy through the struggle…They had previously determined on a chivalrous and honourable method of carrying on in war and most scrupulously they served it.”

Many of the Maori dead – 20 found in the pa and nine more discovered elsewhere, were buried on the western slopes of Gate Pa below where the bowling green is now situated. The remains of others, and those

of the soldiers and officers who died were buried in the Mission Cemetery.

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Battle of Gate Pa

Pa design protected fighters The relatively small band of Maori which repulsed the attack on Gate Pa faced a huge British force employing some of the latest and most effective artillery. Ma¯ori

T

he fighting pa at Pukehinahina was cleverly designed to protect its occupants from a fierce British bombardment, with an outer screen palisade known as a pekerangi, well concealed trenches, protective bunkers (rua), connecting passages and shallow covered firing pits. The cunning design of the pa was a major advantage, because compared with the British forces arrayed against them, Maori were woefully under-armed. Some used old “Brown Bess” muskets of a type that had been used by the British Army and continually redeveloped over 100 years of expansion of the British Empire. Others were equipped with the hakimana (single barrelled shotgun) and the more favoured tupara (double barrelled shotgun) A percussion model tupara that fired a standard military 28.3gm musket ball was particularly effective in bush fighting, though its effective range was only about 73 metres. Short and long handled tomahawks known as kakauroa were used to devastating effect in hand-to-hand combat, while the toki patiti (hatchet) was another favourite.

General Duncan Alexander Cameron (fifth from the right, leaning on the wheel of the gun carriage) with a group of soldiers of the Colonial Defence Force. The photo was taken at sunrise on the morning of the attack on Gate Pa. Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand.

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Ka hoki nga mahara o Waitaha…. Waitaha looks back….. and remembers

Patu given by Tupaea to Hakaraia

Hakaraia, he Poropiti, he Matakite, i awhina i a Te Kooti, i awhina i Te Kingitanga, he Rangatira, i mate e pakanga ana ki Te Karauna, kia mau kia pupuri i ona whenua. He Rangatira i mau i kawe i te rakau o te Whakapono. Ka tau mai nga hoia a Te Karauna murua atu ana nga whenua o Waitaha. E toru ke nga wehewehenga o nga whenua o Waitaha. In 1823, when Nga Puhi attacked Mauao, Hakaraia led Waitaha alongside Ngati Ranginui in support of Ngai Te Rangi. He was captured and taken north where he converted to Christianity. Hakaraia acquired skills from renowned strategists Hone Heke and Kawiti. Hakaraia Mahika blended Christian philosophies with Maori teachings and preached peaceful engagement with Pakeha. The Crown’s suppression and oppression policies motivated him to stand up for the retention of land for his Waitaha people. Hakaraia was sympathetic to the stance of Te Kooti and Te Kingitanga in retaining land to sustain their people. Hori Ngatai acknowledged Hakaraia as a brilliant strategist and poropiti. He co-ordinated the Maori forces and assisted in designing the Pukehinahina battle site. Hakaraia objected to the location of the battle-site at Te Ranga, preferring to fight in the bush where Maori had the advantage.


Battle of Gate Pa

Maori also employed traditional weapons at Gate Pa such as the tewhatewha, a highly effective two-handed weapon. British The British force employed a devastating array of 15 artillery weapons including a 110-pounder Armstrong gun, two 40-pounder and two 6-pounder Armstrongs, two 24-pounder howitzers and eight mortars. Most of these were hauled to nearby Pukereia (Green Hill) where they were used in a horrific bombardment lasting eight hours. The mortars included 20.3cm models firing explosive shell projectiles and six 12 pounder Coehorns. These could hurl a bomb shell about 686 metres.

7

standard in the 1860s. The men carried ammunition in a cartridge box on a wide worn over the left shoulder, with a small pouch on the front for percussion caps. Another pouch was located on the right-hand side of a waist belt which carried a bayonet – a sword-shaped weapon designed to fit in, on, over or underneath the muzzle of a rifle or musket. This was particularly effective in hand to hand fighting. Some soldiers were armed with a light automatic rifle known as the Terry carbine. This was used extensively during the Land Wars by the New Zealand Colonial Defence Force. Officers carried swords and some also used a five shot Adams revolver.

First brought to New Zealand in 1861, the six pounder Armstrong field guns fired solid and explosive projectiles and had excellent range and accuracy for their time. The howitzer field guns fired explosive shell projectiles while the 40 pounder guns, supplied from Australia, fired solid and explosive projectiles. The 1650 officers and men arrayed against just 250 Maori were armed with a variety of firearms including the 1853 model Enfield percussion-lock rifle which became the infantry

A Maori warrior seated at the base of a defensive pit, a palisade above his head. He is holding a musket in his left hand and a tomahawk in his right, beside his knee. A cartridge case is around his neck and his is wearing a flax skirt. From the sketchbook of Horatio Gordon Robley. Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand.

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Battle of Gate Pa

General Sir Duncan Alexander Cameron

G

eneral Cameron and a large force of British troops were sent to New Zealand at the request of New Zealand’s Governor, Sir George Edward Grey. Cameron replaced British commander Thomas Pratt following the end of the First Taranaki War in 1863. At the time, North Island M¯aori were becoming reluctant to sell land and the rise of the King Movement in the Waikato was considered a challenge to British sovereignty. Wanting to put an end to the independence movement, Grey put a case to the Colonial Office in London emphasising the threats posed by the King Movement and suggesting that the European settlement was about to be wiped out. To meet the danger the British Government sent 14,000 troops.

horses and bullocks and the latest Armstrong guns. After breaking the back of Waikato resistance, Cameron was knighted. In a subsequent battle at Koheroa Ridge, Mangatawhiri, he personally led the charge and was recommended for the Victoria Cross. Maori were forced to retreat into the King Country and the government switched its attention to Tauranga where Maori sympathetic to the King Movement were said to be supplying manpower and ammunition. At the Battle of Gate Pa Cameron suffered a heavy loss after misjudging the strength of Maori defences.

On June 4, they began building a road from Auckland to the King Movement’s border at the Mangatawhiri Stream, preparing to invade the Waikato.

After the battle of Te Ranga which followed Gate Pa, fighting flared up again in Taranaki. Cameron saw this conflict as unnecessary and provoked mainly by confiscation of M¯aori land. His reluctance to continue the fight is said also to have been affected by the severity of his defeat at Gate Pa.

Cameron’s strategy used a river flotilla to move troops and supplies up the Waikato River, bypassing swamps between Maramaru and Meremere. His gun boat flotilla was prefabricated in Britain and barges built in Sydney.

He began conducting the campaign at a snail’s pace, further enraging Grey. Cameron then recommended to the Colonial Office that all British troops be withdrawn from New Zealand and resigned as commander of the troops.

The Waikato invasion began in July 1863, but Cameron’s supply lines were severely threatened by Maori and it took three months to secure his rear position from attacks. He also sent recruiting officers to Australia where 2400 volunteers signed up to fight against M¯aori forces. The Australian states also sold the New Zealand government large quantities of rifles, ammunition, uniforms,

After his return to England, Cameron was promoted to lieutenant-general. From 1868 to 1875 he served as Governor of the Royal Military College Sandhurst.

General Sir Duncan Alexander Cameron, from a formal portrait painted later in his life.

Room 17 from Greerton Village School commemorates the Battle of Gate Pa. A British and Maori soldier are shown with the opposing flags inside, representing the relationship between the two during the battle. A range of contrasting words were chosen to tie the two soldiers, showing the emotions that would have been evident throughout the battle. Media used: paper collaging. 3 x plywood panels 83cm x 124cm.


Battle of Gate Pa

9

Woman fighter earned place in history

A

courageous Maori woman who disobeyed orders to stay and fight alongside the men at Gate Pa has earned her place in history for a chivalrous deed commemorated as far afield as Britain. After helping to construct the fortifications at Gate Pa, Heni Te Kiri Karamu, a mission-trained teacher who had fought with her family in the Waikato, was ordered to leave. Chief Rawiri Puhirake insisted she go before the British force attacked. She refused, not wanting to leave her brother Neri. In the first shot of the massive British bombardment she was saved by tohunga Timoti Te Amopo, who pulled her down into a trench. In later years she told historian James Cowan that the cannon shot came as the pa’s occupants began their morning service. “Our lay reader, Hori, was in the act of pronouncing the final blessing when the shell was sent into us. I was standing by the side of the trench with Hori on one side of me and another minister named Iraihia te Patu-witi on the other side.” Te Amopo had been intently watching the British artillery and spotting a flash from a cannon, pulled Te Kiri Karamu down just before her two companions were hit and killed. When the day-long bombardment ended and British soldiers stormed the pa, they were met by fierce gunfire which killed most of their officers. They withdrew, amidst considerable confusion. Risking her own life, Heni gave water to Colonel Booth and three other wounded men. But in later years there was disagreement as to whether she or Henare Taratoa had been responsible for this heroic act. However, there was no doubt in Cowan’s mind: “Heni te Kiri-karamu, a blend of Amazon and vivandiere [the name given to women who served as official auxiliary personnel to French army combat units], was as compassionate as she was brave. It was she who under fire gave water to Colonel Booth…” Heni told Cowan that many years later a friend sent her a picture by a New Zealand artist showing a man with a calabash carrying water to Colonel Booth.

Wiremu Henare Taratoa offers water to Lieutenant-Colonel Booth, 1864. (Artist unknown). Years later the identity of the person who helped Booth was disputed. According to journalist James Cowan who interviewed her years after the battle, it is most likely to have been Heni Te Kiri Karamu, the only woman who helped defend the pa. Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand

“It amused me, for besides the mistake about the man there was no calabash, but an old iron nail-can.” After the battle of the Gate Pa, Heni moved to Rotorua. From 1865–66 she fought for government forces against the Pai Marire movement, helping to capture Ngaiterangi chief Hori Tupaea at Rotoiti as

he tried to cross Te Arawa territory to join the Hauhau leader Kereopa Te Rau. She also fought with Te Arawa forces against the Hauhau at Matata and Te Teko, near Whakatane.

The chivalrous act at Gate Pa is commemorated by a brass plaque in the church at St George Church, Gate Pa, and in a stained-glass window in the chapel at Lichfield Palace, England.

Known after her marriage as Heni Pore (Foley) she spent the rest of her life at Rotorua, dying on June 24, 1933.

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Battle of Gate Pa

Gate Pa Timeline 1864: January: New Zealand Government despatches military force to Tauranga in bid to cut off supply route for Maori King movement supporters from East Coast to the Waikato. Captain Jenkins of HMS Miranda requested to blockade Tauranga and troops commanded by Colonel Greer land at Te Papa, building two redoubts. January-April: Ngaiterangi return from supporting Maori kingmaker Wiremu Tamehana in the Waikato and build a strong fortification based on an ancient pa at Waoku, Oropi. Other sections of tribe and Pirirakau occupy positions at Kaimai, Poripori, Wairoa and Tawhiti-nui, near Te Puna. Waoku fortification completed. Chief Rawiri Puhirake writes to Greer, informing him that his people have built a pa and formed a road to it from the harbour, so soldiers will not be too weary to fight when they get there. Maori move closer to Te Papa, fortifying a position on the Pukehinahina ridge known as “The Gate” by local Europeans. It forms the boundary between land bought by the Church Missionary Society and Maori land. The pa is occupied by 200 Ngaiterangi warriors and representatives of other tribes including Pirirakau. A smaller pa on the lower western side of the neck of land is occupied by a party of 40 warriors from various other tribes. April 21: Reinforcements under General Duncan Cameron arrive in Tauranga aboard HMS Esk and HMS Falcon. April 27 & 28: General Cameron moves troops and the largest amount of artillery ever used in a battle in New Zealand to Pukereia Hill, 400m from the pa. On the night of the 28th Colonel Greer brings 700 men of the 68th Regiment across a swamp on the eastern side of the pa and occupies a position behind Maori lines. April 29: Attack begins with 1650 British offices and men against 250 Maori. A barrage of heavy artillery continues all day. At 4pm troops attack both the main and the smaller pa. Met by unexpectedly fierce fire and hand to hand fighting, which sees most officers killed and the troops falling back in confusion. One third of the storming party is killed. Maori abandon pa during the night. April 30-31: M¯aori dead buried on the western slopes below where the bowling green is now situated. British dead interred at military cemetery near the mission station. May: British take possession of abandoned pa and fortifications along the Waimapu stream. Some troops return to Auckland. Ngaiterangi receive reinforcements from the East Coast and Rotorua.

June: “Kingites” take up position on narrow ridge at Te Ranga, three miles inland from Gate Pa. Led by R¯awiri Puhirake, they comprise Ng¯ai Te Rangi and Ng¯ati Ranginui, supported by Ng¯ati Porou from the East Coast and Ng¯ati Pikiao and Ng¯ati Rangiwewehi from Rotorua. June 21: Force of 600 under Colonel Greer surprise Maori at work on entrenchments. Greer orders reinforcements and an Armstrong gun. Gunfire exchanged for two hours before troops assault position with bayonet charge. More than 120 Maori warriors including Rawiri Puhirake killed in hand-to-hand combat before remainder retreat. Thirteen privates of the 13th Regiment killed. Maori dead buried in rifle pits either side of fortification. Puhirake’s remains reinterred two years later in Military Cemetery 1864-1870: Former Gate Pa garrisoned by 68th Durham Light Infantry. 1877: P¯a derelict and earthworks filled in. Cameron Rd cut through site. 1880: Area east of main highway gazetted a domain. 1884: Gate P¯a Domain Board established. Land exchanged or gifted to Anglican Church. 1900: St George Church constructed. 1953: Domain land on the Western side of Cameron Road made available for Gate P¯a Tennis Club and a bowling club. 1964: 100 year centennial celebrations. Memorial unveiled near St George Church on former pa summit

An excerpt from General Duncan Cameron’s report on the battle, addressed to Sir George Grey.

1974: Gate P¯a Domain Board taken over by Tauranga City Council. 1986: St George Church damaged by fire. 1992: St George Church destroyed by fire, replaced by new building. 2007: Carved tomokanga (a welcome to all people onto a sacred site) constructed on eastern side of Cameron Road. 2008: Gate P¯a recorded as an archaeological site. 2010: Historical signs erected. 2012: Pukehinahina Charitable Trust created to plan 150th commemoration of the battle in 2014 2013: Planning for 150th commemoration gains momentum. 2014. Huge range of activities planned to commemorate one of the most important events in the history of Tauranga. Many activities emphasise understanding and reconcilation.

A section of another sketch of the scene at Gate Pa the morning after the battle. Drawn by Lieutenant Robley, it appeared in the London Illustrated News.

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Battle of Gate Pa

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By this time it was very close to daybreak. The sun rose, fixing the nameless one to that place. Being people of the night, the patupaiarehe were forced to flee back to the shady depths of the Hautere forests before the light of the sun descended upon them. The patupaiarehe gave the name Mauao to this mountain, which marks the entrance of Tauranga Moana. The name means “caught by the morning sun”. In time, he has assumed greater mana than his rival Otanewainuku. Today he is known by many as Mount Maunganui, but to the Maori people, he is still known as Mauao. Source: www.tauranga.kete.net.nz

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Battle of Gate Pa

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Battle of Gate Pa

Significant Landmarks Downtown Tauranga’s rich history is reflected in its street names Devonport Road was where the British naval troops established their camp before the Battle of Gate Pa. It was presumably named after a naval base of the same name in England and was originally divided into sections: Devonport Road, Devonport Street, Devonport Lane and Simson Street. In 1913 all these names were merged to become Devonport Road.

Hamilton Street is named after Captain J F C Hamilton, commander of the HMS Esk, who was killed at the Battle of Gate Pa. Harington Street is also linked to the Battle of Gate Pa - it is named after Colonel Harington, who commanded the 1st Regiment of the Waikato Militia. Monmouth Street leads to the historic Monmouth Redoubt, where the 43rd Monmouth Regiment was stationed in the 1860s.

The Mayor of Tauranga between 1919 and 1929 was Bradshaw Dive who gave his name to Dive Crescent, while Durham Street is where the 68th Durham Light Infantry was stationed in Tauranga during the Land Wars.

There once was a spring near where Mid City Mall (aka Red Square) is now located, leading to the name Spring Street, while a town wharf lay at the end of Wharf Street.

Elizabeth Street was named after Mrs Elizabeth Tunks, the wife of Captain Thomas Tunks, a retired Imperial Army Officer. She was the mother of A F Tunks, mayor of Tauranga from 1933 to 1935.

For many years, the willow trees planted by Mr Thomas Wrigley lined the boundaries of Hamilton and Willow Streets, hence the name.

Grey Street was named after George Grey, appointed Governor of New Zealand in 1845. The Strand was originally known as The Beach as before the area in front of it was reclaimed, the street followed the shoreline of Tauranga Harbour.

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Battle of Gate Pa

3

Battle had wide Implications T

he Battle of Gate Pa was arguably the most important battle of the New Zealand Wars, for both its political effects and its wider implications for military technology, says historian James Belich. In his book The New Zealand Wars and the Victorian Interpretation of Racial Conflict (Penguin, 1985), Belich says historians failed to appreciate its full significance because contemporary British interpretations of the outcome were dominated by the shock of the defeat and the need to make it seem less serious. Just 230 warriors with limited firepower had triumphed over a force of 1700 men equipped with the most powerful array of artillery ever used in New Zealand, including an enormous 110 pounder Armstrong. The outcome was even more difficult to understand considering the massive day-long bombardment directed at the pa from a distance of just 320 to 730 metres. Among explanations offered by commentators of the time were that the men of the assault party had displayed indiscipline and even cowardice. Archdeacon Octavius Hadfield went so far as to describe the men as “a lot of arrant cowards”. An angered General Cameron declined to even enquire after the wounded officers of the 43rd regiment and while members of the assault party tended to blame their colleagues for the defeat, the 43rd blamed the navy and the seamen blamed the officers, says Belich. Some of the more outspoken settlers and members of the colonial ministry blamed General Cameron, accusing him of being too rash – though during the Waikato campaign they had attacked him for being too cautious. In fact, Belich says, Gate Pa was a trap, “brilliantly implemented and brilliantly conceived”.

The defeat horrified Governor Grey who visited Tauranga on May 21, 1864 to meet with Cameron. Working through neutral Maori intermediaries he offered Ngaiterangi “generous treatment” if they would surrender. The tribe indicated they would be willing to give up their arms and cease fighting provided they could have full claims over their lands, and if the Governor was willing to see that no harm befell them. Peace seemed near, and on May 15 Cameron decided to stop British military operations in Tauranga. Governor Grey agreed but demanded that Government military settlers should be sent to Tauranga to occupy one of the redoubts at Gate Pa and Judea. They were to be used to prepare land for their future settlement when they were not required for military duties. Cameron sailed back to Auckland with 700 men, leaving Colonel Greer in charge. The general’s explanation for his decision to quit the campaign was that Ngaiterangi had withdrawn to “inaccessible” country and that the weather was getting too bad to continue the fight. Plans to withdraw more troops changed abruptly when on June 12 Colonel Greer advised Grey he had learned that Maori intended to attack his position. On June 21, Colonel Greer marched from Tauranga with a large force of men to patrol the area beyond Gate Pa. About 10kms south on a narrow neck of land, he discovered a force of about 500 Maori in the early stages of digging a fortification. The final battle of the Tauranga Campaign – one of the shortest and bloodiest of the New Zealand Wars, was about to begin.

The inscription on a mass grave at the Mission Cemetery, where 14 Maori killed at Te Ranga were buried.

A group of riders in front of the fortification at Gate Pa. The earthworks at Te Ranga were primitive in comparison and were in the early stages of construction.

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Location Our building is located on the corner of 15th Avenue and Fraser Street. Our entrance is on Fraser Street opposite the shops. Our physical address 139 Fifteenth Avenue, Tauranga and our mailing address is P O Box 9039 Greerton, Tauranga 3142.


Battle of Gate Pa

4

Bloody Encounter at Te Ranga

O

n June 21 1864 a reconnaissance patrol of 600 troops from Te Papa under Colonel Greer discovered 500 Maori under Ngaitirangi chief Rawiri Puhirake in the process of building a fortification at Te Ranga, south of Tauranga.

The Maori force was made up of Ngaiterangi and Nga¯ ti Ranginui, supported by Nga¯ ti Porou from the East Coast and Nga¯ ti Pikiao and Nga¯ ti Rangiwewehi from Rotorua

construction, consisting of little more than a line of rifle pits across what is now Pyes Pa Rd. The ground fell away steeply on either side to bush valleys, streams and swamps and had a gentle slope on its northern approach.

In Vol 1 of The New Zealand Wars and the pioneering period, writer and historian James Cowan says that in the desperate hand-to-hand combat that followed, British casualties were comparatively small.

Greer positioned his men and kept up a barrage of intense fire for two hours while the colonel sent to Tauranga for reinforcements of an artillery piece and 220 more men.

“The Ngaiterangi and their allies fought like old heroes. They stood up to meet the bayonet charge unflinchingly as they had no time to reload, they used gun-butt and tomahawk with desperate bravery.

The patrol had been mounted as a result of General Cameron’s orders that Greer should conduct regular surveillance with a sizeable force in an event to prevent Maori from building pa anywhere near British posts.

When the reinforcements arrived, the order to advance was given and the 43rd, 68th and part of the 1st Waikato Regiment mounted a fierce bayonet charge on the rifle pits, the men of the 43rd, in particular, bent on revenge for their defeat at Gate Pa.

Puhirake’s fighting force had been boosted by allies from Rotorua, Rotoiti and the East Coast but the pa was in the early stages of

What followed has been described as one of the bloodiest encounters of the entire New Zealand Wars.

“Scores of warriors went down under the steel and the survivors broke for the cover of the gullies and swamps.” British casualties were nine dead and 39 wounded. Cowan put Maori casualties at 120, a figure that may not be entirely accurate.

Those killed included leader Rawiri Puhirake and Henare Taratoa, one of the people who had helped frame the famous code of conduct for fighting. The Maori dead were buried in their own rifle pits while others were buried where they fell while retreating. British dead were interred at the Mission Cemetery, with CMS missionary Archdeacon Brown conducting the funeral services. Te Ranga was the final battle of the New Zealand Wars in Tauranga, and a Maori surrender followed soon after. However it was not the end of fighting in the area, with the short but fierce Tauranga Bush Campaign taking place in early 1867.

This plaque which stands in a field near the intersection of Pyes Pa and Joyce Rds is the only visual sign of the fierce battle that took place at Te Ranga almost 150 years ago.

Part of a description of the Battle of Te Ranga written by a newspaper reporter who witnessed the event. The tone of the article is coloured by colonial attitudes of the time.

Land on the eastern side of the fortification at Te Ranga fell steeply into a gully. In 1864 what is now farmland would have been mostly clad in bush, with streams and swamps making pursuit of retreating Maori forces difficult.

REMEMBERING THE SACRIFICES OF THOSE WHO FOUGHT AND THOSE WHO FELL AT THE BATTLES OF PUKEHINAHINA & TE RANGA & THE BUSH CONFLICT

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Ph: 07 574 8365 www.mangatawa.com email:secretary@mangatawa.com


Battle of Gate Pa

5

A plan drawn by historian James Cowan showing the positions of the Maori and British forces during the attack on the incomplete trenches at Te Ranga.

Hakaraia… a Rebel…. the Son of Satan (said the crown) The Crown’s “scorched earth policy” was a direct result of the involvement of Hakaraia in the Waikato land wars, the battles at Pukehinahina and Te Ranga and his role in the Bush Campaign. After the death of Rawiri Puhirake, Hakaraia rose to prominence as a leader of the Maori resistance to the confiscation in Tauranga. The Pacification hui at Tauranga was held in August 1864. Waitaha was not represented and did not cede their land. In January 1867 the Crown attacked his villages at Te Puke to punish Hakaraia and “dissident” Maori he led. On their return to Tauranga, the Crown fought Waitaha at Ohineangaanga. The Crown forces burned homes, destroyed crops, scattered livestock and took prisoners when they attacked Maenene, Akeake, Te Taumata, Te Papa, Oropi, Paengaroa and Whakamarama. The Crown used the Tauranga District Lands Act 1868 to extend the confiscation boundary by 75,000 acres as a special punishment to Hakaraia and Waitaha. The Crown said Hakaraia was a “rebel” and the “son of Satan”. The Crown persecuted Hakaraia until they killed him at Waipuna Pa, Waioeka, near Opotiki in March 1870. He was buried with the flag from Pukehinahina - Gate Pa. This commemoration raises mixed feelings. Today, Waitaha has moved on. Kua tau te rangimarie ki runga i te whare o Hakaraia.


Battle of Gate Pa

6

Ngaiterangi Pledge Peace

T

he defeat atTe Ranga broke the resistance of Ngaiterangi and in July 1864 they surrendered their weapons and pledged peace to Governor Grey. In August formal peacemaking was carried out which included confiscation of 290,000 acres of M¯aori land. The main surrender of arms took place on July 25, 1864 on the lawn outside the house

occupied by Colonel Greer, at the intersection of what is now Willow and McLean Streets. In the presence of military officers, local missionaries and government officials 156 Maori warriors handed over weapons including muskets, rifles, taiaha and mere.

The scene during the Maori surrender following the Battle of Gate Pa as sketched by Horatio Gordon Robley in 1864. Maori are bringing in their arms and the arms of British soldiers captured in battle.The White Ensign is flying on a flagpole. A large group of Maori is seated, with leader Hori Ngatai standing in the centre and speaking.The captured British swords are plunged into the ground close to the table where the peace agreement is being signed. Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand.

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A different perspective of the scene of the surrender on July 25, 1864. Source: London Illustrated News John Drummond B.V.Sc Grant McKay B.V.Sc

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Battle of Gate Pa

7

Protest Led to more Fighting T

hough the Battle of Te Ranga led to the surrender of Ngaiterangi at Te Papa in July, 1864, it did not end fighting in the Tauranga district.

Maori response to surveying of confiscated land was to interfere with the process, sometimes threatening the surveyors.The result was the Tauranga Bush Campaign of 1867. In 1866 surveyors working near the Wairoa River had their instruments seized by Pirirakau, who had not been part of the Ngaiterangi surrender. Eventually the surveyors had to be given military protection. In January 1867 surveyors working at Waimapu were stopped by a large group of Ngati Porou belonging to the Hauhau movement, leading to speculation that Tauranga was about to be attacked. Fierce fighting in bush at Pyes Pa, Oropi, Paengaroa, Te Irihanga and Whakamarama resulted in more casualties and the “scorched earth” style destruction of Maori villages and crops. A force of 200 Arawa fighters led by Gilbert Mair featured prominently in the campaign, Mair later leading a guerrilla-style campaign against Te Kooti in the Urewera. Over the next three months Pirirakau and Ngatiranginui villages from Whakama¯rama to Waoku (Oropi) were destroyed. Reports of the time described the enemy as just as ‘Natives’, or ‘Hauhaus’. Former Waikato militia soldier James Bodell fought in what later became known as the Tauranga Bush Campaign. He described his experiences in his book A Soldier’s View of Empire: The Reminiscences of James Bodell, 1831-92

“A fortnight after [his discharge] the Natives again mustered in force and for the next six months another little war was carried on and several engagements took place within 14 miles ofTauranga.”

attacks onTauranga. Later rumours of an attack on the town byTe Kooti came to nothing. Left mostly landless, with a subsequent loss of identity and with few prospects for their

economic future,Tauranga Maori suffered badly through the 1870s. Food was scarce, disease, starvation and malnutrition rife.

“In about a month we had 800 men comprised of the 12 Regt. (and Waikato) Militia and native allies, the tribe known as the ‘Arawas’ professed to be Queen Natives, and fight for Her Majesty. On several occasions sharp engagements took place and several militia men were killed. All native villages that we came across were burnt and their crops destroyed.” “The Natives never made a stand but took to the Bush and we never seen above 20 at a time. Every European in the District was compelled to take Arms and all men under 40 years of age went to the front.The 3rd class Militia men married over 40 years protected theTown. At this time I was 36 although I did not belong to the force, still I had to carry Arms and do military duty.” “One Native settlement we looted a fine Lot of Poultry and the best Potatoes I had seen in New Zealand. We destroyed several Villages, could not tell how many of the Enemy we killed, they being in detached Parties, being in dense Bush.Their Presence were made known by the Ping of their bullets and a loud report. One of our men were killed who had volunteered, a Storekeeper, he left a Wife and 6 Children. I was told by a Native Chief some years after the enemy did not muster above 50-60 and they harassed fully 800 men for months.” By late April fighting had mostly ended, though there were occasional scares and rumours of

A hand-drawn military map of the area from the Waimapu River, including theTauranga-Rotorua Road to Okauia, Irihanga, Wairoa River andTauranga Harbour. Drawn by an unknown artist in, it includes roads and tracks, one of which is marked as “my scouting track - there and back close on 40 miles”. Battle sites named include Gate Pa,Te Ranga, Oropi, Waehi and Whakamarama. AlexanderTurnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand

Te Kura o Matapihi

1 100 YEARS Y

young

Kereopa McDonald

W

e then merged into Bilingualism, this meant we had a taste of both languages this also meant there was no dominant language we could grasp on to.

The shift to total immersion Māori was a breath of fresh air. This was seen as a huge turn around which had taken our tipuna, koro, kuia, aunties, uncles, cousins and the wider community of Matapihi 100 years and serious decision making for the betterment of our tamariki.

E

stablished in 1913, we began our journey as a Native School, there was absolutely no speaking of the Māori language inside or outside the classrooms.

Since the very beginning, our kura has continued to provide the best education for our community in Matapihi. We have a connection to each other that no one can break, this is called “Whakapapa”. The majority of our tamariki identify with the three main marae in our area, Waikari Marae, Hungahungatoroa Marae and Whareroa

Marae. A majority of our tamariki are identified as Ngai Te Rangi and who whakapapa with other Iwi within Aotearoa. Rawiri Puhirake of Ngai Te Rangi Tauranga was the son of Ngai Tukairangi, a hapu of Ngai Te Rangi from Matapihi. He was a Great Chief who led Ngai Tukairangi in land disputes at Tauranga from 1856 to 1859. On 13 August 1874 Puhirake’s remains were exhumed from Te Ranga, and taken to Matapihi. He was reburied in the mission cemetery at Otamataha pa. Whatungarongaro te tangata toitū te whenua As man disappears from sight, the land remains


Battle of Gate Pa

8

Technology at the Battle of Gate Pa T

he American Civil War (1861-65) has been described as the first war of the industrial age; the first machine war.

And interestingly it was fought at the same period as the Taranaki and Waikato Wars and the Tauranga Campaign (1860-64), says Tauranga military historian Dr Cliff Simons.

“Gate Pa was a clever refinement of pa engineering technology that met two requirements; to allow the defenders to survive underground during a heavy bombardment and then to move through tunnels into the firing trenches in time to repulse the assaulting British.”

Mr Simons demonstrates the procedure for firing one of the rifles of the type used by British soldiers at Gate Pa.

Mr Simons, who is also an army officer, says 1850-60s was a period of rapid technological change in many aspects of warfare including weapons, transportation and communications. And even though New Zealand was so remote, the technology used at Gate Pa was substantially the same as in the Civil War. “The personal weapon of the British soldiers at Gate Pa had recently changed from the older style flintlock musket to the 1853 Enfield rifle-musket. “Instead of a round musket ball, the new weapon fired a cone-shaped bullet made of soft lead. The barrel had grooves or rifling curving along the inside which spiralled the bullet out with much greater accuracy and force. “The Maori defenders had some of the new technology too. They tended to use any weapons they could get but preferred the double barrelled shotgun (tupara) now also with percussion caps.”

An Armstrong gun similar to those used at Gate Pa.

Mr Simons says artillery had undergone a similar technological revolution and the three big Armstrong guns used at Gate Pa, from HMS Esk, were the latest breech-loading, rifled barrel guns that fired technologically advanced shells. The Royal Navy ships that served during the battles at Tauranga were steam powered and screw driven, although they still carried sails. This meant that they were quicker and could be used in a much more versatile ways. Steam propulsion meant that they could even sail parallel to the shore and give fire support as they did during a battle on the beach near Maketu on April 27, 1864, he says. The Maori defenders of Gate Pa occupied a fortification that was the result of a 40-year progression in the design of fighting pa. Pre-musket pa had relied upon height to observe and repel attackers, but as soon as muskets appeared the only way to defend the fortification and avoid being shot was to build at ground level or below, Mr Simons says.

HMS Curacao was the flagship of the Australia Station between April 1863 and May 1866 and served in Tauranga at the time of the Battle of Gate Pa.

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Battle of Gate Pa

9

Serious Impact on Mission

T

he battles of Gate Pa and Te Ranga seriously affected Archdeacon Alfred Brown’s mission in Tauranga.

retaining one-fifth as an endowment. In 1873 Brown purchased the mission house and 17 acres.

Not only did British and colonial troops camp on mission land at Te Papa, but Brown, who had entertained a group of British officers at his home on the eve of the Battle of Gate Pa, was called upon to minister to the wounded and bury the dead after Gate Pa and the later Battle of Te Ranga. As a result he lost the trust of local Maori.

Well into his old age, Brown spent up to four months of each year walking the tracks of the Bay of Plenty and Waikato to preach and baptise.

He also came into conflict with the colonial government after the war when military settlers occupied mission property without Church Missionary Society permission. The CMS gave up four-fifths of its Tauranga land to the government,

His aims were to protect the Maori from European influence and to convert them into perfect Christians. However his failure to achieve this takes nothing away from his sincerity or his love for the Maori people. Public theologian Alistair Reese says the impact of the land wars and the stance of Archdeacon Alfred Brown and others in their perceived support of the Crown was disastrous for the indigenous CMS mission.

“Alfred Brown and William Williams lost much of their credibility with Tangata whenua. While Brown and others continued in the ministry, their emphasis turned towards the growing needs of the settler church while Ma¯ori looked to other resources to make sense of the changing times. When Alfred Brown died in 1884 after 50 years of service in the region, The Bay of Plenty Times stated in his obituary that he was: ‘One of those rare souls to whom religion was as real and natural as the air he breathed, he came as a missionary amongst heathen people; young and energetic, full of zeal for his chosen work … he was no land seeker … no breath of scandal ever fell upon his name. His one dominating thought was the welfare

of his Maori flock … and it was noted in the account of his funeral that there was but a poor attendance of members of the native race to which he had devoted his life’. There are important lessons for contemporary New Zealanders to reflect on and learn from the stories of our past, says Reese. “We need to recognise the ways the gospel powerfully impacted communities and changed lives. But we need to reflect and remember the flawed actions of those who, despite their best intentions, made mistakes and caused hurt along the way. “The complex interaction of these two elements – the glory of the gospel and the shame of human witness – are ever present in our history as a nation.”

The first Maori teacher and his family at a cottage in the grounds of the CMS Mission Station. The photograph was taken in 1863, the year before the Battle of Gate Pa and the subsequent change in Archdeacon Alfred Brown’s relationship with local Maori.

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10

Battle of Gate Pa

Grief Focuses on Land Loss

W

hile for some in today’s Tauranga community there is a true regret that Gate Pa ever happened, the general view seems to be that it was not good, but with the softening passage of time, neither was it particularly bad, says historian Buddy Mikaere. “But I’m not convinced we all accept that as being the case. “From the Maori perspective there are much stronger reasons for remembering the battle. There is still grief for the death and loss of brave and revered ancestors, but the grief and sense of loss is now more focused on land loss.” Mr Mikaere says Gate Pa was a crucial turning point for Tauranga Maori and an important part of the chain of events that saw the implementation of The Native Settlements Act (1863) which legitimised the confiscation of almost 50,000 acres of their most productive lands as punishment for rebellion.

“That land confiscation is an event which even from the distance of a century and a half later, still rankles with Tauranga Maori who saw themselves as defenders of their homes from invasion. “It is right that we should pause and remember events such as the battle at Gate Pa because Gate Pa and the earlier battles fought at Orakau and Rangiriri in the Waikato and in Taranaki are landmark events in the history of race relations in this country.

their “rebellion” and forced to undergo the humiliation of surrender, suffer imprisonment and worst of all, the confiscation of their economic base – their land. “The Imperial world of Victorian England provided a machinery of colonial government model and a mindset and set of values which had little regard for reaching a working accommodation with native peoples, particularly conquered native peoples.

In the 1860s Maori were cast as rebels by the government and settler society in general, Mr Mikaere says.

“I wish that in the dark times of the 1860s we had someone with the same breadth of vision to see the end of the fighting as an opportunity to build a nation and steer us to greatness. But there was no-one with that courage or that vision and by default what we got was a national leadership that utterly failed to grasp aspirations of greatness.

“The eventual Maori defeat in war therefore provided a justification for what happened subsequently. Maori were punished for

“We got leadership by the self-interested; a government of some of the people, by some of the people, for some of the people in a

“Understanding the aftermath of those events gives us a better idea of the social forces that have shaped the New Zealand society we have today.”

narrow, selfish, exercise of the machinery of state. That Maori might be fellow citizens and worthy opponents deserving of respect and honourable treatment was largely brushed from consideration like “lint from a lapel”, Mr Mikaere says. “We cannot say that was a universal view but we can say it was the view of those who had the ability to influence policy and government. “If those in power had not been motivated by politics, greed, cultural superiority and perhaps even racism, the world we inherited after Gate Pa might have been far different.” Note: Mr Mikaere, of Ngati Ranginui hapu Ngai Tamarawaho, is a professional historian and consultant. He is also the director of the Pukehinahina Trust, responsible for organising numerous events being held this year to commemorate the 150th anniversary of the Battle of Gate Pa

Historian and Pukehinahina Trust project director Buddy Mikaere says Gate Pa was a crucial turning point for Tauranga Maori.

Welcome to Pukehina School: A country school with country values Pukehina School is a small rural school catering for children through Years 1-8. Buses transport the school population from up to 15 kilometres away. At present the roll number provides for a two teacher school (2.54 staffing). He Maatauranga mo te ora (Learning for Life) Huakina to Wairua ki nga akoranga Hou (Open your spirit to new Learning) A history of excellent bi-cultural relationships is evident throughout the school and community

The school was opened in 1914 on land originally belonging to the Whakahemo tribe to “whaia te matauranga”. Te Rangituakoha Takuira Mita was the chief. His descendants still attend the school. There was a gazette notice in 1940 stating the land was taken by the government for a school.

1762 Old Coach Rd, Te Puke Phone: 07 533 3869

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Battle of Gate Pa

11

General Lost Taste for War T

he events that took place at the Battle of Gate Pa probably helped mould British commander General Duncan Cameron’s view that the motives for the war in New Zealand were ill-founded, says Tauranga historian Buddy Mikaere. Cameron subsequently resigned and in August 1865 returned to England. Mr Mikaere says the Battle of Gate Pa is remembered as one of the worst reverses suffered by an imperial force at the hands of “natives”, in the entire history of the British Empire. “The Pakeha army that day was made up of a mix of soldiers, sailors and marines backed by a formidable artillery battery - the biggest ever assembled in colonial New Zealand.

“The soldiers were a mix of verans of Crimea and the Indian campaigns, while the sailors and marines were drawn from the warships that had transport the troops from Auckland. “Some of the ships had come from the Baltic via the Australian Station. This mixed fore army was in turn backed up by a reserve force of some 600 ‘local’ troops, most drawn from the 1st Regiement of the newly-formed Waikato Militia. The Militia numbered in its ranks both locals and recruits from Australia drawn to New Zealand by promises of land grants in return for military service.” The Maori irregulars came mainly from the three local iwi of Ngaiterangi, Ngati Raninui and Ngati Pukenga, reinforced

by contingents from other tribes such as Waitaha, Whakatohea from the Eastern Bay of Plenty, perennial Tauranga allies Ngati Rangiwewehi of Te Arawa and an itinerant band of Maori mercenaries, Ngati Koheriki, part of the Hauraki iwi of Ngati Paoa and who came from the East Wairoa-Hunua area. The Maori numbers were estimated at around 230, possibly a few more, Mr Mikaere says. The code of conduct observed by Maori during the battle may have been instrumental in forming the Imperial regular force soldiers’ later opinion that Maori were worthy opponents and deserving of respect, he says. “Fifty years after the battle in 1914 at the unveiling of a stone monument to the Ngaiterangi leader at Gate Pa, Rawiri Puhirake, these words were spoken:

‘The warriors of the native race were always noted for great physical courage. In addition to this, Rawiri held a still greater attribute. He had the moral courage to do what he considered right… He insisted that the prisoners of war should be treated with mercy, and at Gate Pa he himself saw to it that his orders were carried out. It is difficult to estimate the moral courage required for an action of this sort…’” Mr Mikaere says the British clearly saw Gate Pa as a defeat, but in the shock of defeat, a legend about the chivalrous conduct of the Maori participants was born. “So much so, that in subsequent years the aftermath of the battle was thought by Pakeha in particular to be worth of remembrance, even celebration.”

The chivalrous behaviour of Maori at Gate Pa is remembered on this memorial to Rawiri Puhirake at the historic Tauranga Mission Cemetery

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Battle of Gate Pa

12

Significant Landmark Bethlehem T

he Maori name for what is now one of Tauranga’s most popular and fastgrowing suburbs is Peterehema.

Bethlehem received its scriptural name after the Land Wars from missionaries responsible for resettling Maori whose land had been confiscated. The area has been settled by Maori for centuries and was the scene of much intertribal and inter-hapu fighting before the first Europeans arrived. The people of Ranginui conquered the people of Ngamarama and consolidated their position in the coastal lands of Tauranga Harbour, establishing a number of new villages. By the 1880’s the main Ngati Ranginui settlements included those at Bethlehem. There are two Ngati Ranginui marae in Bethlehem: Peterehama which belongs to the Ngati Hangarau hapu, and Wairoa belonging to Ngati Kahu hapu. The land where Bethlehem is now situated was originally purchased by Gordon Cummings and consisted of 820 acres of land from Cambridge Road to the sea. He leased some land back to local Maori. Harold Oliver from Taranaki purchased the block in 1899, and after moving there with his family in 1909, subdivided it amongst his sons. There was a Maori school at Peterehema, known as the Paeroa Native School, and children from far afield as Huria (Judea) attended. The first shop was built in Bethlehem in the 1930s and in 1956 the

community hall was built. With its warm micro climate, Bethlehem was popular with horticulturalists and farmers from the time of the first European settlers, with tobacco among some of the more exotic crops trialled. Dairy farms and citrus orchards were prolific, later giving way to kiwifruit orchards. The area changed quickly from the late 1980s when residential development began in earnest. The centre now boasts some

of Tauranga’s best schools as well as retirement villages, churches, Mills Reef Winery, an awardwinning restaurant and the bustling Bethlehem Town Centre. Sources: "Tauranga 1882-1982, the Centennial of Gazetting Tauranga as a Borough", edited by A C Bellamy, published by Tauranga City Council 1982. "A History of Tauranga County" by Evelyn Stokes, Dunmore press 1980. Source: Archive press clippings from the Mirror and the Bay of Plenty Times. www.bethlehem.net.nz/history

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Battle of Gate Pa 150

TH

IVERSARY N N A APRIL 29

1864-2014

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Today


2

Battle of Gate Pa

Significant Landmarks

The Avenues T

he Avenues are some of Tauranga’s earliest and best known streets. Today, they are favoured locations for people to live or establish businesses, but they haven’t always been known by their present names. First to Eleventh Avenues are said to have been named at the suggestion, of John Harris McCaw – a member of the 1st Waikato regiment who settled in Tauranga, became clerk for the Highways Board and first town clerk for the borough. Avenues 12 to 23 originally had names which commemorated early settlers. However the Tauranga Borough Council made the decision to change from names to numbers in 1956. It wasn’t a totally popular move, the Bay of Plenty Times noting somewhat sarcastically that the council seemed bent on further emulating the city of New York by designating more of its streets as numbered avenues. 12th Avenue was formerly Briarley Street, named after the Briarley estate along which it ran. 13th Avenue was Morris Street, remembering Captain George Bentham Morris.

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14th Avenue was previously known as Roberts Street after Lieutenant-Colonel John Mackintosh Roberts. 15th Avenue was originally known as Hunter Street and 18th Avenue as Pitt Street. Hunter was probably Inspector William Hunter of the Armed Constabulary and Pitt the Inspector Cholwell Dean Pitt who commanded the Poverty Bay District of the Armed Constabulary. 16th Avenue was first named Wrigley Street, named for the Wrigley family. There were two unrelated Wrigley families in the area at the time, but the name is most likely connected to Thomas Wrigley who was elected to the first town board and was twice elected mayor of Tauranga. He established a store in Maketu in 1861 and another in Tauranga in 1863, and also owned other stores and a flax mill. His Tauranga store was destroyed by fire in 1881 when the Tauranga Hotel also burned down. 17th Avenue as called Hospital Street, despite the fact that there was no permanent hospital in Tauranga until October 1913. 19th – 23rd Avenues received names relating to well known Tauranga families. Tanner Street, (19th Avenue) was named after the Tanners, who were butchers, while a well-known local doctor gave his name to Macdiarmid Street (21st Avenue). The Tebbs family was remembered by Tebbs Street (22nd Avenue). Sellars Street is probably named for the family of John Lees Faulkners’ son-in-law, Daniel Sellars, the captain of some of Faulkner’s coastal trading ships. www.econtent.tauranga.govt.nz

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Battle of Gate Pa

3

Opportunity for better understanding

H

istory can provide us with explanations and an understanding of why things are as they are.

area. After the battle large tracts of land were confiscated and this forms part of the treaty claims which are only being addressed now.

The commemoration of the Battle of Pukehinahina (Gate Pa) and the Battle of Te Ranga is a chance to bring about better understanding and awareness of the historical events that have influenced our city over the past 150 years.

In my role as Mayor of Tauranga City I am confronted by our history on a daily basis. For better or for worse, our city and its surrounds have been shaped by the decisions of all those who came before us. As we plan for the future, every decision we make today is made in the context of events and decisions that were made in the past.

The battles were significant for Tauranga and for the whole country for many reasons. The Battle of Te Ranga brought to an end the land wars in the

I am greatly encouraged by the generous, collective work that has

been put in by different members of the community for these commemorations. It is important for the future of Tauranga that we build a city where our shared past is acknowledged and where, together, we can celebrate our cultural diversity. Tauranga is rich with heritage. The commemoration of Gate Pa and Te Ranga is an opportunity to explore the richness of that heritage as one community. Stuart Crosby Mayor of Tauranga Mayor Stuart Crosby

Looking to a brighter future

T

auranga Moana iwi have made significant progress in the past 15 years to reach redress and resolution for the Crown’s past injustices. The loss of land through illegal confiscations, acts of Parliament and dubious dealings under the guise of the Crown, gave rise to theTreaty of Waitangi claims process - without doubt the most significant event for Maori in the 20th century. At the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840 more than 26,825,600ha belonged to Maori. By the end of that century this had reduced to 1,212,000ha. Injustices by the Crown continued into the 20th Century. In 1998 the Waitangi Tribunal began hearing all claims in Tauranga and Western Bay. This was the dawn of a new era for race relations in this part of the Bay of Plenty. The Waitangi Tribunal,headed by Judge Richard Kearney, began the first claims of the three Tauranga Moana iwi - Ngai

Te Rangi, Ngati Ranginui and Ngati Pukenga - on Huria Marae, Judea on 23 February 1998.

to sign the deed of settlement between the Government and Ngai Te Rangi and Nga Potiki.

The Tauranga Moana collective claims have been one of the largest groups of related claims heard by the Tribunal. It has been a long and harrowing process for tangata whenua to seek justice for the loss of resources and status and for the consequent impact still felt today.

This year we commemorate the Battle of Gate Pa in which 1700 British troops suffered defeat by the tactics of Maori chief Rawiri Puhirake and his 230 warriors.

In the past two years their journey has been rewarded with the signing of three deeds of settlement by the Crown. In June 2012, the Minister for Treaty of Waitangi Negotiations, Christopher Finlayson, signed the first deed of settlement with Ngati Ranginui. The signing took place on Te Ranga battlefield in Pyes Pa. Minister Finlayson signed the deed of settlement with Ngati Pukenga on the Te Whetu o Te Rangi Marae in Welcome Bay in April 2013 In December 2013 the Minister came to Whareroa Marae in Mount Maunganui

However we commemorate this battle not as foes, but as a sign that we have progressed to a mutual respect for the events of that most significant battle between the British and Maori. Government continues to seek resolution ofTreaty grievances and to advance settlement of claims. Acknowledging and taking steps to put injustices right has made our community stronger and gives us every reason to hope for a closer relationship between Pakeha and Maori and a mutual desire for a better future. Ross Paterson Western Bay of Plenty Mayor

Mayor Ross Paterson

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Battle of Gate Pa

4

Maori fared badly over early land issues

Tauranga’s Maori population was still declining in 1910 when this postcard photo of poi dancers was sent by Annie Hodges of Oropi to her mother Mrs Amos in Sydney. Tauranga City Library

Maori women outside a whare on Motiti Island. The photo was taken in 1901.

T

hroughout the 1880s there was a steady decline in Maori numbers at Tauranga from about 1,245 in 1874 to 1,020 in 1881 and 963 in 1886. It was not until the 1920s that there was any real sign of recovery.

if Government set up a MaoriTrust Board to administer compensation for confiscated lands.

The Waitangi Tribunal held a two-stage inquiry into over 60 claims concerning the military operations in Tauranga, the associated land confiscations and their aftermath.

In 1925 the Sim Commission looked into land confiscations around New Zealand, but its conclusion that the Tauranga confiscation was neither unjustified nor excessive, was repeated by a succession of Native/Maori Affairs Ministers to turn down petitions and appeals. Through the 1940s,however, appeals to Parliament over the confiscations gained momentum. Nine were received Tauranga tribes in 1944 alone. At their core was the issue that relatively few Ngati Ranginui had taken part in the land wars, but their lands had still been confiscated for the rebellion of others. Ngai Tamarawaho claimed to be practically landless and destitute and requested an enquiry. In September 1961 the Tribal Executives of Ngaiterangi, Ngati Ranginui, Matakana and Katikati formed the Tauranga Tribal Executive, aimed at presenting a combined iwi raupatu claim to Government. The centenaries of the battles of Gate Pa andTe Ranga in 1964 provided an opportunity for land issues to be aired and atTe Ranga, historian PeiTe Hurunui Jones OBE said it would be a fitting climax to the centenary celebrations

Ngai Tamarawaho protest the 19th century land confiscations on the steps of the old Tauranga Town Hall in 1987.

Stage two found that following the raupatu and its aftermath, land loss had continued through Crown purchasing, public works, pressure caused by actual and potential rates debt, and Tauranga’s rapid urbanisation.

The scene pictured at the 100th anniversary of the Battle of Gate Pa, where a plaque was unveiled next to St George Church to mark the battle.

The Tribunal recommended substantial redress for post-1886 Treaty breaches, as well as redress for the raupatu.

Up until the 1960s theTauranga confiscation claim had to a large extent been a Ngati Ranginui and NgaiTamarawaho, one. But from the 1970s a concerted pan-tribal effort was made to overturn the Sim Commission’s verdict. The Tauranga Moana Maori Trust Board Act (1981) was a flawed effort to come to grips with the consequences of the confiscation and caused widespread dissatisfaction. Just $250,000 was to be paid, “in full and final settlement of all claims of whatever nature arising out of the confiscation or other acquisition of any of the said lands by the Crown.”

Tauranga master carver the late Tuti Tukaokao pictured during the 1987 town hall occupation.

In 1987 representatives of Ngai Tamarawaho occupied the old Tauranga Town Hall to protest the confiscations. Meanwhile, the Treaty of Waitangi Amendment Act provided renewed efforts to increase the level of compensation.

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Ngati Ranginui’s Deed of Settlement with the Crown was marked by a poignant ceremony at theTe Ranga battleground hosted by Ngai Tamarawaho. It took place on June 21, 2012, 148 years after one of the bloodiest battles of the New Zealand Wars. The treaty settlement was the first in which properties, cash and commercial rights were transferred to individual hapu rather than the umbrella iwi organisation.

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Stage one found that the Crown had unjustifiably attacked Tauranga Maori at Gate Pa and Te Ranga, and confiscated their land. Crown actions in the 1867 Tauranga Bush Campaign, the compulsory Te Puna-Katikati purchase, the acquisition of the Te Papa block, and the return and subsequent alienation of much of the district were also unjustifiable.

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Battle of Gate Pa

5

Settlement included payment of $38 million as financial compensation, the vesting of 51 Crown-owned properties as commercial compensation and the return of 14 sites of cultural and spiritual significance. The signing of a Deed of Settlement at Whareroa Marae on December 14, 2012 ended Ngaiterangi and Nga Potiki negotiations with the Crown over compensation for historical acts and omissions that saw both tribes face loss of life, lands and resources.

The Ngati Ranginui settlement is signed by members of hapu and dignitaries. A_210612jb07bop

“For almost 150 years, more than five generations of our people have been carrying an unbearable pain that this weekend will end and allow us to get on with the work of moving forward,” said Ngaiterangi spokesperson Charlie Tawhiao. As well as the land confiscations, Nga Potiki had suffered from further land loss through wholesale implementation of the Public Works Act, said Nga Potiki spokesperson Colin Reeder.

Kaumatua, Kihi Ngatai, speaks at the Ngati Ranginui's treaty settlement, held at theTe Ranga battleground. A_210612jb03bop

Former Ngati Ranginui iwi chairman Huikakahu Kawe flanked by Ngai Tamarawaho hapu kaumatua DesTata (left) and Peri Kohu at theTe Ranga battlefield as theTreaty settlement signing began. A_200612jf04bop

Western Bay of Plenty iwi Ngati Pukenga signed their deed of settlement for historical treaty claims at Te Whenu o Te Rangi Marae on April 7, 2013. The iwi was given $5 million and had four land blocks totalling more than 400ha returned. Ngati Pukenga negotiator Rahera Ohia said the settlement was especially significant “in that it’s a package of resources that we’ve never had before”.

Local Maori welcome the Maori King to the Ngati Ranginui hapu’s treaty settlement, held at the Te Ranga battleground on June 21, 2012. A_210612jb09bop

Fallout from land loss continues

W

hile today’s society would not contemplate the conquerers scenario that followed the Battle of Gate Pa 150 years ago, it is not yet time for people to pat themselves on the back, says historian Buddy Mikaere.

After the fighting of the 1860s-1870s the Maori population accelerated to a low point in 1878 and never really recovered right through the economic depression of the 1890s, he says.

“We still have to deal with the fallout of that land theft those decades ago,” says Mr Mikaere.

Deprived of much of their land, Tauranga Maori became the hewers of wood, the fetchers of water and the labourers on whose backs the fledgling Tauranga economy was built.

“We still have to deal with the consequences of a society that had its economic base ripped from under its feet and the legacy of that loss being passed down from generation to generation and which is reflected in any social indicator you care to use, whether it be disparities in health, education, employment, or rates of imprisonment.”

“For Maori, these are the ‘disappeared years’.”

“They were pushed to the edges of the growing town and being devoid of capital, what land remained to them was unable to be properly utilised. More land was lost through the machinations of the Native Land Court and other measures designed to separate Maori from their remaining lands.”

“It was all part of the infamous process which Maori described as being the ‘nibble, bite and swallow’.” People of his great-grandfather and grandfather’s generation were poorly educated, lived in sub-standard housing, were poorly fed, suffered from health problems with little or no access to medical facilities and lived lives of poverty, he says. “It is not that they were lazy or lacked a work ethic. What they lacked was far more soul-destroying: they lacked opportunity. “In effect, they were trapped in an economically-deprived cage.” This arrested social and economic development is the true legacy of not just Gate Pa, but all the wars of the 1860s, Mr Mikaere says.

Buddy Mikaere…Maori still dealing with consequences of losing their land.

THE BATTLE OF GATE E PA Tuesday 29 April 2014 marks 150 years since the Battle of Gate Pa. The Battle was a pivotal moment in the founding of our city and commemoration activities have been taking place over the last year through the Pukehinahina Charitable Trust and the Battle of Gate Pa Trust.

Over the next four weeks there will be a number of commemoration events as we build up to the anniversary on 29 April. For more information on the Battle of Gate Pa and how you can be involved in the events go to www.battleofgatepa.com.

splay Armstrong Cannon di itions model display Exhib Kapa Haka Diorama erts d NZ Army Band conc an t te ar Qu g rin St NZ g rvice Dawn blessin Military Memorial Se

Supported by

A re-enactment of the Firing of Salutes NZ Armed Constabulary Re-enactment Unit contingent plus 68th/43rd Regiments


Battle of Gate Pa

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Vision of a proud future Te Ru¯nanga o Nga¯i Te Rangi Iwi chairman Charlie Tawhiao looks into the future and describes an ideal transformation of Tauranga Moana, from the iwi's point of view

I

n the year 2064 the place we all live in and call home will be known far and wide with pride asTauranga Moana.

Our harbour will have been restored to its true pristine glory and our mokopuna will be sharing in the bounty of our clean and wholesome kaimoana with the children of all families living in Tauranga. Our mokopuna will be able to swim in and drink directly from every waterway in our region. The memories of the Rena will be positive as our whole community benefits from the world-leading marine studies and research institute that was set up as a legacy of the most damaging environmental event to have hit our oceans.

Our port will be the primary import and export point for the whole country and will by then be acknowledged as the world leader in cultural and environmental sustainability. The legacy and pain of invasion, raupatu and colonisation will have been displaced by a positive environment of inclusive and growth development in which our collective stories are known and remembered with pride. Tauranga Moana, the city, will be a vibrant Maori-speaking city in which the value of te reo Maori will be evident in the language used in our communities and businesses and in traditional place names that have been restored and are used with pride. Iwi and Maori-owned enterprises will be the major

contributor to a vibrant economy that is based on our unique strategic advantages as a region. Our attractions as a place to live and raise families will have drawn the very best of innovators from across the globe to join with our own innovators to fully capitalise on the natural advantages that we have always enjoyed. Our climate, our land and our harbour will all play a much greater role in supplying Aotearoa and our trading partners with environmentally sustainable water and foodbased products. Ngai Te Rangi will be a global participant in trade and will be producing thinkers who deliver world-leading ideas on social

organisation and community cohesion. We will be major players on the global stage as major exporters in our own right, supplying knowledge-based products as well as land and sea based products to a world market that has exhausted its capability to do so for itself. Our Ngai Te Rangi schools will be producing high quality graduates who are achieving in everything they do as Ngai Te Rangi citizens. The ideals of Whanau Ora will have become embraced by the whole of our society who will by then have integrated these values into their everyday life. Our communities will be living these values and in doing so, leading the world on a whanau and value-based society. Ngai Te Rangi will be a stronger and united people.

150th commemoration events

T

he 150th commemoration of the Battle of Gate Pa, one of the most important events in Tauranga’s history, is supported by a huge range of activities that have already begun in Tauranga. Highlights include an exhibition of drawings by Horatio Robley at the Tauranga Art Gallery, as well as

a lecture series by historians Cliff Simons and Des Tata on St George’s Church, Gate Pa. Also planned is a powerful re-telling of the story of the Battle of Gate Pa in an exhibition at the Greerton Community Hall.

strong cultural component. There's everything writing competitions, drama, speech contests and music, including a series of NZ String Quartet concerts at Huria Marae, sponsored by the Pukehinahina Trust.

Education and reconciliation play a large part in the various activities, which also include a

All these events are a lead-up to the big day the commemoration on April 29, starting with

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a dawn blessing of the Gate Pa poi and flagpole. The 150th anniversary of the Battle of Te Ranga will be held on the battle site at Pyes Pa on June 21.

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Battle of Gate Pa

Date

Event and Location

10 March

Installation of Diorama model - Battle of Gate Pa – Tauranga Airport. Sponsor: Sunrise Rotary; Rob Hicks

12April to June 8.

Robley: A Lasting Legacy – Exhibition of drawings by Horatio Robley, Tauranga Art Gallery, Spring Street, Tauranga

17 April (from 6.30pm)

Finals – Secondary Schools speech competition – Tauranga Girl’s College. Sponsor: ANZ Bank

17 April – 4 May

Art Competition Exhibition – St George’s Church Hall. Sponsor: Simpson Grierson; Countdown Gate Pa; Mitre 10/ Mega; Tower Scaffolding

18-19 April

Gate Pa Voices drama – St George’s Church. Sponsor: Pukehinahina Charitable Trust

21 April

Announcement of winners of Secondary Essay Competition. Sponsors Bayleys Realty - Eves

21-22 April

Lecture series Cliff Simons and Des Tata – The Battle of Gate Pa - St George’s Church. Sponsor: Pukehinahina Charitable Trust

23-24 April (from 6pm)

NZ String Quartet concerts – Music from 1864 – Huria Marae; Sponsor: Pukehinahina Charitable Trust

25 April

ANZAC DAY

26 April (from 9am)

Firing of Salutes NZ Armed Constabulary Re-enactment Unit contingent plus 43 Regiment Re-enactment group – static display. Sponsor: Pukehinahina Charitable Trust

27 April (from 6pm)

A story of Gate Pa: Te Auetu and David Hall – told by the Hall Family – LDS chapel, Cameron Road

27 April to April 30

Exhibition and audio-visual presentation at Greerton Hall Community Hall,

May

Battle of Gate Pa Trust.

28 April 9 (from noon)

NZ Army Band Lunchtime concert – The Strand

28 April

Judging of Senior Art Competition – St George’s Church Hall

28 April (from 6.30pm)

Gate Pa Comm. Dinner – announcement of Art Competition winners

29 April (from 6am)

Dawn Blessing of Gate Pa Pou and Flagpole. Sponsors: Farmers Auto Village, Farmer Whanau, Ullrich Aluminium, Mitre 10/Mega; CGC Construction; Stresscrete; Iwi O Tauranga Moana

29 April (from 9am)

Military Memorial service – Otamataha/Mission cemetery followed by morning tea at Trinity Wharf. Sponsor: Otamataha Trust

29 April (from 2pm)

Commemoration March, Wero, Reconciliation service and ceremony. Sponsors: Pukehinahina Charitable Trust; Iwi O Tauranga Moana, TrustPower, Powerco, Audio Solutionz, Waipa DC, Te Puni Kokiri,

30 April (from 2pm)

Thank-you afternoon tea at The Elms for sponsors and volunteers

4 May (from 10am)

Judging of Junior Art competition – St George’s Church Hall, Gate Pa

21 June 2014 (from 7am)

Te Ranga battle site service and ceremony – Pyes Pa Road

7

rd

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8

Battle of Gate Pa

Battle goes to classroom T

he Battle of Gate Pa has been taken to the classroom courtesy of an education pack put prepared by a group of volunteers for the 150th anniversary of the Battle of Gate Pa.

model of the battle site, a map of the battle site laid over the Greerton and Gate Pa areas as they are now, a flag-making activity and details for students to make a play of the battle.

Created by the education subcommittee of the Battle of Gate Pa Trust. the pack was sent to 65 schools in the Tauranga and Western Bay area. It contains activities and information sheets to appeal to a wide range of ages. It contains instructions on how to make a scale

Subcommittee chairwoman Patricia Brooks said the information pack would make it easy for teachers to teach their students about the battle, even those new to town who did not know about the battle. To find out more see://tauranga.kete.net.nz.

Church marks historic site

War through the eyes of ‘ordinary’ folk T

he dramatic events that took place at the battles of Gate Pa and Te Ranga will be brought to life in an exhibition at the Greerton Hall from April 27 to May 30

story. In effect, it contextualises everything all the other organisations involved in the 150th commemoration will have already done by the time this exhibition starts.

Organised by the Battle of Gate Pa Trust and project-managed by Tereora Crane, the exhibition is being staged in the spirit of reconciliation, says Mr Crane.

“It will be one place where people who might not know anything about the battle can go to put the big pieces of the puzzle together.

Including a strong audio-visual element, it will tell the stories of the “ordinary” people from both sides - the British soldiers and sailors and Maori warriors who took part in the battles, rather than simply focusing on iconic figures from both battles whose stories are already comparatively well known. It is built around the concept of two pathways winding into the hall with story boards, music, voice and light expressing stories of the 1864 events from a range of perspectives.The pathways will merge in front of the commemorative area and there will be opportunities for the public to join in discussions aboutTauranga’s history.There will also be an art competition for schools and adults, and performances by school groups, says Mr Crane. “It will give people a real lead into the story of Gate Pa - not only a Maori story, but ‘our’

“Its major and intended legacy is the increased respect and understanding that the community will gain about our beginnings as a result of our efforts. It will be engaging and entertaining and will increase local knowledge for a wide range of people.” Featuring a professional audio-visual installation supported by imagery and text, the exhibition may even feature an original Armstrong gun which was used during the battle. The commemoration provides a once-in-alifetime opportunity for Tauranga to mark what happened in the momentous days of 1864, says Mr Crane.

St George’s Church vicar Rev John Hebenton next to a plaque in the church grounds commemorating the actions of Heni Te Kiri Karamu who took water to wounded soldiers during the battle.

T

he spot where desperate hand-to-hand fighting took place during the Battle of Gate Pa is marked by St George’s Anglican church which stands at the summit of the pa site. The first St George’s church was built in 1900 as a memorial to the battle. The church was extensively damaged by fire in 1982, and almost destroyed in another fire in 1992. The present building dates from 1993. Land east of the main highway was gazetted as a domain and on August 23 1880, Canon Jordan requested part of it be made available for a church. Land was also made available for the Gate Pa Tennis Club in 1953 and the Gate Pa Bowling Club.

The bodies of Maori killed during the Battle of Gate Pa buried on the western slopes below where the bowling green is now situated. St George’s Memorial Church was constructed in 1900 virtually on the site of the pa. The church features a colourful stained glass window designed by Rita Haagh. Situated on the west wall, it depicts Heni Te Kiri Karamu giving water to wounded British soldiers. Heni Te Kiri Karamu’s story is told in the third in the Bay of Plenty Times’ series of tabloid newspapers commemorating the 150th anniversary of the Battle of Gate Pa.

“Greerton is a particularly appropriate place to hold a commemorative event as it lies between the two battle sites and was named after Colonel Greer, who led the British into battle at Te Ranga.”

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Battle of Gate Pa

Historic Journery

Interested in finding out more about the Battle of Gate Pa and the history of Tauranga? Here are some places you must visit: Tauranga Art Gallery: cnr Wharf & Willow Sts Robley Exhibition: April 12 to June 8

Monmouth Redoubt Bob Kerr: Gate Pa Now: 12 April - 8 June Commissioned especially for the gallery, this work acknowledges the 150 year milestone since the Battle of Gate Pa, showing the geography of the area today. Bob Kerr is a Wellington-based painter, writer and illustrator with a special interest in New Zealand history and landscape.

Tauranga Public Library The Tauranga Public Library has comprehensive information and other resources relating to Tauranga’s history and the Battles of Gate Pa and Te Ranga. Well informed staff can help you search the library’s extensive collections or online databases. For online resources, a good place to start is http://www.library.tauranga.govt.nz/local-history.aspx. Wide-ranging information on the Battle of Gate Pa can be found at http://tauranga.kete.net.nz/en/battle_of_gate_ pa_1864

The Monmouth and nearby Durham redoubts were constructed early in 1864 by British forces, sent toTe Papa to stem local support for the Maori King movement.The redoubts were named after the 43rd Monmouth and 68th Durham light infantry regiments.The Durham Redoubt has long since been built over but the Monmouth Redoubt remains as a reminder ofTauranga’s turbulent past.The former site of a barracks building is marked by a plaque paying homage to the women and children of early settlers who sheltered there as rumours of war escalated. Remains of the earthworks, which stand on the site of an ancient pa, are clearly visible. Carvings on the eastern wall of theTauranga Police Station opposite, provide a symbolic connection with missionary Archdeacon Brown, Taumatakahawai Pa and the Battle of Gate Pa.

The Elms

The Strand

Seldom-seen works by Horatio Gordon Robley feature at the Tauranga Art Gallery from April to June.

Watercolours by Major-General Horatio Gordon Robley (1840-1930) feature in the exhibition Robley: A Lasting Legacy at the Tauranga Art Gallery. Known as “the soldier with the pencil”, Robley fought at Gate Pa as a Lieutenant with the 68th Durham Light Infantry. A talented sketcher and watercolourist, he stayed in Tauranga for 19 months until the beginning of 1866, drawing a series of detailed sketches of the Maori defences at Gate Pa, the surrender following the Battle of Te Ranga and other contemporary scenes. Keenly interested in Maori language and customs, he also recorded intimate details of early Maori life.

Past meets present on The Strand, where Tauranga got off to a hesitant start in the 1860s. Here, facing the tranquil harbour, some of the town’s first shops, businesses and hotels were established. While many have fallen prey to progress a sprinkling of early buildings remains. The Strand’s long history of hospitality continues, much of its length now occupied by restaurants, bars and cafes, with long-established fishing boat wharves nearby. It’s a short stroll from the northern end of the street to another historic point of interest, the Monmouth military redoubt at the northern base of The Strand, or stop and enjoy the gardens at Herries Park, with lovely views of the harbour bridge and historic Mauao (Mt Maunganui).

Te Awanui Waka At the northern end of The Strand is a shelter housing Tauranga’s Awanui waka. This beautifully-carved Maori war canoe was built in the 1970s by the late Tuti Tukaokao a master carver and long-time Tauranga resident with affiliations to Tauranga Moana and Te Arawa. Launched in 1973, the ceremonial waka has been used on numerous special occasions celebrating the history of Tauranga.

HISTORY REPEATED: Stephanie Smith and Wayne McIndoe, playing Charlotte and Reverend Alfred Brown, celebrate the missionary couple's first visit to the Te Papa Mission Station (now The Elms) at the 175th anniversary last year

The story of European settlement of the Tauranga district begins with the establishment the Church Missionary Society’s station at Te Papa. The first building to be completed in 1838 was the library and what later became known as The Elms, the home of Archdeacon Alfred Nesbitt Brown and his family, was completed in 1847. Now preserved as a museum, The Elms is Tauranga’s most important historic building. Visitors are welcome and guides are available at the mission house and library between 2 pm and 4 pm on Wednesdays, Saturdays, Sundays and public holidays. Groups should book in advance by phoning 07 577 9772 or by email: info@theelms.org.nz Allow about an hour to tour the home together with New Zealand’s oldest free-standing library and the extensive gardens. The Elms is located at 15 Mission St.

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Battle of Gate Pa

Brain Watkins House:

Battle of Gate Pa

Brain Watkins House at 233 Cameron Road, Tauranga

Built in 1881 by Joseph Brain, Brain Watkins House was occupied by one family for nearly 100 years. Complete with original contents, and now a house museum, the residence accurately depicts the life of a middle class European family of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Brain Watkins House: 233 Cameron Rd, Tauranga 3110, a short distance north of the Elizabeth St intersection.

Battle of Te Ranga The Battle of Te Ranga site is located in a paddock on Pyes Pa Road (SH36) near the corner of Joyce Road, about 10 km south of Tauranga. The location of the rifle pits where some of the bloodiest encounters of the entire New Zealand Wars took place are marked with a simple plaque, but there is very little sign of the original simple earthworks that Maori defended so bravely against overwhelming odds. Like the Gate Pa site, this is sacred land – many of the Maori dead were buried in the trenches they themselves had dug.

Mission Cemetery North of Herries Park off Marsh St on a promontory overlooking Tauranga Harbour is the old Mission Cemetery. It’s a fascinating spot, headstones and monuments making a graphic connection with the lives of Tauranga’s first residents and those who died in the battles of Gate Pa and Te Ranga. Only half the number of original headstones remain but iconic figures from both battles are remembered here, as well as British soldiers and sailors, Maori warriors and members of the Colonial Forces. One monument marks the mass grave of 14 Maori warriors who fell in the battle of Te Ranga while others mark the last resting places of Archdeacon Alfred Brown, trader John Lees Faulkner and other early notables. Also known as the Old Military Cemetery, the burial ground was established on the site of Ngaiterangi Pa Otamataha. Access from Marsh St up a driveway to the right heading towards the Sulphur Point/Harbour Bridge roundabout.

St George Church stands at the top of a rise at the Gate Pa battle site.

A low rise on Cameron Rd about 4kms north of Barkes Cnr at the southern entrance to Tauranga, marks the site of the Battle of Gate Pa. The top of the rise is occupied by St George Church and a carved entranceway on the northern side provides a welcome to this sacred spot. Sprinkled with flourishing trees, the tranquil grounds contain well designed signs providing an

insight into the events that occurred 150 years ago when a small group of Maori successfully defended their well-designed pa against the might of the British military. Little sign remains of the original earthworks, largely destroyed when a British redoubt was built on the site and later when Cameron Rd was constructed and progressively widened.


Battle of Gate Pa

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Significant Landmarks Significant Cameron Road General Sir Duncan Alexander Cameron

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Innovative, Future Focused & Jovial

Kia ū ki te kaupapa o Ngāi Te Rangi – taking our iwi into the future

Ngāi Te Rangi’s Future Linked to the Battle of Gate The Battle of Gate Pa - Pukehinahina represents an important event in the history of iwi and tauiwi. We celebrate this occasion as one of our defining moments in time. This event demonstrated innovation, combativeness, resilience and strategic “know how” of our tipuna of yesteryear. It was a battle for which any outside military commentator would have considered a push over for the colonials. History confirms that the reverse was true. So, what then is the purpose of history if we do not learn and apply the same innovative strategies to reverse the odds that presently play havoc with our ability to reach our potential and leave a new legacy in the way that our tipuna achieved at Pukehinahina. We must use the knowledge of that battle to fight a new campaign for equity and justice, like a modern battle that positions Ngāi Te Rangi with the same pride and honour that occurred at Pukehinahina 150 years ago. The new trenches of the future will be carved through our landscape to allow our thinkers and game changers to roll out a programme of justice that ensures our people are well housed, free from poverty, are culturally and tikanga rich, motivated by the relevance of a vibrant education, able to participate in the economic wealth of the nation, and

moreover, to be part of a country where Te Reo is a normal part of this nation’s everyday language. Our biggest enemy to achieving these lauded aspirations is often ourselves. We need to rediscover the belief and confidence that drove our tipuna to unearth a new way as they did at Pukehinahina. If it happened then, why can’t it be possible now? Let’s think about this a bit more – let’s visualize that our manuhiri and visitors who pass through our precious harbour as each cruise liner berths will leave knowing that Ngāi Te Rangi is etched in their memory as that extraordinary place and people where they achieved success against the odds, because it was always part of their DNA to do so. We will need to simply amaze ourselves to be the new soldiers and warriors of change and not be trapped by hardened attitudes and the narrowing of possibilities. With what we know of our history, we can continue to define ourselves as an iwi where our imagination is realised, where together we will explore the stars, re-assert ourselves, tap the ocean depths and encourage the arts and commerce. With a good conscience as our only sure reward, with history the final judge of our deeds, we need to go forth to lead our

OUR PEOPLE ARE IMPORTANT

In the future, Ngāi Te Rangi is committed to ensuring that: • every Ngāi Te Rangi pepi is participating in preschool education to prepare for kura. • every Ngāi te Rangi rangatahi succesffully gains NCEA Level 3 • every Ngāi Te Rangi person is equipped to take up new job opportunities • every community hauora has the necessary support to cater to the needs of our koroua and kuia. people and this place we truly love, knowing we have the blessing of our kuia and koroua to do the work that must be done. The recent signing of the Deed of Settlement by our tribe, helped forge a greater sense of unity and pride amongst our people. It also helped draw a line in the sand with regards to addressing many of the grievances we have had in relation to the Treaty. With the collective negotiations near conclusion, the world is truly our oyster.

Ngāi Te Rangi Deed of Settlement Signing, 14 Dec 2013

Ngāi Te Rangi’s Hemi Rolleston – An Innovative Appointment

It’s a play on words, but the recent appointment of Hemi Rolleston (Te Whanau a Tauwhao) as its General Manager, Maori Economy to Callaghan Innovation, the government’s new high-tech HQ for kiwi business is innovative and we are all over the moon about that. He’s better known for his role as CEO for Te Awanui Hukapak Ltd, where he spent eight years working at the helm of kiwifruit development across our local Maori land trusts. But now in the role as the GM, Māori Economy, local translates to national. In his new role, Hemi will lead efforts to support and address the needs of Māori business to grow and be competitive in the global market. He began working at Callaghan Innovation’s Gracefield Innovation Precinct, in Wellington, earlier in the month where whanau and colleagues attended his pohiri.

He is expected to work closely with several government agencies, iwi, Maori incorporations and trusts around the country. He says, “the opportunity to lead and partner with sizeable Māori exporting businesses and then assist with raising their level of innovation capability is exciting. He says, “being an innovative, proactive and agile tribe will help us make a difference in the future, and I am here to help. Our future is going to be great”.

Ngāi Te Rangi’s Symbol Uenuku “Ko Uenuku koe tawhana i te rangi, (‘You are Uenuku, bow-like in the heavens’) Ko Ngāi Te Rangi e” Prior to Tāne ascending into the heavens, in search of Uenuku is the rainbow atua knowledge, he climbed Maunganui where he was purified for his journey and baptised Tāne-nui-a-rangi (Great Tāne-of-the-Heavens). Tane climbed to the 12th heaven, where he retrieved three baskets of knowledge: te kete-tuatea (basket of light), te kete-tuauri (basket of darkness) and te kete-aronui (basket of pursuit) and the Whatukura (stones) Hukatai and Rehutai which held the mauri of the wananga. Tane deposited the three baskets of knowledge and the stones at Wharekura. Rainbows and the Whatukura, Rehutai (sea spray) & Hukatai (sea foam) Hukatai depicts a canoe heading into the sunrise. The waka is like a person’s life journey, sea foam is life experiences learning and Ngāi Te Rangi culture and as the sea foam is thrown up by the bow, the rays of the sun piercing the foam creates a rainbow effect as you peer through it. The sun’s rays are new learning or outside knowledge. The rainbow effect (Rehutai) is innovation and development of new knowledge. To develop a knowledge economy and make Ngāi Te Rangi an “Innovation Nation” we need to look at our lessons from the past. To utilise Hukatai, new learning needs to be relevant and able to be integrated to create the rainbow effect of rehutai. To continually produce rehutai, we need to normalise integration of Ngāi Te Rangi knowledge with outside knowledge. The uenuku is an important symbol to Ngāi Te Rangi, its recognition is acknowledged in our waiata.


Battle of Gate Pa  

150th Anniversary Series 1 - 5 brought to you by the Bay of Plenty Times

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