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Constructing Environments Studio Journal – Week 7 Task: 1. Site Visit of Green Square Apartments in Abbotsford

Site Visit: Green Square Apartments - Abbotsford

Above: Architectural impression of the building complex – Source (SJB Architects, 2013)

Notes about cost and site and personnel management: • The Induction room - cheap simple efficient structure potter frame structure. Normally the property developers prefer to rent the shed however due to the overall time that the project was going to take it was comparatively cheaper to build ($130,000) than to rent ($200,000). • The complex has four buildings, with a total 500 apartments. • 3 of the buildings are a simple 8 level concrete construction, however one of the buildings was being built on a pre-existing center link center and therefore the footings were strengthened and the building was made with a steel frame timber • 3 basements all interconnected • The site has approx. 400 tradesman on site a day • The wages are set be the union • The eating room needs to have 0.75 m2 per person • Thus the Logistics is one of the hardest parts of construction – ICON are construction managers – A Joint venture with Morgan group • Most of the building is sold out • Quest apartments have leased out 4 levels of Building B • The building construction work operated on 5 day cycle schedule ENVS10003 - Amarjit Batra - 638898


Construction Notes: • Started September 2012 • Storage is one of the most important things on a construction site, by having storage on site, transport costs and times are reduced with labour having access to most materials on demand. • Also reduces cost for external storage • The whole complex has over 850 pre-fabricated concrete panels • Slabs and concrete columns on site are InSitu • Biggest hurdle – Building D had to have a fully functioning centerlink center at the bottom during construction. This meant updating footings and build on top without closure. • This lead to increased building costs as lightweight labour intensive materials had to be used. • Transfer level steel beam to support 5 levels • Steel columns to support construction • Then pour slab (180-200mm) • And build framework up floor by floor

Above: Complex and time consuming construction of building D Concrete is the more cost efficient method, as 70% of the cost is material with the remaining 30% being labour.

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Above: Building A – Primarily Pre-cast concrete Due to the higher use of timber in building D, there was a Fire rating problem. According to construction standards a the structural integrity of a building should be able to survive 2 hours during a fire Thus all services were put in the fire rated ceiling and then a secondary ceiling was also added. (Below)

This added to construction time which equates to higher costs Non-typical constructions are very expensive “Post tensioning is a technique for reinforcing concrete. Post-tensioning tendons, which are prestressing steel cables inside plastic ducts or sleeves, are positioned in the forms before the concrete is placed. Afterwards, once the concrete has gained strength but before the service loads are applied, the cables are pulled tight, or tensioned, and anchored against the outer edges of the concrete” (Concretenetwork.com, 2013).

Above: Diagram of Post-Tensioning Source: (Concretenetwork.com, 2013) Replaces the need for reinforcement and thus decreases slab depth and reduces cost. Carpark: • Acts as undercover storage and office area during construction (below) •

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Main route for service transfer Allows for access of Power from Substation to buildings Water for the building complex comes through the basement from Victoria street Services are installed on the back of the building core Ventilation for car park to reduce exhaust fumes Bondek slab band beams poured and formed on site Insitu columns (below)

Raw edges have been chamfered (can be seen above)

The central “Green square “: • A Raised level communal landscape • All Services are cast into the 500mm slab below the landscaping • It is a Composite construction as there is a slab below and above – added strength allowing for larger span • Water leakeage is 90% of the builder’s major problem • Salta Properties (Site Developers) have given an open budget for this section • Having a pool increases makes the task more difficult • The pool walls are a galvanized steel frame – no room for cracks (below)

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The apartments: • The Balconies and bathrooms (below) both need a waterproofing membrane

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Double membrane on balconies The Structural slab is designed to drain The floor waist is then treated to check for concrete junctions cracking Full coat of membrane is then applied The Showers and balcony have screed - Screed is a dry mix of concrete, which allows for fall similar to a sand pit– it is kind of, like cement water. to allow for fall Membrane till height of tiles Corners are also membrane An Acoustic mat is required when tiles are installed above habitable areas for example a kitchen above a living room would require an acoustic mat below the tiles. ENVS10003 - Amarjit Batra - 638898


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Above: Diagram of flooring structure with acoustic mat – Source: (Kindersley, 2009) Split system air condition is installed in all of the apartments – there are two options for installing the condenser either on the balcony or on the roof. The balcony is cheaper but uses up usable space and looks ugly In this complex the condensers are on the roof – the cooper refrigerant lines send link the air conditioners with the condensers

References • Concretenetwork.com. 2013. Post-Tensioning Concrete Defined - The Concrete Network. [online] Available at: http://www.concretenetwork.com/post-tension/what-is.html [Accessed: 12 Oct 2013]. • Kindersley, D. 2009. Soundproofing a Floor. [online] Available at: http://www.diynetwork.com/how-to/soundproofing-a-floor/index.html [Accessed: 12 Oct 2013]. • SJB Architects, C. 2013. Home - Green Square Apartments - Abbotsford Melbourne. [online] Available at: http://greensquareapartments.com.au [Accessed: 12 Oct 2013].

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Constructing Environments Studio Journal – Weeks 8-9 Tasks: 1. Re-Examine the site allocated to your group using the Section Detail section. 2. Create a 1:1 scaled detail drawing of your allocated section. 3. Develop your assigned detail in perspective

Details: Whenever something is constructed be that a building or a cardboard box, the designers or engineers have to make decisions regarding how the materials are placed together. These instructions are then followed by machines or tradesman involved in constructing the above. By having fully detailed examples of construction, mistakes are eradicated. For the construction industry this is important as the structural integrity of the building relies on unattended materials entering. “Working drawings for buildings will normally include many details to clarify how a building should be constructed.” (Newton, 2013b) Water, Moisture and Heat: Water leakage is one of the primary concerns for a builder. It is a structural failure if water is seeping through the building as this leads to a loss in long term structural integrity. “For water to penetrate into a building all of the following three conditions must occur: 1. An opening 2. Water present at the opening 3. A force to move water through the opening”(Newton, 2013a, pp. 1-3) So if any of the above three are removed, water will not be able to go through. The Three strategies to counter the above are: 1. Remove openings OR 2. Keep water away from openings OR 3. Neutralise the forces that move water through openings” (Newton, 2013a, pp. 13) Mostly one strategy would be sufficient however some builders prefer to employ two, just in case one of the constructions fails. Some common examples for removing openings is applying sealants (e.g. Silicone), slopes are very useful to keep water away from openings (e.g. window sill) and ENVS10003 - Amarjit Batra - 638898


forces such as gravity and air pressure can be used to stop water moving through openings. Another potential problem for buildings is Heat. The correct balance of heat in buildings is needed to minimize cooling during summer and heating in winter. Thermal insulation is good for reducing the head conduction. Also conductive materials such as metals should have a thermal break (e.g. plastic) to make sure outdoor temperature is not transferred indoors or vice versa. Also glass is the most efficient material in terms of heat as it allows for heat flows very easily and therefore it is recommended to get at least double glazing which is more expensive in the short run but adds to long term sustainability. By reducing the need for heating and cooling appliances the carbon footprint of the building is lowered resulting in a better energy rating. Please find tasks 2 & 3 attached.

References Newton, C. 2013a. Constructing Environments W09 el01. [e-book] Melbourne: University of Melbourne. pp. 1-3. http://app.lms.unimelb.edu.au/bbcswebdav/pid3950598-dt-content-rid12741637_2/courses/ENVS10003_2013_SM2/ENVS10003_2013s2/WEEK %2009/W09%20el01%20Detailing%20for%20Moisture%20and%20Heat %20transcript.pdf [Accessed: 13 Oct 2013]. Newton, C. 2013b. Constructing Environments W10 el01. [e-book] Melbourne: University of Melbourne. http://app.lms.unimelb.edu.au/bbcswebdav/pid-3950594-dtcontent-rid12770928_2/courses/ENVS10003_2013_SM2/ENVS10003_2013s2/WEEK %2010/W10%20el01%20Transcript%20-DETAILING.pdf [Accessed: 13 Oct 2013].

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Constructing Environments Studio Journal – Week 10 Tasks: 2. Pavilion Site Visit Part 2 (limited analysis due to absence)

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Currently Formwork and falsework stage; such as bracing and concrete Formwork is best described as “A structure, which is usually temporary but can be whole or part permanent, it is used to contain poured concrete to mould it into required dimensions and support until it is able to support itself.” (Groundforce, 2013) Falsework is described as “A temporary structure used to support a permanent structure during the erection until it becomes self supporting.” (Groundforce, 2013)

Image Source: (Galimova, 2013) •

The structure is a steel portal frame, which is welded off making it very rigid via a variety of moment-resisting connections. This sort of structure is predominantly useful for its added span abilities.

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Image Source: (Galimova, 2013) This is then filled with wooden wall framing Band beams pick up the load and transfer to the steel frame. Timber wall stud framing, 2 sets of noggins due to the height of the studs. Wires hanging from floor joists Temporary steel elements to hold structure until it is fully connected. Interior Timber columns are for aesthetic purposes Block wall to serve as the support for framing of the building

References Galimova, D. 2013. University of Melbourne Pavilion Site Visit Pictures. Photos. Melbourne. Groundforce. 2013. Groundforce | Home | Formwork - A Definition of Formwork and Falsework. [online] Available at: http://www.groundforce.uk.com/GroundforceShorco/IndustryResources/Formwor k+-+A+Definition+of+Formwork+and+Falsework [Accessed: 13 Oct 2013].

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Studio journal w7 10