SEP-OCT 2018 FEB - MAR 2019
PREMIER TRANS-ATLANTIC BUSINESS AVIATION MAGAZINE
BUSINESS AVIATION EXCLUSIVE FLEET REPORT
Did Business Aviation Miss Growth Window in 2018 ? Atlanta Set To Showcase The Helicopter Industry
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Dear Mr. LeaDer I APOLOGIZE IF I AM WRONG, but I thought you were using your business aircraft to help manage your successful company? Maybe I was dreaming, but weren't you just thinking about acquiring a new airplane to even further optimize the way you conduct your business? I ask because I just spotted that man with the computer leaving your office. Judging by the self-satisfied grin on his face, I'm guessing that he has convinced you that flying in a business aircraft is pricier per seat than scheduled airline fares. He may have even suggested that you get rid of the company plane and instead familiarize yourself with the commercial airlines: Air France, British Airways, Delta, Lufthansa… and so on! But before selling the plane or putting the idea of acquiring an additional airplane on hold, let me add my two cents. Let me start by asking you this: "How will you manage a long international business trip using a scheduled airline?" Consider this scenario: Being the CEO at Michelin, the world's second largest tire manufacturer, your offices are located in Clermont-Ferrand in the Auvergne region of France. Recently, you entered into discussions with a big rubber manufacturer, discussions that will soon take you to Akron, Ohio - the 'Rubber Capital of the World'. Now I know you have LFLC ClermontFerrand airport, ideal for Business Aviation but of limited use for those looking to fly commercially to the US - a group that now,
Fernand M. Francois Editor and Publisher
based on the advice of that man with the computer, includes you. So, to get from Michelin Headquarters to Akron, Ohio, you will start by catching a flight to CDG Paris Charles De Gaulle, from where you can catch a connecting flight to the US. Needless to say, there are no direct flights from Paris to Akron, so you'll have to pick one of the 12 US airports offering regular flights to CAK Akron Canton Airport. I believe Atlanta or Philadelphia would be the best options. But be sure to carefully check your schedule. Although it shouldn't be too difficult to reach your final destination from any of these mid US airports, it really all depends on how much time you have to get there and a bit of luck. And don't cut it too close! Remember, upon arrival you will find yourself suddenly in the middle of a herd of people running every which way, confused about TSA and anxious about their luggage, security and customs. There's a good chance you'll miss your connection, so why not just go ahead and book an overnight stay at your mid-destination. To save costs, forget the limo, just catch a cab. Once you get to your hotel - if you find a last-minute room that is - be sure to call the CEO of the rubber company to apologize for missing your appointment and look to reschedule sometime in the future. Now Mr. Leader, I will see you next week. And if you are not distressed by your voyage to Akron, you and the airlines deserve each other!
“I don't care what you cover the seats with as long as you cover them with assholes.” Eddie Rickenbacker, CEO Eastern Airlines, to the designers proudly showing off the seat cover designs for the first turboprop airliner to be operated in the U.S.
FEATURES 30 FLEET REPORT State of the Industry 52 HAI Preview 56 AVIONICS Anticipated 60 BIOFUEL for Aviation 66 MRO the Revolution 72 AERO Preview 74 THE DOCKET Commercial or Private 77 FROM THE COCKPIT Night OPS 80 SAFETY SENSE Skipping the anti-ice
Volume XXX1 N°1 EDITOR AND PUBLISHER Fernand M. Francois ASSOCIATE PUBLISHER Kathy Ann Francois ASSISTANT to the PUBLISHER Victoria Graham EDITOR IN CHIEF Volker K. Thomalla MANAGING EDITOR Busra Ozturk EXECUTIVE EDITOR Nick Klenske EXECUTIVE EDITOR Marc Grangier SAFETY EDITOR Michael R. Grüninger COACH EDITOR Captain LeRoy Cook TECHNOLOGY EDITOR Steve Nichols CONTRIBUTING EDITORS Louis Smyth, Derek Bloom, Richard Koe, Brian Foley, Anna Naznarova, Giulia Mauri PRODUCTION MANAGER Tanguy Francois For all the above Info@bartintl.com ADVERTISING Kathy Ann Francois Marketing Director firstname.lastname@example.org PREMIER TRANS-ATLANTIC BUSINESS AVIATION MAGAZINE BART International Premier Transatlantic Aviation Magazine ISSN 0776-7596. Printed in Belgium is published and owned by SA Frankie&Lette, 20 rue de l’Industrie at B1400 Nivelles. Phone +326 788 3603. Info@bartintl.com. BART Intl is governed by the International copyright laws. Free professional subscription available. International distribution by ASENDIA. USPS O16707 Priodical postage paid. Call IMS I (800) 4283003 Responsible Publisher Fernand M. Francois
EBACE OFFICIAL PUBLICATION
BART International inaugurates 2019 with the Annual Exclusive Business Aircraft Fleet Report Analysis. The information included in the account, scrutinized by experts from BART International is provided by JETNET, the World Leader in Aviation Market Intelligence, WINGX Advance GmbH Director, Richard Koe and Honeywell International. High-flying part of the report is dedicated to the Helicopter Industry, essential component of Business Aviation.
DEPARTMENTS 3 Upfront 6 Briefing Room 8 Quick Lane 22 Business News 24 On the Move 26 Trans-Atlantic Update
OUR ADVERTISERS and their Agencies 65 21 9 41 42-43 25 11 59 7 81 2 73 67 71 15 47 13 31 17 84 83 19
Avfuel Corporation Blackhawk Modifications, Inc. CAE Collins Aerospace Collins Aerospace Dassault Falcon (PEMA 2M) Duncan Aviation EBACE 2019 FlightSafety International (GRETEMAN GROUP) GCS Safety Solution Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation JetNet LLC Jet Support Services INC. (JSSI) NBAA Maintenance Conference 2019 Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. Raisbeck Engineering Rolls-Royce SmartSky Networks (GRETEMAN GROUP) TAG Farnborough Airport Textron Aviation (Copp Media Services, INC.) Universal Avionics Systems, Corp. Universal Weather and Aviation
BRIEFING ROOM Events
NEW RUSSIA “CIQ” PROCEDURES FOR PRECIOUS METALS & STONES A new Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation regarding declarations of precious metals went into effect Nov. 24, 2018 and could impact your business aviation mission. Here’s what you need to know in order to comply and avoid fines and or potential criminal liability.
Agenda HAI HELI -EXPO March. 4 - 7, 2019 Atlanta, USA
NBAA Maintenance Conference May. 7 - 9, 2019 Fort Worth TX, USA
EBACE May. 21 - 23, 2019 Geneva, Switzerland
PARIS AIR SHOW June, 17 - 23, 2019 Paris - Le Bourget, France
AIRVENTURE July. 22 - 28, 2019 Oshkosh WI, USA
1. All precious metals and stones valued at more than 100K RUR ($1,500 USD) must be declared The new decree now requires that all departing and arriving passengers on international flights to/from Russian Federation or the countries of Customs Union must now declare all precious metals and stones valued at greater than 100K RUR ($1,500 USD).
Questions If you have any questions about this article or would like assistance planning your next trip to Russia, contact me at UNIVERSAL AVIATION.
2. What items are included in this decree? According to the decree, this includes precious metals and stones, as well as natural pearls; pocket and wristwatches with a body made of precious metal; watch body, straps and bracelets for watches made of precious metal, ores and concentrates of precious metals. 3. What are the penalties for not declaring these items? The decree states that if the customs authority does not confirm that the goods for personal use are imported into the customs territory of the Union after they had been temporarily exported from this territory, such goods are subject to customs duties and taxes. Further, when the new rules come to the legal power the smuggling of these goods which total value exceeds 1 million rubles will result in the criminal liability as per Article 226.1 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation.
Dmitry Konovalov Dmitry Konovalov is an expert on operations, permits and ground support for business aviation in Russia. Dmitry, who has more than 13 years’ experience in business aviation, currently serves as General Director, Universal Aviation Russia – Khabarovsk. Based in Khabarovsk, Russia, Dmitry is fluent in Russian and English. An active member of the Russian Business Aviation Association, Dmitry has a degree from Pacific State University. You can reach Dmitry at email@example.com.
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QUICK LANE BOEING PARTNERS WITH AERION TO ACCELERATE SUPERSONIC TRAVEL Boeing announced a partnership with Aerion, a Reno, Nev.-based company pioneering next-generation supersonic aircraft. As part of the agreement, Boeing made a significant investment in Aerion to accelerate technology development and aircraft design, and unlock supersonic air travel for new markets. Terms of the deal were not disclosed. Boeing will provide engineering, manufacturing and flight test resources, as well as strategic vertical content, to bring Aerionâ€™s AS2 supersonic business jet to market.
SIKORSKY'S AAG, BLADE PARTNER FOR URBAN MOBILITY OPTION IN NYC
UNIVERSAL CHAIRMAN GREG EVANS AWARDED NBAA SILK SCARF AWARD Universal Weather and Aviation, Inc. Chairman Greg Evans has been awarded the National Business Aviation Association's prestigious Silk Scarf Award for his contributions to the Business Aviation community throughout his career. The Silk Scarf represents diligence, industry, and persistence and was created to honor outstanding Business Aviation community members and inspire future aviators. "Over many years, Greg has generously donated his resources, time, finances, and even his aircraft to support those in need," said NBAA President and CEO Ed Bolen.
Sikorsky's subsidiary Associated Aircraft Group (AAG) and Fly Blade, Inc ("BLADE"), a digitally-powered aviation company, announced an agreement to provide a new on-demand urban mobility option in the New York City metro area. Through the agreement, AAG will provide and operate a dedicated S-76C+ helicopter for BLADE, to be flown and maintained by Sikorsky pilots and maintenance technicians. BLADE also will gain access to AAG's full fleet of Sikorsky helicopters, the largest in the Northeast, as needed.
SHANNON BECOMES FIRST IRISH AIRPORT TO INTRODUCE EDUROAM WIFI Shannon Airport has recorded another first after rolling out eduroam â€“ the secure global wifi roaming service for the international research and education community. Over 1 billion authentications happen every year on eduroam, which securely connects students, staff and researchers around the world to the Internet, enabling them to access all their academic activities while on campus or on the move. Shannon is the first Irish airport to introduce eduroam wifi (education roaming), adding to the 12,000 locations across 101 countries worldwide where it operates.
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SR TECHNICS CONTRIBUTES TO ENVIRONMENTAL STANDARDS FOR AIRCRAFT ENGINES
As the result of an eight-year collaboration with the Swiss Federal Office of Civil Aviation (FOCA), SR Technics has made important contributions to the measurement and regulation of particulate emissions from aircraft engines. At a meeting in January, FOCA officials expressed their gratitude for all the support received from SR Technics. Switzerland, they noted, was the only ICAO member state able to find a partner to take on this challenge, and the SR Technics engine test cell with a permanent sampling probe suitable for different engine types and system installations remains one-of-a-kind.
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QUICK LANE SATCOM DIRECT SUPPORTS SKYSERVICE FOR FIRST DATA LINK UNIT STC The Transport Canada Civil Aviation (TCCA) authority has awarded Skyservice Business Aviation an STC for installation of the Satcom Direct Data Link Unit (DLU) upgrade on the Learjet 45 type. SD supported Skyservice through the TCCA STC process, and with the EASA and FAA submissions whose approvals are expected in the second quarter of 2019. Of the three Skyservice Learjet 45 aircraft, one is already benefitting from the system installation, with the next two scheduled for SD DLU upgrade in early 2019.
GDC TECHNICS ANNOUNCES NEW OWNERSHIP AND STRATEGIC VISION GDC Technics, an industry leader in aircraft engineering, modification and completion services, announced a new company ownership structure and shared strategic vision with new partners Oriole Capital Group, Trive Capital and MAZ Aviation. “Over the last five years GDC has made tremendous strides to become the industry leader in aircraft completion and modification services, with engineering and certification capabilities that are unmatched in the industry,” said Mohammad Alzeer, Chairman of MAZ Aviation.
KING AEROSPACE USCG CONTRACT RAMPS UP
SATAIR SIGNS DISTRIBUTION AGREEMENT WITH HONEYWELL
The five-year contract awarded by the US Coast Guard (USCG) in 2017 to King Aerospace Commercial Corporation (KACC) has begun to gear up. The contract for USCG HC-144 and HC27J aircraft paint services was to have covered nine aircraft a year. To date, KACC has completed its sixth aircraft. “Things are picking up now and we’re on track to complete seven planes a year,” says Wayne Jamroz, KACC general manager. “We take great pride in delivering high-quality work and doing our part to advance this vital, missioncritical Coast Guard program.”
Satair and Honeywell Aerospace have signed an agreement to distribute Honeywell's JetWave high-speed in-flight connectivity system to a wide segment of the global business jet market. Satair will be distributing JetWave to the EMEA and India based Honeywell Dealers, as well as Part 145 MRO and repair facilities that will undertake the installation work and are not part of the Honeywell network. Because Satair has invested in a large pool of full ship sets of JetWave stock and will hold a certain inventory level of all Honeywell JetWave components, it will be able to offer immediate delivery to give an enhanced service to ease the management of the installation.
UNIVERSAL AVIATION TO ENHANCE PRIVATE JET EXPERIENCE IN THE MALDIVES Universal Aviation and Inner Maldives Holidays celebrated the official grand opening of its joint venture Business Aviation ground support location, Universal Aviation Maldives. “The Maldives area popular but potentially challenging destination for our clients, so it was important for us to identify a partner in Inner Maldives that will not only reduce our customers’ risk and stress on the ground but provide them with an unforgettable experience through pro-active trip management, versus relying solely on third-parties,” said Greg Evans, Chairman, Universal.
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“ C U STO ME R S T E L L U S TH E Y B R I N G T H E I R P R OJ E C TS TO US B E C AU S E O F O U R P E O PLE , WH O H AV E K N OWL E DGE AND E X P E R T I S E , AR E F R I E N DLY AND R E S O U R C E F U L . WE H AV E NOW E X PANDE D TH IS OV E R AL L F E E L I N G, C U LT U RE , A N D E X P E R I E N C E TO T H E P R OVO, U TA H , FAC I L I T Y.” - CHAD DOEHRING, VP OF PROVO OPERATIONS
Experience. Unlike any other. www.DuncanAviation.aero/provo Aircraft Acquisition & Consignment | Airframe Maintenance | Avionics Installation | Engine & APU Government & Special Programs | Engineering & Certification Services | Paint & Interior Parts, Avionics, Instruments & Accessories | Emergency Assistance (AOG)
QUICK LANE AIR BP ADDS EXCLUSIVE SPANISH DESTINATION LA PERDIZ TO ITS NETWORK
STANDARDAERO MARYVILLE FACILITY CELEBRATES 10,000TH APU REPAIR
Air BP has added La Perdiz (LEIZ) airport on the La Nava estate to its Spanish network. This latest addition to the network brings the total number of Air BP’s locations in Spain to 49. Air BP will supply Jet A-1 fuel at La Perdiz, one of Spain’s most exclusive country destinations. Air BP customers will benefit from convenient direct access to the location, rapid turnarounds and a high degree of discretion at this dedicated Business Aviation airport. Customers will be able to use their Air BP Sterling Card to purchase fuel, in addition to ordering and paying for fuel via the RocketRoute MarketPlace platform.
StandardAero’s Maryville, Tennessee facility recently completed and shipped its 10,000th auxiliary power unit (APU) repair since the nearly 25 years it has been providing APU MRO services to the industry. The specific 10,000th repair was on a Honeywell model 36-150RJ APU for a regional aircraft operator. “This recent milestone helps to cement our overall leadership in servicing the APU regional airline market,” said Randy Mengel, Vice President & General Manager for StandardAero. “Our experience and capabilities have been proven over a quarter of a century and we are currently processing more than 600 APU repairs annually in our Maryville shop.”
AVFUEL BRANDS TURKS AND CAICOS FBO: BLUE HERON AVIATION
GARMIN ANNOUNCES AVAILABILITY OF THE GPS 3000
Avfuel welcomed Blue Heron Aviation (MBPV) to its branded network of independent FBOs, offering operators a gateway to paradise with the benefit of Avfuel programs, including Avfuel Contract Fuel and AVTRIP rewards. Under private ownership since opening its doors in 2014, Blue Heron Aviation has used first-in-class facilities, professionalism and customer care to attract the majority of the island’s discerning travelers. Its experienced staff provides the warm island hospitality vacationers deserve when landing on its ramp, with a level of personalized service and attention to detail unmatched by others.
Garmin International, Inc. announced the availability of the GPS 3000, a high-integrity GPS position sensor that seamlessly interfaces to existing avionics to help meet Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Out requirements. Also, targeting the air transport and defense markets, the GPS 3000 is designed as a WAAS/SBAS position source for select Flight Management Systems (FMS). Aircraft that are eligible to utilize the GPS 3000 as an ADS-B position source include the Embraer E135/E145 and the Legacy 600/650.
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It’s time. What are the most precious things in your life? Your family, your friends, your business? Whatever they are, the most precious resource that links them all together is time. That’s why we’ve taken the time to make CorporateCare® even more comprehensive, with additional line maintenance, expanded support and even nacelle coverage on later engine models. Supported by the industry’s leading global service network and cutting-edge digital tools, we are focused on getting you to your destination on time, every time. It’s time to protect your most precious resource. It’s time to consider CorporateCare Enhanced. For more information, email firstname.lastname@example.org The future. Rolls-Royce.
QUICK LANE BOMBARDIER TO ACQUIRE GLOBAL 7500 WING PROGRAM Bombardier announced a definitive agreement to acquire the Global 7500 wing program from Triumph Group Inc. The acquisition will secure the production ramp-up and long-term success of Bombardier’s flagship business jet. The acquired operations will be incorporated into Bombardier’s Aerostructures and Engineering Services segment. To support a seamless transition of wing production and deliveries for the Global 7500 program, Bombardier will enter into a lease agreement for Triumph’s Red Oak, Texas, facility and continue to operate the production line with the employees currently supporting the program.
WEST STAR AVIATION COMPLETES NEW HANGAR FACILITY AT ALN
FLYING COLOURS CORP. CELEBRATES THIRTY YEARS OF BUSINESS
West Star Aviation has completed the construction on a new 60,000 sq. ft. hangar at its East Alton, IL (ALN) location. The state of the art hangar is now operational and accepting customers for service. The hangar features 40,000 sq. ft. of hangar space and 20,000 sq ft. of back shop and office space which supports West Star’s growing capabilities, allowing the company to fully expand upon existing aircraft maintenance programs. The completion of the new facility will bring West Star’s total footprint at the ALN location to over 380,000 sq. ft. of space.
WORLD FUEL SERVICES WINS CONTRACT TO SUPPLY LONDON OXFORD AIRPORT IN UK Global energy leader World Fuel Services has won two contracts with London Oxford Airport and London Heliport to supply Jet A-1, Avgas and training packages. This five-year contract not only solidifies World Fuel as the primary supplier to the general aviation market within the south of the United Kingdom, but also solidifies a long-term partnership in the region. Aside from offering fuel and training packages, World Fuel will also offer refueling equipment, maintenance support, marketing support, and potential design and build of a new fuel farm at Oxford.
Flying Colours Corp., the North American MRO and completions business, is celebrating thirty years of successful MRO and interiors operations. Launched as an aircraft painting business by current President, John Gillespie, the small start-up quickly developed into an aircraft sales business before evolving into a fullyfledged MRO and interiors business in 1989. “It’s a wellknown fact that the Business Aviation sector is a competitive and challenging industry to succeed in, and we are extremely proud to be marking our thirtieth anniversary this year,” said John Gillespie, founder and president.
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QUICK LANE COLLINS AEROSPACE GOES SUPERSONIC WITH WIN ON NEW X-59 QUESST In line with its vision to redefine aerospace, Collins Aerospace has been selected by Lockheed Martin to provide avionics for the new X-59 Quiet Supersonic Technology (QueSST) aircraft. The X-59 is being developed by Lockheed Martin for NASA to collect data that could make supersonic commercial travel over land possible through low sonic boom technology. Collins will provide developmental engineering support to tailor its Pro Line Fusion avionics to the specific requirements of the X-59.
TAG FARNBOROUGH AIRPORT ANNOUNCES RECORD YEAR FOR AIR TRAFFIC MOVEMENTS
DASSAULT AVIATION SIGNS BINDING AGREEMENT TO ACQUIRE EXECUJET’S MRO OPS
TAG Farnborough Airport has announced a record year for air traffic movements by reporting the highest ever number of total annual movements in 2018, surpassing the previous record from 2007 by 8.2 percent. For the full year 2018, TAG Farnborough Airport saw a year-on-year increase in air traffic movements of 13.8 percent. In 2018, TAG Farnborough Airport noted substantial growth in air traffic movements to and from the US, with an increase of 22.5 percent year-on-year, as well as Europe, up by 15.5 percent.
Dassault Aviation and Luxaviation announced the acquisition by Dassault Aviation of the worldwide maintenance activities of ExecuJet, a Luxaviation subsidiary. The integration process will be phased in 2019, after administrative authorizations have been obtained. “The acquisition of ExecuJet’s MRO (Maintenance, Repair & Overhaul) operations will strengthen Dassault Aviation’s global footprint, especially in Asia-Pacific, Oceania, Middle-East and Africa. With ExecuJet, we will continue the development of our high-quality customer support network, while growing our Falcon market share,” said Eric Trappier, chairman and CEO of Dassault Aviation.
AAS NOW AUTHORIZED SERVICE CENTER FOR HONEYWELL AEROSPACE Atlas Air Service AG has been appointed authorized service center by Honeywell Aerospace. Effective immediately, the business jet specialist from Bremen offers line maintenance for Honeywell engines series HTF 7500, as well as for APUs (aircraft power units) series GTCP 36150 and RE100. As EASA Part 145 approved maintenance service provider, Atlas Air Service now specializes in the following Honeywell engines and APUs: Embraer Legacy 450, Embraer Legacy 500, Cessna Citation XL, XLS, XLS+, Cessna Citation Sovereign, Sovereign+, Cessna Citation Latitude.
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A REFLECTION OF EXCELLENCE
TAG Farnborough Airport Design and people working beautifully together The purpose-built airport for BUSINESS, for PRIVACY, for LONDON tagfarnborough.com
QUICK LANE FLIGHTSAFETY INTL TO DELIVER UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS FLIGHT TRAINING
FALCON AVIATION HIGHLIGHTS WIDENED CAPABILITIES
FlightSafety International will deliver Unmanned Aircraft Systems practical flight training in conjunction with Praxis Aerospace Concepts, Inc. “Our Unmanned Systems Training program developed in conjunction with Praxis, will help commercial operators achieve the highest levels of safety and proficiency,” said Ray Johns, Co-CEO, president, Government and Manufacturing. UAS training will initially be offered in the Las Vegas area and at several FlightSafety Learning Centers in the US. The AUVSI TOP compliant courses will focus on standardization, professionalism and offer the highest quality training in the industry.
Falcon Aviation has been awarded new accreditation to handle business jet and regional aircraft MRO at its UAE bases by Saudi Arabia's General Authority of Civil Aviation (GACA). "This is a significant endorsement for Falcon Aviation to be recognized by GACA and we look forward to delivering the same high level of service and support to customers of Saudi-registered aircraft that we provide to our UAE and international customers," said Director of Engineering Nicolas Tejera.
MTU AERO ENGINES POLSKA SUPPLIES 1000TH TURBINE FOR P&W GTF MTU Aero Engines’ technology is in each and every geared turbofan (GTF) engine produced for the Airbus A320neo. Its Polish subsidiary, MTU Aero Engines Polska, started to assemble the first low-pressure turbine for the geared turbofan model PW1100GJM about three and a half years ago. At the end of the year 2018, the MTU site in Poland completed the 1000th module and delivered it to Pratt & Whitney.
WORLD’S FIRST COCKPIT PANEL TEST ROBOT DEVELOPED
DUNCAN AVIATION-PROVO WELCOMES FIRST AIRCRAFT Duncan Aviation welcomed the first aircraft, a Bombardier Global Express XRS, into its first new maintenance hangar at the Provo Municipal Airport in Provo, Utah. The workscope for the Global includes a 120-month airframe inspection and 10-year landing gear overhaul. “We have been working hard to prepare and plan for our new maintenance and modifications center in Provo and we are thrilled to have the first maintenance hangar ready and open for work,” says Chad Doehring, vice president of Operations at Provo.
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Lufthansa Technik AG has developed the first robot for fully automated tests of cockpit controls in the world. The test procedure is called RoCCET, which stands for Robot Controlled Cockpit Electronics Testing. In the future, RoCCET will be used to check the functionality of LED lights and switches on the basis of concrete, standardized measurement data. The robot-based procedure is currently in the integration phase. The robot has integrated sensors to measure the forces that occur when switches are activated.
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QUICK LANE CESSNA CITATION LONGITUDE ACHIEVES PROVISIONAL TYPE CERTIFICATION Textron Aviation Inc. announced its Cessna Citation Longitude super-midsize jet has achieved provisional type certification (PTC) from the Federal Aviation Administration. The PTC allows operators to begin Citation Longitude flight training in preparation for deliveries early next year and paves the way for the program’s final phase of certification. “From an unmatched cabin experience to its commanding performance, the Citation Longitude truly sets a new standard for the Business Aviation industry,” said Ron Draper, president and CEO, Textron Aviation.
SAFRAN-POWERED BELL NEXUS INTRODUCED The first application of the Safran Hybrid-Electric Propulsion System (HEPS), the Bell Nexus, is officially unveiled at the Consumer Electronics Show (CES) in Las Vegas. The propulsion solution of this multi-rotor vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) aircraft is capable of producing more than 600 kWe power. During ground tests last June, the system produced 100 kWe and further tests will be carried out this year.
AEROPLEX GROUP PARTNERS SELECTS EPIC FUELS FOR SANTA MONICA JET AVIATION SIGNS PREFERRED HANDLING AGREEMENT WITH EXCELLENT AIR Jet Aviation has signed a preferred FBO service agreement with Excellent Air, which operates Europe’s largest fleet of Cessna CJ2 aircraft as-well-as several Cessna XLS aircraft based in Memmingen, Germany. Excellent Air offers its customers a full-service, door-todoor charter experience on its twinengined Cessna business jets. Under the agreement signed at MEBAA 2018 in Dubai, Jet Aviation becomes the preferred handling service provider for Excellent Air at its FBO locations in EMEA.
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Aeroplex Group Partners, LLC has selected EPIC Fuels as its new fuel supplier for facilities at KSMO Santa Monica airport. Aeroplex Group Partners is a member company of the Aeroplex/Aerolease Group, which has expertise in aviation facility development, project management and aviation consulting services to all segments of the aviation industry, including airports, aircraft tenant operators/FBOs and municipalities.
CAE TO ISSUE US$550 MILLION OF SENIOR UNSECURED NOTES IN PRIVATE PLACEMENT CAE has entered into an agreement to issue a series of unsecured senior notes through a private placement. The company also announced the conclusion of its previously disclosed transaction to monetize its existing future royalty obligations to Bombardier. The notes issuance is subject to customary closing conditions and proceeds will be used to fund CAE’s acquisition of Bombardier’s Business Aircraft Training Business. The notes will be issued in several US dollar denominated tranches with fixed interest rates ranging from 4.45 to 4.90 percent annually and maturities ranging from 10 to 15 years.
CAE REPORTS THIRD QUARTER FISCAL 2019 RESULTS
CAE reported revenue of $816.3 million for the third quarter of fiscal year 2019, compared with $828.2 million in the third quarter last year. Third quarter net income attributable to equity holders was $77.6 million ($0.29 per share) compared to $143.8 million ($0.53 per share) last year. Excluding the income tax recovery related to the US tax reform and net gain on the fair valuation of CAE’s prior investment in the Asian Aviation Centre of Excellence (AACE), net income would have been $102.7 million ($0.38 per share) last year. All financial information is in Canadian dollars unless otherwise indicated. “CAE had good market momentum in the third quarter with orders of $882 million for a record $9 billion backlog; and we generated over $155 million in free cash flow. As we look to the remainder of the year, we continue to expect CAE to deliver on its annual outlook,” said Marc Parent, CAE’s president and chief executive officer. “Operating income was lower year over year in the third quarter, which is consistent with our expectation that a disproportionate share of our annual growth outlook will be driven by record simulator deliveries in the last quarter of the fiscal year. Order activity for our civil training solutions remains strong with our civil backlog reaching a new high $4.6 billion.” Third quarter civil revenue was $458.4 million, down 15% compared to the same quarter last year. Segment operating income was $87.2 million (19.0% of revenue), down 24% compared to the third quarter last year, excluding the AACE net gain. Third quarter civil training center utilization was 75%. Because of the five20 - BART: FEBRUARY - MARCH - 2019
week work disruption last summer, as anticipated, civil had fewer simulator deliveries (simulators installed with customers and ready for training) during the third quarter compared to the third quarter last year. CAE successfully accelerated production to mitigate the impact of this action and civil is on track to deliver a record 56 full-flight simulators (FFSs) for the year, with more than 40 percent in the fourth quarter alone. Free cash flow was $155.1 million for the quarter compared to $146.0 million in the third quarter last year. The increase in free cash flow results mainly from a lower investment in non-cash working capital. Income taxes this quarter were $14.2 million, representing an effective tax rate of 15%, compared to a negative effective tax rate of 9% for the third quarter last year. The negative tax rate last year was mainly related to the US Tax Reform. The tax rate this quarter reflects the positive impact of tax audits in Canada and a change in the mix of income from various jurisdictions. Growth and maintenance capital expenditures totaled $61.6 million this quarter. Net debt at the end of the quarter was $985.7 million for a net debt-to-total capital ratio of 29.4%. This compares to net debt of $795.1 million and a net debt-to-total capital ratio of 25.8% at the end of the preceding quarter. CAE entered an agreement to issue US $550 million senior unsecured notes, subject to customary closing conditions. Proceeds will be used to fund CAE’s acquisition of Bombardier’s BAT Business and to refinance some of CAE’s existing debt and recent term loans announced on November 8, 2018. The notes will be issued in several US dollar denominated tranches with fixed interest rates ranging from 4.45 to 4.90 percent annually and maturities ranging from 10 to 15 years. Note holders include 19 large institutional investors in the US and Canada. Return on capital employed was 11.7% compared to 11.9% last year, excluding the impacts of fiscal 2018 income tax recovery related to the US tax reform and net gains on strategic transactions relating to our Asian joint-ventures. CAE will pay a dividend of 10 cents per share effective March 29, 2019 to shareholders of record at the close of business on March 15, 2019.
BOMBARDIER REPORTS 4Q RESULTS Bombardier reported its fourth quarter and
full year 2018 results, highlighting solid margin growth, improved cash flows and continued progress executing its turnaround plan. The successful entry-into-service of the Global 7500 business jet in the fourth quarter also marked the completion of Bombardier’s heavy investment cycle, a key milestone in the company’s turnaround plan. Bombardier’s 2018 consolidated revenues reached $16.2 billion, reflecting 3% average year-over-year growth across Transportation, Business Aircraft and Aerostructures, excluding currency impact. Book-to-bill ratios at Transportation and Business Aircraft both equaled 1.1 for the year, demonstrating strong demand for Bombardier’s products and services. Bombardier’s consolidated backlog reached $53.1 billion at the end of 2018, supporting future growth targets. EBIT before special items continued to improve in 2018, increasing 42% year-overyear from $725 million to more than $1.0 billion, the top-end of the company’s guidance. The 6.3% EBIT margin before special items in 2018 represents a strong 330 bps increase since the start of the turnaround plan in 2015, well above the 5-6% range originally targeted. On a reported basis, EBIT increased 235% year-over-year to $1.0 billion, representing a margin of 6.2%. Bombardier generated $1.0 billion of free cash flow in the fourth quarter of 2018. Full year free cash flow generation equaled $182 million, at the high end of the company’s revised guidance. This amount includes aggregate net proceeds of approximately $750 million from the sale of the Downsview property and the monetization of royalties associated with the previously announced CAE transaction. Business Aircraft achieved a historical milestone in December 2018 with the on plan service entry of the largest and longest range industry flagship Global 7500 aircraft. The segment achieved industry leading deliveries at 137 aircraft for 2018, including 42 Global, 83 Challenger and 12 Learjet. Continued progress on the aftermarket strategy drove a 14.3% revenue increase year-overyear.
SMARTSKY ANNOUNCES $104M FUNDING ROUND SmartSky Networks has announced the
closing of a total of $104M in funding, including $75 million in debt commitments from funds managed by the Global Credit team at BlackRock and equity investments by private equity firms Tiger Infrastructure, WP Global, Platform Partners, and Meritage Investors. The funds will be used in the ongoing rollout of SmartSky’s nationwide airto-ground network. With this new round of financing, SmartSky has raised almost $350M in funding to date. The company is advised by Allen & Company LLC. “This investment represents an expression of confidence in SmartSky by these sophisticated investors, including some of the most highly regarded institutions in the world,” said SmartSky CEO Haynes Griffin, “and comes only a few days after the announcement of our first commercial aviation customer. Both of these milestones were preceded by firsthand flight trials which demonstrated conclusively to these partners the ability of SmartSky’s blazing-fast, affordable two-way internet connectivity to fundamentally transform aviation.”
ELBIT SYSTEMS REPORTS 3Q18 RESULTS
Elbit Systems Ltd. reported its consolidated results for the quarter ended September 30, 2018. Revenues in the third quarter of 2018 were $895.2 million, as compared to $800.7 million in the third quarter of 2017. Non-GAAP gross profit amounted to $260.7 million (29.1% of revenues) in the third quarter of 2018, as compared to $256.3 million (32.0% of revenues) in the third quarter of 2017. GAAP gross profit in the third quarter of 2018 was $255.9 million (28.6% of revenues), as compared to $251.0 million (31.3% of revenues) in the third quarter of 2017. Research and development expenses, net were $69.6 million (7.8% of revenues) in the third quarter of 2018, as compared to $67.1 million (8.4% of revenues) in the third quarter of 2017.
Marketing and selling expenses, net were $69.4 million (7.8% of revenues) in the third quarter of 2018, as compared to $66.9 million (8.4% of revenues) in the third quarter of 2017. General and administrative expenses, net were $37.8 million (4.2% of revenues) in the third quarter of 2018, as compared to $34.8 million (4.3% of revenues) in the third quarter of 2017. Non-GAAP operating income was $85.7 million (9.6% of revenues) in the third quarter of 2018, as compared to $89.2 million (11.1% of revenues) in the third quarter of 2017. GAAP operating income in the third quarter of 2018 was $79.1 million (8.8% of revenues), as compared to $82.2 million (10.3% of revenues) in the third quarter of 2017. Financial expenses, net were $8.1 million in the third quarter of 2018, as compared to $9.3 million in the third quarter of 2017. Taxes on income were $8.9 million (effective tax rate of 12.6%) in the third quarter of 2018, as compared to $14.6 million (effective tax rate of 20.0%) in the third quarter of 2017. The effective tax rate is affected by the mix of the tax rates in the various jurisdictions in which the Company’s entities generate taxable income. The Company’s backlog of orders for the quarter ended September 30, 2018 totaled $8,108 million as compared to $7,641 million as of September 30, 2017. Approximately 72% of the current backlog is attributable to orders from outside Israel. Approximately 45% of the current backlog is scheduled to be performed during 2018 and 2019. Operating cash flow used in the nine months ended September 30, 2018 was $20.3 million, as compared to $140.0 million used in the nine months ended September 30, 2017. Bezhalel (Butzi) Machlis, President and CEO of Elbit Systems, commented: “We reported a solid level of revenue in the quarter, growing by 12% over last year to almost $900 million. At the same time, we were able to show growth in backlog. This demonstrates that our business remains strong, in line with our strategy of consistently expanding our addressable markets through internal development of defense related products and solutions, as well as acquisitions of synergistic businesses.”
JSSI RELEASES BIZAV INDEX Jet Support Services, Inc. (JSSI), the leading independent provider of maintenance support and financial services to the aviation industry, has released the JSSI Business Aviation Index for the fourth quarter of 2018 and reports year-to-date growth of 4.9 percent and an increase of 4.7 percent over the same period in 2017. The index tracks utilization of approximately 2,000 business aircraft worldwide and reports average flight hours flown on a monthly basis by region, industry and cabin type. "Despite the dramatic market swings that defined the end of the year, flight hours were up significantly for both the quarter and the year, contributing to 2018 being one of the strongest years in a decade," said Neil W. Book, president and CEO of JSSI. "We have seen flight activity increase worldwide and a growing demand for private travel." Key findings include: ❍ Global flight activity recorded a year-todate increase of 4.9 percent in 2018 and a year-over-year increase of 4.7 percent. ❍ Regional increases were reported in nearly every segment of the world, with the highest year-to-date increases reported in Africa at 17.4 percent, Europe at 8.8 percent, and South America at 8.1 percent. ❍ The small cabin segment reported a 6.6 percent year-to-date increase and large cabins reported a 5.3 percent increase. Medium-sized cabins reported a decrease of -4.2 percent. ❍ Three of the nine industry segments analyzed reported year-to-date increases, with aviation at 9.1 percent, business services at 5.4 percent, and power & energy at 3.6 percent. ❍ Every aircraft age group analyzed reported a year-to-date jump in flight hours. Newer aircraft with less than five years in service reported the largest increase of 7.2 percent. ❍ Aircraft operated for compensation or hire (i.e., FAA Part 135), including nonscheduled charter and air-taxi operations, reported a 9.5 percent year-to-date increase and an 11 percent increase in year-over-year activity.
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ON THE MOVE PEOPLE Duncan Aviation recently released the following transfer and promotion news. An 18year veteran of Duncan Aviation, Adam Beach, has accepted the position of Sales Representative for the Paint and Interior Sales team at its new Provo, Utah, facility. Regional Avionics Sales Manager Tim Kelly is transitioning to the Duncan Aviation’s new Regional Sales manager for the Great Lakes region. The company also welcomed Ryan Blake to its Provo, Utah, facility as the new Gulfstream Airframe Sales and Services representative. Ted Roethlisberger has accepted the position of assistant manager of Customer Service at its Battle Creek, Michigan, facility. In a move to support the continued growth experienced by the company’s engine Rapid Response Teams (RRT), Duncan Aviation named Shane Heier as the RRT assistant manager-West Coast, focusing on AOG and scheduled engine calls for the Western regions of the United States. After a year and a half at the Duncan Aviation facility in Battle Creek, Michigan, Kasey Harwick has returned to the company’s Lincoln, Nebraska, location and assumed the role of vice president of Maintenance for the Airframe Department. Travis Grimsley has accepted the position of director of Maintenance for the aircraft services group in Battle Creek, Michigan, where he is also now a part of the Duncan Aviation Senior Management Team. Duncan Aviation recently welcomed new manager of Avionics Install/Line Services Department Mark Kahle to its full-service facility in Battle Creek, Michigan. FlightSafety International announced that Michelle Dodson has been promoted to assistant manager of the Wichita East Learning Center.
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Michelle Dodson She joins Chad Raney who also serves as assistant manager of the center. FlightSafety International has also announced the recent promotions of Daniel MacLellan, Edward Koharik, Dann Runik and Jim Wheeler. D a v i d D . D y c h e has also been promoted to assistant manager of the company’s Learning Center in Tucson, Arizona. Alain Flourens, currently head of Engineering for Airbus Helicopters, has been appointed head of Industry for Airbus Helicopters, following Christian Cornille’s departure from Airbus. Flourens will be replaced in his current position by Stefan Thomé, currently head of New Business Models & Services at Airbus Defence and Space. Jet Aviation has appointed Norbert Ehrich as its new VP Flight Services EMEA and Asia. In his new role, Ehrich is
responsible for overseeing operations of the aircraft management and charter business throughout EMEA and Asia. Aerion, the leader in supersonic flight, has promoted Steve Berroth to the role of chief operating officer and Program Manager of the AS2 Supersonic Business Jet. Bombardier Business Aircraft announced the appointment of Peter Bromby as vice president, Worldwide Sales, Learjet Aircraft. He will retain his current responsibilities as vice president, Worldwide Preowned Aircraft Sales. Dan Reida, VP of Sales, Marketing, and Support for Universal Avionics (UA), announced that Tal Golan has been appointed to the newly created position of Rotorcraft Business Development manager. Also, Kim Stephenson has been appointed to the position of Universal Avionics’ Regional Sales manager for Canada. Stephenson is based in Grand Rapids, Michigan. West Star Aviation announced that Tommi Krell has been named director of Corporate Communications. GDC Technics announced the appointment of B r a d Foreman as new CEO for the growing company. Foreman, a former Naval aviator and awarded industry leader, assumes the role effective immediately. Dassault Aviation announced the appointment of J e a n Kayanakis to a newly created position, senior vice president, Worldwide Falcon Customer Service & Service Center Network. Also, Pierre-Etienne Aubin has been appointed general manager of Dassault Falcon Service, the company-owned Falcon service centers based in Paris-Le Bourget and Bordeaux-Mérignac. TAG Aviation (UK) Ltd has announced the appointment of Stuart Stevenson as head of Compliance and Safety, to be based in Farnborough, UK.
Francisco Zozaya Jet Support Services Inc. (JSSI) has appointed Business Aviation veteran Francisco Zozaya to the new role of president of JSSI Latin America. Zozaya will also serve as senior vice president, business development & strategy for JSSI corporate. Comlux Completion announced the following organizational and operational changes. Daron Dryer is promoted to chief executive officer of Comlux Completion, taking over Scott Meyer’s duties. Scott Meyer is appointed executive vice president at the Comlux Group level.
Daron Dryer Blackhawk Modifications, Inc. announced the promotion of Lindsay Allmon from marketing coordinator to marketing manager. Allmon joined Blackhawk almost three years ago and has since played a key role the Marketing Department.
TRANS-ATLANTIC EUROPE ON OUR RADAR THIS MONTH COMPLIANCE REQUIRES HARMONIZED IMPLEMENTATION AND ACCESS TO INFORMATION
From the Desk of EBAA COO Robert Baltus On 27 April 2016, the European Parliament and the Council adopted Directive (EU) 2016/681 on the use of passenger name record (PNR) data for the prevention, detection, investigation and prosecution of terrorist offences and serious crime. The Directive notably provides for the obligation of air carriers to transfer to Member States PNR data they collected in the normal course of their business. The PNR Directive obliges Member States to establish specific entities responsible for the collection, storage and processing of PNR data, called Passenger Information Units (PIU). The deadline of the Directive’s implementation period passed on 25 May 2018 and unfortunately, we have received reports from concerned member operators that not every Member State has either implemented and/or provided enough information to our operators to comply. More disturbing we have received information of operators being threatened with fines while it was almost impossible to get a clear understanding of what is needed where! Following up on the feedback on this pressing matter, the EBAA has been in contact with the European Commission. Crucially, we are working hard towards helping regulators understand the main problems operator members are facing. Despite the fact that 26 - BART: FEBRUARY - MARCH - 2019
Business aviation operators want to comply with the PNR Directive there are currently still no clear published requirements regarding the provision of PNR data in the individual Member States Also, there is currently no ‘central information hub’ explaining how to comply with the PNR in each country, or any PoCs in the Member States where this information can be found. We see many Member States have not published the contact details of their PIU offices, making it difficult for the bizav operator to contact them and ask about their specific requirements. Adding to this issue is the lack of a single Europe wide software system to upload relevant data. The EBAA is currently gathering more specific feedback from its operator members and following this file closely. It remains to be seen what the future holds for our industry regarding the implementation of the Directive, but the proportionate implementation of regulations across Europe remains crucial. Business aviation brings value to European companies, citizens and communities both as a specialized, secure, time-efficient mode of travel and as a dynamic sector providing highly-skilled jobs. Clear information on the implementation of regulations is therefore an absolute necessity in order for our industry to keep providing the value that it currently does.
/EUROPE TRANS-ATLANTIC CIVIC, AVIATION LEADERS SHOWCASE VIABILITY OF ALTERNATIVE JET FUELS IN LIVE DEMO On Jan. 17, 2019, a coalition of international Business Aviation organizations joined Los Angeles-area civic leaders to mark a milestone in the development and adoption of sustainable alternative jet fuels (SAJF) through Business Jets Fuel Green: A Step Toward Sustainability. "We are excited to see our industry demonstrating the viability of sustainable alternative jet fuel at general aviation airports for Business Aviation users," said General Aviation Manufacturers Association (GAMA) President and CEO Pete Bunce. "This event will help raise awareness of the safety and accessibility of the fuel, and demonstrate our industry's commitment to building the necessary demand for SAJF that will be integral to achieving industry climate emissions goals." "Today's ground-breaking event demonstrates that National Air Transportation Association (NATA) members across the supply chain - from fuel suppliers and distributors to aircraft owners and operators - are committed to a future of Sustainable Alternative Jet Fuel," stated NATA President Gary Dempsey. "Van Nuys Airport was the perfect backdrop for today's activities, and we appreciate the support of the Van Nuys Airport Association, Los Angeles World Airports and the other coalition members in making 'Business Jets Fuel Green: A Step Toward Sustainability' a reality. We look forward to continuing to spread the message of the impact and benefits of SAJF throughout the industry and across the world." The day-long series of events included demonstration flights conducted by business aircraft, established Van Nuys Airport as the first general aviation airport in the US to offer SAJF on a trial basis, and served as a model for offering the fuels at other airports. "As one of the world's busiest general aviation airports - with 231,000 annual operations supporting diverse private, business and government aviation
needs - Van Nuys Airport is committed to leading the way in environmental sustainability," said Van Nuys Airport Association (VNAA) President Curt Castagna. "The airport's four fixedbase operators participating in this initiative exemplify the Van Nuys Airport Association's long history of building collaborative partnerships among industry, business and community stakeholders to achieve meaningful progress and change. We are honored to play a key role in advancing the use of sustainable alternative fuels and reducing greenhouse gas emissions from aircraft at airports across the nation." The trial flights, which were first announced at the European Business Aviation Convention & Exhibition (EBACE) in 2018, are an extension of the SAJF initiative, reflecting the industry's long-standing commitment to emissions reduction, including, among other aims, carbon neutrality from 2020 forward. In conjunction with EBACE, the coalition released the "Business Aviation Guide to the Use of Sustainable Alternative Fuel" to provide a roadmap for the education about, and use of, SAJF. "This first-ever event focused on Business Aviation use of SAJF demonstrates the industry's strong interest in reducing its environmental impacts, particularly its carbon emissions," commented International Business Aviation Council (IBAC) Director General, Kurt Edwards. "SAJF represents a critical measure to help meet the sector's global commitment to halve carbon emissions by 2050 relative to 2005 levels. Always at the forefront of innovation, Business Aviation will be an international leader in taking up and seeing the benefits of this cutting-edge and available technology." The success of the trial flights clearly demonstrated three key points: ❍ SAJF are safe and do not impact aircraft performance.
❍ SAJF offer great impact and benefits to the airport and the community, including reduced particulate matter. ❍ SAJF reflect the commitment by Business Aviation to aircraft carbon reduction. "Business Aviation has long led the way in promoting advances aimed at reducing the industry's environmental footprint," said National Business Aviation Association (NBAA) President and CEO Ed Bolen. "We are proud to celebrate this major industry milestone, and look forward to launching SAJF flights in locations around the world." The SAJF initiative, developed by a coalition of international aviation organizations, is intended, first, to address a "knowledge gap" on the availability of SAJF and concerns within the industry regarding its safety and, second, to advance the proliferation of alternative jet fuels at all the logical touchpoints: the manufacturers, the ground handlers and the operators, at the regional, national and international levels. Business Jets Fuel Green: A Step Toward Sustainability was made possible through the efforts of EBAA, GAMA, IBAC, NATA, NBAA and VNAA, in coordination with Avfuel Corporation, Bombardier Business Aircraft, Gevo, Inc., World Energy, World Fuel Services and other industry stakeholders. "Our industry is uniquely poised to make a huge, positive difference in the fight against climate change - not by changing how much we fly, but by changing how we fuel," said David Coleal, President, Bombardier Business Aircraft and Chair of GAMA's Environment Committee.
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TRANS-ATLANTIC U.S.A. ON OUR RADAR THIS MONTH EBACE HIGHLIGHTS IMPORTANT ROLES OF BUSINESS AVIATION THROUGHOUT EUROPE
From the Desk of NBAA President & CEO Ed Bolen Readers of BART International know firsthand the vital role that Business Aviation continues to play throughout Europe, providing companies of all sizes with safe, efficient and secure transportation across the continent and around the world. As European Business Aviation usage and flight hours continue their upward trend, this resurgent industry will again be on proud display at the 2019 European Business Aviation Convention & Exhibition (EBACE) taking place 21-23 May in Geneva, Switzerland. Jointly hosted by the European Business Aviation Association (EBAA), the leading association for Business Aviation in Europe, and the National Business Aviation Association (NBAA), the leading voice for the industry in the United States, EBACE2019 offers the important opportunity to speak directly with representatives with hundreds of companies. Business aircraft manufacturers, avionics firms, handling organizations, fractional providers, charter/lease companies and aircraft resellers will display their latest products and services, and get critical business done for the year ahead. A short distance away at Geneva International Airport, more than 50 of the most advanced business aircraft available will be on static display â€“ including mid-range
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and intercontinental jets, piston-engine and turboprop aircraft and helicopters â€“ providing attendees an opportunity to examine a vast range of aircraft of all sizes and for all missions. Offering a dynamic glimpse at the diversity of our industry, EBACE is always a must-attend show for Business Aviation professionals and end-users. That includes those new to the industry who may just be starting to explore how Business Aviation may benefit their companies, and attendees of all experience levels will find something exciting and new on the exhibit floor, static display and high-quality education sessions focused on issues of particular importance to European Business Aviation users and operators. Thousands of business leaders, government officials, manufacturers, flight department personnel and all manner of people involved in nearly every aspect of the industry will be on hand to view a wide array of aircraft and aviation products in a single location and host a wide variety of exciting new products and features. Surprise appearances and announcements are expected before a global audience, including hundreds of media representatives from news organizations from around the world.
/U.S.A. TRANS-ATLANTIC NBAA SUPPORTS BILL TO CONTINUE FAA FUNDING IN EVENT OF GOVERNMENT SHUTDOWN
EBACE2019 will also continue its important role in promoting dialogue between regulatory authorities and business leaders in the region about the benefits of Business Aviation, including an impressive roster of speakers from across the European aviation spectrum who will offer their thoughts about the state of Business Aviation across the continent. Europe’s Business Aviation community has continually demonstrated its significance and resilience in the face of multiple regional and global challenges. The growth of EBACE year after year demonstrates this strength, as well as the growing relevance of Business Aviation in Europe. The inaugural EBACE featured approximately 200 exhibitors, and 30 aircraft on static display; by comparison, last year’s event drew 418 exhibitors, close to 60 aircraft on display, and attendees from approximately 100 countries across the European region and beyond. EBACE2019 promises to continue that tradition of growth and will unquestionably serve as the focal point for Business Aviation worldwide, as industry stakeholders come to Geneva to discuss matters affecting the global aviation community. On behalf of NBAA, I hope to see you in Geneva for this premier event, and an important opportunity to further the development of Business Aviation across Europe and around the world.
On February 8, the National Business Aviation Association (NBAA) welcomed legislation to continue funding the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) during a government shutdown. House Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure Chairman Peter DeFazio (D-4-OR) and Aviation Subcommittee Chairman Rick Larsen (D-2-WA) introduced the bill, which allows the FAA to continue to be funded out of the Airport and Airway Trust Fund. "Aviation is among the nation's most regulated industries, requiring oversight and a host of services from the FAA," said NBAA President and CEO Ed Bolen. "This bill would help ensure that aviation - a key component in the nation's economy and transportation system - will avoid a potentially harmful disruption in the event of a government shutdown." During this year's partial government shutdown - the longest in the country's history - money continued to be paid into the Airport and Airway Trust Fund, but none could be used to fund the FAA, or pay the agency's employees. The DeFazio legislation would allow, during times of government shutdowns, for money from the fund to pay for the agency's continued operations. The trust fund helps pay for FAA investments in the airport and airway system, such as construction and safety improvements at airports, technological upgrades to the air traffic control
system, and FAA operations, including providing air traffic control and conducting safety inspections. During January's partial government shutdown, NBAA joined more than 30 aviation industry groups and unions urging the federal government to end the shutdown, citing its harmful effects on the industry. Thousands of FAA employees were furloughed, and the shutdown delayed certifications, training and placing new aircraft in service. "Civil aviation supports more than 7 percent of the US gross domestic product (GDP) and $1.5 trillion of economic impact, creating over 11.5 million jobs, but this shutdown is hampering our ability to function effectively," the groups wrote in a joint letter. The letter cited several areas of concern to the industry, including: ❍ Hardships faced by FAA staff, air traffic controllers and others aviation industry professionals working without pay. ❍ With fewer transportation security officers available to screen travelers at checkpoints, wait times will grow and larger crowds will be forced to congregate in public areas of airports. ❍ The suspension of air traffic controller training, slowing the arrival of new workers to a system already at a 30-year low. ❍ The curtailing of general aviation aircraft certification and work on safety-related airworthiness directives.
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BUSINESS AVIATION THE STATE OF THE INDUSTRY From data provided by JetNet LLC and insights from the likes of
United States . . . . . . . . . .21339
Mexico . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1414 Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1359
Volker K. Thomalla takes
. . . . . . . . . . . . .765
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .750
of the global business aircraft fleet
T In 2018, Gulfstream delivered the 300th aircraft in the G650 family (top). Emirates Executive Jet (below).
Brazil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1539
and Jetcraft, stock on the state
TOP TEN BUSINESS FLEETS BY COUNTRY
he good news: according to new market intelligence, the worldwide business aircraft turbine fleet is growing. The better news: this growth is set to become more dynamic in the near future. According to JetNet LLC, the leading provider of corporate aviation statistics, between December 31st 2017 and December 31st 2018, the global business aircraft fleet grew by 1.4%, from 37,284 units to 37,792. This includes 22,273 jets and 15,519 turboprop-powered aircraft – representing a split that has remained roughly the same over the last decade. Concurring to the Jet Support Services, Inc. (JSSI) Business
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Australia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .628 United Kingdom . . . . . . . . .502 France . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .450 China . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .447
Aviation Index for the third quarter of 2018, Business Aviation flight activity continuously increased from 2017 to 2018. This increase was seen in all regions except Asia. Furthermore, the majority of mid- to long-term demand is coming from new aircraft sales, as older aircraft need more maintenance and thus become less attractive to operate. The JSSI index tracks utilization of approximately 2,000 business aircraft worldwide and reports average flight hours flown on a monthly basis by region, industry and cabin type. This data supports the trend of sustained growth in flight activity. According to JSSI’s data, average flight hours exceeded the 30-hour ceiling for the second consecutive quarter, reaching levels not seen since 2008 when the global financial crisis began and flight hours took a deep dive. “This positive trend in aircraft utilization demonstrates a high level of confidence in current economic conditions,” says Neil W. Book, president and CEO of JSSI. “The continued growth this year, with back-to-back quarters of flight hour averages not seen since 2008 and a year-over-year increase of 5.7 percent, is a testament to today’s demand for private travel.” Honeywell Aerospace traditionally releases its annual Global Business
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JET SUMMARY BY MODEL MFG/MODEL TOTAL EUROPE AIRBUS A310-200 1 1 AIRBUS A310-300 16 9 AIRBUS A320-200 15 2 AIRBUS A330-200 2 0 AIRBUS A340-200 7 0 AIRBUS A340-300X 2 2 AIRBUS A340-500 4 0 AIRBUS A340-600 2 0 AIRBUS ACJ318 20 6 AIRBUS ACJ319 65 29 AIRBUS ACJ320 14 0 AIRBUS ACJ330 3 1 ASTRA 1125 28 0 ASTRA 1125SP 31 0 ASTRA 1125SPX 55 3 AVRO RJ-70 1 1 BAE 146-100 4 3 BAE 146-200 2 0 BEECHJET 400 38 0 BEECHJET 400A 277 20 BOEING 707-120B 3 0 BOEING 707-320 7 1 BOEING 707-320B 10 1 BOEING 707-320C 17 1 BOEING 727-100 19 1 BOEING 727-200 1 0 BOEING 727-200 ADVANCED 16 3 BOEING 737-200 4 0 BOEING 737-200 ADVANCED 12 2 BOEING 737-300 9 3 BOEING 737-400 3 0 BOEING 737-500 5 0 BOEING 737-700 2 0 BOEING 737-700C 10 0 BOEING 737-800 6 1 BOEING 747-200B 2 0 BOEING 747-300 1 0 BOEING 747-400 6 0 BOEING 747-400M 1 0 BOEING 747-8I 3 0 BOEING 747SP 8 0 BOEING 757-200 17 2 BOEING 767-200 1 0 BOEING 767-200ER 6 1 BOEING 767-300ER 4 1 BOEING 767-400ER 1 0 BOEING 777-200 1 0 BOEING 777-200ER 2 0 BOEING 777-200LR 1 0 BOEING 777-300ER 1 0 BOEING 787-8 7 0 BOEING 787-9 2 1 BOEING BBJ 128 21 BOEING BBJ MAX 8 1 0 BOEING BBJ2 22 3 BOEING BBJ3 7 1 BOEING BBJ747-8 4 0 BOMBARDIER CRJ100 6 1 BOMBARDIER CRJ200 12 5 BOMBARDIER CRJ700 4 0 CHALLENGER 300 448 31 CHALLENGER 350 259 44 CHALLENGER 600 65 0 CHALLENGER 601-1A 44 1 CHALLENGER 601-3A 124 7 CHALLENGER 601-3R 56 3 CHALLENGER 604 350 55 CHALLENGER 605 280 45 CHALLENGER 650 78 16
CHALLENGER 800 CHALLENGER 850 CHALLENGER 870 CHALLENGER 890 CIRRUS VISION SF50 CITATION 500 CITATION 525 CITATION BRAVO CITATION CJ1 CITATION CJ1+ CITATION CJ2 CITATION CJ2+ CITATION CJ3 CITATION CJ3+ CITATION CJ4 CITATION ENCORE CITATION ENCORE+ CITATION EXCEL CITATION I CITATION I/SP CITATION II CITATION II/SP CITATION III CITATION LATITUDE CITATION M2 CITATION MUSTANG CITATION S/II CITATION SOVEREIGN CITATION SOVEREIGN+ CITATION ULTRA CITATION V CITATION VI CITATION VII CITATION X CITATION X+ CITATION XLS CITATION XLS+ DIAMOND I DIAMOND IA DORNIER 328JET DORNIER ENVOY 3 ECLIPSE 550 ECLIPSE EA500 EMBRAER ERJ-135 EMBRAER LEGACY 450 EMBRAER LEGACY 500 EMBRAER LEGACY 600 EMBRAER LEGACY 650 EMBRAER LEGACY 650E EMBRAER LEGACY SHUTTLE EMBRAER LINEAGE 1000 EMBRAER LINEAGE 1000E EMBRAER PHENOM 100 EMBRAER PHENOM 100E EMBRAER PHENOM 100EV EMBRAER PHENOM 300 EMBRAER PHENOM 300E FALCON 10 FALCON 100 FALCON 200 FALCON 2000 FALCON 2000DX FALCON 2000EX FALCON 2000EX EASy FALCON 2000LX FALCON 2000LXS FALCON 2000S FALCON 20C FALCON 20C-5 FALCON 20D
AS OF DECEMBER 31, 2018 9 70 10 3 70 196 341 317 194 102 234 223 408 114 280 161 61 357 20 276 522 68 181 161 206 454 144 343 81 272 249 35 113 301 29 327 250 1 41 12 11 31 252 2 41 69 168 91 7 18 18 8 291 49 22 453 22 92 27 24 225 4 26 101 130 78 40 57 14 23
0 29 1 0 5 18 63 33 33 27 44 58 45 9 34 3 4 22 5 23 48 14 9 21 33 84 3 29 8 7 5 3 10 16 0 61 64 0 2 3 5 4 22 0 5 10 48 25 5 1 0 1 38 8 2 79 5 8 5 3 17 0 5 24 24 21 10 20 3 7
FALCON 20D-5 FALCON 20E FALCON 20E-5 FALCON 20F FALCON 20F-5 FALCON 20G FALCON 50 FALCON 50-40 FALCON 50EX FALCON 7X FALCON 8X FALCON 900 FALCON 900C FALCON 900DX FALCON 900EX FALCON 900EX EASy FALCON 900LX FOKKER 100 FOKKER 70 GLOBAL 5000 GLOBAL 6000 GLOBAL EXPRESS GLOBAL EXPRESS XRS GULFSTREAM G100 GULFSTREAM G150 GULFSTREAM G200 GULFSTREAM G280 GULFSTREAM G300 GULFSTREAM G350 GULFSTREAM G400 GULFSTREAM G450 GULFSTREAM G500 GULFSTREAM G-500 GULFSTREAM G550 GULFSTREAM G650 GULFSTREAM G650ER GULFSTREAM G-II GULFSTREAM G-IIB GULFSTREAM G-III GULFSTREAM G-IV GULFSTREAM G-IVSP GULFSTREAM G-V HAWKER 1000A HAWKER 1000B HAWKER 125-1A HAWKER 125-1AS HAWKER 125-1B HAWKER 125-3A HAWKER 125-3A/RA HAWKER 125-3A/RAS HAWKER 125-3AS HAWKER 125-3B HAWKER 125-3B/RAS HAWKER 125-400A HAWKER 125-400AS HAWKER 125-400B HAWKER 125-400BS HAWKER 125-600A HAWKER 125-600AS HAWKER 125-600B HAWKER 125-700A HAWKER 125-700B HAWKER 4000 HAWKER 400XP HAWKER 400XPR HAWKER 750 HAWKER 800A HAWKER 800B HAWKER 800XP HAWKER 800XPI
2 32 11 70 68 5 201 8 100 268 38 169 25 22 115 114 69 3 1 215 267 143 152 22 123 236 150 13 10 23 343 5 9 553 210 110 66 24 127 173 296 191 41 4 8 6 10 1 4 1 1 7 1 12 18 12 3 11 5 2 127 23 69 214 5 47 198 44 404 49
0 13 4 7 2 5 25 0 10 97 22 25 4 8 18 22 16 2 0 50 99 28 46 2 7 22 12 1 0 1 25 0 0 64 39 7 0 0 0 4 7 6 3 3 1 0 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 5 12 7 13 0 11 4 7 25 10
TURBOPROPS HAWKER 850XP HAWKER 900XP HONDAJET ELITE HONDAJET HA-420 JET COMMANDER 1121 JET COMMANDER 1121B JETSTAR 6 JETSTAR 731 JETSTAR 8 JETSTAR II LEARJET 23 LEARJET 24 LEARJET 24A LEARJET 24B LEARJET 24D LEARJET 24E LEARJET 24F LEARJET 25 LEARJET 25B LEARJET 25C LEARJET 25D LEARJET 25G LEARJET 28 LEARJET 29 LEARJET 31 LEARJET 31A LEARJET 35 LEARJET 35A LEARJET 36 LEARJET 36A LEARJET 40 LEARJET 40XR LEARJET 45 LEARJET 45XR LEARJET 55 LEARJET 55B LEARJET 55C LEARJET 60 LEARJET 60XR LEARJET 70 LEARJET 75 MCDD DC-8-62H MCDD DC-9-10 MCDD MD-81 MCDD MD-83 MCDD MD-87 NEXTANT 400XT NEXTANT 400XTi PILATUS PC-24 PREMIER I PREMIER IA SABRELINER 40 SABRELINER 40A SABRELINER 40EL SABRELINER 40R SABRELINER 60 SABRELINER 60A SABRELINER 60EL SABRELINER 60ELXM SABRELINER 60EX SABRELINER 60SCELXM SABRELINER 65 SABRELINER 80 SABRELINER 80A SABRELINER 80SC SUKHOI SBJ SYBERJET SJ30-2 WESTWIND 1 WESTWIND 1123 WESTWIND 1124 WESTWIND 2 Total Jets
98 176 1 84 6 4 1 5 3 13 9 20 1 12 39 10 8 11 45 7 101 3 4 2 31 192 34 404 15 37 36 90 236 201 104 7 12 297 110 14 116 2 5 1 2 10 27 34 12 119 152 7 18 4 1 23 2 2 20 2 2 59 18 2 5 4 4 83 4 29 67
12 16 0 8 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 8 1 47 0 4 8 5 20 11 6 1 0 19 13 0 11 1 0 0 1 1 8 8 4 17 25 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
MFG/MODEL AVANTI EVO AVANTI II AVANTI P180 CARAVAN 208 CARAVAN 208B CARAVAN 208B EX CHEYENNE 400 CHEYENNE I CHEYENNE IA CHEYENNE II CHEYENNE III CHEYENNE IIIA CHEYENNE IIXL CONQUEST I CONQUEST II DE HAVILLAND DHC-2T DE HAVILLAND DHC-3T GULFSTREAM G-I JETSTREAM 31 JETSTREAM 32 JETSTREAM 41 KING AIR 100 KING AIR 200 KING AIR 200C KING AIR 200T KING AIR 250 KING AIR 300 KING AIR 300LW KING AIR 350 KING AIR 350C KING AIR 350ER KING AIR 350i KING AIR 350iER KING AIR 90 KING AIR A/B90 KING AIR A100 KING AIR A200 KING AIR A90 KING AIR A90-1 KING AIR B100 KING AIR B200 KING AIR B200C KING AIR B200CGT KING AIR B200CT KING AIR B200GT KING AIR B200SE KING AIR B200T KING AIR B90 KING AIR C90 KING AIR C90-1 KING AIR C90A KING AIR C90B KING AIR C90GT KING AIR C90GTi KING AIR C90GTx KING AIR C90SE KING AIR E90 KING AIR F90 KING AIR F90-1 KODIAK 100 MERLIN 300 MERLIN IIB MERLIN III MERLIN IIIA MERLIN IIIB MERLIN IIIC MERLIN IV MERLIN IV-A MERLIN IV-C MITSUBISHI MARQUISE
TOTAL EUROPE 7 6 123 48 88 40 477 42 1.577 86 409 7 39 3 164 12 17 3 323 33 69 5 47 9 72 6 203 16 299 6 59 1 88 0 45 1 72 10 112 17 81 24 43 0 656 44 27 1 18 3 203 29 200 3 18 5 672 31 72 7 41 7 389 22 10 4 20 1 12 0 92 3 214 1 67 2 110 2 108 1 1.071 87 118 5 1 0 8 0 114 9 5 1 22 1 94 4 411 30 39 0 217 13 412 22 95 1 120 12 161 15 16 0 269 10 186 3 29 2 214 7 9 1 31 4 22 1 34 5 52 4 21 3 5 1 15 3 16 4 82 1
Jet Fleet Europe World
12 % 88 %
Turboprops Fleet Europe 8.4 % World 91.6 %
Total Fleet Europe 10.5 % World 89.5 % MITSUBISHI MU-2C 16 MITSUBISHI MU-2D 1 MITSUBISHI MU-2F 29 MITSUBISHI MU-2G 1 MITSUBISHI MU-2J 19 MITSUBISHI MU-2K 35 MITSUBISHI MU-2L 11 MITSUBISHI MU-2M 19 MITSUBISHI MU-2N 23 MITSUBISHI MU-2P 26 MITSUBISHI MU-2S 17 MITSUBISHI SOLITAIRE 39 PILATUS PC-12 NG 805 PILATUS PC-12/45 560 PILATUS PC-12/47 199 PIPER M500 57 PIPER M600 74 PIPER MALIBU JETPROP 277 PIPER MERIDIAN 546 SOCATA TBM-700A 104 SOCATA TBM-700B 82 SOCATA TBM-700C1 5 SOCATA TBM-700C2 96 SOCATA TBM-850 328 SOCATA TBM-900 108 SOCATA TBM-910 12 SOCATA TBM-930 116 STARSHIP 2000A 5 TURBO COMMANDER 1000 95 TURBO COMMANDER 690 42 TURBO COMMANDER 690A 171 TURBO COMMANDER 690B 174 TURBO COMMANDER 840 97 TURBO COMMANDER 900 32 TURBO COMMANDER 980 66 Total TurboProp 15.519 Grand Total 37.240
0 0 0 0 0 5 0 3 0 2 0 2 146 35 12 8 7 64 84 34 10 3 7 43 9 1 10 1 1 1 9 3 4 0 2 1.296 3.981
AUSTRALIA & OCEANIA
Country Australia Cook Islands Fiji French Polynesia Guam Kiribati Marshall Islands New Caledonia New Zealand Papua New Guinea Saipan Samoa Tahiti Vanuatu Total
Total 628 1 5 7 4 1 2 7 78 25 1 5 0 2 766
Executive* 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 3
Jet 200 1 0 1 0 0 2 2 18 3 0 1 0 0 228
Turb. 426 0 5 6 4 1 0 5 59 22 1 4 0 2 535
NORTH AMERICA Country Total Bahamas 38 Barbados 9 Belize 24 Bermuda 8 Canada 1359 Cayman Islands 16 Costa Rica 37 Dominican Republic 64 El Salvador 7 Greenland 3 Guadeloupe 6 Guatemala 109 Haiti 2 Honduras 34 Jamaica 9 Martinique 1 Mexico 1414 Nicaragua 7 Panama 109 Puerto Rico 45 Saint Kitts and Nevis 3 Saint Vincent-Grenadines 5 Sint Maarten 1 Trinidad and Tobago 2 Turks and Caicos Islands 3 United States 21339 Virgin Islands (British) 20 Virgin Islands (U.S.) 15 West Indies 7 Total 24705
Executive* Jet 0 18 0 6 0 3 0 8 11 529 0 14 0 10 0 42 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 33 0 0 0 8 0 7 0 0 5 971 0 2 0 36 0 22 0 0 0 3 0 1 0 1 0 2 93 13330 2 13 0 8 0 2 112 15080
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Turb. 20 3 21 0 819 2 27 22 4 3 6 76 2 26 2 1 438 5 73 23 3 2 0 1 1 7916 5 7 5 9513
Country Total Albania 1 Austria 192 Belarus 4 Belgium 104 Bosnia and Herzegovina 2 Bulgaria 25 Channel Islands 2 Croatia 12 Cyprus 15 Czech Republic 101 Denmark 77 Estonia 18 Finland 29 France 450 France Metropolitan 6 Germany 750 Gibraltar 3 Greece 34 Guernsey 8 Hungary 21 Iceland 7 Ireland 28 Isle of Man 32 Italy 170 Jersey 2 Latvia 9 Liechtenstein 2 Lithuania 11 Luxembourg 85 Macedonia 2 Malta 133 Monaco 5 Montenegro 2 Netherlands 79 Northern Ireland 3 Norway 47 Poland 61 Portugal 121 Romania 17 Russian Federation 195 San Marino 38 Scotland 1 Serbia 30 Slovak Republic 20 Slovenia 15 Spain 149 Sweden 84 Switzerland 256 Ukraine 21 United Kingdom 502 Total 3981
Country Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Curacao Ecuador Guyana Paraguay Peru Suriname Uruguay Venezuela Total
Executive* Jet 0 1 0 153 0 2 0 59 0 2 1 15 0 1 0 7 0 12 0 66 1 57 0 11 0 15 6 248 0 4 8 480 0 3 0 18 1 5 0 13 0 0 0 20 0 18 0 99 0 2 0 8 0 1 2 9 1 47 0 2 3 124 0 4 0 2 1 37 0 1 0 16 0 36 0 118 1 11 4 162 1 33 0 0 0 23 2 16 0 12 3 105 0 43 5 168 0 16 10 330 50 2635
Total Executive* Jet 360 1 188 33 1 9 1539 2 743 130 4 49 351 0 49 4 0 2 41 0 17 20 0 1 91 1 20 56 1 12 7 0 0 12 0 4 765 2 329 3409 12 1423
Turb. 0 39 2 45 0 9 1 5 3 35 19 7 14 196 2 262 0 16 2 8 7 8 14 71 0 1 1 0 37 0 6 1 0 41 2 31 25 3 5 29 4 1 7 2 3 41 41 83 5 162 1296
Turb. 171 23 794 77 302 2 24 19 70 43 7 8 434 1974
Country Afghanistan Armenia Azerbaijan Bahrain Bangladesh Brunei Cambodia China Georgia Hong Kong India Indonesia Iran Iraq Israel Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Lebanon Macau Malaysia Maldives Mongolia Myanmar Nepal Oman Pakistan Philippines Qatar Saudi Arabia Singapore South Korea Sri Lanka Syria Taiwan Tajikistan Thailand Turkey Turkmenistan United Arab Emirates Uzbekistan Vietnam Yemen Total
ASIA Total 32 1 14 12 8 4 1 447 3 139 253 154 48 18 97 262 30 35 25 1 3 21 6 90 1 4 3 9 15 55 110 30 177 64 50 6 2 31 1 86 165 5 140 3 6 2 2669
Executive* Jet 0 0 0 1 1 13 4 6 0 1 3 1 0 1 5 299 0 3 0 133 3 164 0 46 5 23 0 1 14 44 5 88 1 20 1 29 4 18 0 1 0 1 1 17 1 5 2 59 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 3 12 1 31 2 54 3 26 23 123 1 52 2 31 0 0 0 2 2 22 0 1 3 37 3 124 0 5 5 105 3 0 0 1 0 0 101 1601
Turb. 32 0 0 2 7 0 0 143 0 6 86 108 20 17 39 169 9 5 3 0 2 3 0 29 1 4 2 9 0 23 54 1 31 11 17 6 0 7 0 46 38 0 30 0 5 2 967
Country Total Algeria 41 Angola 76 Benin 1 Botswana 57 Burkina Faso 6 Burundi 1 Cameroon 8 Canary Islands 2 Central African Republic 6 Chad 9 Comoros 2 Congo 7 Cote d''Ivoire 5 Dem. Republic of Congo 29 Djibouti 2 Egypt 42 Equatorial Guinea 5 Eritrea 2 Ethiopia 12 Gabon 9 Gambia 4 Ghana 11 Guinea 1 Guinea-Bissau 1 Kenya 131 Liberia 2 Libya 14 Madagascar 23 Malawi 3 Mali Republic 5 Mauritania 7 Mauritius 19 Morocco 50 Mozambique 11 Namibia 31 Niger 8 Nigeria 100 Sao Tome and Principe 1 Senegal 10 Seychelles Islands 3 Sierra Leone 1 South Africa 416 Sudan 12 Swaziland 2 Tanzania 88 Togo 8 Tunisia 2 Uganda 24 Zambia 24 Zimbabwe 13 1347 Total
Executive* Jet 0 11 5 27 0 0 0 4 0 1 0 1 1 2 0 2 0 0 1 3 0 0 0 3 0 2 3 13 1 1 1 37 1 4 0 1 0 0 1 5 2 2 0 6 0 0 0 0 2 11 0 0 1 8 0 2 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 6 1 32 0 4 0 10 0 1 0 86 0 1 1 2 0 1 0 0 1 141 0 5 1 1 0 4 1 3 0 2 0 1 0 2 0 1 26 450
Turb. 30 44 1 53 5 0 5 0 6 5 2 4 3 13 0 4 0 1 12 3 0 5 1 1 118 2 5 21 3 3 6 13 17 7 21 7 14 0 7 2 1 274 7 0 84 4 0 23 22 12 871
*Executive aircraft are airliner aircraft converted to private business use, excluding models originally meant for business use.
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FLEET REPORT 12 MONTH WORLDWIDE TURBINE FLEET 2017
Australia & Oceania South America
Textron Aviation further enhanced Cessna Grand Caravan EX with new flight deck features.
Aviation Outlook on the eve of NBAABACE, which took place in October in Orlando, Florida. (The Outlook excludes personal and very light lights like the Cirrus SF50 Vision, bizliners and turboprop aircraft). This was the 32nd issue of the Outlook – of which 27 were released to the public. This year, Honeywell’s market researchers say that the future looks bright. According to the report: “The business jet industry is expected to experience strong growth in the short to medium term, supported by several new airplane models coming to market and an improved used aircraft environment.” The research team forecasts up to 7,700 new business jet deliveries, worth $251 billion, from 2019 to 2028 – up 1 to 2% from the 2017 10-year forecast. “A better used-aircraft market environment, coupled with the entry into service of many new business jet platforms, will lead to higher deliveries in 2019 after a virtually flat year in 2018,” says Bill Kircos, vice president, Global Marketing, Honeywell Aerospace. “We are excited about the used market and about new and innovative aircraft models that will not only drive solid growth in 2019 and 2020, but also have a significant impact on new business jet purchases in the mid and long term.” Key findings in Honeywell’s 2018 Outlook include that operators plan to make new jet purchases equivalent to about 20% of their fleets over the next five years as either replacements or additions to their current fleet. This represents a 1% increase compared to what was predicted in the 2017 Outlook. The short-term purchasing outlook is rather promising for the OEMs: of the total purchase plans for
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new business jets, no less than 14% are expected to occur by the end of 2019 and another 16% by 2020, with yet another 24% scheduled for 2021. According to Honeywell, operators continue to prefer larger-cabin aircraft, ranging from the super midsize through ultra-Long range, which are expected to account for more than 87% of all expenditures and 62% of all units of new business jets in the next five years. Midsize business jets will account for 10% of all units (7% value), while small cabin jets will only account for 6% of all expenditures, but 28% of all new business jets. As the used aircraft market has improved, the average asking prices have increased slightly compared with 2017. The total number of jets for sale that are less than 10 years old is significantly lower than in previous years. Honeywell finds that only 5% of the younger jets in the installed base are currently for sale. This is well below the historical average of about 8% that was reached in 2017 for the first time since the recent recession – very positive news for new business jet sales. In
North America, the decline in young used aircraft inventories has led to a record-low of only 4% of the installed base being for sale, while Asia has the highest percentage of recent model used aircraft for sale, at slightly more than 7% of its installed base. Honeywell’s longer-term forecast through 2028 projects a 3-4% average annual growth rate for business aircraft deliveries. “New models with improved economic performance and anticipated favorable exchange rates for international customers will spur the growth,” notes the Outlook.
Fleets Around the Globe North America will maintain its market dominance in the foreseeable future. The region not only features the largest installed fleet, with 21,339 aircraft in the US and 1,314 aircraft in Canada (together representing 65% of the global fleet), it will also feature the highest global demand. Honeywell estimates that 61% of the global business aircraft demand in the next five years will come from North American operators. It comes as no surprise that the short-term demand will be higher in this region, too. About 36% of operators responding to the survey plan to schedule their new purchases within the first two years of a five-year horizon. This is 3% lower than last year’s survey, but much higher than the worldwide average of 30%. The European Business Aircraft fleet increased by 2.2% last year, to 3,981units, including 1,296 turboprop aircraft. European operators don’t seem to be too impressed with the uncertainties surrounding Brexit, as they have increased their new jet purchase plans significantly. In fact,
according to Honeywell, purchase expectations in Europe have increased to close to 33%. This is a 14% increase compared to 2017. But European operators are more cautious about the timing than their North American counterparts. Only 26% of new jet purchases are expected in the next two years (2019 and 2020), while more than 45% are scheduled for 2022 and beyond. Purchase intentions in Europe are the highest in the United Kingdom and Germany. Germany was surprisingly active this year, once again expanding its fleet by 24 aircraft from 726 to 750 units – representing a 3.5% growth rate. France regained a position in the ranking of the top ten business fleets by countries. The country’s 2018 increase in turbine business aircraft, from 432 aircraft to 450, secured it a number eight ranking, ahead of China with 446 aircraft and bumping South Africa out. The United Kingdom held its number eight position in the ranking with 502 aircraft, an increase of 10 aircraft in 2018. If Russia ever comes back as a market, it will certainly add some considerable demand to the forecast and thus have a positive influence on the overall market. The Asia-Pacific region has a fleet of 2,670 turbine. This represents a decrease of 1.2% compared to 2017 – the result of a decrease in the Chinese business aircraft fleet. The
BUSINESS JETS FORECAST - DELIVERY VALUE
BUSINESS JET DELIVERY FORECAST IN UNITS
region features the lowest purchase plans in five years. According to Honeywell’s market research, it is impacted by unfavorable exchange rates and geopolitics. The US – China trade conflict could be an issue in the near future, potentially influencing new aircraft sales. The good news is that this decrease in numbers seems to be a one-time thing, as Honeywell’s Market Outlook forecasts stable new jet acquisition plans for the region. 12% of operators in the Asia Pacific region plan to acquire new business jets over the next five years, representing a 7% share of global new jet demand. And despite a setback this year, there really isn’t any doubt that in the longterm China remains a very promising market for all types of business aircraft.
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According to Honeywell, operators continue to prefer largercabin aircraft.
FLEET REPORT NEW JET PURCHASE PLANS BY AIRCRAFT CLASS
The Australian Royal Flying Doctor Service operates nearly 10% of the region’s fleet.
According to JetNet’s 2018 statistics, South America has a business aircraft population of 3,409 aircraft, of which 1,974 units are powered by turboprop engines. Compared to 2017, this is a healthy increase of about 1.4% or 50 units. The year before, the region experienced a slight decrease in business aircraft numbers. This turn-around correlates with a significant increase in aircraft purchase plans in Brazil. The country, which accounts for nearly half of the Latin American business aircraft fleet, recorded twice as many mentions for new aircraft purchase plans in Honeywell’s 2018 Outlook compared to the previous year. Venezuela has the second-largest business aircraft fleet in Latin America, with 765 units. Surprisingly enough, this number did not fluctuate despite the deep political and economic crisis the country is experiencing. In fact, the country held its number five position in the top ten business fleet ranking. Middle East and Africa are suffering from political tensions between, for example, Saudi Arabia and Qatar, to name just one conflict. Honeywell projects a share of only 4% of the global demand coming from this region. This number is at the lower end of the historical range of 4 to 7% attributed to the Middle East and Africa. Larger-cabin aircraft up to bizliners dominate this regional market, whereas midsize and light jets are a clear minority and – as it is the case for light jets – are mostly used for training. 14% of respondents to Honeywell’s survey said they will replace or add to their fleet with a new jet purchase, down from 18% last year, with most planning their acquisitions past the five-year horizon.
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Australia and Oceana have a population of 766 business aircraft, of which 231 are powered by jet engines and 535 by turboprop engines. This is an increase of 21 aircraft, which is in-line with increases in recent years. Down-under follows a slow, but steady growth path that should continue for years to come. This is because business aircraft in Australia play a vital role in providing medical support to people living in remote locations. The Royal Flying Doctor Service (RFDS) operates 71 aircraft alone, nearly 10% of the whole
TOP REASONS FOR NEW JET MODEL CHOICE 2018 SURVEY
region’s fleet! The most recent type in the RFDS fleet is the Pilatus PC-24, which was delivered by the Swiss manufacturer in December 2018. Nowhere else has such a high percentage of business aircraft being used in humanitarian services than in Australia.
REGIONAL DEMAND FOR NEW JETS IN THE NEXT 5 YEARS
Jetcraft Optimistic in its Outlook Jetcraft, a global leader in Business Aircraft sales and acquisitions, released its 10-year market outlook for the business aircraft industry in October last year. Their outlook is even more optimistic than Honeywell’s. Jahid Fazal-Karim, Owner and Chairman of the Board at Jetcraft, sees 2018 as a milestone year: “2018 has been a real turning point for Business Aviation, as we
PURCHASE PLANS BY AIRCRAFT CLASS
Honeywell International have now successfully navigated through our industry’s most difficult period. This year’s forecast predicts the continuation of our current business cycle of steady and healthy growth, driven by an increase in wealth creation and the demand for larger and more expensive aircraft.” Jetcraft forecasts deliveries of 8,736 units over the next 10 years, representing $271bn in revenues based on 2018 pricing. North America will clearly continue to lead, accounting for 60% (5,241 units) of predicted new deliveries over the forecast period, with Europe expecting 18% (1,572 aircraft), and Asia-Pacific 13% (1,136 units). The increase in wealth creation over the past decade has – according to Jetcraft – spurred growth in family offices that are now offering a wide variety of specialized services, including Business Aviation. Together with the increase in block charter and frac-
tional programs, Jetcraft says this is exposing more UHNWIs to the industry than ever before. Their forecast predicts that the large jet category, comprising of super large, ultra-long range and bizliner segments, will constitute 32% of total units (2,778) and 64% of total revenue over the next decade. All new aircraft model programs, both announced and projected, during the forecast period are exclusively widebodies. “Predicted unit deliveries in the large jet category account for a huge proportion of total revenues in the industry, demonstrating the trend towards larger, long range aircraft to support today’s global business needs,” adds Fazal-Karim says. A Buyer’s Shopping List Honeywell’s market researchers note that modern, high-tech avionics are high on the business aircraft
buyer’s priority list. This is for obvious reasons: New regulations like the upcoming ADS-B mandate in the United States, Canada and Europe will speed up the need for replacing older business aircraft. The final rule dictates that effective January 1, 2020, aircraft operating in airspace defined in 91.225 are required to have an Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast (ADS-B) system that includes a certified position source capable of meeting the requirements. This regulation goes into effect less than a year from now and there will be no extension to the deadline. For some older aircraft like the first generation of business jets, there are just no economically viable solutions to make them compliant. In other words, they must be retired and replaced by aircraft that meet ADS-B requirements.
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The ADS-B mandate will speed up the need for replacing older business aircraft.
FLEET REPORT Another factor that buyers must consider when choosing an aircraft model is faster cruise speed, with most buyers requiring Mach 0.85. Buyers want aircraft to go faster because they want to fly further. Thus, extended range is a factor that has become more and more important, not only in the long-range and ultra long-range class, but in every class. The OEMs are responding accordingly by extending the range when updating an aircraft. But operators are also cautious about operating cost. Thus, these new jets not only have to offer better performance, more comfort and a higher productivity, they also need to provide better reliability and maintainability than their predecessors. And not to be forgotten on the modern buyer’s shopping list is a lower fuel burn. All of these factors are taken for granted, but the overwhelming deciding factor for a buyer already operating an aircraft is brand experience. If the aircraft support and service functions according to the operator’s expectations, the OEM can expand a very high degree of brand loyalty. If something does not work as expected with a product, brand loyalty is less important. New Kids on the Block The number of aircraft models that owners and operators can choose from is still rising. With new business aircraft from several manufacturers in development and/or in the certification process, the choice will become even harder. Textron Aviation has the largest installed aircraft fleet of all OEMs. The company just achieved provisional type certification (PTC) for its newest supermidsize jet, the Citation Longitude. It will set new standards in its class. NetJets has announced its intention to purchase up to 175 aircraft of this type during NBAA-BACE in October. Textron is also working on the Citation Hemisphere, the largest ever-built Citation. However, the company has paused the development of the aircraft type due to technical problems with Safran’s Silvercrest turbofan, but Textron is optimistic that the French engine manufacturer will solve the prob-
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lems and provide them with a reliable engine that meets all specifications. The company will decide how to proceed with the new jet in July of this year. The problems with the Silvercrest engine led to the cancellation of Dassault Aviation’s planned Falcon 5X. In February 2018, Dassault presented the successor, the Falcon 6X, which will be powered by two PW800 PurePower turbofans from Pratt & Whitney Canada. The Falcon 6X features the tallest and widest cabin in Business Aviation and a 5,500 nautical miles range. The PW800 also powers Gulfstream’s newest offerings in the market, the G500 and the G600. While the G500 was certified in July 2018 – and has since been delivered to its first North American and international customers – the G600 is still in the final stage of FAA-certification. It is scheduled for an entry-into-service this year. Bombardier Business Aircraft has finished certification of its largest Business Jet, the Global 7500, in November 2018 and started deliveries a month later. The Global 7500 is the largest and longest-range business jet ever produced by the Canadian manufacturer. It offers a 7,700 nautical mile range and a four-zone cabin. In May, the company, announced two smaller siblings of its flagship, the Global 6500 and the Global 5500. Both aircraft are powered by RollsRoyce’s new Pearl 15 engine. In conjunction with some aerodynamic refinements of the wing, both longrange jets offer a top speed of Mach 0.90 and a 13% lower fuel burn. This converts to a range of 5,700 nm for the Global 5500 and 6,600 nm for the Global 6500. Both aircraft should be certified and celebrate their entry-into service later this year. On the other side of the business jet spectrum, Embraer introduced two new aircraft at NBAA-BACE in October: the Praetor 500 and the Praetor 600, which complement the OEM’s midsize line-up. According to Embraer, the aircraft will be “the most disruptive and technologically advanced aircraft to enter the midsize and super-midsize categories”. The new jets are based on the Legacy 450 and the Legacy 500, which Embraer will continue to produce. Both are
powered by two more powerful Honeywell HTF7500E turbofans and feature new winglets as well as additional fuel capacity. The 20.995 $US million Praetor 600 offers its operators a range of 3,900 nautical miles, which is an increase of 775 nm compared to the Legacy 500. The Praetor 500 features a range of 3,250 nm, an increase over the Legacy 450 range of 350 nm. The Praetor 500’s price tag shows 16.995 $US million. Embraer has also integrated new technologies into the cabin to make the aircraft more productive than ever. An Upper Tech Panel that displays flight information and offers cabin management features also available on personal devices through Honeywell Ovation Select is standard equipment, as well as highspeed connectivity through Viasat’s Ka-band with speeds of up to 16Mbps and IPTV. This has never been put in any midsize or supermidsize business jet. Pilatus Aircraft started deliveries of its PC-24 Super Versatile Jet last year. The Swiss manufacturer delivered over 20 aircraft of this type in 2018 and is expected to open the order book again later this year. The Best is Yet to Come Not taken into considerations are more visionary aircraft like the supersonic Aerion AS2, the Spike S-512 and others that will eventually become real aircraft within the next decade. While they wouldn’t produce high numbers, they would certainly change the cumulated value of the fleet. But they are not included in any of the forecasts today as there is no fixed schedule for certification or first delivery of these breakthrough business aircraft. However, each of these new aircraft will contribute in the mid- and long-term to new business jet acquisitions because they offer better economics, better performance, better connectivity and more comfort. “We’re confident that the lessons we learned over the past decade will ensure sustainable growth for Business Aviation in the years to come,” says Fazal-Karim “Ours is an enduring industry, and one with a buoyant future ahead.”
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DID BUSINESS AVIATION MISS GROWTH WINDOW IN 2018? The Business Aviation industry turned out to be strong in 2018 with propitious circumstances for a long-belated recovery in the market, Richard Koe overviews
Bombardier’s flagship Global 7500 has entered service, 8 years after its launch.
he Business Aviation sector had the wind in its sails in 2018. The US economy, still home to two thirds of the global fleet, fired on all cylinders, extending a nine years growth cycle and picking up its fastest pace since 2014. Encouraged by Trumps tax cuts, corporate profits boomed more than 20%. Critically, the taps opened on corporate capital expenditure, with industrial orders coming back after a long lag. It was the 3rd best ever year for mergers and acquisitions, as global growth and still-loose monetary conditions encouraged expansion. The number of ultra-wealthy spenders worldwide continued to outpace the economy, and the spending power of the dollar notched up. All in all, propitious circumstances for a long-belated recovery in the private jet market. Listening to the leading aircraft brokers, the Business Aviation market did indeed appear to turn out strong in 2018. Used aircraft transactions hit record levels in the first half of the year, with quality inventory falling to levels not seen since the high points in the market over a decade ago. Used aircraft residual values, in freefall through much of the previous 2 years, finally stabilized as demand outweighed supply. According to the market´s best and longest-running surveys such as JetNet, that appeared to have addressed would-be purchasers´ number one concern, resulting in industry optimists outnumbering pessimists by 3 to 1.
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CHART 1: BUSINESS AVIATION ACTIVITY BY CITY, EUROPE, DECEMBER 2018 YOY.
Much of the excitement in the market stems from the arrival of competing large cabin business jets at the top end of the market. Bombardier finally delivered its first Global 7500, ending the 6 year monopoly of Gulfstream´s G600. Meanwhile Gulfstream have established successors to the long-running success of G450 and G550 with the G500, already in service, and the G600, to follow this year. The stark contrast between the comparative sales fortunes of large cabin versus mid and small cabin in the last decade has also encouraged Textron into the fray, with the Citation Longitude entering service in 2019. The Longitude will
extend Textron´s successful entry into the Super Mid category, with the Citation Latitude now in ferocious competition with Challenger 350 and Gulfstream 280, with Embraer´s Praetor jets joining the mix in the next 18 months. The ups and downs in the market´s perceptions of aircraft sales, whether preowned or new, tend to take a disproportionate share of the industry´s media limelight. The salesmen´s prevailing excitement, and the need for positive PR, may be exaggerating the health report. In terms of the hard numbers, business jet deliveries were up by less than 1% through three quarters of 2018, and the picture is
flattered by strong demand for personal jets. When the final numbers come in, not too much is expected of the leading OEMs: Embraer´s executive jet deliveries slid by 17% versus 2017, well down on expectations; Textron´s deliveries were flat through Q3 2018; Bombardier´s target is just to keep pace with previous year deliveries; Gulfstream business jet delivery revenues were down in Q3 and the flagship G650 won´t match record sales from 2017. The optimists´ argument is that the growth in deliveries – and the consensus number is around 10% - will come in 2019. From available data, order books are clearly up, and backlogs healthier as the OEMs have cut back on production, with more focus on
margin rather than volume. Honeywell´s survey of aircraft purchasers in late 2018 indicated a modest improvement in fleet upgrade and replacement in the next 5 years. But tellingly the forecast period is backloaded, with buyers clearly hoping that currently uncertain macroeconomic conditions will clarify. The problem there is that the broader economic and geopolitical skies are darkening rather than brightening. What may have been the best window to buy an aircraft in 2018 could snap shut in 2019. The obvious heart-beat of the industry is the US market, more than ever. But as the economy stretches to a record decade in July 2019, it will be clearer than ever that the next downturn is around the corner. Industrial orders have flagged since the back-
CHART 2: BUSINESS AVIATION ACTIVITY IN EUROPE FROM MONTH TO MONTH, 2018
end of 2018. Business confidence has waned, with rising concerns for the impact on the US economy of trade disputes with China, higher interest rates, and political deadlock. Equity markets, which have provided a feelgood in the US for so long, slumped almost 20% in Q4. The broader canvas of monetary tightening and the return of international great power competition has taken away the global growth momentum and undermined investors´ confidence in the world´s network of collaborative multinational trading and rule-making institutions. The new year is accelerating the emergence of a new world order, which may well point to a much larger demand for Business Aviation in emerging and developing markets, as their economic and political influence increases. But in the short term, the
non-US market is taking a much smaller share of business jet deliveries than 5 years ago. Multiple barriers have come up, with a combination of oil price slumps, diplomatic crises, sanctions, economic recession and currency volatility seeing demand in the Middle East, Africa, China, South America and Turkey fade out. Ironically it was in the US and European markets where there’s always been the sensitivity to the business jet PR problem; now it´s in the developing bizav markets, notably China and Saudi Arabia, that business jet owners are getting tarnished as corrupt by association. The industry outlook has been more hopeful for the European market, with expectation that the belated economic recovery would catalyze an overdue upgrade to business jet fleets. There has indeed been a strong preowned market in Europe, but the year ahead looks particularly challenging in light of a sharp rise in macroeconomic uncertainty. The most obvious political risk is posed by Brexit, which has already subdued business investment and by extension business jet demand in Europe’s key hub for flight activity, as shown in Chart 1. A disorderly Brexit could greatly complicate the UK’s aviation regulatory structure, with the associated operational difficulties already encouraging a steady migration of UK operators to non-UK AOCs. The wider repercussions of Brexit, not to mention the rapidly risking risk of Ital-exit, pose a genuine through to
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FLEET REPORT CHART 3: BUSINESS AVIATION ACTIVITY IN NORTH AMERICA FROM MONTH TO MONTH, 2018.
In North America, flight activity tailed off in the latter half of last year.
EU fragmentation, with economic consequences which would certainly put a freeze on business jet orders. As shown in Chart 2, although Business Aviation activity in Europe grew out of the blocks in 2018, with a high summer point which established a new record peak for flights, the second half of the year saw a steady slowdown. It’s difficult not to see this as associated with disappointing economic news in the Eurozone. Governments have been ineffective in turning the tide, with the slide in global export demand out of their control, and the rise in populist and radical parties limiting policy options. The confluence of Europe’s populist instability and the elite world of Business Aviation was starkly evident in December’s slump in traffic; business meetings were cancelled and high-end tourism collapsed. Europe’s very seasonal demand pattern highlights the importance of the summer leisure market; if this demand gets it, total activity will drop significantly. In North America, flight activity through 2018 similarly tailed off in the latter half of last year. The recovery before then was never that much to shout about. Aggregate activity recovered its pre GFC peak in large and midsize cabin, but not in small cabin, and in terms of aircraft utilization, average hours flown per aircraft have languished compared to levels over a decade ago. The boost in activity through 2017 coincided with the accelerating economy, and was particularly evident in Part 135 operations. As the shine has come off the economic outlook, charter demand has flagged. There is also evidence that the ADSB mandate is adding substantial maintenance downtime, and as 2019 progresses, the older aircraft which cannot justi-
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fy the retrofit will get permanently parked, taking some further activity out of the market. As the market stutters, the muchhyped disruptors who recently came into the market may start to struggle this year. Claims that there is a great untapped market are going to wear investors´ patience. As a flamboyant example, Jet Smarter has been beleaguered by bad press and significant scaled down its operations in 2018. The shuttle innovator Surf Air has also scaled down, having tried and failed in its export to Europe. The online brokers have stuttered, with Stellor pivoting from the B2C market to Flight Management software, whilst Stratajet appears to be at the wall. The original online broker, PrivateFly, was added to the Directional Capital portfolio. Likewise, Victor has been absorbed into a broader JV which includes BP and BBA Aviation. Pure-play private jet brokerage won’t get any easier in 2019. Business jet operators also came under pressure in 2018, with slower growth sharpening competition in the charter market and for aircraft management. The emergence of mega fleets such as Luxaviation, Gama Aviation, VistaJet and Flexjet may point towards the need for scale and diversity to prosper in a slow-growth fluctuating market. The latter two will aim to outflank NetJets, which signaled its intentions with an order for more than 300 Textron midsize and large cabin jets, and a firm delivery schedule for Bombardier’s Global 7500. VistaJet will use 2019 to absorb its acquisition of USbased XO Jet, giving it a platform in NetJets backyard. Flexjet may expand its interests in the other direction, through recently affiliated operators in Europe.
Whilst the attention may be on the biggest players, the majority of the market is still fragmented in almost every sphere. This defining characteristic has hardly changed in ten years, and remains a pervasive weakness in terms of operational efficiency and customer service. This year may see technology platforms succeed in bringing virtual scale to the supply chain, whether in charter brokerage, procurement or flight management. But in terms of physical assets, and most obviously the fleet, the industry is as heterogeneous as ever; there are some 40 different types of jet are currently in production. Whether the market can absorb that volume and range of products in 2019 and beyond will depend whether the industry’s broadly positive cyclical drivers can withstand an increasingly febrile macroeconomic context.
Richard Koe is managing director of WINGX Advance GmbH. WINGX, based in Germany and founded in 2011, provides business intelligence for the global private jet market. WINGX researches and tracks market data, from which they build analytics to assist customers in their decision making. Their customers span the entire industry supply chain, from airports, operators and manufacturers to industry investors and financial analysts. Mr. Koe has a background in sales, business development and strategy, in the Business Aviation sector and previously in telecom and manufacturing industries. He has a Bachelor degree from Oxford University and a Masters from Johns Hopkins University.
PITCH UP FOR THE ROTORCRAFT INDUSTRY The versatility of the helicopter makes it an indispensable tool for a vast number of activities. Despite some recent bumps, the demand for rotorcraft continues to climb year after year. 2018 was no exception. Volker K. Thomalla reports
ccording to statistics provided by JetNet LLC, the helicopter industry has enjoyed increasing numbers for several years now. At the end of 2018, the civil helicopter fleet stood at 31,965 units, an increase of 461 rotorcraft or 1.4%. Since 2014, the overall market growth dynamic hasnâ€™t changed. Although there were changes in the demand in different segments and in different regions, with the western helicopter fleet taking a pounding in 2016, global demand has seen steady growth. One of the main drivers in helicopter demand was China. According to data from Airbus Helicopters, the Chinese rotor fleet has nearly tripled over the last five years. Looking at 2018 numbers, it doesnâ€™t seem like the country has appeased its appetite for helicopters yet. The number of civil helicopters in the country has grown from 837 at the end of 2017 to 953 a year later. This is an impressive growth rate of nearly 14%. While China shines as the most dynamic helicopter market in terms of growth rate, its total fleet size is far from being at the top. With 953 helicopters, China has climbed to the seventh position in the ranking of the top ten countries based on fleet size.
Airbus delivered the first of 100 H135s for China in Qingdao (top). AW169 (center).
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HELICOPTER SUMMARY BY MODEL PISTON MFG/MODEL ENSTROM 280 SHARK ENSTROM 280C SHARK ENSTROM 280F SHARK ENSTROM 280FX SHARK ENSTROM F-28 ENSTROM F-28A ENSTROM F-28C ENSTROM F-28C-2 ENSTROM F28F FALCON ROBINSON R22 ROBINSON R22 ALPHA ROBINSON R22 BETA ROBINSON R22 BETA II ROBINSON R22 HP ROBINSON R22 MARINER ROBINSON R22 MARINER II ROBINSON R44 ASTRO ROBINSON R44 CADET ROBINSON R44 RAVEN I ROBINSON R44 RAVEN II SCHWEIZER 300CB SCHWEIZER S-300C SCHWEIZER S-300CBI Total Piston Single Turbine Make/Model AGUSTA/WESTLAND A119 KOALA AGUSTA/WESTLAND A119KE AIRBUS AS-350B-2 ECUREUIL AIRBUS H120 AIRBUS H125 AIRBUS H130 BELL 204B BELL 205A-1 BELL 206A JETRANGER BELL 206B JETRANGER II BELL 206B-3 JETRANGER III BELL 206L LONGRANGER BELL 206L-1 LONGRANGER II BELL 206L-3 LONGRANGER BELL 206L-4 LONGRANGER IV BELL 210 BELL 214B BIGLIFTER BELL 407 BELL 407GX BELL 407GXP BELL 505 JET RANGER X BELL/AGUSTA AB-206A JETRANGER BELL/AGUSTA AB-206B JETRANGER II BELL/AGUSTA AB-206B-3 JETRANGER ENSTROM 480 ENSTROM 480B EUROCOPTER AS-350B ECUREUIL EUROCOPTER AS-350B-1 ECUREUIL EUROCOPTER AS-350B-3 ECUREUIL EUROCOPTER AS-350BA ECUREUIL EUROCOPTER AS-350D ASTAR EUROCOPTER EC-130B-4 ECUREUIL EUROCOPTER SA-315B LAMA EUROCOPTER SA-316B ALOUETTE III EUROCOPTER SA-318C ALOUETTE II EUROCOPTER SA-319B ALOUETTE III LEONARDO AW119Kx MD MD 500E MD MD 520N MD MD 530F MD MD 600N ROBINSON R66 SCHWEIZER 330 SCHWEIZER S-333 Total Single Turbine Multiple Turbine Make/Model AGUSTA/WESTLAND A109A AGUSTA/WESTLAND A109A MK II AGUSTA/WESTLAND A109C AGUSTA/WESTLAND A109K2 AGUSTA/WESTLAND A109S GRAND
TOTAL 6 120 13 101 3 83 61 25 95 59 42 972 1600 54 110 41 500 32 1399 3558 72 455 183 9.584
EUROPE 1 31 0 22 0 19 9 0 9 10 4 271 304 4 21 14 113 6 353 771 13 152 31 2.158
83 100 1.207 627 757 245 26 129 53 881 1.827 94 379 462 425 3 30 1.038 260 167 126 23 76 76 29 134 286 42 1.024 463 52 411 165 113 73 25 69 337 96 154 55 742 13 48 13.425
18 26 144 286 234 45 1 5 4 54 190 8 21 22 7 0 0 55 21 14 21 11 57 62 11 15 51 20 297 107 6 55 79 39 37 10 3 70 11 3 6 133 3 9 2.271
49 84 62 26 169
20 39 21 13 67
AS OF DECEMBER 31, 2018
AIRBUS AS-332C1E SUPER PUMA AIRBUS AS-355NP ECUREUIL II AIRBUS AS-365N-3 DAUPHIN 2 AIRBUS EC-135P2+ AIRBUS EC-135T2+ AIRBUS EC-145 AIRBUS H135 AIRBUS H145 AIRBUS H155 AIRBUS H175 AIRBUS H225 BELL 206LT TWINRANGER BELL 212 BELL 214ST BELL 222A BELL 222B BELL 222SP BELL 222UT BELL 230 BELL 412 BELL 412EP BELL 412EPI BELL 412HP BELL 412SP BELL 427 BELL 429 GLOBALRANGER BELL 430 BELL/AGUSTA AB-412 BELL/AGUSTA AB-412EP BELL/AGUSTA AB-412HP BELL/AGUSTA AB-412SP EUROCOPTER AS-332L SUPER PUMA EUROCOPTER AS-332L1 SUPER PUMA EUROCOPTER AS-332L2 SUPER PUMA EUROCOPTER AS-355E ECUREUIL II EUROCOPTER AS-355F ECUREUIL II EUROCOPTER AS-355F-1 ECUREUIL EUROCOPTER AS-355F-2 ECUREUIL EUROCOPTER AS-355N ECUREUIL II EUROCOPTER AS-365C DAUPHIN 2 EUROCOPTER AS-365N DAUPHIN 2 EUROCOPTER AS-365N-1 DAUPHIN 2 EUROCOPTER AS-365N-2 DAUPHIN 2 EUROCOPTER BK-117A-1 EUROCOPTER BK-117B-1 EUROCOPTER BK-117B-2 EUROCOPTER BK-117C-1 EUROCOPTER EC-135P1 EUROCOPTER EC-135P2 EUROCOPTER EC-135T1 EUROCOPTER EC-135T2 EUROCOPTER EC-155B EUROCOPTER/KAWASAKI BK-117A-1 EUROCOPTER/KAWASAKI BK-117B EUROCOPTER/KAWASAKI BK-117C-1 LEONARDO A109E POWER LEONARDO A109SP GRANDNEW LEONARDO AW109 TREKKER LEONARDO AW139 LEONARDO AW169 LEONARDO AW189 MD MD EXPLORER SIKORSKY S-76A SIKORSKY S-76A+ SIKORSKY S-76A++ SIKORSKY S-76B SIKORSKY S-76C SIKORSKY S-76C+ SIKORSKY S-76C++ SIKORSKY S-76D SIKORSKY S-92A Total Multi Turbine Grand Total
5 59 201 379 219 798 144 174 146 30 169 3 472 28 31 14 5 33 32 108 551 19 61 30 75 325 107 28 17 4 22 55 67 44 1 104 61 158 149 43 94 36 121 40 48 73 52 41 153 84 144 28 9 86 10 372 160 4 879 54 61 109 86 23 31 70 17 146 209 70 285 8.956 31.965
1 36 69 145 127 118 103 112 50 21 56 1 51 0 3 4 1 0 0 33 48 3 20 5 12 49 7 26 17 3 16 18 33 17 0 45 22 49 74 19 29 11 28 0 16 11 16 14 61 45 103 17 0 1 0 107 69 1 221 33 33 58 0 1 1 8 5 4 18 1 100 2.586 7.015
FLEET REPORT Maintaining its market dominance is North America, who saw its helicopter fleet grow from 12,773 units to 13,157 in 2018. The region’s share of the global helicopter fleet is at about 41%. Not surprisingly, the United States and Canada hold the top spots on the afore mentioned top ten list, with a total of 9,393 and 2,370 helicopters respectively. North America even widened the gap between the runner-up Europe in the last 12 months. The gap between the North American and the European fleets has grown from 5,886 helicopters at the end of 2017 to 6,152 units at the end of 2018. This proves that the North American market is more
TOP TEN FLEETS BY COUNTRY United States
PISTON VERSUS TURBINES World Area Africa Asia Central America Europe North America * Oceania South America Unknown Total
Pistons 579 752 297 2.158 3.806 1.414 875 0 9.584
Single 646 1.355 659 2.271 6.374 976 1.351 450 13.425
Multi 425 1.926 252 2.586 2.534 422 785 269 8.956
Total 1.650 4.033 1.208 7.015 12.714 2.812 3.011 719 31.965
* North America includes Central America counts.
Maintaining its market dominance is North America with a fleet of 13,157 units.
dynamic than its European counterpart. Despite China growing quicker than other countries, Asia as a region isn’t growing as quickly as expected. 4,036 helicopters – or 12% of the global fleet – call Asia home. A year before, this number stood at 3,845, which is an increase in fleet size of 4.9%. Australia and Oceania account for 2,892 units, or 9% of the worldwide civil rotorcraft fleet. The number of helicopters in the region has grown from 2,700 units a year ago. In terms of pistons versus turbines, as of the end of 2018, there were 9,584 piston-powered helicopters in the worldwide fleet and 21,926 turbine rotorcraft (8,796 multi engine turbines and 13,130 single turbines). In terms of market share, there’s one dominant name in the piston rotorcraft segment: Robinson Helicopters. The company has a global market share in this segment of 87.3% (8,367 units), followed by Schweizer, which Sikorsky took off
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the market last year with a market share of 7.4%, and Enstrom with 5.3%. According to JetNet LLC’s data, Airbus Helicopters had a 42.5% share of the global civilian turbine helicopter fleet in 2018, followed by Bell (formerly known as Bell Helicopters) with a fleet share of 35.9% and Leonardo with 9.7%. These numbers include all active helicopters of the OEM’s predecessors (thus Agusta Westland branded helicopters are added to Leonardo’s tally). Sikorsky has defended its fourth-place position with a market share of 4.1%, while MD Helicopters and Robinson Helicopters have a market share in the global turbine helicopter fleet of 3.3% each. Honeywell Aerospace took a glimpse into the crystal ball and published its 20th annual “TurbinePowered Civil Helicopter Purchase Outlook”, which focusses on 2018 to 2022 helicopter deliveries. The Honeywell team of market research forecasts between 4,000 and 4,200
new civilian-use helicopters. This number is in line with the previous outlook, where the company projected deliveries of 3,900 to 4,400 helicopters in a five-year period. “In addition to better global economic conditions expected in the coming years, potential positive impacts of US tax reform on new helicopter demand and lower volatility in oil and gasrelated markets have helped fleet managers confirm what they told us last year,” says Ben Driggs, President Americas at Honeywell Aerospace. According to the survey, the factors influencing what make and model an operator chooses when deciding on a new aircraft are changing. Cabin size and range are declining as decisive factors, while factors like brand experience and performance are becoming more and more important. Helicopters are an invaluable tool for social and economic development. They help save lives as ambulance helicopters or protect lives as police helicopters. They advance economic developments to transport personnel to remote locations on land or over water, and they make life easier when used for personal transportation for people who need the speed. They are also an indispensable tool for the oil and gas industry, as no other means of transport can provide safe and fast transportation to offshore platforms. With the progress that has been made in the development of alternative energy sources, the need for helicopters has become even greater. Offshore wind parks are becoming an increasingly important market for helicopter manufacturers. Airbus Helicopters sees the support of wind farms as a separate business segment that enjoys dynamic global growth. The manufacturer forecasts a demand for up to nearly 1,000 helicopters with a combined value of nearly 9 billion ($10.23 billion) in the next 20 years. With wind turbine output rising, leading to a higher rate of electricity production, wind park operators rely on efficient, rapid-response logistics systems with the high availability needed to keep losses to a minimum should a malfunction occur. The advantages of helicopters transporting technicians to an offshore wind park compared to ship are clear: helicopter transport means that personnel avoid problems with seasickness
HONEYWELL’S REGIONAL OVERVIEW North America:
Purchase plans were stable in the survey, with 13% of respondents saying they would either replace or expand their fleet with a new helicopter over the next five years. More than 50% of planned North American purchases were identified as light single-engine models, while roughly 20% of new planned purchases were for both light and medium-twin product classes. Compared to 2017 results, purchase plans were stable in this year’s survey. Nearly 22% of respondents said they would either replace or expand their fleet with a new helicopter over the next five years. Both light single-engine and medium twin-engine classes captured roughly 35% of total mentions for new helicopters. 12% of respondents indicated plans to purchase heavy-twin helicopters, up by 10% from last year. Results for 2018 show higher fleet replacement and growth expectations than 2017. Above the world average, the region’s purchase plans increased by more than 12% from last year. Latin America had the leading rate of new aircraft purchase plans globally, with 35% of respondents saying they would either replace or expand their fleet with a new helicopter over the next five years. Brazilian purchase plans increased to 35%, reflecting better expectations for economic growth. Respondents in this region favored light single-engine models, which represent more than 50% of their planned purchases, followed by intermediate and medium twin-engine classes.
Middle East and Africa:
This region had the lowest new purchase rate globally, with only 10% of respondents’ fleets expected to get a new helicopter replacement or addition. Purchase plans were 12% points lower compared to 2017 survey results. Close to 75% of planned new helicopter purchases were light single-engine models.
Overall buying plans were up 1% point when compared with 2017. More than 18% of respondents said they would either replace or expand their fleet with a new helicopter over the next five years. Light single-engine and medium twin-engine helicopters were the most popular classes, both capturing about 35.
caused by travelling by sea in rough weather conditions. The probability of mistakes being made by seasick technicians is considerably higher than in the case of healthy technicians. Helicopters also have a speed advantage over support ships. As new wind farms are being built further and further from the shore, this speed advantage increases. A helicopter can cover 40 nautical miles in 20 minutes, meaning it can reach the site and return to shore faster than a vessel.
“Helicopters are an integral part of any logistics concept for offshore wind farms,” says Dennis Bernitz, Head of Western Europe Sales at Airbus Helicopters. “Our helicopters can complete missions for wind farms in a particularly quick, economical, safe and environmentally friendly manner. Helicopters can be used to deploy technicians or medical personnel, even in rough seas, and can also transport operating personnel between the shore and the wind farm.”
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Clockwise from top left: US, Europe, Latin America, Middle East and Asia regions.
ATLANTA SET TO SHOWCASE THE HELICOPTER INDUSTRY If you’re in the helicopter business, the annual Heli-Expo, organized by HAI, is not to be missed. The 2019 edition, to be held in Atlanta, Georgia, is the world’s largest trade show dedicated to the industry. Over 600 exhibitors will fill nearly 92903 sq. m. (1 mil. sq. ft.) of the Georgia World Congress Center from the March 4 – 7, 2019. The expo features everything from manufacturers to suppliers and service providers and will include nearly 60 static helicopters on display. Alan Norris reports
Heli-Expo 2019 will be held at Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta.
n 2018, the highly respected annual “Honeywell Turbine-Powered Civil Helicopter Purchase Outlook” forecasted a better longterm global economic outlook, predicting that customers would hold firm in their intentions to invest in new purchases. Fleet utilization was expected to increase, significantly in North America and modestly in Europe and Latin America. AsiaPacific was the fastest growing region for the industry and appears to be spearheading the global demand in the civilian market, led by the development of its EMS and VIP sector. It will be interesting to see how the past 12 months have affected the forecast for 2019. In the meantime, here’s
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what the industry has in store for Atlanta… Honeywell (Booth #C3107) will showcase offerings for the connected helicopter to improve beyondline-of-sight satellite communications. “Our customers are better prepared both on the ground and in the air,” says Richard Buchanan, Senior Director Commercial Helicopters & Aftermarket Partners, Honeywell Aerospace. “At HeliExpo, we will highlight key technology and services that enhance performance within rotorcraft, such as the Sky Connect Tracker III, a fleet tracking system that has voice, text, data recording and mapping capabilities.”
The company will also showcase their Hybrid-Electric Power Generation Systems, as Honeywell sees their experience in power systems as offering the best performing, reliable and cost-efficient engines available for those looking to define the next generation of helicopters. The FAA recently certified the Aspire 200 Satellite Communication System for the AS350, Sikorsky UH-60, AW139 and the Bell B429. It’s Honeywell’s smallest Inmarsat Swift Broadband system and can drastically increase speed and performance of satellite communication systems on a helicopter, with rates reaching as high as 600 kbps.
Despite a slower than expected growth in the helicopter industry and continuing fluctuations in the price of oil affecting off shore support activities, Airbus Helicopters (Booth #C305) continues to lead the global civil helicopter market. Progress on the H160 continues, with the first aircraft from the new assembly line in Marignane performing its first flight in early December 2018 before joining the three current prototypes in the final stages of flight testing. The aim is to have the type certified by the end of 2019 and the first aircraft delivered to the launch customer, Babcock International, in 2020. The Global uptake of the H145 continues on pace, with the first deliveries into New Zealand and Canada, in EMS configuration, and to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police Air Support Unit happening recently. The EC135 continues to be the aircraft of choice for many global EMS operators with the first of 100 H135s delivered to China in HEMS configuration and fitted with the Helionix avionics suite, which is aimed at increasing safety and decreasing pilot workload. The company’s dedicated private and business helicopter entity, Airbus Corporate Helicopters, displayed the company’s new ACH135 Helionix for the first time at the 2018 Monaco Yacht Show. Fitted with the company’s inhouse ACH Line interior configuration, UK operator HeliGroup became the first to introduce the model into the VIP charter market. Bell Helicopter (Booth #C4007) continues its success on the Bell 429 with more than 325 aircraft now operating in 42 countries configured for various mission roles. The aircraft has attained over 330,000 operational flight hours worldwide.
At the 2017 Heli-Expo, Bell revealed its first customer delivery for the Bell 505 and, in the summer of 2018, they delivered the 100th aircraft. The model continues to receive international interest, following certification by the Civil Aviation Administration of China and the first deliveries from an order of 110 aircraft destined for the Chinese market. The company is also continuing the momentum on their Urban Air Mobility concept, first unveiled at last year’s Heli-Expo. Since then, they revealed the configuration and a fullscale vertical take-off and landing air taxi vehicle at the recent Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. Named the Bell Nexus, it will be powered by the first application of the Safran (Booth #C4023) HybridElectric Propulsion System and feature Bell’s signature powered lift concept of six tilting ducted fans designed to safely and efficiently redefine air travel. Bell has signed a
Honeywell’s Sky Connect Tracker III (top left). Airbus H160 (top right). Bell 505 (center). Bell Air-Taxi (below). BART: FEBRUARY - MARCH - 2019 - 53
Kopter SH09 (left). Leonardo boosts its presence in China with orders for 15 AW139s (right).
number of teaming agreements including, Thales for the flight controls, Electric Power Systems who develop high-performance energy storage systems, Garmin for the autonomous vehicle management computer and, most recently, with Moog for the development of the Flight Control Actuation System. Kopter (Booth #B4016) have now moved the SH09 P3 prototype to Sicily to start an intensive flight test campaign as it moves forward towards certification of the new design. The company also expanded its global distributor network, adding South Africa and the Nordic countries. It has received an order for a single SH09, in passenger configuration, from Systematic Aviation Services of Malaysia. In Atlanta, Kopter will be unveiling a mock-up in a passenger transport configuration with a new paint scheme, as well as showing further progress on building the customer support and services for the type before its introduction into service. The Leonardo (Booth #B7024) family of helicopters has maintained good sales during 2018, starting with orders for 17 aircraft valued at almost 140 million at Heli-Expo last year. They are also having success in what they see as a fast-growing but highly competitive Chinese market, with a recent contract for 15 EMS AW139s. This brings the total sales of Leonardo helicopters in China to over 185. They also signed a Heads of State Agreement with Sino-US, their exclusive distributor in China, to further expand their long-term relationship with the purchase and delivery of 160 units within a 2019-2023 timeframe. The plan also aims to establish a training academy and completion center. At the same
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time, the company continues to maintain its leading position in the world’s VIP/corporate market in the multi engine helicopter segment. MDHI (Booth #C1228) has received FAA certification of its advanced, allglass cockpit for the MD530F, bringing the total of glass cockpit certifications to three in the last 12 months. The latest one is approved for production and as a type design option. Delivery of the first civilian production aircraft to feature this all-new cockpit was made to the Virginia Beach Police Department. In celebration of the 40th anniversary of the R22, which was first certified in 1979, Robinson (Booth #C2615) will have a new R22 Beta II painted in the same paint scheme as the very first aircraft on display. Although the exterior will pay tribute to the R22’s origins, the cabin interior will showcase a recently added option: the Avidyne (Booth #B1325) IFD 400 series 4.8inch display GPS/COM. This comes as standard with Wi-Fi and Synthetic Vision. The aircraft will also be equipped with a pilot-side accessory bar designed to support personal devices and, when linked via Wi-Fi, the IFD display can be mirrored to an iPad via a free app. Also on display will be an R66 equipped with air conditioning, heated seats, and the True Blue Power(Booth #C3413) lightweight TB-17 lithium-ion battery. The R44 range is ranked as the world’s best-selling helicopter, according to GAMA’s General Aviation Aircraft Shipment Report, selling 161 aircraft by Q3 2018. The company will be displaying a R44 Raven II with the Garmin G500H 700L TXi, GTN 650 GPS/COM/NAV and the Genesys (Booth #B8017) HeliSAS Autopilot.
According to Jeanette Eaton, Sikorsky (Booth #B2507) Regional Vice President, US & Canada, the company is proud to be part of the 2019 HAI Heli-Expo show in Atlanta. “This show is always an important opportunity for us to engage with our customers, operators, suppliers and the industry’s thought leaders and enthusiasts,” she says. “We will display an S-92 utility variant provided by LOBO leasing (Booth #B3231) and a VIP S-76D.” Attendees will also be able to get a first-hand look at the company’s MATRIX Technology through a tablet demonstration. “Sikorsky is developing this technology so operators can fly their rotorcraft safely, reliably and affordably as autonomous or optionally piloted aircraft,” adds Eaton. Sikorsky will also be recognizing their customers’ achievements and milestones, along with the company founder’s son, Sergei Sikorsky, who will also be hosting a book signing event for the public. Garmin (Booth #B616) will be showcasing their newly certified 7-inch G500H TXi flight displays, which are now available for normal category VFR helicopters. The display offers an array of panel possibilities and a streamlined upgrade for helicopters already equipped with the original G500H model. They will also be showing the GFC 600H helicopter flight control system, which includes a stability augmentation system plus an over-speed and low speed protection feature, along with the G1000H NXi integrated flight deck. Additionally, a new software version for the GTN 650/750 series has been approved for helicopters, available at no charge from Garmin.
Canadian based Eagle Copters (Booth #C2006) will focus on promoting the Eagle 407HP conversion, which replaces the Rolls Royce C47 turbine engine with the Honeywell HTS900. They offer the complete package of engine installation, flight testing and certification for customers. The conversion improves the payload capability by an estimated 19%, plus the hot and high performance of the Bell 407, which all combine for a better fuel efficiency. Canadian helicopter mission equipment supplier DART Aerospace will be sharing a booth with Eagle Copters. DART offers an impressive line-up of over 850 STC’s and 5,000 aftermarket products, spare parts and services for civilian operators, major rotorcraft OEMs and MRO facilities. Key products include: emergency flotation systems, landing gear components, tools and ground support equipment, interior and exterior accessories, cargo expansion options, windows and doors, cable cutters and external load equipment. For leasing companies, the market continues to be very challenging, but some areas are relatively stable and growing. Today, almost 12% of helicopters in operation are leased, with the EMS, SAR, utility, para-public and firefighting sectors have helping to offset the downturn in the oil and gas segment. Milestone Aviation (Booth #B5024), which was founded in 2010, is still the biggest player, followed by LCI Helicopters (Booth #C3223). Waypoint Leasing (Booth #C2014) was hit hard in 2016 when its largest customer, CHC, returned aircraft as part as of its Chapter 11 restructuring. Waypoint started a repurposing program for the returned early “short nose” version of the AW139, marketing them as a Medium Utility Helicopter. At the end of 2018, Waypoint itself filed for voluntary relief under Chapter 11 and since entered into an agreement to be acquired by Macquarie Rotorcraft Leasing for approximately $650 million, who will combine all Waypoint assets and their management platform with its own portfolio. A regular exhibitor at Heli-Expo, Oregon based heavy-lift specialist Columbia Helicopters (Booth #B4009), also started 2019 with major changes following the signing of an agreement with Bristow Helicopters,
who will acquire 100% of the equity interests of the company for $560 million. They will be designated as an unrestricted subsidiary under its air operating certificate and its aircraft will keep the distinctive Columbia livery. Another regular exhibitor is FLIR Systems (Booth #C3410), a globally recognized brand based in Wilsonville, Oregon. Their camera and sensors systems are used extensively in the para-public sector and, more specifically, by law enforcement. Their focus this year will be on the Star SAFIRE system. The company plans to showcase the Star SAFIRE 380HDc, which is a low-profile stabilized HD multi-spectral imaging system weighing 67 lbs. and is designed to maximize the ground clearance on rotary aircraft. In the same family, the Star SAFIRE 380-HD is a stabilized ultra-long-range imaging system. This has true metadata embedded in the digital video and features internal navigation for precise targeting, a thermal imager, color and low-light HD cameras and can operate continuously even while the aircraft is on the tarmac with no airflow. To compliment this, visitors can try the FLIRSIM, a portable easy to set up and use virtual training device that provides the functional equivalency of an FTD level 6 simulator for the Star SAFIRE 380 family. It is a training platform for both procedural and operational performance tasks and is part of an allinclusive FLIR training course. Alternatively, it can be deployed within a fleet to ensure consistency in interval training requirements. Universal Avionics and Elbit Systems (Booth #C4028) will be exhibiting together for the first time at Heli-Expo following the acquisition of
Elbit Systems in 2018. They will be presenting a selection of technology, including the InSight Display System, the Elbit Heli-ClearVision HeadWearable Display and Enhanced Flight Vision System. There will also be a demonstration of the S-76 flight deck upgrade with the EFI-890H Advanced Flight Displays, simulating a new Hover Steering display using GPS velocities and a new Transition to Hover function. The display is an 8.9-inch diagonal active-matrix LCD high-resolution, highcontrast display featuring a unique LED backlight system that can be installed as a stand-alone Primary Flight Display or Multi-Function Display. No Place Like Heli-Expo As a major part of Heli-Expo, the Helicopter Association Int’l (HAI) also runs several educational courses, seminars, workshops and forums, including: Inspection Authorizationrenewal classes, operational workshops, safety sessions and manufacturer technical briefings. This year over 20 courses will target issues of specific interest to operators, pilots, managers, maintenance engineers and safety professionals. For a number of years, HAI has recognized the issue of the global shortage of pilots in the helicopter industry. As part of its approach to tackling the problem, they hold a one-day Job Fair aimed at promoting careers for new entrants and to help existing pilots and engineers further their careers by presenting their CVs to prospective employers. There is no place quite like Heli-Expo for the global helicopter industry to showcase the very latest products and meet its customers across the industry see you in Atlanta!
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Elbit Systems’ Heli-ClearVision allows pilots to perform flights in low visibility conditions (right).
WHAT NEXT FOR THE AVIONICS INDUSTRY IN 2019?
What can we expect in terms of avionics developments this year? Steve Nichols looks at what the industry is planning
Garmin offers a comprehensive line of certified ADS-B solutions (top). UA CEO Paul DeHerrera (below).
common theme mentioned by suppliers when this feature was being prepared was the upcoming ADS-B mandates. The FAA has mandated that aircraft operating in airspace that now requires a Mode C transponder must be equipped with ADS-B Out by January 1 2020 while the European mandate comes into effect on June 6 2020. But it seems that many operators still haven’t got the message. Jessica Koss at Garmin said: “For 2019, we expect to see a lot of pilots continue to equip for ADS-B as there are an overwhelming number of value-added products available on the market that integrate nicely with new and existing avionics, as well as mobile devices in the cockpit. “But based on what we are hearing from the field, lead times will also continue to grow as avionics shops become more and more backlogged with installations, which may present a challenge to pilots and aircraft owners who wish to operate in affected airspace after January 1, 2020.”
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Kevin Kliethermes, director of Sales for Flying Colours, said it is quickly running out of available upgrade slots “Combined with expanding lead times for parts purchases and equipment upgrades, careful planning will be extremely important to meet the needs of our current and soon-to-be customers,” said Kliethermes.
“We have been evaluating our personnel needs in order to meet the increased demand and continue to add experienced technicians to our staff, although this is sometimes not an easy task.” Kliethermes said it will be investing heavily in additional space and personnel at all of its facilities.
“We will continue to identify areas that we can deepen our capabilities around our core business segments and expect to add additional capabilities and experience for airframes outside of our traditional target market,” he said. Paul DeHerrera, CEO Universal Avionics, said: “There is a growing concern that some owners who are operating aircraft with lower hull values may not complete the ADS-B mandate, and will take their aircraft out of service or will take a ‘wait and see’ posture as the 2020 deadline approaches. “It is also important for the avionics industry to continue to provide information and to educate the users as to the benefits of ADS-B and help them understand the road map to Performance-Based Navigation (PBN) and how it benefits them operationally and financially. Aircraft hull value doesn’t change the benefits of operating in the ADS-B airspace; these aircraft are able to benefit equally and, in many cases, at a lower cost per hour.” “Operators who have upgraded to ADS-B have taken the first step toward PBN by providing precise, predictable, and repeatable navigation as set for in the FAA’s goals for PBN,” he said. “PBN provides curved path approaches, more arrivals and departures to major airports, and the freedom from ground-based paths allowing optimized routes with favorable winds that are more direct, saving time and fuel. “But operators need to know that the completion of the ADS-B Out mandate isn’t the end. It’s the very first step toward PBN functionally which will greatly reduce operating costs, improve efficiencies, and save time,” DeHerrera concluded. But other than ADS-B, what else can we expect? Jessica Koss at Garmin said: “Customers can expect to see enhancements to our existing product line that will come in the form of software updates. “We’ll also bring some significant innovations and, of course, new products to market throughout the US and in Europe. Regardless of what type of flying our customers are doing in 2019, they’ll find a lot of new and
attractive solutions from Garmin that will add efficiency, confidence and simplify every flight they make.” Garmin also said it had a number of free aviation webinars planned through the first-half of 2019. These range from Garmin Pilot tips and tricks, cost-effective autopilot upgrades to low-cost avionics solutions. DeHerrera said: “Since the acquisition by Elbit Systems, our teams have been working feverishly, melting functionally between Head-Up Display (HUD) functions and our Flight Management System (FMS) and InSight flight deck. “At NBAA 2018, we demonstrated FMS runway and approach selection by simply looking and clicking. Expect more dynamic, visual identification and selection that streamlines and simplifies flight deck operations between head-up and head-down in critical phases of flight. “Also, the data link communications genesis was initially from Europe due to its very congested airspace and need for a solution such as ControllerPilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC) enabling pilots to communicate via ‘an aircraft text message’.
“The exciting part of this as we progress is the ability to have the FMS interpret these digital clearances so that the pilot is not tasked with ‘re-keying’ the clearance into the FMS, only having to verify the information and hitting ‘Enter’. “Data link can provide a host of other capabilities to the flight deck (position reporting, OOOI times, weather, messaging, etc.) and we are just scratching the surface,” DeHerrera said. Newly-named Collins Aerospace says one of the great opportunities it has is to share the full breadth of value it offers. “From avionics to cabin, landing gear to lighting, Collins Aerospace will be able to offer our customers a broader portfolio of solutions to meet their needs, while ensuring the best in-service support that customers expect,” said Christophe Blanc, vice president and general manager, Business and Regional Avionics, Collins Aerospace. “From an avionics perspective, we are excited to be developing and bringing to market those offerings we announced in 2018, including enhancements to the Bombardier
“This technology greatly improved communication congestion by eliminating errors in voice communication and flight plan transcriptions. US pilots are now realizing the benefits of data link communications as more airports are coming online to provide digital IFR clearances.
Global 5500/6500, head-up display and Enhanced Vision System for the Bombardier Challenger 350, Pro Line Fusion on the new Praetor 500/600, and aftermarket offerings on the Textron Citation CJ1+ and 2+, which complements our other Pro Line Fusion aftermarket upgrade offerings.
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Powered by Iridium NEXT, Iridium Certus is coined the largest ‘tech refresh’ in history.
Inmarsat VP Kurt Weidemeyer (left) and Satcom Direct’s Robert Vega (right).
“As regulations have recently evolved, we believe one of the ripe opportunities is to tap the full value proposition of Enhanced Vision Systems, Synthetic Vision Systems, and Combined Vision Systems for our customers. The prospect of using vision technologies all the way to landing will offer an exciting new dynamic to our industry. “In addition to this development and execution work, we are excited by the prospect of launching additional offerings in 2019 for production aircraft, as well as aftermarket upgrades, so stay tuned,” Blanc said. The other big “want” in 2019 is inflight connectivity and a number of recent developments have made it more affordable and with wider choice. This year will see the launch of the new Iridium Certus service. Using a constellation of low-earth orbiting satellites the system promises speeds of more than one Megabit per second with very compact antennas. A SpaceX launch (Iridium-8) in January placed the final 10 Iridium NEXT satellites into orbit bringing a $3bn network refresh, allowing the launch of the Iridium Certus broadband network, more efficient IoT and the Aireon satellite-based ADS-B service. At the time of writing, SmartSky Networks was also close to launching it US-base 4G air-to-ground network. The New York-Florida and New YorkChicago routes are likely to be the first available for SmartSky customers, followed by service rollout giving coverage throughout the US by the end of the year. Inmarsat is also close to launching its air-to-ground European Aviation
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Network (EAN). It announced at EBACE 2018 that it was going to offer EAN to the Business Aviation community. It said it expects commercial customers to be flying with EAN in early 2019 and has an unnamed launch customer lined up. We may also expect more news about Inmarsat’s Jet ConneX (JX) satellite-based inflight connectivity for Business Aviation. At NBAA it said JX had now been installed and activated on 400 business jets worldwide. It said Jet ConneX is the preferred line-fit option by all of the marketleading business jet manufacturers including Gulfstream, Bombardier, Dassault and Embraer. Kurt Weidemeyer, VP, Inmarsat Aviation, said: “2019 marks Inmarsat’s 40th anniversary, and it’s set to be a landmark year for the aviation business. “We will continue to grow and nurture our expanding partner ecosystem this year, having recently announced strategic collaborations with Panasonic and Honeywell alongside our existing relationships with GX partners Rockwell Collins, Thales, SITA OnAir and Zodiac. “At the same time, we’re always looking to the future. We are gearing up to launch our fifth GX satellite, GX5, later this year, adding further capacity to our global network for years to come. We are also continuing to develop new hardware and software technologies and prepare for the next three scheduled satellite launches.” “With so much to look forward to 2019 will be a pivotal year for the business,” Weidemeyer said. But what is the biggest challenge facing the inflight connectivity industry according to Satcom Direct (SD)? “As connectivity options become more widespread and bandwidth becomes more available, passengers and crew are becoming more reliant on those systems and expectations are increasing,” said Robert Vega, director of Product Management, Satcom Direct. “Whereas in years past people were happy with a few kilobits to send an email, the expectation now is that the onboard experience matches that on the ground. Matching that pace on the aircraft, however, is a significant challenge,” he said.
“Customers are looking for solutions with long lifespans that won’t require costly upgrades every couple of years. This thinking, while perfectly understandable from an operator’s perspective, runs counter to the rapid fire upgrade approach seen on the ground. “Finding the balance between developing innovative solutions to bring higher and higher speed connectivity systems to market while maintaining a level of consistency with the onboard avionics is the biggest challenge in the in-flight connectivity world today and will continue to be the biggest challenge for the foreseeable future,” Vega said. And the biggest opportunities? “These are in the light jet market. These aircraft have historically been in a connectivity black hole as their only options have been low speed systems that are regionally restricted. “Advancements in flat panel and phased array technologies have not successfully penetrated the aviation market and these solutions are necessary for aircraft that can’t support a tail-mounted system, but that want to have a high-speed, global connectivity. “The challenges that have held these antennas back range from thermal to power to size, but the biggest issue is cost. Engineers will find a way to clear the technical hurdles but they must do so in a manner that allows the solution to hit the sweet spot for the more cost sensitive customers. “Improvements are continuously being made in this arena and I believe we’re getting close to having the ability to serve this market,” Vega concluded.
YOUR GLOBAL CONNECTION Business growth requires a global perspective. It starts with the latest technologies, trends and ideas, and comes full circle with a world of connections that are key in helping you manage multiple budgets, high-performing teams and large-scale purchases. Find everything you need to make the most informed decisions all in one place: the 2019 European Business Aviation Convention & Exhibition (EBACE2019). Join us at EBACE to build relationships and explore the entire marketplace of options. And leave with the best solutions for your business. Get connected and move forward faster. Visit the EBACE website to learn more and register today.
SAJF: A GOOD ALTERNATIVE FOR BUSINESS AVIATION Business Aviation has seen a remarkable 40% increase in fuel efficiency over the last 40 years – and it’s only just getting started. Nick Klenske reports
In 2011, a G450 became the first business jet to cross the Atlantic using biofuels.
019 marks the 10th anniversary of the Business Aviation Commitment to Climate Change (BACCC), an industry-wide commitment to mitigating climate change initiated by General Aviation Manufacturers Association (GAMA) and the International Business Aviation Council (IBAC). In addition to reducing carbon emissions and achieving carbon-neutral growth, the BACCC committed Business Aviation to improving fuel efficiency by 2% per year from 2010 through 2020. This was to be achieved via the use of new technologies, infrastructure and operational improvements, market-based measures and – the focus of this article – by developing alternative fuels. “Alternative fuels can help the Business Aviation industry achieve such goals as carbon neutral growth by 2020, fuel efficiencies of 2% annually through 2050 and reducing carbon dioxide emissions by 50% by 2050,” says Gulfstream Aerospace Corporate Sustainability Process Manager Roger Bowman. “Alternative fuels are a key element to the industry achieving these goals.” In 2011, a Gulfstream G450 became the first business jet to cross the Atlantic using biofuels.
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Where Are We Now? Despite positive headlines like this, overall, the industry struggles to develop and adopt sustainable alternative jet fuel (SAJF). SAJF is a class of non-petroleum-based jet fuels or blended components. It is made by blending conventional, fossil-based kerosene with renewable hydrocarbons produced from, for example, recycled cooking oil. Certified as “Jet-A1” fuel, it can then be used in aircraft without requiring any technical modifications. Flying on sustainable aviation fuel reduces crude oil consumption and produces lower lifecycle carbon emissions compared to conventional jet fuel.
According to a report published by Bombardier, who has been an influential player in the BACCC, SAJF is safe – having undergone rigorous testing. Furthermore, SAJF is certified as ‘drop-in’, or ready-to-use. “It possesses similar properties, qualities and characteristics as Jet A and Jet A-1 fuel, meaning aircraft perform the same under all conditions, operators
handlers and operators – at the national, regional and international levels.” The publication stresses three key points. First, that SAJF for Business Aviation is safe, approved and already available (albeit in limited quantities). Second, that these fuels offer a myriad of benefits, including those in support of the sustainability of Business
don’t have to fly differently and no modifications to aircraft equipment are needed,” says Bombardier Senior Public Relations and Sustainability Advisor Dominique Cristall. “Because in-service aircraft are ready and able to fly with SAJF today, current products can make a positive impact as early as now.” Yet despite these advantages, trust in SAJF remains low and skepticism high. So, at EBACE 2018, GAMA, IBAC, the National Air Transportation Association (NATA), the National Business Aviation Association (NBAA) and the European Business Aviation Association (EBAA) came together to launch The Business Aviation Guide to the Use of Sustainable Alternative Jet Fuel – a publication focused on raising awareness and adoption of available and emerging alternative jet fuel options in the US and Europe. “The technology is there, but the limiting factor has primarily been the lack of production facilities and widespread distribution of sources,” says NBAA Director of Technical Operations Eli Cotti. “Through this new initiative, we hope that Business Aviation can advance the proliferation of alternative fuels at all the logical touchpoints – manufacturers, ground
Aviation, corporate responsibility and reducing emissions. And third, that SAJF are produced from multiple feedstocks, which are sustainable, renewable resources and thus an environmental ‘win-win’. “The Business Aviation community has a long and successful history of innovation when it comes to promoting the policies, products and procedures that reduce the industry’s carbon footprint,” says NBAA President and CEO Ed Bolen. “With this initiative, we underscore our effort on what has always been an important priority.”
“The EBAA is very proud to have contributed to this project, which aims to increase the availability of sustainable alternative jet fuel, directly contributing to our sector goals and therefore reducing our overall environmental impact,” adds EBAA Chairman Juergen Wiese. On January 17, the same coalition of international aviation organizations held an event – Business Jets Fuel Green: A Step Toward Sustainability – at Van Nuys Airport (VNY) in Southern California. Happening after this issue has gone to press, organizers
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SAJF is derived from elements ranging from cooking oil, plant oils, waste gases etc.
BIOFUEL SAJF “As a leader in the global supply of aviation fuel and services, we have a social responsibility to make sustainable alternative jet fuel a reality in the marketplace,” says Avfuel President and CEO Craig Sincock. “Our agreement with Gevo is a notable component in our overall strategy to support our industry’s commitment to reducing carbon emissions and enhancing sustainability to mitigate its effect on climate change.” Sincock adds that the agreement helps the company meet the demand of its custold BART that the event would demonstrate that SAJF can become a mainstream, drop-in alternative for today’s general aviation aircraft. Furthermore, VNY’s four FBOs have collaborated to make a jet fuel blended with SAJF available for use during the event. Another initiative working towards the same goal is the Commercial Aviation Alternative Fuels Initiative (CAAFI), a public/private partnership between the aviation community and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) that is focused on accelerating the development and deployment of sustainable alternatives to Jet A. CAAFI’s goal is to promote the development of alternative jet fuel options that offer equivalent safety and favorable costs compared to petroleum based jet fuel, while offering environmental improvement and energy supply security for aviation. The NBAA is among the initiative’s 300 members.
NBAA is a strong supporter of the plans to advance the development of alternative fuels.
An Opportunity for Fuel Companies Sustainable alternative jet fuel is more than just a nice talking point for industry associations – it’s also a real business opportunity for fuel companies. As a case-in-point, in June 2018, Avfuel announced an agreement with leading next generation biofuels company Gevo, Inc. – a significant milestone in the company’s sustainable fuels initiative. With the agreement, Avfuel becomes Gevo’s exclusive aviation fuel distributor of the sustainable alternative jet fuel portion of Gevo’s renewable hydrocarbon products to Business Aviation and its entire portfolio of customers.
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The Business Aviation community has a long and successful history of innovation when it comes to promoting the policies, products and procedures that reduce the industry’s carbon footprint. NBAA President and CEO Ed Bolen.
tomers for a low-carbon, alternative jet fuel, thus filling a gap in the industry’s supply chain. For Gevo, the agreement is an important step in its efforts to move forward and develop a large-scale hydrocarbon facility that is expected to have production capacity of approximately 10-12 million gallons per year, from which SAJF would be supplied to Avfuel. Once the larger Gevo production facility is constructed and in production, Avfuel may purchase up to a million gallons of the concentrated SAJF per year, which would equate to many millions of gallons of finished ASTM D1655 jet-fuel product when blended with conventional jet fuel. Initially, Gevo will supply SAJF to Avfuel from its smaller-scale hydrocarbon processing facility it operates in Silsbee, Texas, in partnership with South Hampton Resources, Inc. The agreement is a product, in part, of the dedication of the Avfuel Technology Initiatives’ team. The operation’s front runner and Avfuel
Manager of Alternative Fuels Keith Sawyer dedicates his time leading all aspects of evaluating the sustainable alternative jet fuel market and its suppliers while representing Avfuel within the environmental and fuel supply chain groups associated with GAMA, NBAA, NATA and IBAC. “As a leader in the global supply of aviation fuel and services, we have a social and corporate responsibility to make SAJF a reality for our industry and our customers,” says Sawyer. “We have been focused on doing so through a number of dedicated efforts and resources since the development of Avfuel Technology Initiatives Corporation in 2012, with the mission to further industry advancements – including bio and renewable fuels – on several fronts both domestically and internationally.” In October of last year, Air BP entered into an agreement with leading renewable products producer Neste to explore opportunities to increase the supply and availability of SAJF. Through this innovative collaboration, Neste’s knowledge and manufacturing solutions for producing and blending renewable jet fuel will be brought together with Air BP’s customer relationships, expertise in developing efficient and effective supply chains, as well as their certification and product quality assurance capabilities. One goal of the cooperation will be complementary efforts to bring a co-branded sustainable aviation fuel to market at airports across Air BP’s global network. “We are very pleased that through our collaboration with Neste, we will be able to continue to support our customers with their low carbon ambitions,” says Air BP CEO Jon Platt. “The aviation industry’s carbon reduction targets can only be achieved with support from across the entire supply chain and, by bringing our experience and expertise together, we are looking to drive change by promoting and securing the supply of sustainable aviation fuel.” Air BP has supplied BP Biojet in the Nordics since 2014 to around 10 airports. In Oslo, they were the first to supply sustainable aviation fuel through the existing airport fueling infrastructure, in an earlier collaboration with Neste and other key Norwegian and industry stakeholders.
Along similar lines, in May 2018, Shell Aviation and SkyNRG announced a long-term strategic collaboration to promote and develop the use of sustainable fuel in aviation supply chains. The collaboration combines Shell Aviation’s technical and commercial expertise, world-class supply chain and carbon management operations with SkyNRG’s proven track record of supplying sustainable aviation fuels and in-depth knowledge of this market. The agreement sees the two companies working together to develop longterm opportunities for low carbon solutions. These efforts are structurally supported by committed funding to a joint business development fund. “We want Shell to be a leader in the low carbon transition in aviation fuels,” says Shell Aviation Vice President Anne Anderson. “This agreement with industry pioneers SkyNRG demonstrates the type of progressive collaboration that can help move us towards a lower carbon emissions future. Working together, we believe we can advance sustainable solutions for the benefit of our entire industry.”
“In addition to bringing together the right mix of technical expertise and operational excellence, it’s the shared ambitions of SkyNRG and Shell Aviation to develop this new industry that make this collaboration an obvious one,” adds SkyNRG CEO Maarten van Dijk. “Shell Aviation’s long-term commitment to developing this new market sends a strong signal that the involvement from all players across the industry is critical to delivering the sustainable solutions that are vital for the future of aviation.”
EPIC Fuels has also been playing an ever-increasing role in growing the acceptance of sustainable biofuels and biofuel blends used in jet aviation. Over the last several years, the company has provided both technical and logistic expertise in programs for sustainable fuel alternatives. Highlights include flights flown by Alaska Airlines in 2016 using a blend of biofuel produced from non-edible, sustainable corn and renewable biofuel made from residual wood and Singapore Airlines’ first-ever flight The agreement is a multi-year collaboration, with both companies acknowledging that the path to lower carbon emissions in aviation requires long-term commitment. The collaboration will focus on the joint development and funding of new opportunities to extend the use of and build more resilient supply chains for sustainable aviation fuels. This will be coupled with the development of a range of comprehensive carbon management options that will provide support to Shell Aviation and SkyNRG customers.
Gevo-Avfuel and Neste-Air BP collaborations aim to support the supply and availability of sustainable aviation fuel. BART: FEBRUARY - MARCH - 2019 - 63
powered by a blend of sustainable biofuel made from used cooking oil and conventional jet fuel. In addition, EPIC has provided support for multiple Boeing ecoDemonstrator flights, including a flight with US-made ‘green diesel’ biofuel in June 2015, and Boeing’s first-ever flights using a green diesel blend during the ecoDemonstrator 787 flight test program in December 2014. The focus of the industry has now turned to second-generation sustainable biofuels (sustainable aviation fuels) that do not compete with food supplies nor are major consumers of
The companies involved in the development of SAJF include Shell Aviation, EPIC Fuels, World Fuel Services and Phillips 66 Aviation.
prime agricultural land or freshwater. “Through participation in many industry-leading pilots and programs, EPIC has gained unique experience and insight into how biofuels interact with fossil jet fuels,” says EPIC Fuels Director of Commercial Sales Kai Sorenson. “Throughout these and other projects, the company has amassed significant experience, including blending data, logistics, transportation and
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the rigorous testing required to ensure the fuels meet or exceed industry safety standards.” Other fuel companies involved in the development of SAJF include Phillips 66 Aviation and World Fuel Services, the latter of which began investing in developing a supply of SAJFs to supply its FBO and flight department customers in 2014. Phillips 66 Aviation echoes this commitment: “We’re devoted to
supplying the industry with the products our customers want – now and in the future,” says Phillips 66 Manager of General Aviation Lindsey Grant. Considering the significant backing these fuels have from both industry associations, fuel companies and even OEMs – it looks like SAJFs are the way of the future. So maybe its time for operators to get on board too.
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THE REVOLUTION HAS ARRIVED
Industry 4.0 does not stop at aircraft manufacturing – it’s coming to the MRO providers, too. The result will be increased efficiency and reduced costs. But to fully explore the potential of these new disruptive technologies, operators must provide access to all available aircraft data. By Volker K. Thomalla
Textron’s LinxUs fault isolation system (top). Falcon 6X will have FalconScan (center). Gulfstream’s PlaneConnect HTM (below).
aintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO) is a huge factor in any aircraft’s operating costs, not just business aircraft. Operators are constantly putting pressure on manufacturers, suppliers and maintenance providers alike to increase efficiency, reduce complexity, add transparency and reduce maintenance costs. A first step towards achieving this was the introduction of maintenance tracking services, which helped operators digitally plan and track their mandatory aircraft maintenance. Here, the biggest ‘disruption’ was that computers replaced paper – a far cry from being revolutionary. But alas, the revolution has arrived, and its name is Industry 4.0. By connecting all data generated on board of an aircraft, the MRO industry has ready access to the most powerful diagnostic tools ever invented. With these tools comes the opportunity to fully explore the capabilities that digitalization, connectivity and Big Data offer. Endless paperwork in today’s MRO operations produce stacks of paper that are inefficient in an environment where system health is automatically monitored, stored and reported. Today’s business aircraft are fully digitally designed and produced. NextGen MRO services will produce
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less paper – even if there’s doubt on whether there will ever be any truly paper free aviation related operation. High Tech Aircraft Today’s business aircraft feature maintenance diagnostics computers that generate data during each and every flight. The most modern systems are capable of transmitting this data on system health to a maintenance center in real-time. This will become standard on the next generation of aircraft as on-board systems become more connected and sufficient bandwidth for data transmission is made available nearly anywhere in the world. Textron Aviation’s newest business jet, the Cessna Citation Longitude, for example, is equipped to use LinxUs and LinxUs Air. Both systems work
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MAINTENANCE cians can run real-time data inquiries in flight without having to interact with the flight crew. After each flight, HTM immediately sends time-stamped data to a website dedicated to that specific aircraft. The flight data is prioritized and organized, including such aircraft performance data as fuel consumption, pressure readings and temperatures, along with aircraft operations data. HTM’s sophisticated monitoring system speeds up diagnostic time and increases the notice given and time needed to schedule and perform with the Central Diagnostics Maintenance system (CDMS) of the Longitude and function as a fault-isolation system that monitors the aircraft 100% of the time. In the event of an on-board issue, actionable answers are provided in real time, resulting in faster turnarounds to get the aircraft back in the air. The difference between LinxUs and LinxUs Air is the way the system transmits the data. LinxUs reports issues upon landing with a WiFi connection, while LinxUs Air reports issues in-flight via satellite.
Other manufacturers have similar systems. Gulfstream Aerospace’s newest aircraft, the G500 and G600, feature an innovative system called PlaneConnect Health and Trend Monitoring (HTM). This system constantly collects and transmits parametric data in real-time directly to the operator and preselected reviewers, including Gulfstream’s Technical Operations (if the operator allows the data to be shared). HTM works in the background and transmits the data to aircraft support on the ground, either by wireless network or cellular data transmission. Using system features, techni-
Technicians demand (top). 100th Bombardier retrofitted by Flying Colours (center R) Execujet facility (center L). Eric Trappier Dassaut Aviation Chairman & CEO. 68 - BART: FEBRUARY - MARCH - 2019
maintenance. This early detection maximizes maintenance performance and reduces downtime of the aircraft. But HTM analysis extends beyond just one flight, which is the beauty of a system using Big Data. Operators and technicians can call up and compare data from different flights stored on the aircraft’s website to establish trends and look for greater efficiencies. Dassault Aviation of France will introduce its proprietary FalconScan system with the entry-into-service of the Falcon 6X, now under development at Dassault. FalconScan is a new onboard integrated maintenance system, which will set new standards in real-time system self-diagnosis. The system is directly connected to all aircraft systems and monitors more than 100,000 parameters (compared to “only” hundreds on previous Falcons), providing an unprecedented visibility for the on-ground maintenance team. Patented algorithms will use Big Data to enable fault detection and troubleshooting for individual aircraft, as well as trend monitoring across the Falcon 6X fleet worldwide.
Help Wanted The technological progress being made with the digitalization of MRO services is absolutely necessary for other reasons, too. The global aircraft fleet is about to double within the next 15 years, and the number of technicians is not expected to grow quick enough to keep up. Boeing has published a technician outlook to quantify the number of maintenance personnel needed in the next 20 years. Airlines that are looking desperately for qualified maintenance technicians and engineers are attracting these employees from other industry segments, including Business Aviation. According to Boeing’s research, the world demand for aviation technicians stands at 754,000 from today through 2037. While 622,00 technicians are needed for the airlines, Business Aviation accounts for 89,000 and the helicopter MRO industry for 43,000. Asia Pacific has the highest demand of about 257,000 maintenance personnel, while North America and Europe will need 189,000 and 132,000 respectively. Without a higher reliability of the aircraft and their systems, smarter maintenance and streamlined MRO service processes, this demand for technicians will be even higher and more difficult to satisfy. Continued Expansion Maintenance capacity is another issue for business aircraft operators. During the recent recession, consolidation in the MRO industry has led to an adaption of the number of facilities. Now, parallel with business aircraft flight activities rising again rises the demand for MRO services. But the consolidation phase is not yet over. Dassault Aviation and Luxaviation have announced that Dassault will buy the global maintenance activities of ExecuJet, a Luxaviation subsidiary. “The acquisition of ExecuJet’s MRO operations will strengthen Dassault Aviation’s global footprint, especially in Asia-Pacific, Oceania, MiddleEast and Africa,” says Dassault Aviation Chairman and CEO Eric Trappier. “With ExecuJet, we will continue the development of our high-quality customer support network while also growing our Falcon market share.”
Gulfstream Aerospace is also expanding its MRO service capacity. Last year, the company announced expansion plans at four factoryowned and operated Customer Support locations (Appleton, Wisconsin; Savannah; Farnborough, England; and West Palm Beach, Florida) to accommodate growing demand from existing customers and the company’s expanding fleet. These MRO facilities, including hangar, offices, back shops and support space, will add more than 700,000 square feet (65,032 square meters) to Gulfstream’s maintenance footprint and provide customers with scheduled and unscheduled maintenance, line maintenance and aircraft-on-ground (AOG) support. “We are as well-positioned as we have ever been to respond to our customers’ evolving needs and deliver on our promise of an exemplary customer ownership experience,” says Zimmerman. “With the opening of these state-of-the-art maintenance facilities in the next two years, along with beginning operations in 2019 at our world-class Van Nuys, California, MRO that we announced in 2017, we will have significantly enhanced accessibility for our customers, reinforcing our commitment to them.” That reinforced commitment included adding more than 400 technicians and support personnel across Customer Support in 2018, the largest organization of its kind in Business Aviation with nearly 5,000 professionals. Within just one year of its inauguration, Bombardier Aerospace has doubled its capacity at the London Biggin Hill Service Center. The Canadian manufacturer cites high demand for OEM MRO services in Europe for its decision to use an additional hangar at the airport. The building will be dedicated to heavy maintenance events, including 96month and 120-month inspections. Following the expansion, Bombardier’s London Biggin Hill Airport facility will be able to service twice as many aircraft, including scheduled and unscheduled maintenance, modifications and avionics installations for Bombardier Learjet, Challenger and Global aircraft.
A New Wave of Heavy Maintenance Events The huge number of business aircraft that were put into service in the pre-recession years are now approaching the timeframe for their first heavy maintenance events. This puts additional pressure on maintenance providers. But they are reacting to market needs and adding capacity accordingly. Flying Colours Corp., for example, the North American maintenance, repair, overhaul and completions company, has taken up residence in its fifth hangar at the Spirit of St. Louis airport in St. Louis, Missouri. The existing building, which is ideally located adjacent to the KSUS runway, adds a muchneeded 30,000 square feet to the footprint and complements the expanded cabinetry and interiors workshop opened at the facility in January 2018. Since taking over the hangar lease in December 2018, the local team has been outfitting the building, installing new state-of-the-art tooling and supplementary maintenance
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Gulfstream will open an MRO facility at TAG Farnborough in 2020 (top) Bombardier Service Center at Biggin Hill (below).
Jet Aviation’s new hangar in Basel (top). Duncan Aviation-Provo welcomes its first aircraft, Global Express XRS (below).
equipment, as well as revamping the office décor. The completed facility accommodates up to three parallel large-jet maintenance, avionics upgrades and interior projects at once. It is initially expecting to support heavy maintenance work, and two Bombardier Global aircraft are already in-situ for 120-month heavy maintenance checks. A recruitment drive is ramping up to source more than 50 extra maintenance engineers, technicians and administrative support personnel, bringing the St. Louis workforce to more than 200 in total. The addition of the fifth hangar runs in parallel with the construction at Flying Colours’ Peterborough, Ontario headquarters of a fourth hangar. When completed, it will be large enough to manage completions, refurbishment, maintenance and paint work in a new dedicated paint shop for Bombardier and Gulfstream large jet types, as well as executive airliners.
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“Our business continues to grow as we build our reputation for maintenance, refurbishments and completion projects on time and on budget,” says Sean Gillespie, Executive VP Flying Colours Corp. “Our customers also value the fact we can run interiors and maintenance simultaneously, thus reducing down time. We were turning work away in St. Louis so it’s great to have the hangar ready and open for operations.” Last November, Jet Aviation opened a new widebody hangar in Basel, Switzerland. The state-of-the-art 8,700 square-meter hangar provides increased capacity for wide- and narrow-body maintenance, completion and refurbishment projects across the site. It can accommodate up to two widebody aircraft or one widebody and several smaller aircraft simultaneously. Hangar 3’s wooden arch structure supports the maximum height to ensure space for a Boeing 747 on jacks, while its extended nose-box permits two wide-body aircraft con-
currently. In addition to a 5,000 square-meter tarmac extension, Hangar 3 further provides 2,000 square meters for shops and offices. “We have a long history of handling major modifications and completions at Jet Aviation, and we continue to invest in the latest technologies that support the highest quality and safety standards for our customers,” says Jet Aviation Group President Rob Smith. “This hangar demonstrates our ongoing commitment to Basel and the region and is a tribute to our past and future success.” Aircraft service provider Duncan Aviation joined the club of MRO companies that have expanded their facilities to meet customer demand. Duncan welcomed the first aircraft, a Bombardier Global Express XRS, into its first new maintenance hangar at the Provo Municipal Airport in Provo, Utah. The work-scope for the Global includes a 120-month airframe inspection and 10-year landing gear overhaul. “We have been working hard to prepare and plan for our new maintenance and modifications center in Provo and we are thrilled to have the first maintenance hangar ready and open for work,” says Chad Doehring, Vice President of Operations at Provo. Duncan Aviation completed construction and obtained necessary permits for the first hangar in early January 2018, ensuring that it would be ready for this first project. The paint facility is expected to be ready in early spring, and a second maintenance and completions hangar structure will follow. By second quarter 2020, all of the full-service back-shops and offices for the new 275,000square-foot facility will be completed. “Customers consistently tell us they bring their projects to Duncan Aviation because of our people,” Doehring says. “Our people have knowledge and expertise, are friendly and resourceful, and understand customer service at all levels.” In the end, even with the highest degree of technology, maintenance, repair and overhaul of business aircraft is a people business. After all, no operator wants to hand its valuable asset to someone whom he or she doesn’t already know and trust.
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PREVIEW AERO FRIEDRICHSHAFEN
AERO 2019 FOCUS ON BUSINESS AVIATION The General Aviation trade show AERO Friedrichshafen in the triangle of Germany, Switzerland and Austria is embracing Business Aviation more than ever before. Organizers expect there will be over 30,000 attendees during the course of four days. Volker K. Thomalla reports
More than 700 exhibitors and 30,000 visitors are expected to attend the show in April.
ERO in Friedrichshafen on the banks of Lake Constance traditionally kicks off the European aviation trade show season. It covers the whole spectrum of General Aviation including Business Aviation. The annual four-day event will this year take place from April 10 to April 13. More than 700 exhibitors and over 30,000 visitors are expected to flock to the Fair Grounds in Friedrichshafen, making this year’s AERO one of the largest ever. The show organizers will this year put a stronger focus on Business Aviation than ever before. For the first time, a dedicated Business Aviation conference co-hosted by GBAA, German Business Aviation Association is scheduled for April 11th at 09.30am. The session will address topics like how to improve the public perception of Business Aviation, ADS-B compliance and Business Aviation’s role in humanitarian missions. The conference’s concept is like speed dating. The lecturers have 20 minutes each to give their presentations, after which attendees are invited to visit them afterwards for in-depth discussions at their booths. Therefore, the whole conference will only last for a little more
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than two hours, allowing attendees to visit the show. The fair ground is next to Friedrichshafen Airport and is connected by taxiway to the airport. Unfortunately, during the show, slot restrictions are applied. Slots can be reserved online from March 27 at www.bodensee-airport.eu. For Business Aircraft operators who want to visit AERO, there is the airport of Mengen, some 28 nautical miles northwest of Friedrichshafen. This year for the first time ever, there is a helicopter shuttle service between Mengen and AERO, which reduces the transfer time between these two places to 15 minutes. The helicopter touches down right next to the famous Zeppelin hangar, only yards away from the show’s static display and entrance. The exhibitor list features some prominent Business Aviation OEMs. Pilatus Aircraft, Embraer, Daher, Quest Aircraft, Piper Aircraft, Diamond Aircraft and Cirrus Aircraft are long-time exhibitors at the show. Pilatus of Switzerland will showcase their PC-12 single-engine turboprop as well as their Super Versatile Jet, the PC-24, of which more than 20 units have been produced so far.
Rheinland Air Service (RAS) of Mönchengladbach is a return exhibitor in Friedrichshafen, too. They are the official dealer in the region for Honda Aircraft, Daher’s TBM turboprop-family and Quest Aircraft. Visitors will find the HondaJet, at least one Daher TBM and a Quest Kodiak under the RAS banner. Textron Aviation has been an exhibitor at AERO, but won’t be present this year. The number of suppliers and service providers for Business Aviation at AERO is rising. Air Alliance, Atlas Air Service, Augsburg Air Service, BlackHawk Modifications, Garmin International, Jeppesen, Pratt & W hitn ey Ca na da , MT Propeller, Bos e an d Tr ue B l ue Power will be exhibiting, just to name a few. The largest aircraft at the show will be the Zeppelin, of which two are offering sightseeing flights over the region during the show. They are based at the airport adjacent to the static display and will impress visitors during their silent take-offs and landings.
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COMMERCIAL OR NON-COMMERCIAL: THAT IS THE QUESTION The new EASA Basic Regulation (Regulation 1139/2018) came into effect in September 2018, repealing and replacing Regulation 261/2008. Attorney Giulia Mauri explains what the changes mean for you
The new regulation should harmonize aviation safety regulations within the EU.
mongst the many changes brought by the new Basic Regulation, there is one that it is extremely relevant for Business Aviation. The new Basic Regulation removed the previous definition of ‘commercial operations’ and aligned such definition with the one used in the Chicago Convention and in Regulation 1008/2008. As such, the new Basic Regulation defines commercial air transport as ‘an aircraft operation to transport passengers, cargo or mail for remuneration or other valuable consideration’. Until 12 September 2023, the implementing rules adopted on the basis of Regulation 261/2008 will still refer to the ‘old’ definition of commercial operations as included in Regulation 261. At the end of such transitional period, the new definition of ‘commercial air transport’ will be fully enforceable. This change is quite relevant for Business Aviation operators that operate private, non-commercial flights and that have structured their operations on the basis of the previous definition.
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The Implications of the Change Regulation 216/2008 defined commercial operations as ‘any operation of an aircraft in return for remuneration or other valuable consideration, which is available to the public, which is performed under a contract between an operator and a customer, where the latter has no control over the operator’. This definition entailed that the following operations of an aircraft could qualify as being a non-commercial operation: ❍ not in return for remuneration or other valuable consideration, ❍ which is not available to the public, ❍ which is not performed under a contract between an operator and a customer, and ❍ where the customer has some control over the operator. This definition was very helpful as it gave some guidance to operators and civil aviation authorities alike as to what operations could be considered ‘private’. For example, on the basis of this definition, civil aviation authorities usually authorised the exploita-
tion of fractional ownership systems, where the customers are also owners of the aircraft and have control over its operation, or closed ‘club’ systems, where the flights performed are solely available to a restrict group of club members and are not available to the public. Now that this definition has been cancelled, civil aviation authorities and operators alike are left without guidance. In fact, as we have seen above, the new Basic Regulation returns to the broad original definition of commercial aviation as used under the Chicago Convention and Regulation 1008/2008. The Convention on International Civil Aviation (also known as the Chicago Convention), signed in 1944 and which serves as the constitutional chart for international civil aviation, defines commercial aviation as ‘the transport of passengers or cargo for remuneration or hire’. Likewise, Regulation 1008/2008 on common rules for the operation of air services in the Community provides that ‘no undertaking established in the Community shall be permitted to
cial operations. This means each State has developed its own approach to what is allowed under its respective national law in order for the flight to be considered noncommercial. The result is a European system that is not uniform, and which allows for variation from country to country. The UK CAA, for example, does not apply the concept of ‘commercial vs non-commercial operations’, but it does refer to the concept of ‘public vs private transport’. Public transport operators must hold a national air operator’s certificate. The UK CAA has issued very detailed and useful guidelines clarifying the meaning of commercial air transport, public transport and aerial carry by air passengers, mail and/or cargo for remuneration and/or hire unless it has been granted the appropriate operating licence’. What is a ‘Non-commercial Operation’? Neither European law, international law or national laws define what ‘noncommercial operations’ are. Non-commercial operations must therefore be defined as any activity that is not included in the definition of ‘commercial operations’. This means that the consequence of this change in the Basic Regulation is that now the only criteria that should differentiate a commercial operation from a noncommercial one is the fact that noncommercial operations should be carried out without ‘remuneration’. This is an extremely difficult criteria to meet, especially when one takes into account that most private operations include in one way or another an element of ‘remuneration’. Indeed, neither the Chicago Convention nor Regulation 1008/2008 were drafted to take into account the specificities of (private) Business Aviation.
Moreover, (private) Business Aviation is an ever-evolving sector where new business models appear every day, ranging from fractional ownership to clubs to cost-sharing activities and pilots’ clubs. The various regulations and international conventions mentioned above do not contain any definition of ‘remuneration’ or of non-commer-
work. According to the UK CAA, for example, if the only payment involved is the payment of the pilot, then the flight is considered private for airworthiness purposes. The UK regulation also contains a definition of the term ‘club environment’, which is helpful in determining how and when club-type operations are considered private, as well as an
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The Chicago Convention (top) does not contain any definition of non-commercial ops.
Giulia Mauri takes the erratic case of the UK CAA referring to public vs. private.
explanation of the regulations applicable to jointly owned aircraft. The criteria and guidelines established by the UK CAA are not included in European or international laws, and therefore are only applicable in the UK, where even here they may be varied at any time by the UK CAA. In other European countries, any person who is not a member of the crew is a passenger. If such passenger pays some ‘remuneration’ to be carried on board, such flight should be considered commercial. The ‘remuneration’, however, must be linked to a contract of transport of passengers or cargo. Thus, in a joint ownership scenario, the operating costs of the flights should not be considered as remuneration. The same should apply to remuneration paid to service providers that help manage the aircraft, organise the flights, find the pilots, etc. However, each national authority has its own approach and its own criteria: some allow non-commercial operations under fractional ownership schemes where the owners co-own parts of an aircraft, others allow such co-ownership not only when the co-owners own parts of the plane, but also if the coowners are co-shareholders of a company that owns a plane, etc. Operators are therefore often left to their own devices when interpreting the law, and rare are the civil aviation authorities that have issued guidelines and that are ready and willing to help operators when they wish to start private operations.
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The result of this legal framework is a lack of harmonisation and lots of uncertainty for operators and aviation authorities alike. The changes to the definition of ‘commercial aviation’ in the Basic Regulation take away the only official European guideline that operators had in relation to what would be the elements to consider when starting noncommercial operations. The Interim Period The New Basic Regulation provides for an interim period during which EASA should issue some implementation measures in relation to various topics, including the definition of ‘commercial aviation’. This would be a good opportunity to work in cooperation with European and national Business Aviation associations to try and provide for implementation measures or guidance material that could help new entrants and existing operators better understand existing laws and regulations so as to act in full compliance with them.
Attorney Giulia Mauri is a partner at Pierstone Brussels. She has more than 20 years’ experience in advising national and international clients on all aspects of aviation and transport-related transactions, including asset-finance and leasing, regulatory issues, carrier’s liability and litigation matters. She also acts as a mediator and is the co-founder of Mediation4Aviation, a mediation platform dedicated to the aviation industry. Giulia co-chairs the European and Legal Affairs Committee of the European Business Aviation Association and is an active member of the Industry Affairs Group of the European Regions Airline Association. www.pierstone.com/team/giulia-mauri; email@example.com; +32 02 899 23 62.
FROM THE COCKPIT
NIGHT OPS ENJOY, WITH RESPECT While there’s nothing inherently dangerous about flying at night, a night flight can quickly turn hazardous if the pilot is not adequately prepared. Capt. LeRoy Cook provides some preflight planning tips to avoid surprises during night flight
here’s no difference between flying in daylight and flying at night – other than not being able to see. So go the words of wisdom imparted by training instructors, and they’re essentially right. The airplane doesn’t know or care that its pilot is visually impaired during the hours of darkness. It performs and responds just as it does in daytime. However, we, as the human pilot, are the weakest link in the conduct of successful night flight. Accordingly, we must respect our limitations, and they are manifestly increased when we fly in the dark. Statistically, the risk of a fatal accident increases at night, despite the relatively smaller number of flights undertaken during darkness. Simply put, night operations are less forgiving of an error than it would be in
the case when the same mistake was made in daylight. While the same weather is present as in daytime, obstruction hazards and runway lengths are not altered, and the equipment is no more prone to failure, pilots don’t cope as well when faced with a challenge during darkness. What’s the Big Deal? The fact is, we are ill-equipped for operating an airplane in the dark. The human eye has limited acuity for night vision, and we require constant visual references to maintain equilibrium. We are diurnal animals, not nocturnal ones, and our body doesn’t perform well when it would rather be sleeping. To make up for these shortcomings, we need adequate lighting, solid orientation to discern up-versusdown and a willingness to restrict ourselves from continuing into dangerous conditions. Face it, night flying is, for all intents and purposes, instrument flying. Even under the best night VMC, we can encounter areas where ground lights are scarce and a horizon may be difficult to see. A clearance for a night visual approach should be accepted only under the most familiar, well-illuminated circumstances. Similarly, circling approaches are best avoided after breaking out at night. Stick to a straight-in landing, with glidepath guidance. Does having a full moon help? While the moon-lit landscape can be a comforting simulation of daylight, bright moonlight can wipe out a dim star canopy and produce blinding glare in haze. Do not expect to be able to avoid high terrain visually by moonlight. Even a full moon doesn’t always provide enough visible detail to discern flat ground from steeplyrising terrain. Still, the Lunar orb is a comforting reassurance that the weather’s clear. Fly no airplane at night unless you’re familiar with its cockpit layout and you have full confidence in all its working parts. You might tolerate a glitchy radio or an intermittent annunciator warning in daylight, but at night you want everything to be working perfectly. Know where everything is and be able to find it by touch; military pilots used to be given a “blindfold cockpit check” as part of
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Night flying can be an absolute pleasure, but for many pilots, it can also be a source of anxiety.
FROM THE COCKPIT
their training, demonstrating their knowledge of the switches and controls. Most importantly, carry multiple flashlights when flying at night. I can guarantee that you will have an electrical failure if you fail to do so; I’ve burned up rheostats, broken generators and lost instrument lights, and most of the time these occurred when I hadn’t kept a freshly-charged flashlight on board. A large D-cell flashlight and a pocket penlight, fitted with red lenses, can make a big difference when something breaks. Why red lighting? Because the eye’s rod cells, which provide most of our night vision, work well in the red end of the spectrum but are restricted under strong white light, leaving us with only the daylight-favoring cone cells until the rods recover. Limit the intensity of any necessary white lighting you use.
Pilots rely more on vision than on any other sense to orient themselves in flight.
Be More Cautious at Night Begin with a careful preflight; you should be in the habit of checking all of the airplane’s lights, even in daytime, because you never know when an unexpected headwind or delayed departure will require a landing after dark. If on a poorly-lit ramp, dig out the flashlight to peer into wheel wells, check under cowlings, and look at control hinges. Take your time during taxi and runup. Moving around at night requires a bit more deliberant care in taxi speed, to maintain orientation and centerline alignment. Do not program your FMS and set up frequencies while moving; do it at the ramp before taxi or stop and set the brakes to perform these chores. When standing stationary, be alert for unnoticed creeping toward the edge of the pavement. Avoid
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throwing on strobes and other bright lights before taking the runway, out of consideration for the pilots around you. But if asked to “line up and wait”, have every light on to show that the runway is occupied. As you sit in position, take a second to note the appearance of the runway lights. They will be aligned just below your shoulders, thus when you’re in the landing flare you’ll want to see them just a little below where they are in your static position. Notice that the two lines of runway lights make evenly-sloped angles converging on the red lights at the departure end. Do not allow one line of lights to be straighter and the opposite one to form a larger angle; that means you’re off the centerline. Don’t crowd the edge lights, because they are ten feet or so out in the grass.
Advance power smoothly and track the centerline, planning to rotate to the recommended pitch attitude and lift off with the target V-speed in hand to carry the aircraft into a brisk climb. Upon breaking ground, use the PFD to hold a safe pitch angle and keep the wings level. The initial climb is most likely to be taking place in a “black hole” until you gain enough altitude to see a landscape of ground lights. Once you’re safely away from the hazards of ground obstructions, keep any eye out for lighted landmarks to guide your departure, supplementing the charted departure procedure or vectors. Use the compass heading to settle arguments in your situational analysis, and take a look back at the airport to see how it appears among the lightscape surrounding it. Roadways filled with car lights make good visual references, small towns in the blackness of open country can provide orientation, and those tower obstructions that you can barely see in daylight suddenly become valuable location identifiers when their lights show up at night. The relationships of airport beacons to their accompanying cities provide excellent verification that you’re looking at the correct landing spot. Remember that you cannot judge altitude in the dark; you must pay attention to your altimeter and know your safe altitude for your area. If you are approaching higher terrain and you begin to see the nearest lights disappearing from view, take it as a warning that you are not going to clear the upcoming ridge. One must keep a closer watch on the weather situation when flying at night, because of evening cooling and
more limited alternatives if forced to divert late in the day. Monitor ASOS and ATIS broadcasts to make sure weather isn’t moving into your route, and note the spread between temperature and dew point. When the gap closes to two or three degrees and any moisture is available to saturate the atmosphere, ground fog will begin to form, starting in the coolest low places, which is often where airports are located. Maintain a healthy fuel reserve, in case you need to deviate to an alternate. Consider own your state when flying at night. Because a higher level of attention to detail is needed for night flying, avoid flying fatigued. It’s one thing to arrive back at home base an hour or so after sunset, and quite another to conclude a meeting after 10 p.m. and try to get everyone home in the wee hours of the morning. If you’ve been awake for 20 hours you have no business trying to fly at night. Even the best-crewed aircraft won’t make up for a lack of rest. Landing Safely Are you quite sure you’re lined up on the correct airport? At night, all lighted runways look about the same, which is the reason most of the inadvertent wrong-airport landings take place during darkness. This is another reason to fly a charted instrument approach procedure, even if visual
conditions prevail. Be alert for indications that something doesn’t look right; don’t assume there’s a strong crosswind skewing your final approach heading or you must descend quickly to land on first set of lights you see. You might be attempting to land at the wrong airport. More and more airports are saving pennies by the use of pilot-activated lighting, so you may not find a lighted runway welcoming you as you arrive at your destination. Do your homework when planning the flight, making sure you know how to activate the lighting? In most cases, flicking the mike button seven times on the published frequency will get the lights turned on. If they are already on, they may be in a 15-minute activation cycle triggered by another pilot. Be ready to re-activate the lights if they go out while you’re on final. Naturally, you will have checked to see if the airport has special night operations requirements. While you are carefully following an obstacleavoiding arrival, with electronic guidance, don’t neglect to maintain vigilance for other aircraft. Airplanes are actually easier to see at night as their anti-collision and position lights move across the blackness. Traffic below you may be harder to spot against the ground lights. Beware of a steady, motionless light in your field of vision; it may be converging traffic.
Don’t make extreme or rapid maneuvers in the dark; avoid steep banks, and use your altimeter and heading in indications to help set up the legs of the approach path. Always double-check your altitude as you turn onto final approach; be no less than 500 feet AGL at that point, and add some power to stabilize descent if you’re getting close to the minimum. Again, you can’t judge altitude at night by looking out the window. Watch for the VASI lights and stay precisely on their red/white beams. Depth perception can be tricky as you focus on the bright spots illuminated by the landing lights, and you can encounter “target fixation” as you approach the ground, tempting you to fly right into the surface without flaring. To avoid this, utilize the cockpitheight relationship to the runway edge lights, remembering your pre-departure sight picture, to supplement the landing lights. On the other hand, good landing light coverage helps see the tire marks and centerline to better manage crosswind drift, so use all the lights you have available. The challenge of operating an airplane in the dark carries the reward of knowing you’re utilizing a valuable business asset to its maximum potential. Just be aware of the human factors and respect them by operating with higher safety standards at night.
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The lack of visual cues is the leading cause of pilots losing control of their aircraft.
I GIVE YOU WING ANTI-ICE LATER IN THE CLIMB OUT, RIGHT?
Pilots need to know the adverse effects of icing on aircraft systems and procedures to be adopted.
et Connection Businessflight AG was a German commercial air transport company operating in the air charter and air ambulance markets. For long-range trips it operated a Challenger CL604 aircraft. On Christmas day 2007 a German entrepreneur was the only passenger on a flight from Hannover, Germany to Macao, China. Given the distance, the flight was scheduled to perform a fuel stop in Astana, Kazakhstan. The crew of the flight was composed of the two pilots and the flight attendant. At around noon on December 25, 2007 D-ARWE, the Challenger 604, took off from Hannover bound for Astana. During the flight the crew was informed that fuel was not available in Astana and they decided to divert the flight to Almaty, where fuel was available. Due to the eastbound flight and the time elapsed since the departure at noon from Hannover, it was night by the time they arrived in Almaty. Actually, it was already December 26, 2007. After refueling, the flight was scheduled to continue to Macao at 2:50 am Almaty time on December 26, or, in
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UTC, at 8:50 pm on December 25. From here on all times mentioned are in UTC. In Almaty, the pilot in command supervised the uplift of 6.8 metric ton s of fu el. H e als o acces s ed online weather services from the German Meteorological Service and from Businessflight’s flight planning provider PPS. The PIC was thus aware, from reported weather and from own observations, that Almaty weather presented a typical mountain winter scenario: light Northerly winds, runway visual range oscillating between 1500 and 3000 meters, light snow, mist, overcast at less than 500 feet and a low pres s u re of arou n d 960 hPa. Runway 05 was in use and covered by dry snow up to 10 mm, with a braking action of 0.32. At this point it was 8:20 pm. The PIC ordered the aircraft to be de-iced. Once refueling and de-icing were completed, the PIC performed the pre-flight inspection and monitored the stabilizer and wing antiicing. All aircraft systems were fully serviceable, as the PIC would later confirm during questioning by the air accident investigators.
Michael R. Grüninger and Capt. Carl C. Norgren examine a Challenger 604 that crashed on take-off near Almaty after the captain failed to turn on the anti-icing protection systems despite the low temperature and presence of snow So far, everything looked normal and the crew informed ground control that they were ready to start up and taxi right after the completion of the 2 stage de-icing procedure with Type 1 de-icing fluid and Type 2 antiicing fluid. Later, the air accident investigators would confirm that the fluids were applied in sufficient quantity and met the specifications. While de-icing was still in progress, the crew received the ATC clearance for departure. Weather by the time the de-icing procedure was terminated was still more or less the same as before. By now it was 8:47 pm. The crew was given the taxi clearance. The crew prepared the aircraft for departure, setting the flaps on the slat-less aircraft and the trim tab at a stabilizer position of -4.7°. Ready at the holding point, Tower Control instructed the crew to wait until an MD-83 on approach had landed. Five minutes later, at 8:57 pm, the MD-83 landed and the Challenger 604 was cleared to take-off from Runway 05. The crew lined-up and applied takeoff power to start the take-off roll on the snow-covered runway into the dark night. Shortly after lift-off the aircraft oscillated vertically at high rate and lift significantly decreased asymmetrically. While the left wing was still generating lift, the right wing stalled. The aircraft banked uncommanded to the right to about 65 degrees. The wingtip touched the ground and the aircraft tilted into the ground. The first touch was made by the right wing tip on the line of the runway edge lights 1,640 meters from the threshold. The aircraft then
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impacted the aerodrome fence and broke into three parts. The subsequent ground fire significantly burned the aircraft. The co-pilot died from the impact forces. The PIC, the flight attendant and the passenger could escape from the burning wreck with major injuries and burn. It was 9:02 pm.
The accident destroyed the aircraft and killed one member of the crew.
Decision Making Long before the accident, the operator had decided not to include the Cowling and Wing Anti-ice system checks in the abbreviated checklists for short turnarounds. These system checks should have been performed in accordance with the Challenger’s Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM). The AFM is published by the manufacturer and is part of the documentation elements of the aircraft type certificate. When the AFM states that certain checklist items should be performed, the certificated level of safety can only be maintained if the manufacturer’s recommendations on the operation of the aircraft are followed by the operator. While it is legally permissible, in principle, to alter normal AFM checklists, it is the operator’s responsibility to ensure that an equivalent level of safety is maintained by doing so. The accident report does not provide information on whether the lack of performing the anti-ice system checks contributed to the accident. However, with hindsight, the inclusion of these checks in the operator’s abbreviated checklist might have reminded the crew of the AFM requirement to actually engage both Cowling and Wing Anti-
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ice protection in the given meteorological situation. While holding short of the runway waiting for the MD-83 to land prior to their departure, the accident crew had to make decisions on the configuration of the aircraft. After the accident, the surviving PIC was interviewed by the investigators. He confirmed that prior to line-up, the crew had decided to engage Cowling Anti-ice. The PIC planned to engage Wing Anti-ice during the climb-out. The decision was made based on the assumption that the Type 2 anti-icing fluid applied to the aircraft would provide anti-icing protection for 30 minutes. The de-icing procedure had started at 9:37 pm, therefore, assuming the full hold over time could be taken advantage of, the anti-ice protection lasted theoretically until 9:07 pm. The Operating Manual indicated the hold over time for the given fluid type and mixture in combination with the current type of precipitation and temperature to be between 15 and 30 minutes. In addition, the PIC believed that by not engaging Wing Anti-ice the additional thrust generated would be beneficial for the take-off roll on the contaminated runway. Thus the PIC decided against engaging the Wing Anti-ice system and for the use of the Cowling Antiice system only during take-off. Ground Effect with Supercritical Wing Profiles without Slats The Challenger 604 is protected against stalls by a stall protection system. However, the stall protection system warning only kicks in when
the critical angle of attack for a noncontaminated wing is reached. In this accident, as in four previous similar accidents, the stall occurred before the stall protection system was activated. All stalls were followed by uncommanded rolls right after lift-off. Bombardier has conducted experiments on the behavior of supercritical wing profiles. The results reveal that the ground effect by the time of the lift-off leads to a decrease of the critical angle of attack by up to 4 degrees. On a contaminated wing though, the critical angle of attack decrease is greater. In combination with a high rate of rotation at take-off, the effect is even larger. This explains the vertical oscillation after lift-off and for the lack of a stall protection system warning. The fast dynamic of these circumstances make it practically impossible for the crew to act upon the wing stall at lift-off. Taking off with a contaminated wing without engaging the appropriate anti-ice systems as recommended by the AFM and relying on the effectiveness of the ground anti-icing procedure resulted in a stall of the right wing when climbing out of ground effect. The answer to “I give you Wing Anti-Ice later in the climb out, right?” should have been “No, let’s follow the recommended AFM procedure given the current weather situation.” Bankruptcy The accident put Bussinessflight AG into the limelight. Businessflight’s revenue drastically dropped after the accident and it declared bankruptcy within a year after the accident.
Michael R. Grüninger is managing director of Great Circle Services (GCS) Safety Solutions and Capt. Carl C. Norgren is a freelance contributor to Safety Sense. GCS assists in the whole range of planning and management issues, offering customized solutions to strengthen the position of a business in the aviation market. Its services include training and auditing (ISBAO, IOSA), consultancy, manual development and process engineering. GCS can be reached at www.gcs-safety.com and +41-41 460 46 60. The column Safety Sense appears regularly in BART International since 2007.
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