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From the Editor

WHAT LIES BEHIND AIRPORT TAXES? WEBSTER'S NEW COLLEGIATE DICTIONARY: Tax n: a sum imposed by authority upon entities for the benefit of the citizens. Do you read me? Not for the benefit of the Government, not for the benefit of the Airports, but for the benefit of the Citizens. It's however a bit difficult to understand the purpose of a Tax and where the money is going, especially in our beautiful aviation industry where Airport Charges, Government Taxes, Security Fees are generally "de rigueur". You will notice that these shambles are disguised under different labels: Tax, Fee and Charge are the names commonly used; however there is a substantial difference between each one of these appellations. I can just say that while the money collected from Charges or Fees can be used for any legitimate purpose, the funds gathered with Airport Taxes have to be used exclusively for the benefit of passengers or airport neighbors. In our industry, a Tax is levied at some airports for the operation of reclassified Chapter 2 re-motorized aircraft or equipped with exhaust silencers. Besides, a Tax is sometime included in the Landing Fee like the TNSA. "No Jack, TNSA does not mean Tibetan National Sports Association!" TNSA is a Tax on Air Noise Pollution included in the landing fee, imposed on all aircraft of more than 2 tons landing at LFPG. In any case, it's illegal for an airport to impose a tax on noise if the money is not used for the benefits of those affected by the airport

hullabaloo. The funds for example should be utilized to build sound-proof walls around the airport perimeter and provide financial assistance to airport neighbors wishing to install sound-reducing windows and doors or adding insulation. They should not be used to build a fancy airport gate or transform the terminal into a shopping mall. The word noise comes from the Latin "nausea" that means sickness and noise make people psychologically sick especially in highpriced neighborhoods. Opening the door at various taxes, the introduction of noise legislations started in the early seventies when aircraft noises were earsplitting. Likewise Taxes make you sick and nobody like them either. Therefore the situation requires a little bit of consideration. Even much quieter, present days' aircraft are not just whispering and when you are standing under the path of flight of a multi-engine jet pulling 100 percent power, the noise is overwhelming at altitudes below 100 ft. Why not make an audible noise reduction after gear and flaps up? It should be noted that that jets taking off are not the sole troublemakers. Footdragging approaches with all the laundry out requires a 90 percent or more thrust to maintain a safe IAS. Each time power is needed to stabilize speed or descent; it rattles more windows and fatigue more nerves. Cooperation is the key word. Infringement on the privacy of airport communities could dish out more taxes and curfews at community business airports.

"Noise proves nothing. Often a hen who has merely laid an egg cackles as if she laid an asteroid." Mark Twain

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Avionics Editor Steve Nichols


Editor and Publisher Fernand M. Francois Associate Publisher Kathy Ann Francois Executive Editor Paul Walsh Senior Editor Marc Grangier Safety Editors Captain LeRoy Cook, Michaël Grüninger

MRO Editor Bernard Fitzsimons New-York Editor Kirby J. Harrison CONTRIBUTING EDITORS Fabio Gamba, Nick Klenske, Louis Smyth, Giulia Mauri, Derek A. Bloom, Guy Viselé, Aoife O'Sullivan

FEB - APR - 2015 Volume XXVII - No 1 BART No 155 WWW.BARTINTL.COM


PRODUCTION Tanguy Francois Production Manager ADVERTISING Kathy Ann Francois Advertising Director CIRCULATION Thais Cremer Marketing Assistant




2015 FLEET REPORT This year's fleet report sees established markets regaining dominance.

THE DOCKET Influential aviation lawyer Aoife O'Sullivan looks at the latest EASA regulations for non-commercial operators.

54 HELI-EXPO Over 65 helicopters will be displayed at Orange County Convention Center for Heli-Expo 2015. We preview the show.


70 MAINTENANCE MATTERS Biggin Hill is steadily establishing itself one of UK's top maintenance hubs. Bernard Fitzsimons reports.


INTERIORS The completion industry is facing a shifting landscape of new technology. Kirby Harrison looks at how it is coping.

FROM THE COCKPIT Our resident pilot LeRoy Cook looks at some top pilot tips for protecting your eyes.



MEBA REACHES MATURITY MEBA 2014 proved that the Middle East is now an established Business Aviation market.

SAFETY SENSE Our experts look at how a breakdown of communication led to an almost fatal accident.

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SPACIOUS Dassault Falcon’s 5X cabin features flowing, uninterrupted lines to enhance the feeling of space.


OUR COVER Rotorcraft innovation continues at a dizzying pace. Read our preview of Heli-Expo on page 54.

OUR ADVERTISERS AND THEIR AGENCIES 61 13 11 65 41 9 73 7 2 39 37 53 19 23 17 15 84 83 21

AERIA Luxury Interiors AMAC Aerospace Dassault Falcon (PUCK L’AGENCE) Duncan Aviation EBACE 2015 FlightSafety International (GRETEMAN GROUP) GCS Safety Solution Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation HondaJet (MILNER BUTCHER MEDIA GROUP) Jet Support Services Inc. (JSSI) JetNet LLC NBAA 2015 Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. Rockwell Collins ARINCDirect Rolls-Royce Textron Aviation Customer Support (Sullivan Higdon & Sink) Textron Aviation Jet Sales (Sullivan Higdon & Sink) Universal Avionics Systems, Corp. Universal Weather and Aviation, Inc.

BART International. Business Aviation Real Tool is the Premier Transatlantic Business Aviation Magazine. ISSN 07767596 Printed in Belgium and published Bi-Monthly by Société Anonyme Frankie&Lette 20 rue de l’Industrie, 1400 Nivelles, Belgium. Phone +326 788 3603; Fax +326 788 3623. With US offices in Texas and Arizona, BART International is governed by international copyright laws. Single copy $12.95 U.S. or €10.00 EUR. Professional Subscription available at 12 issues $31.00 U.S. or €24.00 EUR. Bank account BNP PARIBAS Fortis BE92 2710 0610 0423. Administration and Circulation Thais Cremer International distribution by ASENDIA. USPS 016707 Periodical postage paid. For details call IMS at 1(800) 428 3003. Belgian posting office: BE1380 Lasne. Office Coordinator Paul Walsh - Strategic Development Officer. Responsible Publisher - Fernand M. Francois




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SAFETY FIRST AT BART I truly appreciate receiving your excellent magazine, especially the important place dedicated to training and safety. Your regular columns "From the Cockpit" and "Safety Sense" are among the best I have ever read in any aviation publication. In his excellent article on situation awareness published in your issue 153, LeRoy Cook put the emphasis on the possibility of a position loss occurring from information overload. Mr. Cook is quite right, pointing out that today's pattern of position shortfall is more likely to occur from over-reliance on automation. State of the art avionics and systems are wonderful, but they also require more training than in the past, especially for older generation's pilots. Thank you again for renewing my subscription.


Capt. George Theophylactou Nicosia. Republic of Cyprus


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Paris Air Show June 15-21 2015 Le Bourget, France 6 - BART: FEBRUARY - APRIL - 2015

RENDER TO CAESAR THE THINGS THAT ARE CAESAR'S, AND TO GOD THE THINGS THAT ARE GOD'S I have noticed that page 34 of your December issue includes an image owned by Gama Aviation. The photo is a Legacy 650 from our fleet parked at the Gama FBO in Sharjah International Airport. We commissioned the photo-shoot in 2012 if my memory serves correctly. The article reference is for Embraer, not Gama. Also; the photo includes a private car owned by a Sharjah VIP and the license plate has not been censored. Oliver Hewson GAMA AVIATION United Arab Emirates Thank you very much for your clarification complementing a photo illustrating a Legacy 650 on page 34 of BART International issue 153. The space allocated for the caption didn't allowed us to give a complete description of the elements pictured. Being unreadable, the expurgation of the car license plate was not required. Our readers will appreciate your clearing up. Follow us on Instagram


OUR MAN IN THE STARS BART International Avionics Editor. A journalist and business communicator with over 30 years’ experience, Steve columns have been published in leading scientific and aviation magazines. He recently launched, a website about inflight connectivity. Steve has won awards for writing, photography, audio/video and web design. He also runs communications skills training seminars. He is regularly consulted and work for: ADS, Aviva, Inmarsat, Honeywell, HMG Aerospace, Reed International and many others. In the past number of years Steve has communicated his knowledge and expertise to our readers in their quest for their avionics’ judicious information. A British Citizen, Steve Nichols lives in Norwich UK. Ask our experts >


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Cessna has celebrated the roll out of the first production Citation Latitude at the company’s Wichita, Kansas manufacturing facility, just three years since being announced to the market. The assembly of the Latitude features a variety of technological advancements including the use of new automated robotics and ergonomically friendly tooling stations. Today’s event is the latest in the aircraft’s progression toward type certification by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), which is expected in the second quarter of this year. “Our product investments extend beyond the design and performance features of the aircraft with innovations in our manufacturing processes,” said Scott Ernest, president and CEO. “The Citation Latitude team has redefined what customers should expect from a business aircraft in this segment, while also redefining the aircraft build process.”

JET AVIATION DUBAI RECEIVES PART 145 FALCON 7X APPROVAL Jet Aviation Dubai recently received EASA Part 145 approval to provide base maintenance to Dassault Falcon 7X aircraft. With EASA base maintenance approval, Jet Aviation Dubai now fully supports the Dassault Falcon 7X aircraft. The company already holds EASA-authorization to perform line maintenance on Falcon 7X, F900 EX Easy; F900DX; F2000; F2000 EX Easy and F2000 DX aircraft. It also has full FAA approval to provide line and base maintenance to the entire Dassault Falcon family. “There are a number of Dassault Falcon 7X operators in the region and we are very pleased to expand our service capabilities to meet their needs,” says Hardy Butschi, vice president and general manager of Jet Aviation Dubai. “This approval validates our ability to provide Falcon 7X owners and operators premium quality maintenance support to best ensure their safety and security."

MARSHALL AVIATION SERVICES ANNOUNCES ITS FIRST FBO AT EGBB Marshall Aviation Services, the business aviation-focused arm of the Marshall Aerospace and Defence Group, announced it is widening its expertise into the FBO arena. It has secured the executive aviation handling facility (FBO) at Birmingham Airport and will formally open for business under the Marshall Aviation Services name within the next few months. Marshall has agreed a long term lease of the award-winning FBO, built in 2011 and located to the west of the airport. The glass fronted 4,000m2 (44,000 sq ft) facility, includes 2,500m2 (27,000sq.ft) of hangarage space which will be available both to resident and ad-hoc visiting aircraft. Under the previous operator, the FBO was named Best Handling Agent/FBO by industry peers of the Baltic Air Charter Association (BACA) in 2013. The FBO is regularly used by BAE Avro RJ executive charter operator Cello Aviation and FlairJet, Marshall Aviation Services’ aircraft operations, charter and management company, will also have a presence there. The facility will continue to offer fuel services via Avfuel.


“ Jeppesen and Company celebrated its 50th anniversary last week. It was very exciting and emotional. I got some really good licks in for FlightSafety.” – Jepp Jeppesen, from a letter to FlightSafety founder Al Ueltschi, 1984

ELREY B. JEPPESEN Navigational Aviation Pioneer

A Legacy of Trust

Aviation pioneers Elrey “Jepp” Jeppesen and Al Ueltschi started out as barnstormers and went on to become industry leaders and icons. They were close friends and business colleagues who led industry-changing efforts to make aviation safer. Their correspondence, now housed in Seattle’s Museum of Flight, illuminates their mutual respect and goals. In 1962 Ueltschi wrote in a letter to Jeppesen, “If we can provide the finest instruction and equipment, our Company should continue to grow even more.” Jeppesen shared how he actively promoted FlightSafety, whether at aviation events or in one-on-one interactions. As a longstanding member of FlightSafety’s board of directors, Jeppesen was directly involved in the business. Al and Jepp discussed such milestones as ferrying the first Falcon aircraft across the ocean and the arrival of FlightSafety’s Gulfstream, Falcon and JetStar simulators. The company Jepp founded in 1934 continues to help aviation professionals worldwide reach their destinations safely and efficiently. Al’s commitment in 1951 to provide the very best training and simulators remains at the core of FlightSafety’s mission to enhance aviation safety around the world.

Building trust over time, and continuing to earn it each day, is FlightSafety’s promise and commitment. Aviation professionals from around the world trust FlightSafety to continuously provide the highest quality training and outstanding service they expect and deserve since 1951. Today more than 1,800 highly experienced professional instructors deliver aircraft and mission-specific courses, using FlightSafety’s comprehensive training systems and advanced-technology flight simulators designed to enhance safety. Trust your training to FlightSafety. You’ll see why so many of yesterday’s and today’s aviation professionals have made the same choice. For information, please contact Steve Gross, Vice President, Sales • 314.785.7815 • • A Berkshire Hathaway company


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During this year’s World Economic Forum (WEF) in Davos from 21. 24. Jan. 2015, Air Service Basel’s FBO at the EuroAirport Basel again experienced an extremely busy period, when supporting visiting jets whose VIP passengers were headed for the Annual Meeting held at Davos in Switzerland. Air Service Basel once again handled an extraordinary number of aircraft movements during the event, with a high majority being mid- and large-size business jets using ASB’s state-of-the-art hangar facilities for long term parking. “Our FBO handled a peak number of flights for visiting VIPs from all over the world, including many European and Overseas’ corporate and government flight departments”, says Air Service Basel’s CEO Claudio Lasagni, “and I am pleased that our team provided an excellent and discreet handling service to all our guests”.

HONDA AIRCRAFT PRESIDENT AND CEO HONORED AS AVIATION INDUSTRY LEADER Honda Aircraft Company announced that President and CEO Michimasa Fujino has been honored with the Aviation Industry Leader of the Year Award for the development, production, marketing and sales of the innovative HondaJet. The award recognizes dedication to the aviation industry and is presented each year by the Kiddie Hawk Air Academy. Fujino was honored on Friday, Jan. 16, 2015 as part of Kiddie Hawk’s 12th annual “Living Legends of Aviation Awards” event in Beverly Hills, California. "We are pleased to grant Michimasa Fujino this award for his contributions to the advancement of business aviation with his original concept design, the HondaJet,” said Kiddie Hawk volunteer Paul Lips. "With this award, we recognize his efforts and vision to create new technology with the HondaJet Over-The-Wing Engine Mount configuration.”

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BELL HELICOPTER RECEIVES EASA ATO CERTIFICATION Bell Helicopter has announced it has received an Approved Training Organization (ATO) certification from the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA). With this approval, the Bell Helicopter Training Academy (BTA) is authorized to provide Part-FCL training courses for European customers. “The EASA ATO certification is a significant milestone for Bell Helicopter,” said Ray Lamas, general manager, Global Customer Training for Bell Helicopter. “This certification enhances our ability to provide in-region pilot initial and recurrent training for our Bell 429 and Bell 407 customers in Europe, and is a critical next step towards the opening of our joint training facility with TRU Simulation + Training and Textron Aviation in Valencia, Spain.”

DAHER-SOCATA EXTENDS ITS TBM SUPPORT IN THE UK DAHER-SOCATA has announced that RGV Aviation Limited has become the latest member of the TBM Customer Support Network as an approved TBM Service Center. RGV is an EASA Part 145 Maintenance Organisation and FAA Repair Station based at Gloucestershire Airport (EGBJ) in the United Kingdom. RGV is now able to serve TBM operators both visiting and based in the United Kingdom. “RGV becomes an important element of our network, serving customers in a region where we expect strong market development for the TBM very fast turboprop aircraft family – especially its newest member, the TBM 900,” said Nicolas Chabbert, Senior Vice President of DAHER-SOCATA’s Airplane Business Unit. “I am confident is the first step for a growing business and collaboration between our two companies.”


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JET AVIATION GENEVA RECEIVES REPAIR STATION APPROVALS Jet Aviation Geneva has recently received repair station approvals for Canada, Azerbaijan, San Marino and Guernsey. With these approvals, Jet Aviation Geneva is authorized to provide full maintenance services to aircraft registered in San Marino, Guernsey, Azerbaijan and Canada. The Geneva MRO facility also holds approvals for Aruba, Bermuda, United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Cayman, Cameroun and Mauritius, in addition to EASA and FAA approval. “We are pleased to expand our service offerings to owners and operators of aircraft registered in San Marino, Guernsey, Azerbaijan and Canada,” said Cyril Martiniere, managing director of Jet Aviation Geneva. “These approvals validate our commitment to the highest standards and we look forward to welcoming and supporting these aircraft.”

STANDARDAERO SIGNS CONTRACT WITH WEST ATLANTIC StandardAero signed an exclusive five year contract, with a five year renewal option on January 1, 2015, to maintain, repair and overhaul West Altantic Cargo Airline’s PW126 engines, modules, components and parts. The agreement will cover West Atlantic’s owned fleet of 41 BAE ATP aircraft powered by PW126 engines serving the cargo mail and express industries. Services will be provided predominantly at StandardAero’s Tilburg, Netherlands European Service Center (ESC). Additional services will also be available at StandardAero’s Winnipeg, Canada facility as well as on site at West Atlantic’s Malmo, Sweden and Coventry, United Kingdom locations. The agreement also includes field service provided by StandardAero technicians. Headquartered in Gothenburg, Sweden, West Atlantic is one of Europe’s largest cargo airlines and the most experienced provider of unique, integrated ground to air logistics for the mail industry.

GKN SIGNS AGREEMENT WITH ROLLS-ROYCE FOR TRENT 1000 COMPONENTS GKN Aerospace has agreed a long term agreement (LTA) with RollsRoyce plc to supply components for the latest version of the Trent 1000 engine - a capability enhancement of the existing Trent 1000 engine for the Boeing 787. This LTA is estimated to be worth more than USD200m over the life of the agreement. The agreement gives GKN Aerospace responsibility for the supply of the outer guide vane (OGV) mount ring and the rear fan case for the engine. Manufacture is taking place at the company’s sites in Newington, Connecticut, El Cajon, California and Mexicali, Mexico from where delivery of initial development units is already taking place. When in full production GKN Aerospace expects to supply up to 150 engine sets annually. GKN Aerospace has optimised a number of advanced fabrication and assembly techniques to minimise the buy to fly ratio for each component, cut material wastage and limit exposure to material price fluctuations. Traditional ring forgings, which require extensive machining, have been replaced with near net shape materials which require minimal finishing. Techniques such as electron beam welding and plasma welding as well as optimised mounting solutions have reduced manufacturing and assembly complexity and cost. In addition, skilled chem milling of the rear fan case has lowered this component’s weight by more than 40lbs.

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NEXTANT COMPLETES SUCCESFUL FIRST FLIGHT FOR NEW G90XT Nextant Aerospace (“Nextant”), a Directional Aviation Capital company, maker of the Nextant 400XTi – the worlds only remanufactured business jet – and the forthcoming Nextant G90XT turboprop, announced the successful completion of the first test flight for the new G90XT. The company celebrated the landmark event with a rollout celebration at their headquarters in Cleveland, Ohio. “This is a very exciting day for the team at Nextant and our customer base,” said Nextant President and CEO Sean McGeough. “We announced this program just twelve months ago and we are on schedule for certification. We have great expectations for this aircraft and believe the new technology that it offers will be appealing to this market segment.” The G90XT by Nextant Aerospace is a remanufactured King Air C90A that features the new H75 engine by GE. The aircraft will benefit from several significant technology enhancements including a fully integrated GARMIN G1000 cockpit, electronic engine control with complete exceedance protection, single lever power control technology for simplified operations and reduced pilot workload, digital pressurization, all new dual-zone air-conditioning for enhanced ground cooling in warm operating environments along with a significant interior upgrade for enhanced cabin comfort.

DUNCAN AVIATION RENEWS CERTIFICATION FOR INDIA Duncan Aviation's Lincoln, Nebraska, Maintenance, Repair & Overhaul (MRO) facility recently received renewal of its approval by the India office of the Director General of Civil Aviation as an approved aircraft maintenance organization. The certificate is good from Jan. 1, 2015 through Dec. 31, 2015. According to Chris VanderWiede, Chief Inspector of International Airworthiness, it is important to be able to provide service to all of Duncan Aviation's customers, regardless of location. "Duncan Aviation continually evaluates its certifications and is constantly communicating with customers and prospects around the world to secure new and maintain current certifications when it makes sense to do so," VanderWeide says.

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FIRST CITATION M2 IN EUROPE Atlas Air Service delivered the first Citation M2 in Europe to the company Müller Co-Ax AG from Forchtenberg in BadenWürttemberg. The business jet landed at Bremen Airport after its transfer flight from Independence, Kansas (USA). Cessna’s M2 is the successor of the CJ1+ and was completely modernised. The winglets providing lower aerodynamic resistance together with the laminar wings constitute the most significant change of the new M2’s look. The completely redesigned cockpit is equipped with the modern Citation “Intrinzic” flight deck on the basis of the Garmin G3000 with touch-screen technology. New comfort seats, LED lighting and the optional Cessna Clarity Cabin Management System offer highest passenger comfort. The M2 has eight to nine seats and a speed of up to 400 knots (741 km/h). Moreover, it boasts with a range of up to 1,300 nautical miles (2,400 km). This enables direct flights from Frankfurt to Moscow or Hamburg to Lisbon. “In view of such flight performances and a better price in comparison to its predecessor the new jet is an attractive entry-level model into the legendary CL class”, explains Hans Doll, Sales Director of Atlas Air Service. “We are very pleased that the Cessna has accommodated the wishes of our customers and created an ideal upgrade for pilots of turboprops, Cessna Mustang or the CJ1+. We expect an excellent positioning of Cessna’s new product in the light jet market in Germany and worldwide.”






THE CJ FAMILY We’ve always thought trying to sell the idea of a “one-size-fits-all” business jet was more for some other manufacturers’ benefit rather than our customers’. That’s why, where some just offer one light jet, we offer a family of Citations made specifically for you. And, when you’re typed in one of these single-pilot Citations, you’re ready to fly all three. Don’t try that with their “one-size-fits-all” jets. Your range. Your cabin requirements. Your performance needs. Your choice. CESSNA .COM


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PW306D1 CERTIFICATION CLEARS CESSNA CITATION LATITUDE FOR TAKEOFF The recent Transport Canada (TC) Type Certification of Pratt & Whitney Canada’s PW306D1 turbofan engine sets the stage for the entry into service of Cessna’s newest business jet, the Citation Latitude, which can transport up to nine passengers 2,700 nautical miles (4,630 kilometres) and reach a flight level of 43,000 feet (13,106 metres) in just 24 minutes. The PW306D1, flat-rated at 5,907 pounds of thrust, received the TC Type Certificate shortly before Christmas, and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certification is expected in the first quarter of 2015. Cessna, a long-standing customer of P&WC, announced the selection of the PW306D1 for the Citation Latitude at the 2011 National Business Aviation Association (NBAA) annual meeting and convention in Las Vegas, Nevada.

AMERICAN JET INTERNATIONAL ADDS LEAR JET 31 TO FLEET American Jet International dba Million Air Charter, a member of the awardwinning private aviation Million Air FBO Company based in Houston, TX, is pleased to announce the addition of a Lear Jet 31 to its managed fleet of business jets. It is immediately available for charter. This private jet is ideal for business or leisure travel from Houston to Aspen or Houston to the Miami due to its fuel efficiency, aerodynamics, speed and comfort. The Lear Jet is a favorite jet of choice because it is one of the fastest in its class. Features of the cabin include leather seats, refreshment galley, lighting, seat controls and cabin storage. The cabin accommodates up to eight passengers. “After an incredible 2014 we are excited to start out 2015 with this new addition. Our customers love the speed and cost effectiveness of the Lear Jet 31, with the comfort and convenience for both business and leisure travel,” said Anthony Ethridge, Vice President of Business Development. “The Lear Jet 31 is a great addition to our fleet because it’s the perfect size for domestic trips as well as international travel to Canada, Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean. Our growth is fantastic and it stems from the impeccable team of industry experts we have put together” said Roger Woolsey, CEO of Million Air. “We are receiving a lot of request from new and existing aircraft owners looking for the professional advice and experience in aircraft management solutions that only American Jet International can offer. ” said Chuck Simmons, Director of Operations for American Jet Intl.

MARENCO SWISSHELICOPTER APPOINTS REPRESENTATIVE FOR GUATEMALA MARENCO SWISSHELICOPTER is pleased to announce that it has appointed AVIFLEX AVIATION as the official Representative for Guatemala. This appointment further expands the range of the Marenco Swisshelicopter’s network across the world and is a first step in Latin America, this considering successful orders that have been taken in the past years in the region and in Guatemala. The start of our discussions was announced in the early part of last year at the HeliExpo 2014 in Anaheim when Aviflex Aviation confirmed the order of three (3x) SKYe SH09 helicopters. With the support of Alejandro Widmer, CEO of Aviflex Aviation SA, and his qualified team of aviation experts, the Marenco Swisshelicopter clients and operators will benefit from commercial and technical infrastructures allowing more effective exploitation of opportunities in the country.

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Piaggio Aerospace, has announced that the new Avanti EVO received certification from the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA). The Avanti EVO gained official approval after an extensive development and test program carried out under the supervision of the Italian National Civil Aviation Agency , ENAC, on behalf of EASA. US certification from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is expected within the next few weeks as well as the Indian Certification as the first two Avanti EVO aircraft will be delivered to Indian customers. Carlo Logli, Chief Executive Officer of Piaggio Aerospace said, “The EASA certification for our Avanti EVO marks a red letter day and demonstrates Piaggio Aerospace commitment to business aviation. The Avanti, which already is an icon for safe, efficiency, and comfortable travel has evolved with improved performance, comfort, reduced emissions and has extended its range. The Avanti EVO is an intelligent solution for business travelers, blending the very best of Italian style and the most advanced aerodynamic concepts giving operators and passengers more efficiency than ever before”.

BOUTSEN DESIGN SIGNS GULFSTREAM 650 COMPLETION DEAL Boutsen Design is proud to announce that it has signed a contract to equip a brand new Gulfstream G650 with the ultimate in ‘art de la table’ to include high-end cabin comfort items, accessories, bed and bath linen as well as a selection of amenities. Renowned for working with over 140 of the world’s most prestigious brands, Boutsen Design has been commissioned to this specific project to primarily use the Italian luxury goods house best known for its leather goods – Bottega Veneta. The news comes following a series of recent successful deals to add the final decorative touch to heavy jet aircraft such as an Airbus A340, A320 and BBJ1. Boutsen Design was established by Daniela Boutsen three years ago and offers clients centralized “turn-key” solutions from its one-stop-showroom in the very heart of Monaco. From initial proposals, quantity evaluation, design, ordering and tracking, to final delivery including loading worldwide, the company is well known in the aviation industry for providing a professional bespoke service.

FLIGHTSAFETY AND ABU DHABI AVIATION SIGN LETTER OF INTENT FlightSafety International and Abu Dhabi Aviation have signed a Letter of Intent to establish a Learning Center in Abu Dhabi. The signing took place at the Middle East Business Aviation conference in Dubai. This follows the Memorandum of Understanding signed in October, 2014. “Signing this Letter of Intent with Abu Dhabi Aviation to establish a new Learning Center demonstrates our commitment to provide conveniently located high quality training services to aircraft operators in the Middle East,” said David Davenport, Senior Vice President. “Abu Dhabi Aviation’s experience and expertise in aviation, and reputation for delivering outstanding service, made them the ideal partner for this important project.” “Selecting FlightSafety to provide industry-leading flight simulators and proven instructional technologies for the new Learning Center will establish Abu Dhabi as a major aviation hub and center of excellence for training in the Middle East,” said Nadir Al Hammadi, Chairman, Abu Dhabi Aviation.

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PEOPLE Aoife O’Sullivan, a Londonbased partner at international law firm Kennedys, has been named to the Board of Directors of Aerion Corporation. O’Sullivan will participate in strategy formulation and the overall governance of the company as its AS2 supersonic business jet program gathers momentum.

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FlightSafety International has announced that David Davenport has been promoted to Executive Vice President, Commercial.

David Davenport

Aoife O’Sullivan “Aerion is growing rapidly,” said Aerion Chairman Robert M. Bass. “Aoife’s extensive knowledge of the industry, especially its legal and financial dimensions, will add further depth and experience to the Aerion board. We welcome her to this great undertaking.” O’Sullivan works with a global team of 60 attorneys and finance experts covering business and commercial aviation, military aircraft, and civil aerospace. She advises clients on aircraft finance and regulatory issues, including corporate structures, aircraft acquisitions, airline start-ups, and other issues. Piaggio Aerospace has appointed Ms Rossella Daverio as Senior Vice President of Communications. Ms. Daverio will be in charge of internal and external communications, brand management, media and public relations. 20 - BART: FEBRUARY - APRIL - 2015

“We are very pleased to promote David Davenport to Executive Vice President, Commercial,” said Bruce Whitman, President & CEO. David’s responsibilities include management of the Sales, Marketing, and Operations organizations for FlightSafety’s business and commercial aircraft training. He joined FlightSafety in 1996 as Assistant Manager of the West Palm Beach Learning Center and then served as D i r e c t o r , C A A T rain in g , at FlightSafety Academy prior to being named Assistant Manager of the Atlanta Center. He became Manager of the Savannah Center in 2005 and assumed responsibility for FlightSafety’s Gulfstream aircraft training programs. David was promoted to Regional Operations Manager in 2008 and relocated to the company’s corporate offices in New York following his promotion to Vice President in 2012. David most recently served as Senior Vice President.

Prior to joining FlightSafety, David was Executive Director of the Florida Division of American Flyers and worked for Computervision Corporation as a Manufacturing Engineer. David graduated from the United States Air Force Academy with a degree in business management. He served as a Squadron Operations Officer and member of the Squadron of the Year for two consecutive years. David piloted the Cessna T-37 and the supersonic Northrop T-38 jet aircraft through the U.S. Air Force Undergraduate Pilot Training program. He received the Knupius-Simpkins Award recipient for leadership, teamwork and operational excellence. David serves on the Board of Governors of the Wings Club and the Air Charter Safety Foundation. He is also a Director of the National Business Aviation Associate Member Advisory Council. FlightSafety International announces that Raymond Johns has been promoted to Executive Vice President, Government. “All of us with FlightSafety congratulate Ray Johns on his welldeserved promotion to Executive Vice President, Government,” said Bruce Whitman, President & CEO. Finally FlightSafety has announced that Yannick Kerriou has been promoted to Manager of its Learning Center located at the Paris-Le Bourget airport in France. He assumes this responsibility from Patrick Dulac who has retired from the company. Jet Aviation has announced the appointment of Thomas Kopetzky as FBO supervisor at Jet Aviation Vienna, effective January 5, 2015. As FBO supervisor, Kopetzky will oversee the Jet Aviation Vienna FBO operation to ensure a premium customer experience. He reports directly to Dennis Kohr, managing director of Jet Aviation Vienna.

Based in Vienna throughout his career, Kopetzky is a 40-year industry veteran with extensive handling experience. Prior to joining Jet Aviation Vienna in January 2015, he worked for Pan American World Airways, Delta Airlines and Austrian Airlines, and successfully led small startup companies. Kopetzky is a licensed pilot with radio telephony certification.

Thomas Kopetzky “Thomas has a deep understanding of our customers’ needs and a long proven history of building trusted relationships,” said Kohr. “We are very pleased to welcome him to the Vienna team.” Jet Aviation Vienna offers passenger handling, on-site immigration and customs clearance, transportation, hotel and catering coordination, as well as aircraft cleaning, de-icing and refueling. Available amenities include an executive lounge and conference room, a crew lounge and flight planning facilities. RBR Maintenance, Inc. recently announced they have hired Scott Carter as Service Manager for the King Air and Citation line. Scott first joined RBR as a contract employee in October 2014 and was quickly hired full time.

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Hangar 8 Plc have announced to London Stock Exchange’s AIM market the merger of Hangar 8 Plc and Gama Aviation. Subject to completion in early January, the new business, Gama Aviation Plc (AIM:GMAA) will be listed with an anticipated market capitalization of c. £130M/$200M. The deal, brings together two complimentary business, with very little operational overlap, creating a combined business of the scale, breadth and depth required by progressive and growing market. The CE O o f G am a A v i a t i o n , Ma r w a n Khalek, explains: “Over the last 30 years, Gama Aviation has grown steadily to become one of the major business aviation service providers in the world. However, through this merger we will be creating a true global leader and one that is uniquely positioned for accelerated future growth. We believe the strategic rationale for this merger is clear to see. The two businesses enjoy a complementary geographical coverage; they have a good operational fit and have been pursuing similar growth strategies built on a profitable and robust business model. Bringing them together into Gama Aviation Plc will create a business of significant scale and one with unparalleled breadth of geographical coverage and depth of capability and service, enhancing our client offering. I am very excited by this merger and the platform that it creates on which we will continue to grow our business aggressively, both organically and through acquisition. A platform that will allow us to continue to 22 - BART: FEBRUARY - APRIL - 2015

offer excellent service to our customers, great opportunity to our people and good returns to our shareholders.” Dustin Dryden, CEO of Hangar 8 Plc adds: “Today our clients, many with ultra-long range aircraft, require their premier suppliers to be truly global too with the ability to supply a full range of private aviation services across the globe. The combination of our joint capabilities and experience, across all major aircraft manufacturers, and all major global trading hubs, becomes our new service baseline. I believe this is the largest business combination that our sector has seen, and allows us to seize the full benefits of market consolidation as we continue to meet if not exceed the needs of the most demanding of clients. We believe Gama Aviation Plc provides a world class offering.”



DAHER-SOCATA announced the delivery of 51 new TBM 900s in 2014, which represented a 27-percent increase from 2013 for the family of very fast turboprop aircraft. With an order intake for 64 aircraft in 2014, it was the best year ever in terms of TBM sales volume, and the second best year for the company’s aircraft program since 1990. Used aircraft market has been also active. In total, when adding used aircraft to the new business for TBM 900s, DAHER-SOCATA handled some 150 aircraft transactions during the year. This increased activity followed DAHERSOCATA’s introduction of the TBM 900

model in March 2014 – the latest addition to the company’s very fast turboprop aircraft family, incorporating enhancements that include aerodynamic optimization, a five-blade composite propeller and redesigned spinner, complete nose-to-firewall redesign for improved engine airflow circulation, enhanced human-machine interface features, a completely revamped electrical system and increased passenger comfort. by the TBM 900’s launch and its generation of new sales,” stated Stephane Mayer, the President and CEO of DAHER-SOCATA. “Our decision to develop the TBM 900 was confirmed by the praise from customers and the media – who have described it as ‘a remarkable aircraft.’ This is a great success for DAHER-SOCATA’s teams and our global network, and I am pleased to be part of it.” The majority of TBM 900s purchased in 2014 were for customers in the U.S. and Canadian markets (representing 78 percent), while new business also came from other key aviation regions of the world. South America accounted for 10 percent, mostly in Brazil; Europe was next, with 8 percent of the sales; and AsiaPacific represented the remaining 4 percent.

“This impressive sales success is the compensation for a more than threeyear development program that has made the TBM 900 the ultimate very fast turboprop aircraft,” said Nicolas Chabbert, Senior Vice-President of the DAHERSOCATA Airplane Business Unit. “I want to thank all customers who selected the TBM 900, as well as those who bought a used TBM. In addition, y appreciation goes to the DAHER-SOCATA teams, partners and our worldwide network for their constant commitment in satisfying the customers.”


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From the Desk of Fabio Gamba CEO EBAA

At the end of last year, I had the privilege of delivering the closing speech at a very insightful event: the WIA-IAWA Women in Aerospace and Aviation Networking Event. It was a first collaboration between three Associations – Women in AerospaceEurope (WIA), the International Aviation Women’s Association (IAWA), and EBAA – along with fellow event partners, Belgian Science Policy (Belspo), and legal firm Verhaegen Walravens. I think it is fair to say that if we lived in an ideal world we wouldn’t have been there at all. We wouldn’t have even thought of organizing such an event, because it would be redundant and pointless. In an ideal world, the aviation and aerospace sectors would not be biased towards one gender over the other. Unfortunately, we are still working hard to reach the ideal, and so there I found myself, amongst a number of skilled and qualified men and women and it was a really great night with a lot of interesting and productive discussion. Beyond this event, let me share with you what I see as a great paradox: last year,

during a strategic session of the EBAA’s Board of Governors, we identified the three major challenges that Business Aviation was faced with in Europe. Number one was (and will probably remain in the foreseeable future) access to infrastructure – in particular ground infrastructure, i.e. airports. Number three was the negative perception that people have of the sector, which results in negative consequences in legislation and decision-making. And do you know what number two was? Any idea? 24 - BART: FEBRUARY - APRIL - 2015

So you have on one side a poor level of attractiveness of the sector to a specific gender, which is already very worrying; and on the other side a general brain drain, or at least a gap between an evanescent supply of skills Before we get carried away, no, it wasn’t the blatant imbalance in gender representation that I previously mentioned, but something directly associated to it. It was the Shortage of Skills within our industry! Now think about it for a moment: a very gross estimation has it that women in Business Aviation represent less than 25% of the total workforce here in Europe. That’s significant. In parallel, the Board of EBAA raises the alarm, claiming that one of the top three issues the sector faces (today and tomorrow) is the insufficient rate of skills renewal compared to the need within the industry. It’s true that this need is mostly for blue collar workers, but it also includes white collar talent to a certain extent. So you have on one side a poor level of attractiveness of the sector to a specific gender, which is already very worrying; and on the other side a general brain drain, or at least a gap between an evanescent supply of skills and a growing demand for skills. Well, it seems to me that the industry would be immediately better off if it could 1)




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/EUROPE TRANSATLANTIC recognize the problem, and 2) at least partially fix it by reinventing itself and appearing more appealing to both genders, with a heavier emphasis on women, since they’ve been overlooked in the past. Again, we are not living in an ideal world. The EBAA Secretariat has been asked to initiate, or to trigger, reflections within the industry, and to come up with concrete proposals to tackle our industry’s three major, longterm, and problematic “mega-trends”. With respect to the shortage of skills, our first step is to assess the following: in which sector do shortages exist, and for which specific skills? What will the demand be for in the coming 10 years, and what is the expected rate of blue and white collar workers entering the sector? Only then will we be able to make recommendations. But I can already tell you that a heavy emphasis will be placed on ways to attract women. For our sector, this is not an exercise in political correctness, I assure you. This is simply the only way our sector can hope to sustainably grow. We need the best global talent from the largest pool; and this talent includes women. The WIA-IAWA Networking event was a first collaboration between EBAA and the two women’s associations, and I expect a lot of support from Women in Aerospace-Europe and the International Aviation Women’s Association in the future to help us gain the facts and insight we need to establish a case moving forward, and then to guide us in how to best attract women to the industry, or at least do it a lot better than we have done in the past!

MAJOR SESAR FLIGHT DEMONSTRATION PROJECT MOVES FORWARD A two-year demonstration project will be conducted by a consortium of 15 aviation leaders for the validation of new approach and landing technologies A 15 company-strong consortium named A3 (Advanced Approaches for all Airports) and led by NetJets Europe has been formed under the Single European Sky Air Traffic Management Research (SESAR) program to demonstrate new approach and landing solutions that will increase the capacity of the European airport network while reducing emissions and noise. The A3 consortium will implement the Augmented Approaches to Land project (AAL), co-financed by the SESAR Joint Undertaking, and will perform over 200 demonstration flights by 2016 to validate new approach and landing technologies involving a significant number of aircraft types, and an extensive range of airport environments.

EUROPEAN GROWTH SWINGS UPWARD AGAIN Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) began 2015 discussing the challenges and economic opportunities of Business Aviation, at an event hosted by MEP Ismail Ertug and MEP Massimiliano Salini, Members of the Transport & Tourism Committee. Business Aviation in 2014 delivered its first positive growth figures since 2011, and the industry is optimistic that this is just the beginning of its upswing. Three of the four key European markets – France, the UK, and Italy – contributed robust figures (up to 2.2%). However, since Business Aviation is intimately tied to the health of the economy, the overall growth rate was a muted 0.7% on the previous year. Competitiveness was at the heart of the discussion. Often construed as meaning solely a level playing field for European vs foreign competitors, the more immediate challenge to Business Aviation is of a different nature, pertaining to distortions within the European market. A competitive air transport ecosystem must allow all its components to flourish alongside one another; access to air and ground infrastructure cannot be based on a zero-sum game. For Business Aviation, a distinct, but sometimes overlooked segment of the air transport sector, this is crucial.


In creating the ties through this first initiative, I announced that the EBAA would like to formalise the collaboration a bit more, to work together in the future to effectively address the issues our sector is facing. We all know that simply acknowledging that a problem exists will not lead to the solution. This will come from working together to actively search one out. And I am confident that we are searching in the right direction.

Germany has determined a 16.6 per cent increase in its charges to airlines for air traffic control services from 1 January 2015. This proposed outrageous price hike, at almost 40 times the rate of the Euro area inflation1, is not acceptable to the airspace users’ community and is completely at odds with the objective of the European Union performance scheme which aims to regulate and control the price increases of air traffic control providers and the entire Single European Sky. Commenting on the proposed increase, the heads of ERA, IACA, ELFAA, EBAA and AEA say: “This price hike makes a mockery of the European Commission’s efforts to control the cost increases of air traffic control through the EU performance scheme. It is a clear case of a monopoly service provider abusing its dominant position. Airlines and, inevitably, the end user - the consumer will be forced to pick up these costs with absolutely no associated increase or improvement in the level of service provided by Germany.”

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From the Desk of Ed Bolen NBAA President and CEO Promoting unfettered access to cities and communities throughout the world is a key priority for NBAA, which is why our Association recently welcomed the European Commission’s publication of a working paper clarifying terms related to the temporary admission of aircraft into the European Union (EU).

The aircraft must also be owned outside of the EU and not made available for use within its boundaries by EU residents, and the aircraft cannot be flown commercially. The temporary admission is valid for up to six months, and ends if the aircraft leaves the EU within the six-month period.

The working paper, issued late last year, provides official guidance to customs officials in the 28 member states of the EU, making clear that many typical business aviation flights are eligible for temporary admission when flying within the EU.

Many operators conduct flights between or within multiple states, and are thus subject to these rules. However, understanding the customs requirements is complex, as each EU state can individually interpret provisions of the EU Community Customs Code. Furthermore, with VAT rates of at least 20% in most EU states, the onus is on operators to understand the importation process, as failure to do so could result in VAT being applied to the value of the aircraft.

Aircraft that are not registered in the EU, but are operated within EU member states, are subject to importation requirements including value added tax (VAT) and customs duties. However, when a foreign-registered aircraft flies from a non-EU country and then conducts flights within the EU, that activity can be eligible for temporary admission and conditional relief from taxes and duties. Once an aircraft arrives in the EU, it is automatically granted temporary admission and eligible for conditional relief from VAT and customs duties, so long as the aircraft does not remain in the EU for more than six months in a 12-month period. 26 - BART: FEBRUARY - APRIL - 2015

Before this official guidance was released, many business aircraft operators – including NBAA Members – were uncertain whether they were eligible for temporary admission or could be subject to VAT and other duties when flying within the EU. To resolve this confusion, the International Business Aviation Council (IBAC) requested clarification from the World Customs Organization (WCO) and the European Commission.




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/U.S.A. TRANSATLANTIC Among the issues clarified in the working paper is a question that has confused operators for years, differences in the meanings of the terms “private use” and “commercial use” as understood by the international aviation community, and as applied by customs authorities in the EU. The paper not only defines flights by company-owned aircraft as private use, but also further clarifies that a chartered flight is also private use for the purposes of temporary admission, because the fees paid are for the lease of the aircraft and not for passenger tickets. Charter flights must still have appropriate traffic rights and economic authority to operate within the EU. The working paper, issued by the European Commission’s Customs Code Committee Section for Special Procedures, addresses the interpretation of private use and commercial use only for customs officials in EU member states and only for the purposes of temporary admission. The EU Customs Code, its implementing guide and the WCO Istanbul Convention on Temporary Admission remain unchanged. Following the working paper’s release, Kurt Edwards, the director general for the International Business Aviation Council (IBAC) noted the policy guidance “clearly resolves the confusion” over temporary admissions requirements. “As long as the operator meets the conditions for temporary admission, they can utilize the process to receive conditional relief from value-added tax and customs duties obligations, and operate to, from and within the EU,” he added. NBAA strongly supports the decision to issue this clarification, which removes a significant layer of uncertainty for business aircraft operators flying within the EU. We also thank IBAC, on behalf of all NBAA Members, for its years-long work to help clarify an issue that should lead to greater travel opportunities for business aviation operators around the globe.


The NBAA has said that new guidance from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) on its once-controversial plan for testing pilots for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) now reflects a practical approach from the Association and other general aviation (GA) groups for addressing the condition, without compromising flight safety. “This new guidance, developed with NBAA’s input, reflects a pivot for the agency, which combines common sense with clinical discipline,” said NBAA President and CEO Ed Bolen. Particularly noteworthy for Bolen is that, under the new guidance, pilots will be able to continue to fly while being evaluated for OSA.


In recognition of growing interest in the use of small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS), and concerns about their safe operation within the National Airspace System (NAS), the NBAA recently joined with other aviation advocacy groups and industry partners in support of the “Know Before You Fly” educational initiative to provide prospective users with the information and guidance they need to fly UAS safely and responsibly. Founded by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI), the Academy of Model Aeronautics (AMA) and the Small UAV Coalition, “Know Before You Fly” offers important operational and safety information to those seeking to utilize UAS in a variety of roles, many of which aligns with interests of the business ✈ aviation community

NBAA WELCOMES LAW RENEWING ACCELERATED AIRCRAFT DEPRECIATION The NBAA commended President Obama for signing into law legislation that provides a one-year renewal of expiring tax provisions, including accelerated, or “bonus” depreciation for any new aircraft purchased in 2014 and placed into service by the end of 2015. “NBAA welcomes this bipartisan bill to renew tax policies such as accelerated depreciation and commends members of both parties for working together to preserve jobs and strengthen American competitiveness,” said NBAA President and CEO Ed Bolen. Accelerated depreciation allows businesses to take a first-year deduction equal to 50 percent of a qualified asset’s cost basis. The tax-extender bill also renews the increased limitations for Section 179 expensing, allowing businesses to expense, rather than depreciate, assets such as aircraft parts.


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Deliveries Confirming this general sense of optimism, the General Aviation Manufacturers Association (GAMA) reports that general aviation airplane shipments increased 5.7 percent to 1,678, and billings rose to $16.0 billion, up 4.0 percent.

By Paul Walsh

Business Aviation professionals have a tendency to look for bright spots and opportunities as opposed to sitting around complaining about a lingering recession. So it’s no surprise that over the past seven years, we’ve seen a huge focus on emerging markets as they opened up to the value of Business Aviation.



This year’s fleet report shows the resurgence of established markets.

ow, however, the pendulum is swinging back in the other direction. A commodities slump has meant once buoyant markets like Russia and Brazil have started to dip, while the US is surging ahead thanks to low fuel prices and an economy that’s on the move again. In total, the Business Aviation fleet grew from 33,950 to 34,755, that’s a total of 805 aircraft representing a healthy growth rate of 2.3%. The worldwide jet fleet grew by 2.7% from 19,478 to 20,010 units, with turboprops growing by 1.9% from 14,113 to 14,390 aircraft. And according to many aviation experts, the future is decidedly bright. For instance Brian Foley predicts that after almost a decade in the doldrums, Business Aviation is finally expected to improve noticeably this year. “I have a deep conviction that 2015 will be the indisputable pivot point when the industry, including its laggard segments, turns meaningfully upward,” he says, adding that for some seven years the market has had a split personality with deliveries of the largest, most expensive business jets relatively unscathed by the great recession, while small- and mediumsized jets experienced a sales decline of two-thirds from which they have yet to recover.

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This time things are starting to look up in all market sectors. First of all he notes that pre-owned jet inventories are at their lowest levels since 2008. According to aviation data provider AMSTAT, a greater percentage of the active fleet of business jets transacted in the first 9 months of 2014 than in the first 9 months in any year within the last decade. Business jet takeoff and landing activity is the busiest in 6 years, and jet maker executives, normally reserved, have been more upbeat lately. A sustaining element is the number of new jet models being introduced in the relative near-term. “Between the years 2014 and 2019 there are 18 new and derivative business jets entering the market. New products act as a sales catalyst, stimulating the market by giving customers a reason to buy. This will keep the pump primed for deliveries to continually increase until the 2019 time frame, at which time Foley expects the next cyclical downturn. “The industry’s improved outlook will manifest itself next year as markedly higher manufacturer backlogs, increasing book-to-bill ratios and a jump in unit deliveries in doubledigit percentages.”

Piston-engine airplane shipments increased 9.2 percent to 806 units in the first nine months of 2014, compared to 738 airplane shipments in the same period last year. Turboprop airplane shipments were down 3.7 percent to 412 units this year and business jet shipments were up over last year, from 421 units to 460 units in 2014. “The optimism about the general aviation market on display at NBAA’s convention this year is reflected in the continued recovery of the business jet and piston-engine segments this quarter,” says GAMA President and CEO Pete Bunce. “New products are helping to fuel our industry’s continued growth as we continue to emerge from the recession. The Established Markets Looking to our fleet report by continent it seems that much of the good news is coming from North America and the US in particular where the BizAv fleet grew by 2.5% from 18,756 units in 2013 to 19,229 last year. This is important because as Brian Foley points out; the active US business jet fleet is five times the size of the next largest market. “And now the U.S. economic situation is greatly

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improved, with GDP growth in the past 6 months the best in a decade, stock markets hitting record levels and consumer confidence at seven year highs. Add to that the lowest oil prices in 4 years which reduces plane operating costs, and historically low interest rates from which aircraft loan and lease rates are derived and you’ve painted a great scenario for an allencompassing rebound.” Canadian Sector Meanwhile the Canadian Business Aviation market remains robust and last year its fleet grew by 3.2% from 1,306 to 1,348. Indeed a recent report from the Canadian Business Aviation Association (CBAA) notes that the sector generates C$5.4 billion (U.S. $4.6 billion) per year in total economic output, including C$3.1 billion directly tied to the sector’s operations, and supports nearly 24,000 jobs. The 2014 Economic Impact of Business Aviation in Canada study, conducted by InterVistas, estimates that Business Aviation in Canada annually generates about C$800 million in direct wages from 11,500 fulltime equivalent (FTE) jobs. Indirect impacts, such as jobs at business jet manufacturers, account for another 8,000 FTEs and C$510 million in annual wages. Induced impact – which is generated by spending of those in the first two categories – supports another 4,000 FTEs and $220 million in wages, the study found. “Business Aviation has a sizable impact on the Canadian economy,” according to the study, “to put these impacts into context, the total impacts associated with business aviation in Canada are similar to the impacts of the Vancouver International Airport.” The industry’s economic contribution also includes sizable tax revenue – such as employee payroll taxes and business property taxes – for the Canadian government, as well as its provinces and municipalities. InterVistas calculated that the sector contributes C$650 million annually to governments, 72 percent of which goes to the national government, and most of the rest to provinces and territories. Operations in Canada vary widely and while all 13 provinces and territories have at least some business aviation activity, most is concentrated in the country’s four most populous

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United Kingdom


South Africa




provinces: Ontario, Alberta, Quebec and British Columbia. As a country with a very large land mass, Canada presents unique opportunities for Business Aviation to support both companies and communities. For instance, telecommunications provider Telus uses three aircraft – two de Havilland DHC-2 Beavers and a Quest Kodiak – to support a network of 13.5 million customer connections. The fleet averages about 60 flight hours per month and is often used to reach remote locations that are otherwise inaccessible, helping ensure the company’s Internet, mobile phone and television customers are always connected. European Bright Spots Moving on to Europe we see that the Business Aviation fell, dropping by 2.8%, which means that the total European fleet now stands at 3,902 aircraft. However there are bright spots on the European horizon, for instance traffic figures are up and the end of this year so the first positive year-end numbers in three years, according to the European Business Aviation Association (EBAA). Total flight movements – including departures, arrivals, internals and

overflights – increased 0.7 percent during 2014, and nine of the 12 months were in the plus column. The traffic rose only slightly, “but at least we’re talking about growth,” says EBAA CEO Fabio Gamba. Three of the four traditional European market leaders posted traffic gains in 2014: movements in France increased 1.1 percent, U.K. traffic rose 2.2 percent and Italy recorded 0.1 percent growth, respectively. The glaring outlier is Ukraine, whose traffic dropped 39.6 percent after the crisis with Russia flared in February. “Ukraine used to be a relatively important market for business avia-

tion,” Gamba noted, citing the country’s size, location and number of companies using business aviation located there. Business aviation traffic in Ukraine had grown 13.4 percent in 2011, 12.6 percent in 2012, and 6.3 percent in 2013. “It’s now almost at a standstill, and is definitely affecting countries that are neighbors.” Moldova, for example, lost a quarter of its flight movements last year. Belarus and Albania were off slightly as well. “Whether these countries will be able to find solutions by developing ties with countries in other parts of Europe remains to be seen,” said Gamba. Gamba said the Czech Republic was impacted in the early months of the conflict, but business traffic there rebounded, in part, by implementing satellite-based approaches (localizer performance with vertical guidance) at Brno and Ostrava airports. Gamba is “cautiously optimistic” that the upward trend will continue in 2015, and is hopeful that growth overall will be between 1.0 and 1.5 percent.” His caveat, however, is that “something unforeseen could block recovery” of the European economies. A particular concern is Greece, which is holding an election on Jan. 25


The US remains the dominant Business Aviation player.

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JET SUMMARY BY MODEL MFG/MODEL TOTAL AIRBUS A310-200 2 AIRBUS A310-300 17 AIRBUS A320-200 23 AIRBUS A330-200 2 AIRBUS A340-200 7 AIRBUS A340-300X 2 AIRBUS A340-500 4 AIRBUS A340-600 4 AIRBUS ACJ318 18 AIRBUS ACJ319 65 AIRBUS ACJ320 10 AIRBUS ACJ330 1 ASTRA 1125 32 ASTRA 1125SP 33 ASTRA 1125SPX 58 AVRO RJ-70 1 BAC 1-11 4 BAE 146-100 6 BAE 146-200 1 BEECHJET 400 52 BEECHJET 400A 312 BOEING 707-120B 3 BOEING 707-320 7 BOEING 707-320B 10 BOEING 707-320C 18 BOEING 727-100 36 BOEING 727-200 1 BOEING 727-200 ADVANCED 18 BOEING 737-200 4 BOEING 737-200 ADVANCED 17 BOEING 737-300 9 BOEING 737-400 3 BOEING 737-500 6 BOEING 737-700 3 BOEING 737-700C 9 BOEING 737-800 3 BOEING 747-200B 2 BOEING 747-300 1 BOEING 747-400 6 BOEING 747-400M 2 BOEING 747-8I 2 BOEING 747SP 11 BOEING 757-200 16 BOEING 767-200 1 BOEING 767-200ER 9 BOEING 767-300ER 5 BOEING 777-200 1 BOEING 777-200ER 2 BOEING 777-200LR 1 BOEING 787-8 3 BOEING BBJ 125 BOEING BBJ2 21 BOEING BBJ3 6 BOMBARDIER CRJ100 5 BOMBARDIER CRJ200 16 CHALLENGER 300 445 CHALLENGER 350 21 CHALLENGER 600 69 CHALLENGER 601-1A 53 CHALLENGER 601-3A 130 CHALLENGER 601-3R 57 CHALLENGER 604 357 CHALLENGER 605 245 CHALLENGER 800 11 CHALLENGER 850 62 CHALLENGER 870 10

EUROPE 0 9 3 0 0 2 1 1 4 33 1 0 0 0 2 1 0 4 0 1 19 0 1 1 2 1 0 3 0 2 3 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 17 6 1 2 2 56 1 0 2 10 1 66 54 0 30 1


AS OF DECEMBER 31, 2014 3 247 346 331 194 102 236 223 404 5 166 163 65 360 22 286 558 71 185 55 448 150 345 30 272 253 35 113 304 7 324 170 2 50 12 11 12 260 2 1 167 60 18 20 304 226 115 30 27 229 4 26 103 126 15 19 80 19 27 2 35 13 78 75 5 234 7

0 26 70 49 36 31 50 60 61 0 24 7 3 32 6 27 55 17 10 5 97 8 38 3 7 7 3 11 16 0 77 50 0 2 3 5 1 22 0 0 53 13 1 1 28 29 10 4 3 37 0 7 33 31 4 5 21 3 7 0 14 6 7 2 5 34 0


99 219 175 24 23 117 117 33 3 1 164 96 144 153 21 103 240 45 13 10 23 295 9 457 88 1 118 34 162 186 300 189 45 6 17 8 11 2 7 1 1 8 1 14 35 13 3 13 11 2 1 154 27 67 240 48 223 52 414 51 99 180 6 5 2 9 5

11 96 37 4 9 27 35 9 3 1 51 39 32 47 2 12 22 2 0 0 0 32 1 72 15 0 0 0 1 6 12 10 3 3 1 0 9 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 8 14 6 15 17 4 10 31 20 11 25 0 0 0 1 0

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16 11 25 3 20 56 13 8 24 65 10 121 3 5 2 34 202 40 441 15 38 40 91 237 206 110 6 13 309 111 9 28 2 2 1 4 1 MD-81 1 MD-83 2 MD-8710 31 121 155 22 25 7 2 2 1 33 2 1 3 27 4 2 1 71 23 3 5 3 89 6 45 74 19.919

1 1 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 2 1 1 0 0 0 3 9 0 45 0 4 9 4 22 13 11 1 0 33 13 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 2 3 17 29 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2.633


TOTAL 126 97 431 1.607 132 39 168 17 348 74 51 74 206 311 50 81 61 89 126 89 46 688 31 20 92 207 18 716 53 187 25 12 100 220 72 114 118 1.084 118 9 115 5 23 105 424 40 218 420 96 123 118 16 277 187 30 112 9 1 33 27 34 55

Jet Fleet EUROPE 45 43 37 93 9 6 14 3 41 6 13 6 14 9 0 0 3 16 21 25 0 48 1 2 8 2 7 43 6 16 1 0 4 1 2 3 2 105 7 0 13 1 1 5 33 0 17 26 4 13 11 0 13 7 3 0 2 0 4 1 6 4

Europe 12.8%

World 87.2%

Turboprop Fleet

Europe 8.8%

World 91.2%

Total Fleet

Europe 11.2%

World 88.8%


3 1 3 4 1 0 0 0 0 0 7 0 3 0 2 0 2 71 47 24 66 81 34 15 3 10 37 2 1 1 1 9 6 5 1 3 1.269

Grand Total




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2014 FLEET REPORT NORTH AMERICA Country Total Antigua and Barbuda 1 Aruba 4 Bahamas 29 Barbados 7 Belize 21 Bermuda 30 Canada 1348 Cayman Islands 26 Costa Rica 28 Dominica 1 Dominican Republic 49 El Salvador 6 Greenland 4 Guadeloupe 6 Guatemala 89 Haiti 9 Honduras 31 Jamaica 4 Mexico 1268 Netherlands Antilles 5 Nicaragua 7 Panama 126 Puerto Rico 41 Saint Kitts and Nevis 1 Saint Vincent-Grenadines 5 Trinidad and Tobago 3 Turks and Caicos Islands 4 United States 19229 Virgin Islands (British) 29 Virgin Islands (U.S.) 13 West Indies 2 Total 22426

Executive* Jet 0 0 0 4 2 13 0 7 0 1 1 29 10 516 0 22 0 9 1 0 0 26 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 29 2 0 0 7 0 3 8 857 0 3 0 0 0 49 0 19 0 1 0 4 0 1 0 2 93 11868 1 18 0 7 0 2 119 13500

Turb. 1 0 14 0 20 0 822 4 19 0 23 2 4 6 60 7 24 1 403 2 7 77 22 0 1 2 2 7268 10 6 0 8807

*Executive aircraft are airliner aircraft converted to private business use, excluding models originally meant for business use.

Total Executive* Jet 324 1 163 31 0 8 1635 2 827 106 3 36 328 0 42 40 0 16 14 0 0 62 1 10 51 1 9 8 0 0 13 0 5 738 1 304 3350 9 1420

Turb. 160 23 806 67 286 24 14 51 41 8 8 433 1921

*Executive aircraft are airliner aircraft converted to private business use, excluding models originally meant for business use.

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Executive* 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 9 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 0 2 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 5 1 0 0 0 0 4 0 7 1 12 58

Jet Turb. 208 29 2 0 55 42 2 0 12 6 6 6 12 3 45 32 65 23 12 8 33 15 213 191 425 226 3 0 26 15 9 5 0 7 18 9 36 17 123 74 9 1 1 1 6 0 55 38 2 0 66 4 2 0 3 1 3 1 42 34 15 26 17 21 131 4 11 5 127 54 10 2 0 2 18 6 11 0 8 2 114 42 50 44 180 88 37 6 352 179 2575 1269

*Executive aircraft are airliner aircraft converted to private business use, excluding models originally meant for business use.

SOUTH AMERICA Country Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Guyana Paraguay Peru Suriname Uruguay Venezuela Total

Country Total Austria 239 Belarus 2 Belgium 97 Bosnia and Herzegovina 2 Bulgaria 19 Croatia 12 Cyprus 15 Czech Republic 77 Denmark 88 Estonia 20 Finland 48 France 410 Germany 660 Gibraltar 3 Greece 41 Hungary 15 Iceland 7 Ireland 27 Isle of Man 53 Italy 197 Latvia 10 Liechtenstein 2 Lithuania 9 Luxembourg 94 Macedonia 2 Malta 72 Moldova 2 Monaco 4 Montenegro 4 Netherlands 77 Norway 42 Poland 38 Portugal 135 Romania 17 Russian Federation 186 San Marino 13 Scotland 2 Serbia 24 Slovak Republic 11 Slovenia 10 Spain 160 Sweden 94 Switzerland 275 Ukraine 44 United Kingdom 543 3902 Total

AUSTRALIA & OCEANIA Country Australia Fiji French Polynesia Guam New Caledonia New Zealand Norfolk Island Papua New Guinea Tahiti Tonga Islands Vanuatu Total

Total 581 3 5 2 7 50 1 23 1 2 2 677

Executive* 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 3

Jet 146 0 0 1 1 8 0 2 0 0 0 158

Turb. 196 1 4 1 5 23 0 10 0 0 2 242

*Executive aircraft are airliner aircraft converted to private business use, excluding models originally meant for business use.

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in the wake of its coalition government collapse. Gamba fears that if business conditions deteriorate in Greece, it could have a spillover effect to other fragile southern European states. Italy and Spain are business aviation’s fourth and fifth largest markets in Europe, respectively, and Portugal is home to Europe’s largest fleet, NetJets. EBAA predicts it won’t be until 2017 that traffic levels again reach 2007’s peak. It’s also worth noting that in the first half of 2014 Russia showed considerable buoyancy.


Country Total Algeria 41 Angola 67 Benin 0 Botswana 46 Burkina Faso 6 Burundi 1 Cameroon 7 Central African Republic 4 Chad 9 Comoros 2 Congo 6 Cote d''Ivoire 5 Dem. Republic of Congo 29 Djibouti 2 Egypt 46 Equatorial Guinea 7 Eritrea 2 Ethiopia 10 Gabon 13 Gambia 5 Ghana 7 Guinea 2 Guinea-Bissau 2 Kenya 133 Liberia 3 Libya 18 Madagascar 17 Malawi 2 Mali Republic 5 Mauritania 5 Mauritius 5 Morocco 42 Mozambique 8 Namibia 29 Niger 4 Nigeria 88 Sao Tome and Principe 1 Senegal 13 Seychelles Islands 4 Sierra Leone 1 South Africa 446 Sudan 8 Swaziland 3 Tanzania 80 Togo 8 Tunisia 4 Uganda 19 Zambia 25 Zimbabwe 11 1301 Total

Executive* Jet 1 10 6 23 0 0 0 6 1 0 0 1 1 2 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 2 0 2 5 14 1 1 4 38 1 5 0 1 0 0 1 8 2 3 0 4 0 0 0 0 2 9 0 0 1 12 0 4 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 4 1 23 0 2 0 10 0 1 1 77 0 1 1 3 0 3 0 0 3 168 0 4 2 1 0 2 1 3 0 4 0 1 0 1 0 2 38 458

Turb. 30 38 0 40 5 0 4 4 6 2 4 3 10 0 4 1 1 10 4 0 3 2 2 122 3 5 13 2 3 4 1 18 6 19 3 10 0 9 1 1 275 4 0 78 4 0 18 24 9 805

*Executive aircraft are airliner aircraft converted to private business use, excluding models originally meant for business use.

Country Afghanistan Armenia Azerbaijan Bahrain Bangladesh Brunei Burma Cambodia China Georgia Hong Kong India Indonesia Iran Iraq Israel Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Lebanon Macau Malaysia Maldives Mongolia Myanmar Nepal Oman Pakistan Philippines Qatar Saudi Arabia Singapore South Korea Sri Lanka Syria Taiwan Thailand Turkey Turkmenistan United Arab Emirates Uzbekistan Vietnam Yemen Total


Total Executive* Jet 32 0 0 3 0 1 8 1 7 16 4 9 8 0 2 3 3 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 353 9 262 2 0 2 109 0 102 262 3 169 132 1 43 45 6 21 8 0 0 87 14 37 228 3 80 28 2 18 33 1 25 27 5 21 3 0 1 2 0 0 24 1 20 8 1 7 78 2 43 2 0 0 3 0 0 3 0 1 12 0 0 13 3 10 44 1 28 84 2 39 25 5 19 175 26 119 56 2 47 41 1 28 6 0 0 2 0 2 19 1 12 77 6 30 149 2 117 3 0 3 134 9 93 1 1 0 4 0 0 5 3 0 2359 118 1420

Turb. 32 2 0 3 6 0 0 0 82 0 7 90 88 18 8 36 145 8 7 1 2 2 3 0 33 2 3 2 12 0 15 43 1 30 7 12 6 0 6 41 30 0 32 0 4 2 821

*Executive aircraft are airliner aircraft converted to private business use, excluding models originally meant for business use.

French manufacturer Dassault registered as many Russian orders in the first half as in all of 2013, leading the company to predict an excellent sales year in the region. Demand has been particularly strong for the Falcon 5X and the new ultra-long range Falcon 8X, unveiled in May. Sales and deliveries have also been led by the popular Falcon 7X, more than 20 of which are currently flying with Russian operators. “The flexibility, robustness and operating economy of the six models in our Falcon line have enabled Dassault to cap-


BART’s fleet report registered gains in both Africa and Asia this year.

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ture 40 percent of the Russian large cabin market,” said Dassault Aviation Chairman/CEO Eric Trappier. “The Falcon 5X and Falcon 8X will permit the company to consolidate and strengthen this leadership position in the coming years.” Emerging Markets So it’s true that established markets, particularly the US are returning to prominence, but that’s not to say that there’s anything particularly bleak


South America’s fleet grew by 5.08% and Asia’s fleet grew 6%.

about emerging ones. Indeed, steady is perhaps the best way to describe them. For one thing the South American fleet grew 5.08% from 3,188 to 3,350 aircraft. Here Brazil is still going strong, growing from 1,564 to 1,635 aircraft, and Columbia grew from 317 to 328 aircraft. Underlining the region’s potential, Gulstream’s Latin American fleet has grown by nearly 70 percent since 2009. The company has its in-production fleet — the Gulfstream G650, G550, G450, G280 and G150 — at the annual air show in São Paulo. “I am very proud to say that one of every four business jets based in Latin America is a Gulfstream,” said Larry Flynn, president, Gulfstream. “That figure translates to nearly 180 aircraft. Five years ago, we had 105 aircraft

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here. Such remarkable growth, in a relatively short amount of time, is a testament to our aircraft’s value in Latin America as a tool for conducting business. That is very gratifying for us as a company.” The country with the largest Gulfstream fleet in Latin America is Mexico, with nearly 80 aircraft based there. Also, there are more than 30 company aircraft that operate out of Venezuela. Gulfstream’s popularity in Latin America is particularly evident in the country with the region’s largest size, population and economy — Brazil. Since 2009, the Gulfstream incountry fleet has nearly tripled, going from 14 to 40 aircraft. Nearly half of the large-cabin business jets based in Latin America are manufactured by Gulfstream, including 30 percent of the large-cabin jets in Brazil.

Dassault is another company expanding in the region and its Sorocaba facility will undergo a major expansion in the coming months in order to better accommodate the demands of Brazilian and other South American customers. The expansion will add 10,000 square feet of hangar space. Currently, the facility has about 23,000 square feet of space. “We sold our first Falcon, a Falcon 10, in Brazil in the late 1970s and since then have commanded a steadily increasing share of the Brazilian market, making Dassault the leader in the large cabin segment,” said John Rosanvallon, President and CEO of Dassault Falcon Jet. “We have strong expectations for continued growth in Brazil and elsewhere in Latin America and expect the new facility to reinforce our ability to serve this anticipated demand.” The company-owned Sorocaba Service Center is authorized to perform line maintenance and airframe inspections on all Falcon models except the legacy Falcon 20 and Falcon 100. Asia Asia’s Business Aviation fleet grew by 6% from 2,226 units to 2,359 last year. China still has the largest fleet on the continent at 353 up from 292 last year. In a sign that the Chinese market is beginning to mature, says has pointed out recently demand for Caravans is growing steadily there. Its joint venture with the China Aviation Industry General Aircraft Company (CAIGA) assembles and delivers Caravan utility turboprop aircraft for the Chinese market.

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“The joint venture with CAIGA has been an efficient way to provide solutions to the marketplace as Business Aviation continues to expand in China,” said Bill Harris, vice president, Sales in the region. “The reliability and versatility of the Cessna Caravan make it particularly well suited for growing global markets like China. We’re seeing customers order configurations for executive travel, hauling freight, aerial survey and tourism.” The Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC) granted approval for the Cessna Grand Caravan EX to operate on floats in China in March of this year resulting in an increase in orders for amphibian models. Previously unannounced orders for Grand Caravan EX Amphibian aircraft include Meiya Air for aerial sightseeing in Wuzhizhou Island of Sanya and Joy Air, which recently started charter tourism flights among Shanghai, Zhoushan and Shengsi Islands. In addition, earlier this year the joint venture announced an order for 10 Cessna Grand Caravan EX Amphibian aircraft from Reignwood Group to expand its aircraft services and operate tourism flights in the southeast part of China. “We’re seeing a tremendous floatplane trend in the region as the number of operators increase to meet demand from tourists here,” Harris said. “We are holding the first Floatplane Operator Conference in December at our Shijiazhuang joint venture facility to help build a community among current and prospective operators. We’re interested in supporting the long-term growth of the floatplane industry in China and general aviation as a whole, as our joint venture activity shows.” The joint venture results from the agreement signed in 2012 with CAIGA, a subsidiary of Aviation Industry Corporation of China (AVIC). The joint venture began officially operating when its business license was approved in September 2013 by the Ministry of Commerce. Cessna’s Wichita, Kansas, operations provide components and parts manufacturing and sub-assemblies for the Caravan aircraft sold by the joint venture. The joint venture operations in Shijiazhuang include final assembly, paint, testing, interior installation, customization, flight testing and delivery of the Cessna Caravan to incountry customers.

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Unit Change







United States




















North America













Australia & Oceania South America

Finally Africa’s fleet grew from 1,288 to 1,301 aircraft last year. South Africa still has by far the largest fleet on the continent with 446 aircraft, followed by Kenya with 133 and Nigeria with 88. Makes and Models Once again all of the manufacturers should be happy with the growth they experienced last year. The Textron fleet which stood at 17,218 aircraft dropped slightly to 17,155 aircraft. But Bombardier now boasts 4,337 units in the worldwide fleet up from 4,185 last year. Gulfstream’s fleet now stands at 2,294 up from 2,183 units, the previous year. Dassault performed well with 2,076 in the worldwide fleet up from 2038 last year. Finally there’s Embraer, with 798 aircraft up from 695 in 2013, a company which can now unequivocally state that it’s a major player in Business Aviation.

Cessna’s Caravan 208 is the most popular turboprop on the market with 1,607 an increase of one unit compared to last year. Meanwhile the Cessna Citation II is the most popular jet with 558 units in the worldwide fleet, up down from 565 aircraft last year. The Gulfstream G550 comes in at second place with 457 units and the Citation Mustang is in third with 448 units. Falling Oil Price Finally it’s worth noting that the fall in oil prices is also having a significant effect on the industry’s growth although it’s not all positive. As Brian Foley points out, oil prices have now fallen some fifty percent recently, and if sustained it’s bound to have some implications for an industry that relies on it, a lot of it, for propulsion. “One might initially think that a


Low oil prices are having a significant effect on industry growth.

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drop in oil prices would benefit the entire civil aviation industry as a whole, but as one digs a little deeper there are actually two aspects to it,” he says. Foley adds that the obvious benefactors are the airlines who only recently had fuel bills that accounted for close to a third of their total operating costs. While the initial benefit of lower jet fuel may be diminished or postponed while unwinding from fuel hedging commitments, this will eventually have a huge overall impact on the industry’s profitability. Finally he says the low-end of the general aviation aircraft market would also benefit. This includes A lot of this sales activity was generated by the once hot markets abroad including China and other emerging markets. Now with lower oil and commodity prices coupled with weaker economies, these markets have been greatly compromised. In place of big cabin private jets, the decimated small- and medium-sized jets will rise to the occasion since this segment’s sales center of gravity is not aligned with commodities, but rather with the fortunes of the US economy - which is now on a tear.


Turboprop and light jet manufacturers benefit from falling oil prices. The market for large luxurious aircraft may suffer.

small piston aircraft such as Cirrus, Piper and Robinson Helicopter up through small- and medium-sized private jets like Cessna Citations and Bombardier Learjets. This segment has been traditionally driven by the North American market (read US) which is now the best performing large economy in the world. Lower fuel prices will further act as a sales catalyst since the smaller segment is very price elastic, meaning people are more inclined to fly and buy when fuel is more affordable. Lastly, aircraft maintenance (MRO) and parts providers would see an increase in activity if airlines keep current aircraft longer rather than taking new ones. And Fixed Base Operators (FBOs), charter and fractional providers could get a boost from increased flying activity due to lower fuel operating costs and an improving economy.

36 - BART: FEBRUARY - APRIL - 2015

There’s a flip-side to lower oil prices that negatively affects a much larger swath of the industry’s overall delivery value and one change will be seen in the sales distribution of business jets, says Foley. Ever since the recession the only signs of strength were, surprisingly, from the biggest, most expensive models the manufacturers had to offer.

In all, a sustained drop in oil prices will help some segments of the civil aviation industry while others, representing a much larger economic value, potentially have the most to lose. “Major structural changes are already quietly afoot, and the effects will be profound.”

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DRIVING THE MARKET FORWARD Spend some time analyzing market data and you might get the impression that the global market determines the fortunes of Business Aviation. Look closer however and you’ll see that the industry, can in certain cases, be the author of its own fate by expanding existing markets and creating new ones. One example is the launch of new aircraft programs, which for market forecasters at both Honeywell and Bombardier, is a clear market driver for 2015 and beyond.


ased on this and other factors, Honeywell forecasts up to 9,450 new business jet deliveries worth $280 billion from 2014 to 2024, which is a 7 to 8 percent increase in projected delivery value over the 2013 forecast. Slightly higher unit deliveries are coupled with modest list price increases and the continued strong showing of larger business jet models in the delivery mix to generate the growth. And according to Brian Sill, president, Business and General Aviation, Honeywell Aerospace, “2015 industry deliveries are anticipated to be up modestly again, reflecting momentum from several new model introductions and some gains linked to incremental global economic growth,”


In the near term large-cabin aircraft will account for 75 percent of all business jet spending.

SURVEY FINDINGS In its latest survey, Honeywell found that the operators interviewed plan to make new jet purchases equivalent to about 23 percent of their fleets over the next five years either as a replacement or in addition to their current fleet. They admit that this is slightly lower than the past four survey cycles, but add that they are still in line with results of 25 percent or less that were the norm until 2006. Of the total new business jet purchase plans, 19 percent are intended to occur by the end of 2015, while 14 and 22 percent are scheduled for 2016 and 2017, respectively.

38 - BART: FEBRUARY - APRIL - 2015

LARGER JETS REMAIN POPULAR Despite lower overall purchase expectations, operators continue to focus on larger-cabin aircraft classes ranging from super midsize through ultralong-range and business liner, implying these types of aircraft will command the bulk of the value billed from now until 2024. This large-cabin group is expected to account for more than 75 percent of all expenditures on new business jets in the near term. Volume growth between now and 2024 will be led by these classes of aircraft, reflecting 60 percent of additional units and nearly 85 percent of additional retail value.

“The strong desire for larger-cabin aircraft with greater range and advanced avionics is seen again in this year’s survey,” Sill said. “We are also seeing some improved interest in midsize and small-cabin models this year. As a full-spectrum supplier, we are pleased to see aircraft in every class with significant Honeywell equipment content among the most popular models cited in the operator survey.” “For many years, the Honeywell Operator Survey has pointed the way for the industry,” says Carl Esposito, vice president of Marketing and Product Management, Honeywell Aerospace. “The annual outlook reflects topical operator concerns but also identifies longer-cycle trends we use in our own product decision process. It has helped Honeywell focus on investments such as designing and developing flight efficiency upgrades, optimized propulsion offerings, innovative safety products and enhanced aircraft connectivity offerings. The survey also contributes to our business pursuit strategy, and

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helps position Honeywell consistently on high-value platforms in growth sectors.” Also noteworthy is the improved interest in midsize and small-cabin aircraft. While large-cabin models still garner the largest share of specific buying plans, the midsize and smaller models recovered some share for the first time in several years. This means improved prospects for existing models as well as stronger interest in newer models REGIONAL BUYING DETAILS Honeywell points out that emerging markets generally show higher, but historically more volatile, levels of demand and a more pronounced preference for larger aircraft. tional fleet deliveries, North American demand should still support industry volumes as some of the traditional higher-growth regions work through another year of reduced growth rates.”


New aircraft like the Honda-Jet are set to drive the market forward next year.

In the BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India and China) in 2011 42 percent of respondents reported acquisition plans. This has lowered to 29 percent in the 2014 survey, but remains above the world average of 23 percent. Of the BRIC countries, Brazil remained a bright spot by recording the strongest new aircraft purchase plans in the survey. Overall, the BRIC countries still retain a relatively strong near-term demand profile with 45 percent of intended new jet purchases scheduled for the next two years. Meanwhile Sill points out “new aircraft acquisition plans in North America are still significant given the region’s overall size,” Sill said. “Coupled with projected gains in frac40 - BART: FEBRUARY - APRIL - 2015

Asia Pacific Operators in the Asia Pacific region, where many of the industry’s major players still have high expectations for long-term future growth, report new jet acquisition plans for 12 percent of their fleet. This is much lower than the 24 percent reported last year and has slipped below the world average. Honeywell says that disappointing growth figures from several major regional economies, higher levels of regional tensions and government austerity initiatives have muted operator enthusiasm in the current survey. As a result, the total share of global demand over the next five years for Asia Pacific is about 3 percent, off two points from 2013 levels. Fleets in this region have been growing at double-digit rates throughout the past five years and should continue to expand at strong, if slightly slower, rates over the next few years. This year, almost 30 percent of respondents are scheduling their new purchases within the first year of the five-year horizon. When comparing purchase timing in Asia Pacific between the past two surveys, it is evident that the front-loaded profile has resurfaced and should help bridge the gap to improved operator sentiments in the future.

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Most operator concerns centered on the economic tempering, tensions and fiscal austerity affecting several of the region’s major economies. However Sill said:“Survey findings from this part of the world rely on a smaller base of operator pools, and we do not believe the 2014 results represent any long-term structural change in the region’s fundamental underlying growth drivers or commitment to business aviation.”

Middle East and Africa


In Asia fleets have been growing at double digit rates for the past five years. Falcon 7X pictured.

The share of projected five-year global demand attributed to the Middle East and Africa region moved below its historical range of 4 to 7 percent this year. In the Middle East and Africa, 18 percent of respondents’ fleets are projected to be replaced or added to with a new jet purchase, down from 26 percent last year. The level of purchase plans is under the world average and unsurprising in that it has been a year of significant political upheaval and ongoing conflict in the region as well as a year in which oil prices have drifted lower and health crises have emerged in Africa. Regional distress has taken a toll, with operators in the region scheduling their purchases later in the next fiveyear window than expected last year, with only 21 percent of purchases planned before 2017.

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Latin America Latin America’s survey results indicate 28 percent of the sample fleet will be replaced or added to with new jet purchases, which is 11 points lower than last year’s result. The 2014 results remain above the world average, and planned acquisitions remain more front-loaded than the world average, with almost 47 percent of this region’s projected purchases timed to

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happen between 2014?2016. As a result of the current purchase plan levels, Latin America’s share of total projected demand holds relatively steady compared with a year ago at 17 percent. North America North America, the industry’s mainstay market, has seen new jet purchase plan levels slip about six points to 22 percent, just under the world average of 23 percent, after averaging near 25 percent for the past six years. Though buying plan levels might be

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must note that Russian responses in this year’s survey were again limited, so the small sample has an added element of volatility A comparison of the planned timing for European purchases indicates uneven proportions of demand in the next three years of the five-year window, with about 20 percent allocated through 2015 followed by a 13 percent dip in 2016 and a strong rebound to over 30 percent in 2017. “The long-term macro trends that support demand for business jets are still in place, notwithstanding the topi-

moderate when compared with emerging markets, North America represents nearly 60 percent of projected global demand for the next five years based on the region’s larger installed business jet base, affirming the region’s unquestionable importance to the industry’s future. Europe Europe’s purchase expectations jumped this year, to 31 percent, and are now back in line with the 30 to 33 percent levels seen in the three surveys before 2013. The European share of estimated global five-year demand also moved back in line with norms at 18 percent in the 2014 survey. European operators are still contending with sluggish growth and increased political tensions. Within the current setting, the buoyancy of operator attitudes is surprising. Russia, which supported the region before 2013 with strong local purchasing ambitions, has slipped in reported purchase plans in the 2014 survey, as Western sanctions expanded over the Ukraine crisis. Honeywell

cal issues we find coloring responses to the 2014 Operator Survey,” Sill said. “We believe global business aviation growth will be aided by structural and regulatory reforms, longer-term economic growth and aircraft innovation. As a systems supplier, we believe product innovation in the form of aircraft connectivity and communication technology solutions like the JetWave Ka-band satellite connectivity system, safety and situational awareness offerings like the IntuVue weather radar, as well as flexible service offerings and value-added upgrades, will support the expanded use of business aircraft as a key tool in the global economy.”

USED JETS AND FLIGHT ACTIVITY Moving then to used jets and flight activity we see that the picture is quite mixed. According to Honeywell much of the ground lost by operations during the 2009 recession still remains to be recaptured, while moderate improvements in international flight activity and in U.S. operations in general have continued into 2014. Among the indices followed by Honeywell, pre-owned jets for sale and flight activity continue to receive special attention. The number of pre-owned jets for sale today has fallen from a year ago. Approximately 10 percent of today’s fleet is up for resale, down from a high of nearly 16 percent reached in 2009. Current levels are normal in light of the past decade’s history; meanwhile, asking prices continue to drift lower.


European purchase expectations are growing says Honeywell. PC-12 pictured

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Single digit growth is expected in US flight activity next year. Cessna CJ4 pictured.

Before 2008, younger inventory (10 or fewer years old) usually made up 20 percent of what was for sale, but this year, the percentage of younger used jets still hovers at just over a quarter of all listings. This is down from record averages of about 30 percent reached in 2009. In 2014, improvements have occurred in the total young jet listings but in proportion to the decline in overall listings, keeping the overall share stable. Operator respondents increased their used jet acquisition plans moderately again in this year’s survey by about two points, equating to 28 percent of their fleets in the next five years. All regions posted increased used jet buying plans except Latin America. The used jet purchase plan increases over the last two surveys mesh nicely with the observed decline in used inventory for sale. Honeywell also sees increases in regions that experienced declines in new jet purchase plans, perhaps reflecting a shift in the near

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term to a more financially conservative approach to upgrading or expanding business jet fleets with used equipment. Prospects for improved levels of flying activity in the near future remain modest. Honeywell expects U.S. business jet cycles to close this year with an expansion of about 5 to 6 percent, largely driven by international flight growth and relatively strong charter operations. 2015 should also bring growth in the low single digits. FRACTIONAL MARKET Flight activity for charter-like operations and fractional ownership appears to be doing relatively well in the U.S. but not yet translating into many new aircraft deliveries. Fractional operators have taken only 11 new jets through mid-year. Large order backlogs accumulated over the past two years should impact delivery performance favorably beginning in the second half of 2014 based on delivery schedules.

BOMBARDIER’S MARKET FORECAST Meanwhile Bombardier notes that while the world economy is growing at a slower than expected rate, signs of improvement in the business and commercial aircraft markets have started to emerge. For one things aircraft orders are supported by continued demand from established markets – such as North America and Europe – and growth potential in emerging markets, which are forecasted to play an increasing role in the global aviation marketplace. China is expected to be the second largest region in terms of commercial aircraft deliveries in the 20- to 149-seat segment, and the third for business aircraft over the next 20 years. Also, as environmental concerns continue to gain importance and high fuel prices add pressure to the bottom line, operators across both industries will remain focused on finding more efficient and sustainable solutions.

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“At Bombardier, we have a long and proud tradition of pushing the boundaries of technology, and developing the next generation of aircraft that will better meet the needs of our customers – both today, and tomorrow,” said Michael McAdoo, Vice President, Strategy and International Development, Bombardier Aerospace. “As such, Bombardier Aerospace with its new category-defining business and commercial programs is well-positioned to strengthen its leadership position in its current markets.”

Industry deliveries by region 2014-2023 VS. 2024-2033

Business Aircraft Market Forecast Bombardier is confident in the strong, long-term potential of the business aircraft industry and forecasts a total of 22,000 business jet

deliveries from 2014 to 2033 in the segments in which Bombardier competes representing approximately $617 billion US in industry revenues. Bombardier’s Business Aircraft Market Forecast anticipates 9,200 air-

craft deliveries, worth $264 billion US between 2014 and 2023, and 12,800 aircraft, worth $353 billion US, from 2024 to 2033. The company adds that the market for business aviation continues to show promising signs of recovery. While current macroeconomic indicators are mixed, the overall trend for the world economy is stable to positive. In 2014, the world GDP is expected to grow by 2.9 per cent, with higher growth expected in 2015 onward. Industry order intake saw incremental improvement in 2013 over 2012, allowing the industry to record a book-tobill ratio of one for the second year in a row. Industry deliveries are expected to increase slightly in 2014 from 2013 based on the delivery guidance of manufacturers and new aircraft programs. As far as Bombardier is concerned Business aircraft orders are expected to remain challenging in 2014 across the industry, but projected to improve beginning in 2015. It is also anticipated that with demand for business jets shifting towards emerging markets, the fleet of large and medium category aircraft will grow, with the large aircraft category demonstrating the fastest growth. O ver the forecas t period, Bombardier predicts North America will receive the greatest number of new business jet deliveries between 2014 and 2033, followed by Europe, which remains the second largest market. China is forecast to become the third largest region in terms of deliveries over the next 20 years with 950 deliveries from 2014 to 2023, and 1,275 deliveries from 2024 to 2033.


Bombardier predicts a total of 22,000 aircraft deliveries over the next 20 years. Bombardier Global 5000 pictured

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A TURNING POINT FOR BUSINESS AVIATION The vanguard of this renewed demand for business aircraft ownership was flight activity, which grew in North America throughout 2014. The year concluded with 4.8% more flights operated than in 2013, the equivalent of 117,509 additional departures. Approximately a third of this activity was charter flying, operated by a part135 fleet of some 4000 aircraft, three quarters business jets. It´s a highly fragmented market, with the top 30 operators managing less than 20% of this fleet.

By Richard Koe Managing Director Wingx Advance



Flight activity is on an upward trend once again, after years of decline.

welve months ago the forecasts for Business Aviation were cautiously optimistic for a very belated recovery to a recession which had lingered for more than 5 years. Broadly, this recovery was expected to benefit from the improving shape of the global economy, which showed green shoots in the US, growth in emerging markets, and hopes for stabilization in the Eurozone. Few could have expected the divergent way in which this picture then developed, and its equally varying repercussions for Business Aviation activity in 2014. The optimists were right to anticipate growth in the US Business Aviation market, which is a bellwether for the global industry, hosting some 65% of the aircraft fleet and even more of the flight activity. The broad canvas of strengthening industrial activity, record equity market and low interest rates helped. More specifically, corporate America sustained its high profits, had cash to burn and started to lean back into capital asset investment, including business jets. An already delayed cycle of aircraft replacement and upgrade finally got its catalyst.

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The strong recovery in charter activity in 2013, 11%, was consistent with the first phase of the market´s upcycle. Recovery in aircraft ownership, reflected in more jet deliveries and increased private and fractional flight operations, then started to emerge last year. The consensus is that this year´s modest increase of around 3% in new aircraft deliveries will rise into double digit growth in 2015. This should feed through into fractional flying, which began to recover in the 2nd half of last year, and private flights, which operated some 60% of all activity, and picking up some 2% last year. North America If the North American market is going to regain anything like its pre-crisis trend, there should be much more upside to come. Even if new aircraft sales pick up 10-15% this year, annual deliveries will still be 25% off pre-crisis peaks. Likewise, after more than 2 years´ gradual improvement in activity, flight activity is still more than 10% below customer demand in 2007. These peak customers left in droves in 2009, but having once enjoyed the benefits of flying private, they should still be an addressable market in the future. The recovery in 2014 flight activity was strong across the key North American regional markets, with California, Texas, Florida and New

York states picking up 5%+ in charter flights, year on year. Key Business Aviation airport hubs such as Van Nuys, Centennial and Palm Beach operated around 10% more charter departures. 90% of all flights were domestic, though notably transatlantic flights, 5% of the total, were up 8% in 2014. Teterboro-Luton, which ranked in the top 50 city pairs flown from, to, or within the US, more than doubled flights operated in 2014. Over the last 5 years the US market has manifested the industry´s hybrid fortunes of the large versus smaller aircraft segments, both in terms of aircraft sales and activity. Before the recession the large cabin end of the market represented 50% of the value of new aircraft sales, last year it was closer to 75%. Gulfstream had a particularly strong year, especially with sales of its super-midsize G280 and ultra-long range G650. For the lower end of the market 2014 was a year of stabilization, especially for Textron in consolidating the remnants of Hawker with Beechcraft and Cessna. Inventory, pricing and delivery numbers at last started to indicate some hardening in their customers´ demand. But this is still a very cautious market, as indicated by Bombardier´s most recent postponement of the entry into service of its long awaited midsize jet upgrade, the Lear 85. The market´s bifurcation in terms of jet deliveries was somewhat reflected in flight activity. Ultra-long range flight hours increased by as much as 20%. 77% of this activity was private, which indicates the predominance of individual and corporate jet ownership at the top end. Super-midsize jets, likewise mainly part-91 operations, were 6% up, with the Gulfstream 280 and Challenger 300 aircraft extremely popular. Midsize aircraft activity languished in 2014, although only in private operations. Almost 50% of midsize flights were charter operated, and these increased a healthy 7%. A discernible trend of the last few years has been the migration of light jet customers to the Very Light Jet segment, with regional ´taxi´ operations pioneered by the likes of California-based Jet Suite, operating Phenom-100s. This year the VLJ has

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clearly faced increasing competitive pressure from light jets and turboprops. VLJ charter activity actually decreased 1% in 2014, whilst light jet operations grew 7%. Turboprop charter picked up by 9%, within that segment was stand-out growth from the likes of the PC12, up 12%, and King Air 350, up 15%. Europe The overall impression of strengthening recovery in the US market was not mirrored in Europe. The macroeconomic backdrop was hardly supportive. No one expected strong Eurozone growth but few could have predicted that the ousting of President Yanukovych in February would spiral into the current stand-off between Russia and the West. This, and the associated sanctions and trade disruptions, explain much of the stutter in the Eurozone´s economy from Q2 onwards, clearly imprinted on Business Aviation activity during the year. The Ukraine crisis had a relatively big impact on Business Aviation as the CIS region had until then provided a resilient market for business jets. Between 2008 and 2013, Gulfstream sold over 50 aircraft into Russia, and Business Aviation flights in Ukraine increased 70%. Since the crisis, aircraft sales into the CIS have stalled and activity is falling precipitously, 31% in December and 23% across the whole year. Unsurprisingly Ukraine is most affected, with flights down by 50%. Connections between Russia and its primary EU trading partner Germany have fallen 13% so far. An enduring characteristic of Europe´s economic malaise has been low investment, particularly corporate investment, reflecting businesses´ uncertainty of the Eurozone´s prospects. In particular this has sapped the willingness of corporate investment in Business Aviation. Indeed even the notion of private jets in Europe has carried a public stigma. Stubbornly high unemployment levels have maintained this sensitivity to the luxury image of flying private, and Europe´s governments have exacerbated the situation through pejorative tax and regulation on the industry. The result has been consistently receding activity in those midsize-light aircraft segments which have tradi-

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tionally appealed to the corporate user. Midsize aircraft flew 4% less in 2014, light jets 3%, with these aircraft, the core of the European fleet, at least 20% off their pre-crisis activity levels. Many of their customers have left the industry, but those that have stayed are more price-sensitive than ever, increasingly migrating to cheaper aircraft such as the VLJ, which had another strong year, picking up 9% in activity. Turboprops also benefited from a value-conscious market, with 30 year old King Airs gaining flights and the PC12 gaining more than 20% in flight operations. Notably Heavy Jets also flew less in Europe last year. This decline was accentuated by the Ukraine crisis, as flights from and to the CIS are disproportionately heavy jet operated. It´s also due to the rise and rise of the ultra-long range jet, now the preferred entry point into Business Aviation for the super-wealthy individuals who have done so much to keep the market moving the last few years. Indeed this ´ultra-high net worth´ (UHNWI) customer base of multimillionaires and billionaires - 60,000 strong according to wealth consultancy Wealth-X – increased its population and wealth by a record 7% in Europe last year. The demand for Business Aviation at the top end of the market saw a surge of activity in ultra-long range jets the last several years, with 2014 adding 12% growth. Bombardier´s ULR fleet hours were up 15%, with its Global 5000 series flying 24% more than in 2013. Notably this aircraft´s European charter operations picked up 40% year on year. ULR jets boast a large cabin and non-stop multi-continental connections. But it´s worth noting only 30% of this segment´s 2014 flights were over 3 hours. More than 45% of its flights were sub 1.5 hour, comparable in number of short sectors to those operated by VLJs. The hottest market in Europe for ULR demand is also the largest market for UHNWI, the UK. The UK displaced Russia in 2014 as the busiest hub for Bombardier aircraft activity, flights up 12%. The UK Business Aviation market also benefited from the country´s broadening economic recovery. As a whole UK flight activity was up 4%, with London the main beneficiary, London airports gaining 7% movements in December, Luton as much as 14%.

Emerging Markets The North American and European markets tie up at least 90% of global Business Aviation activity, but the emerging markets, with embryonic though very rapid growth, have provided a crucial prop for aircraft manufacturers during the recession. By and large this demand faltered in 2014. The more established CIS and Middle East markets were afflicted by geopolitical crisis, whether Ukraine or ISIS. The Latin American industry was bogged down by economic doldrums in Brazil and Argentina. The purchasing power of business jet customers in all these regions was further undermined by falling oil and commodity prices. The nascent though potentially enormous growth of Asian markets for Business Aviation also softened in 2014. As one part of China´s ambitious reform program to rebalance its slowing economy, its anti-corruption drive is stifling demand for business jets. Here as in other emerging markets, business jets are largely seen as luxuries not business tools in emerging markets. It explains why governments are broadly unsupportive of the industry´s development, with infrastructure development targeted towards facilitating scheduled rather than private aviation. The combination of economic slowdown, conflict and declining purchasing power is reflected in the pattern of flight activity from emerging markets in 2014. Flights from the CIS fell 30%; from India, South America and China, a relatively low 3-5% growth; a fall of 1% in flights out of the Middle East. The global sweep of Business Aviation in 2014 was, overall, quite positive. The European market didn´t recover, but didn´t collapse either, and shows discreet growth trends; the emerging markets r softened, though selectively still growing, and retain big potential; most importantly, the dominant North American market accelerated its recovery, with particularly strong growth in charter activity, and in aircraft segments which suggest that corporate America will broadly re-invest in Business Aviation in 2015.

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After a very strong year in 2013 the good news is that the helicopter market continues to grow with operating hours increasing and new programs boosting the market.



Up to 5,500 civilian helicopters will be delivered between 20142018. Bell 407 (top).

or instance Honeywell predicts that 4,800–5,500 civilian-use helicopters will be delivered during 2014–2018. “Utility helicopter purchase interest is trending upward,” says Tom Hart, vice president, defense and space sales, Honeywell Aerospace. “Helicopter replacement cycles and increased operating hours in the law enforcement and oil & gas industries helps sustain demand in those sectors. Several new platforms are scheduled to enter service in the next few years and this also is expected to bolster overall demand.” For those operators that plan to buy a helicopter within the next five years; the age of their current aircraft, contracted replacement cycle and warranty expiration were key drivers for their decision. Meanwhile range, cabin size, reliability and safety, hot/high performance, and brand experience will determine their make and model choice. In the report Latin America stood out as the continent with the highest fleet

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replacement and growth expectations among the regions. In terms of projected regional demand for new helicopters, Latin America now rivals Europe to claim the world’s secondlargest regional market, behind North America. “With demand for new helicopters remaining steady, and aircraft lasting longer through replacement cycles, Honeywell is ready to support both new installations and fleet upgrades worldwide,” Hart said. “Our propulsion, safety, navigation, communications and flight services can help aircraft stay efficient, powerful, reliable and safe throughout their entire time in the air.” Meanwhile demand in highgrowth regions remains fluid with strong results recorded for China in the 2014 survey, while Brazilian purchase plans remained fairly stable and Indian respondents reported more conservative purchase plan levels for new helicopters this year.

Operator Preferences by Class of Helicopter Then in terms of the class of helicopter preferred by operators, light single-engine helicopters continue to be the most popular product class, with the Airbus EC130/AS350 series, Bell 407 and Robinson R66 the most frequently mentioned models. Intermediate/medium twin-engine helicopters are the second most popular product class, with approximately 33 percent of total survey participants planning to buy a new model of this type. The most frequently mentioned models were the AW139, AW169, Bell 412, EC145 and Sikorsky S-76 series helicopters. The light twin helicopter class earned 26 percent of total operator purchase plans in the 2014 survey, with the EC135, Bell 429 and AW109 series helicopters noted the most frequently. And Heavy multi-engine helicopters, such as the EC225, Mi-8/17 and S-92, registered a small decline in purchase plans in the 2013 survey;

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TOTAL 7 123 15 103 3 110 67 29 99 70 57 1101 1585 70 112 41 548 1264 3197 92 479 194 9.366 87 97 23 30 132 57 951 1.905 97 410 476 407 3 33 1.070 200 25 80 78 31 116 304 50 1.204 1.044 361 504 56 622 424 70 196 130 74 27 354 96 116 62 432 14 49 12.497

EUROPE 1 30 1 25 0 22 8 1 8 15 4 305 314 6 22 15 131 315 739 21 173 32 2.188 15 24 0 1 8 4 62 196 9 23 24 6 0 2 66 14 12 59 66 13 11 55 23 159 322 113 125 5 296 57 3 99 49 38 9 68 10 2 8 27 4 11 2.098

58 92 64 373 29 174

25 48 19 110 18 61



39 156 5 2 49 0 6 3 2 3 3 26 35 19 2 12 27 10 26 17 3 16 1 22 31 25 0 46 26 50 75 31 21 34 14 29 66 0 0 21 19 25 15 61 0 150 50 106 5 114 114 3 18 46 54 0 1 0 58 3 1 6 16 5 12 18 9 81 2.224 6.510

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World Area Africa Asia Central America Europe North America * Oceania South America Unknown Total

United States








United Kingdom




South Africa








PISTON VERSUS TURBINES Pistons 536 568 272 2.188 3.809 1.391 874 0 9.366

Single 560 1.052 630 2.098 6.246 860 1.336 343 12.497

Multi 377 1.684 261 2.224 2.349 339 801 185 7.966

Total 1.473 3.304 1.163 6.510 12.404 2.590 3.011 528 29.829

EC130/EC350 series and Sikorsky S-76. The other piece of good news is that helicopter fleet use is expected to increase this year. For instance in North America: 20 percent of operators plan increases, and only 7 percent plan decreases, in Europe: 22 percent of operators plan increases, and 6 percent plan decreases, in Latin America: 36 percent of operators plan increases, and only 4 percent plan decreases, in the Middle East and Africa: 23 percent of operators plan increases, and only 11 percent plan decreases, while in Asia: 29 percent of operators plan increases, and 6 percent plan decreases. Oil and gas had the highest annual average usage of approximately 720 hours per aircraft, followed by law enforcement at more than 400 hours per year. Tourism, emergency medical services and general utility were closely grouped at approximately 375–400 hours per year. The lowest average use was reported by corporate segment operators at just over 300 hours per helicopter per year.


Corporate use remains at 300 hours per helicopter per year.

however, demand from large oil and gas fleet operators not included in the survey continues to support overall volume in the heavy class.

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Satisfaction With Aircraft In terms of operator satisfaction the highest scoring models are the AW139, Bell 407, Bell 412, EC120,

2014 Fleet Figures As we move on to our 2014 fleet figures, once again North America remains the market leader with 12,404

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Once again the US leads the top ten fleet leader-board with a rotorcraft fleet of 9,146 up from 8,551 up from 8,151 last year. And again Canada comes is in second place with 2,390 up from 2,272. Then there’s Brazil (1,756), Australia (1,718), South Africa (865), Japan (764) New Zealand (700) and Mexico (686). Manufacturers Then if we look to the earnings figures from manufacturers a positive picture also emerges. In the third quarter of 2015 Bell revenues increased $20 million, primarily the result of higher V-22 program volume, partially offset by lower first half and commercial deliveries. up from 12,152 units last year. It’s followed by Europe which has 6,510 rotorcraft up from 6,455 units in the previous year. Asia is in third place with 3,304 units in the global fleet up from 3,035 in the previous year and then there’s South America (3011), Oceania and Australia (2590) and Africa (1,473). In Asia multi-engines are the most popular helicopter type with 1,684 based there compared with 1,052 singles and 568 pistons, whereas in Europe helicopter types are evenly distributed with 2,188 pistons, 2,098 singles and 2,224 multis. Singles however are still by far the most popular helicopter type in North America where 6,246 are based and in South America where 1,336 are based. Bell delivered 12 V-22’s and 4 H-1’s in the quarter, compared to 10 V-22’s and 7 H-1’s in last year’s third quarter and 41 commercial helicopters, compared to 54 units last year and their segment profit increased $15 million primarily due to favorable performance. Its backlog at the end of the third quarter was $5.3 billion, down $499 million from the end of the second quarter. Bell’s 429 is a standout performer for the company; last year it announced that it had delivered the 50th Bell 429 in Europe to an operator in the United Kingdom. The aircraft will be used to accomplish corporate/VIP transport across the region. “The Bell 429 offers customers exceptional performance and a


Bell 429, the EC130 T2 and the R66 all experienced positive sales growth last year.

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smooth, comfortable ride, and these capabilities are quickly being realized in the region,” said Patrick Moulay, vice president of European sales. “This milestone delivery demonstrates the great success we have seen in Europe with the Bell 429, and we look forward to growing our global and regional fleet even further in the years to come.“ “The Bell 429 has been successfully performing key operations across all of our mission segments in the region, and has truly showcased its versatility as it continues to take on new missions all over Europe” added Moulay. “The corporate configuration has


Manufacturers including Sikorsky and Augusta Westland reported positive results in 2014. AW139 (top) and S76 D (center).

proven to be the most sought-after choice, making up nearly 35 percent of the Bell 429’s customer base in Europe.” Sikorsky also had a positive year and one milestone was its announcement that it has begun delivering S76D™ aircraft equipped for Executive Transport services. “The S-76 aircraft line has a long legacy of reliability, safety and service, and we are confident VIP customers will be pleased with the comfort and performance the new S-76D helicopter provides,” said Dan Hunter, director, Platforms, Sikorsky Commercial Systems & Services. Sikorsky delivered the first S-76D aircraft to Bristow Group, Inc. for offshore oil worker transport in December 2013. It also announced that it has begun delivering S-76D aircraft equipped for search-and-rescue (SAR) service.

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Meanwhile Airbus Helicopters announced the handover of the first EC145 T2 to DRF Luftrettung marking yet another milestone in the program for the BK117/EC145 family. In spring 2014, the latest addition to the family received EASA certification and is now ready to take on a wide variety of missions. More than 100 orders have already been placed for the new helicopter, which was developed and manufactured in Donauwörth. Dr. Wolfgang Schoder, CEO of Airbus Helicopters in Germany, handed over this first EC145 to German air rescue company DRF Luftrettung, which has ordered 20 of these helicopters. “The handover of the first EC145 T2 is a significant event for all of us at Airbus Helicopters and we are thrilled to be delivering this aircraft to one of our most loyal customers—DRF Luftrettung. The EC145 T2 embodies our aim to offer our customers the best helicopters for their

missions, with economical operating costs and tailored support and service packages,” said Schoder. “We’re proud today to be the first operator in the world to take delivery of an EC145 T2,” explained Steffen Lutz, a member of the DRF Luftrettung Board of Directors. “We’re expecting this helicopter to enter service at our 24/7 air rescue station in Munich around the end of the year. We’ve been using night vision goggles there since 2009, when we became Germany’s first air rescue organization to do so, and the new EC145 T2 is ideal for nighttime rescue missions.” Finally Augusta Westland announced that its new generation AW169 light intermediate 4.5-tonne class helicopter has entered full scale production, with the first aircraft now on the final assembly line at its Vergiate facility in Italy. The event marks a major milestone ahead of EASA certification, with deliveries to the first batch of customers set to start in the 2nd quarter of 2015. The AW169 is the first all new aircraft in its weight category to enter the market in nearly forty years. The AW169 flight test program, utilizing four prototypes, has so far amassed over 1200 flying hours during flight testing in Italy, the UK and USA. A second AW169 final assembly line is planned at AgustaWestland’s Philadelphia plant in the US, while AgustaWestland’s Yeovil plant in UK is already playing a key role in the production of rotor blades and tail rotor transmission system.


Join 25,000 industry professionals for the most important three days of business aviation, with over 1,000 exhibitors, 100 business aircraft on static display, and dozens of education sessions. Save the date and visit the NBAA2015 website to learn more.

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HE WORLD HELICOPTER community will converge on Orlando, Florida, March 2-5 for the annual Heli-Expo 2015 helicopter trade show and exposition, where organizers expect some 20,000 visitors and more than 700 exhibitors. According to the organizing Helicopter Association International, the 2014 show drew 19,038 attendees, 714 exhibitors and the total value of gross sales contracts resulting from the show was approximately $2.5 billion. “Right now,” said HAI President Matt Zuccaro on January 20, “we are tracking ahead of last year in most categories. Six weeks out, we have more exhibitor square footage spoken for than last year, and attendees and exhibitors are also ahead of the same point in 2014. The general trend suggests we are going to have another record-breaking year.” While the show opening is set for March 2, activities begin well before with a number of events, including the Helicopter Tour Operators


2014 is going to be a recordbreaking year for Heli-Expo says HAI President Matt Zuccaro. Swiss Helicopter Marenco (top).

Committee Meeting March 1, the fourday series of professional education courses February 27 through March 2. The HAI Safety Symposium, and the Welcome Reception are also scheduled for March 2. Safety continues to be HAI’s focus, said Zuccaro, and Heli-Expo 2015 reflects that theme. Numerous sessions are devoted to safety in one form or another, including the HAI Safety Symposium discussing risk manage-

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ment in public helicopter operations, the Safety Directors Forum on what to do following a helicopter crash, and the Tour Operators Program of Safety. All three are scheduled for official opening day, March 3. One of the more popular features of Heli-Expo is the HAI Rotor Safety Challenge which will present 52 safety education events free to attendees and exhibitors. Eight of the events are new to the program. New features include

replay sessions to provide additional access and in-depth sessions longer than 60 minutes, allowing greater coverage of some subjects. Topics will cover such issues as fuel management, post-accident next-steps, safety culture and social media applicability. While no advance registration is necessary for the Rotor Safety Challenge, Zucaro noted that seating is limited, “and it was standing-room only last year.”

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A Town Hall of industry association CEOs includes leadership of the Aircraft Owners & Operators Association, Experimental Aircraft Association, General Aviation Manufacturers Association, Helicopter Association International, National Air Transportation Association, National Association of State Aviation Officials and the National Business Aviation Association. The session will include a Q&A period. Zuccaro emphasized the association’s focus on collateral areas critical to the civil helicopter industry, with an emphasis on expanding military outreach to assist those transitioning to the civil side of the industry. And he also took note of HAI’s efforts to encourage students at universities and technical schools to visit the show and discuss careers in the helicopter world. “If you are a student, HAI membership is free for three years,” Zuccaro pointed out. In addition to approximately 65 helicopters on display inside the Orange County Convention Center, manufacturers and operators will conduct demonstration flights with six helicopters, flying from a heliport set up outside the center. As usual, exhibitors will include the major helicopter manufacturers with new products and services. AgustaWestland came away from Heli-Expo 2014 with 32 orders and expects even better results this year with AW169 assuming a prominent role. Full production of the light intermediate helicopter began in January at the OEM’s Vergiate, Italy facilities and deliveries are expected to begin in the second quarter 2015. Airbus Helicopters is set to draw attention this year with the announcement in January that the deployed fleet of Airbus Helicopters in service in the oil and gas industry has accumulated more than 10 million flight hours as of December 31, 2014. News of a more immediate nature is an upgrade of the AS365 Dauphin fullflight simulator at the Airbus Helicopters training center in Singapore. It now provides “highly realistic training” in both day and night search and rescue operations, incorporating a CMA9000 flight management system with the AS365 motion-based flight simulator.

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Bell Helicopter comes to the 2015 show following a very successful 2014 event at which it accepted commitments-of-purchase for nearly 200 new helicopters, including nearly 100 letters of intent for the new Bell 404 Jet Ranger X. This year at Heli-Expo, Fort Worth, Texas-based Bell celebrates 80 years of “changing the way the world flies” and will provide updates on the Bell 525 Relentless and Bell 505 at its exhibit. State-of-the-art integrated digital avionics in every weight class will be featured at the Bell exhibit. “Last year was our busiest show ever,” said Enstrom marketing manager Jackie Campf. It included “several orders taken at Helo-Expo 2014 and several more since.” This year the exhibit will feature the TH180 trainer, the turbine-powered 480BG, “and hopefully the turbo-charged 280FX Shark,” said Campf. Robinson Helicopter of Torrence, California plans to have an R44 Raven model on display, equipped with the

dual Garmin GTR 225B communication suite and GTN 725 GPS, as well as the Aspent EFD 1000H primary flight display and accessory bar. The latest R66 Turbine model will be at the exhibit and equipped with a Garmin 500H flight display system, GTN 750 GPS/com/nav, and Genesys HeliSAS autopilot. The HeliSAS autopilot is optional on the R66 at a list price of $46,000. Sergei Sikorsky, the son of founder Igor Sikorsky, will be present at the Sikorsky exhibit, along with a display of the Stratford, Connecticut-based OEM’s most recent commercial helicopter line, as well as Sikorsky services and support products and the Pinpoint tool control system.


❍ Helicopter Foundations Silent Auction (HFI), 24/7, bids accepted at ❍ HFI Scholarship Fundraising Golf Tournament, Monday, March 1, 10 a.m. check-in, 11:30 shotgun start, Falcon’s Fire Golf Club. ❍ HAI Welcome Reception, Monday, March 2, 7 p.m. to 8:30 p.m. at the Hilton Orlando Hotel. If invitations arrive too late, a business card will serve for admission. ❍ HAI Membership Meeting & Breakfast, Tuesday, March 2, 8 a.m. – 10 a.m., at Orange County Convention Center. ❍ Heli-Expo Opening Ceremony, March 3, 10:15 a.m. to 10:30 a.m. and 10:30 a.m. to 5 p.m., exhibit hall, Orange County Convention Center. ❍ HAI Helicopter Industry Career Fair, Tuesday, March 3, 10:30 a.m. to 5 p.m. Entrance is free but pre-registration is required: contact or call 703-683-4646, ext. 8442. S❍ alute To Excellence Awards, March 4, 8 p.m. to 10:30 p.m., Hilton Orland Hotel. Tickets may be purchased Online when registered.

Discussing the 2015 show, Zuccaro described Heli-Expo as the best performing helicopter show in the world for exhibitors. “This is the one show people from the helicopter community are going to every year,” he concluded. “And it’s the premier place for attendees to network.” Attendees and exhibitors alike at Heli-Expo represent a global helicopter community, with participants from as far away as New Zealand. “Some exhibitors say they do more business at our show than they do the rest of the year,” Zuccaro. “Where else are you going to get exposure to 20,000 potential customers?” he asked.


There will be around 65 helicopters on display during Heli-Expo.

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By Kirby Harrison

s the business jet cabin completion industry embarks on New Year 2015, it faces a shifting landscape of new technology, from new composite aircraft, to Internet connectivity with speeds approaching current cable systems, to seats that feature both style and comfort. There has been a growing use of composite materials in the construction of business jets, most notably the ill-fated Starship twin turboprop pusher from Beech Aircraft certified in 1988, and later the Hawker Beechcraft Premier 1. More recently, there is the HondaJet from Honda Jet Aircraft, which is expected to be outfitted by Honda at its Greensboro, North Carolina center, and the Learjet 85 from Bombardier. The first wide-body composite fuselage business jet cabin completion is the new BBJ787, for which indepen-



politan area who made frequent visit to the center,” said AAC President James Colleary. Greenpoint Technologies of Kirkland, Washington took delivery of its first BBJ787 late last year but has been collaborating with Boeing for more than seven years, including licensed access to the maximum amount of Boeing data, according to Greenpoint Chief Technical Engineer Mike Weisner. “Our design approach for the 787 has matured into interior provisions that make installation easier than in a ‘conventional’ aluminum airframe,” he explained.


Associated Air Center’s completion team has received specialized training on the BBJ787. Learjet 85 (center) Honda Jet (bottom).

dent completion centers have been preparing for years, and which are now arriving in completion centers. The composite fuselage Airbus ACJ350 is next but no date for the first delivery to a completion center has been announced. Associated Air Center said 40 of its completion team received specialized training for the BBJ787 at its Dallas Love Field facility from teams of Boeing engineers, and a number of AAC’s maintenance people traveled to Boeing facilities in Washington State for additional training. “We also had weekly conference calls and there is a 787 representative in the Dallas metro-

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He pointed out that the standard 787-8 frame has a series of open holes on most frames to provide some support capability, and the floor has the full complement of seat tracks. Further, Boeing assistance for the interior attach points consists of providing “data approvals” of our designs as part of Greenpoint’s certification process.

The next composite-fuselage giant is the recently certified ACJ350 from Airbus. However with an airline backlog of more than 750 orders, “the corporate jet version is still a little way in the future” according to a company spokesman. Meanwhile Jet Aviation was recently issued certification for a BBJ1 cabin interior developed at its Basel, Switzerland completion center. The airplane was delivered three months ahead of schedule. The interior includes accommodations for 13 passengers and wireless cabin connectivity, satellite communications. The design was by the company’s Jet Aviation Basel Design Studio. The stu-

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dio recently placed among the top 25 global designers and architects as selected by Design et al magazine for its hardbound publication, The World’s Leading Design Names 2015. The Seat Becomes A Chair The executive seat in the modern business jet is no longer just a place to plant your posterior. It is no longer sim-

ply an oversized collection of foam buildup and a covering of fine leather. It had been based on the idea that one size fits all, despite the fact that some owners insisted that the final product be shipped to them for what was referred to by a few designers, with some amusement, as “the butt test.” “Design has been very challenging over the past years because of the technology boom” said Cindy Halsey, Gulfstream Aerospace vice president of completion planning and design. “It has been clearly driven by client expectations. Twenty years ago the cabin was a one-off endeavor [but] today it is a blend of engineering and artistry for a one-of-a-kind personalized experience.” When Italian interiors specialist Iacobucci launched a line of executive seats in 2010, they announced the approach to development and design was “strongly customer-oriented, thus ensuring the new product line reflected the real needs of customers and the latest seating market trend, both in terms of product specifications, function and customizable options.” In short, the entire product line was to be both comfortable and stylish, and BMW Group’s DesignsworksUSA was brought aboard to create a mix of “technology, innovation and design to the market.”

A little more than five years later, established as a preferred supplier, Iacobucci showed up at the Middle East Business Aviation show with a newly certified collection of shell seats, available in a range of configurations, functions, styles and finishing. The latest was been delivered to Comlux Aviation in Indianapolis for installation in a BB.


No less impressive is what the design team at Lufthansa Technik in Hamburg, Germany prefers to describe as a “chair,” in deference to the comfort and different styles that might be found in a library, dining room, office or bedroom. Ten or twenty years ago, when the objective was to buy an airplane, said Jacques PierreJean, president and founder of PierreJean Design Studioof Paris, which consulted with Lufthansa Technik in creating its new line of chairs. “Our goal was to fit the upholstery and density buildup of foam to build in the greatest possible comfort, and to reshape the exte-

Completion centers are getting to grips with advancing aircraft technology. Greenpoint 747-8 Lounge Aft (top left), Jet Aviation BBJ1 (top right), Iacobucci executive seat (bottom right), Cindy Halsey Gulfstream VP completion (bottom left).

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The seat becomes a chair: Pierre-Jean design studio (top left) Aeroseating technologies (center).

rior and interior to create a true ‘wow’ factor.” Lufthansa Technik came up with a chair that incorporates a tilting seat pan so the passenger doesn’t slip forward when reclined, and a rocking mechanism to allow “active sitting.” Lufthansa Technik and PierreJean did the initial conceptual work, and then went to German seating specialist Dräxlmaier Aviation for production.” We gave them the concept and contracted them for final engineering design work and 80 percent of the production. Certification of the “chair family” was handled by Lufthansa Technik and deliveries are expected to begin this year. Aeria Luxury Interiors, a division of Singapore-based giant ST Aerospace, was launched a bit more than two years ago and has a growing business that currently includes a green BBJ in for cabin completion and a larger executive wide-body for nose-to-tail major interior refurbishment and heavy maintenance.

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The BBJ cabin is being outfitted with a dedicated forward crew area, galley for meal preparation, a dining suite and master stateroom. Electronic amenities include Inmarsat and Iridium sitcom and WiFi. Delivery is expected in late 2015. ST Aerospace announced in midJanuary more work in the form of heavy maintenance for three executive 757 aircraft – two for VIP customers and the third for an unidentified head of state. “We pride ourselves as a onestop specialist for VIP completions [and] we can also leverage ST Aerospace’s global network for all maintenance, repair and overhaul,” said Ron Soret, vice president and general manager of completions at Aeria. The San Antonio Texas-based complex includes three bays totaling 100,000 square feet to accommodate maintenance, completion and refurbishment work and has just broken ground for a new, 14,000-square-foot expansion to accommodate cabinetry and upholstery shops. Fully flat, the Aïana is a 6 feet 6 inches long and adjustable to 25 inches wide (2 meters and 65.3 centimeters wide). With four Aïana seats, the cabin can sleep four persons. It can also be adapted for installation in mid-size and light business jets, “introducing a totally new and enhanced quality of flight, not just for the high-end, ultra-long range corporate jets.” A second generation family business, Aero Seating Technologies of San Gabriel, California has its own unique “flavor,” with an integrated audio feedback massage that interacts with the aircraft entertainment system. “It is a really great interactive experience,” said Peter Perera, vice president of operations for AST.

The Executor seat features adjustable massage with heat and memory pre-sets. For additional lowerback comfort, there is a dual bladder with six-way adjustment. Perera emphasized the AST goal of integrating innovative designs with comfort and style, “for the ultimate in craftsmanship and luxury for the ultimate business travel experience.” Cabin Technology Is All About Co “There have been a lot of changes in business jet cabin design,” said Cindy Halsey, vice president of completion planning and design at Gulfstream Aerospace. “In general, there aren’t any changes that are not driven by technology. It’s the catalyst for any change in any industry.” At this year’s Consumer Electronics Show, January 6-9 in Las Vegas, it was all about technology. The show was filled with gadgets, and occasional new technology that may find its way into the business jet cabin; from eggshaped 360-degree “ring radiation” speakers and a 27-inch 4K ultraHD monitor to Internet-enabled television. While it may be years before some of it is available in the air, there is no shortage of new cabin technology already available. Much of it is related to high-speed Internet connectivity and cabin entertainment, which go hand-in-hand, said Rockwell Collins ARINCDirect senior director of sales Dave Stanley. “It’s no longer a perk, but a necessity,” he said. “Passengers want connectivity, no matter where they are.” Moving ahead, Rockwell Collins Venue cabin management and entertainment has been limited to Apple iOS PED (personal electronic device) control systems. As of January, the

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company now offers cabin control using Android PEDs. The inclusion of Android also applies now to control of the Airshow system. The new Venue HD upgrade from Rockwell Collins will be available for the Global business jet line in mid2015. The Venue HD operates on a fiber-optic backbone which is touted as lighter than copper, provides high bandwidth and is scalable. Gogo Business Aviation has just launched its wireless-enabled Text & Talk for SwiftBroadband, a software upgrade that permits customers to use their own smartphones to send and

Honeywell Aerospace recently signed an agreement with GDC Technics to bring the Honeywell JetWave satellite communications system to in-service Airbus and Boeing business jets. JetWave is Honeywell’s brand name for is range of satellite connectivity hardware that exclusively supports Inmarsat’s coming Jet ConneX WiFi service. When it comes online in the second half of 2015, the service will bring “consistent, highspeed, in-flight WiFi to aircraft across the globe, over both land and sea. Honeywell’s Aspire 200 has received STC approval for both the Challenger

tinuing to grow as a 12-year maintenance requirement is gathering steam. Associated Air Center’s James Colleary said the center has already done twelve BBJ 12-year inspections and just signed for a 13 th , due to arrive in the first quarter 2015. Owners typically chose to have cabin refurbishment done concurrent with the inspection. “Some of them just want a soft goods refurbishments and others want to totally upgrade the cabin management and entertainment systems.” Colleary also noted that refurbishment is a fiercely competitive market

receive text messages, as well as make voice calls without dialing special numbers or codes, said Gogo Business Aviation Senior Executive John Wade. “You don’t have to know whether the person you are calling is on the ground or in an airplane. And installation takes less than an hour,” he added. D anis h co nne ct i v i t y sp e c i a l i st S atco m1 re ce ntl y u p d a t e d i t s AvioPhone application to permit passengers to use personal iPhone and Android phones without need of a picocell system. U.S. and European phones are supported by the update and the AvioPhone was scheduled to go into service early this year. Satcom1 research and development is also developing aggregation technology, using SwiftBroadband channels to increase data transfer speeds. The technology recently demonstrated an ability to reach rates as high as 1.4 mbps. It was also expected to be released early this year.

300 and Challenger 604 and operators and operators can take advantage of voice and data via an Inmarsat cabin solution that supports one channel of SwiftBroadband connectivity.

and, “If you did the original completion, you have a slight advantage.” Associated is currently bidding on three aircraft for which the center did the original cabin outfit. Based in recent interviews, it appears most of the independent centers are busy. Airbus Corporate Jet Center in Toulouse, France recently delivered its 21st ACJ320, this one to a Middle East client. The twinjet has a subtle Arabic pattern using a variety of materials and ornamental glass partitions. Most remarkable, said Sylvain Mariat, head of the ACJC Creative Design Studio, the 52-inch television monitor is hidden under a smooth glossy surface. It appears when electrically commanded, and can rotate through 30degrees. AMAC Aerospace in Basel, Switzerland announced in December two more interior contacts, one for a BBJ1 and the other an ACJ320 major refurbishment. Also in the hangar there is a BBJ747-8i for a Middle

Cabin Completion Is A Growth Industry At this point, with the first BBJ747-8 delivered to a customer by Greenpoint Technologies and deliveries of green BBJ787s to completion centers just beginning, those centers will be busy for some time to come with widebody business jets. As for narrow-body single-aisle completion business, orders are just beginning to accumulate for Boeing’s new BBJ737 MAX, and Airbus reports two orders for its new ABJ350. While Airbus is busy filling some 750 orders from the airlines for the recently certified giant, however, “the corporate jet version is still a little way in the future.” Further, demand for cabin refurbishments, minor and major, are con-


New Cabin technology includes Venue HD from Rockwell Collins and text and talk from Gogo Business Aviation.

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Avinode predicts the continued recovery of the US business jet market.

Eastern customer, an ACJ319 for AMAC’s first customer in Asia, and a BBJ777-200 for a head-of-state. To meet growing demand, the company is now working on its fourth hangar, a 7,208 square meter facility scheduled for completion in late 2015. The new hangar will enlarge the total hangar space by nearly 35 percent and accommodate one wide-body and two narrow-body aircraft simultaneously. Associated Air Center is working on a BBJ747-8 and a BBJ787-8 and has a green ACJ320 arriving later this year. Also in the works are a BBJ747 and a BBJ1 for maintenance and refurbishment. Comlux America recently announced a completion contract for an Airbus ACJ330. The airplane is expected to arrive in September this year and will require approximately two years to complete. The delivery of an Airbus ACJ321 and a BBJ1 last year opened room for an ACJ320 completion due in August 2015. Parent company Comlux Group in Zurich, Switzerland has also announced an order for two BBJ737 MAX aircraft, both of which will be outfitted at Comlux America in Indianapolis, Maryland. GDC Technics in San Antonio, Texas is working concurrently on two BBJ787s and expects deliveries in 2016. In 2009, parent company MAZ Aviation of Riyadh, a commitment to purchase six Airbus ACJ350 executive jets a deal then valued at about $1.5 billiion. However, Airbus Corporate Jets has since pointed out that not all of those orders have been maintained. At Jet Aviation in Basel, the completion and MRO specialist delivered a BBJ2 and a BBJ3 in 2014 and is cur-

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rently working on An Airbus ACJ340600, an ACJ320 and a BBJ1. Also in 2015, the maintenance center expects to take in a Falcon 7X. It is the first 7X to come in for a C-check and will have a complete cabin refurbishment at the same time. L-3 Platform Integration in Waco, Texas had two 747’s in outfitting as of late 2014 and was expecting to deliver both by the end of that year, one of them about a month behind the other, and one of them a head-of-state aircraft At the Lufthansa Technik shop, the completion and MRO specialist is outfitting two BBJ747-8s. The shop there has done cabin completion work on a total of 17 head-of-state 747s, as well as a large number of major modifications or refurbishments of various 747 models. Growing U.S. Economy and Healthy Sales Forecasts Aircraft sales are the best indicator of the health of the completion business going forward, and both the U.S. economy and the recent forecasts have been encouraging. Forecasters are cautiously optimistic regarding the U.S. economy. Goldman Sachs 2015 outlook predicts three percent growth, above the trend by about one percent. The International Monetary Fund forecasts U.S. GDP will hit 3.2 percent in 2015. All of which bodes well for the business aviation industry. In its 23rd annual “Business Aviation Outlook,” Honeywell is forecasting up to 9,450 new business jet deliveries valued at $280 billion from 2014 to 2024. The outlook also reflects a seven-to-eight percent increase over the 2013 projected delivery value.

While the U.S. economy continues to recover, slowly, other economies appear to be tanking. In part due to the dramatic decrease in the price of crude oil, the Russian economy is near shambles with no near-term help in sight. The Brazilian economy, which was leading the way in business jet sales in Latin America, has fallen on hard times and the GDP in the third quarter 2014 was down five percent. Forbes sees continued growth in China in the near term, but not with some rocky patches.” Avinode of Sweden, a leading Online marketplace for buying and selling air charter, is predicting the continued recover of the U.S. business jet charter market in 2015, with a 3.5 percent increase in flights over 2014. As for the used aircraft contributions to the cabin refurbishment side of the industry, Jet Effect managing director and co-founder Bryan Comstock said “Last year was our best ever in terms of transactions.” He noted that buyers watch that market closely and jump in when prices for any particular segment reach a tipping point. As to whether cabin refurbishment will benefit he pointed out that buyers will cherry pick the best aircraft, which translates to minimal requirements for a cabin upgrade. “Nobody really wants to put their aircraft down for 90 or 120 days for refurbishment,” he explained. “They’ll take a nicer airplane, rather than a ‘project’ airplane, although some buyers will take a business jet that needs a lot of work if they can get it for a bargain price.” So the question remains, whether growth in the new and used aircraft market will support continued growth of the completion and refurbishment market. Most of the indicators cautiously suggest a healthy industry in the near term. But there are a lot of economic factors to be considered; the price of oil, continued violence throughout much of the Middle East, threats of military interventions in Eastern Europe, and uncertain economics throughout various countries. As one completion center executive put it, “In general, the completion industry is not for the risk averse.”

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MEBA 2014


By Paul Walsh

The Falcon range of business jets is undergoing a major expansion, including the new Falcon 8X ultra long range trijet, unveiled last May, in addition to the Falcon 5X, which will enable the company to meet new customer

It’s also worth noting that the show wasn’t all about corporate business. MEBAA donated US$25,000 to Fly & Feed, the recent initiative between World Food Program and MEBAA, kicking off an annual pledge from MEBAA members to support the vital humanitarian work of the charity. MEBAA’s ‘Fly & Feed’ initiative enables MEBAA operator members to donate US$20 to the United Nations’ World Food Program for every flight. Al Naqbi says: “It gives me great pleasure to donate $25,000 on behalf of the organization to the WFP, fulfilling its obligation as a partner. With more than 230 members, MEBAA member’s potential contribution to the world hunger fighting charity could make a real difference.” In terms of the OEMs Dassault stood out on the static with a display that included the Falcon 7X and 900LX long range trijets and a full-scale mockup of the new Falcon 5X ultra wide body twinjet, introduced last year.

demand with a full range of wide body business jets, from super midsize on up. Both aircraft have been warmly received by operators in the Middle East, who place a high premium on spaciousness, range, operating flexibility and economics. The region accounts for 20% of worldwide sales for the Falcon 5X, which can whisk passengers nonstop from Dubai to Cape Town or from Riyadh to Tokyo. The 5X is on track for a first flight in the second quarter of 2015 and is expected to begin entering Middle East inventories in the second half of 2017. Due to roll out on December 17 and to take flight in the first quarter of next year, the 8X can fly from Jeddah to Boston, New York to Dubai or from Geneva to Rio. “The early success of our two latest model offerings reflects the wide popularity the entire Falcon fleet has long enjoyed in the Middle East,” said Dassault Aviation Chairman & CEO

Emerging market countries are frantically building airports, and adapting regulations although it still seems they’re always one step behind BizAv demand.



There was plenty of activity on the static at MEBA 2015. Dassault Falcon 7X (top) Ali Al Naqbi (left), Gulfstream G650ER (bottom).

n this sense the Middle East is an exception in that it has both the will and the resources to keep pace with Business Aviation growth. And as was amply evident at this year’s MEBA event, which ran from 8-10 December last year, the region has made the transition from an emerging to an established Business Aviation market. As the show drew to a close, the number of visitors had reached 8,314 and the show hosted 422 exhibitors plus featured 44 aircraft on static display. “It has been an incredible show. We have seen so many people exhibiting and attending from all over the world this year,” said MEBAA’s founding chairman, Ali Al Naqbi. “Exhibitors are delighted with the quality of visitors, all of whom come to do business. Highlights from MEBAA’s perspective include the ‘Business Aviation Around the World panel session, and the enthusiasm shown by exhibitors to talk to the students who attended Futures day, on the final day of the show.” “As MEBAA Show goes from strength to strength, we are following a careful, measured growth plan, launching the first business aviation show in Morocco next year (MEBAA Show Morocco).”

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Eric Trappier. “Operators in the region truly appreciate the operating performance, flexibility and technological excellence offered by Falcon aircraft.” Dassault’s best-selling business jet in the Middle East is the 5,950 nm Falcon 7X, which accounts for half of all Falcon sales in the region over the last five years. The 7X which recently passed the 250 aircraft production mark is the company’s fastest-ever selling business jet. This year, the 7X set a new speed record between Teterboro, New Jersey and London City Airport and will shortly be the first business jet approved for operation at Daocheng, China, the world’s highest commercial airport. Over a quarter of all Falcons sold in the region consist of the long running Falcon 2000 model. The first of the new Falcon 2000S entry-level twinengine jets in the Middle East was delivered to a Saudi Arabian customer last October. The 3,350 nm 2000S, certificated in 2013, combines wide body cabin comfort, competitive operating economics and flexibility, at a price close to that of a super midsize jet. Falcon jet sales in the Middle East are supported by a solid after market presence. Dassault Falcon operates an Authorized Service Center, spares distribution center and regional sales office in Dubai, UAE, and an Authorized Service Center and technical office in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Finally it’s worth noting that Dassault’s regional network is backed by a global web of support services, including a newly introduced Falcon Airborne Service that will provide passengers with alternative transportation options in the event of an AOG (aircraft on ground). Falcon Airborne Service support for Middle East customers will be made available through a dedicated Falcon 900 aircraft based at Paris Le Bourget, France. Meanwhile Gulfstream’s focus was on solidifying its presence in the region after signing a Memorandum of Understanding with Qatar Airways for the purchase of up to 20 aircraft, two months previously. The agreement was announced in conjunction with Gulfstream’s introduction of an all-new family of business jets, the Gulfstream G500 and G600. The Memorandum of Understanding establishes the initial agreement for Qatar Airways to order up to 20

Gulfstream aircraft, including firm orders and options for the all-new, wide-cabin G500 and the flagship G650ER. Today’s Memorandum of Understanding marks the beginning of a new relationship between Qatar Airways and Gulfstream. “This agreement is evidence of the industry-leading performance of Gulfstream’s flagship aircraft, the G650ER, and of our commitment to deliver on the promises we have made for our new family of aircraft, which includes the G500,” said Larry Flynn, president, Gulfstream. “With their unmatched high-speed capabilities and class-leading cabin comfort, the G650ER and G500 will allow Qatar Airways to introduce a new level of service to their customers in the Middle East and abroad.” “Qatar Executive has been on an accelerated growth path since its inception and is held to an exceptional standard of quality that is widely known by our global clientele,” said Mr. Akbar Al Baker, group chief executive, Qatar Airways. “In order to keep pace with the future strategic growth plans of our private jet division, the fleet is being expanded with aircraft that meet the needs of our guests, providing a wide range of options. Today’s announcement of the Memorandum of Understanding for G650ERs and G500s signals a next step for Qatar Executive’s relatively young and buoyant history.” From its start in 2009, Qatar Executive has rapidly risen to become a leader in air charter services for individuals, families, businesses, corporations and governments. As part of Qatar Airways, one of the world’s leading airlines, Qatar Executive’s clients are assured an excellent charter experience. The first flight of the G500 is scheduled for 2015. Gulfstream projects it will receive type certification from the

U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and European Aviation Safety Agency in 2017. For Bombardier on the other hand the focus was on customer support and it announced that it had added Arabasco as an Authorized Service Facility (ASF) for Challenger 605 aircraft customers based in or flying to Saudi Arabia. Under the ASF agreement, Arabasco will offer Bombardier Business Aircraft customers a full range of maintenance services from its 2,921 square meter (approximately 31,446 square feet) maintenance facility located at the Private Aviation Terminal of King Abdul-Aziz International Airport in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The facility, which has been providing maintenance on business aircraft for 32 years, is certified by the General Civil Aviation Authority (GCAA), Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Bermuda Department of Civil Aviation and the Civil Aviation Authority of the Cayman Islands and employs over 40 people. “This agreement will provide our Challenger 605 aircraft customers across Saudi Arabia and the surrounding countries with greater access to quality and first-class customer support in their own backyards,” said Éric Martel, President, Bombardier Business Aircraft. “Arabasco has a solid knowledge of our Challenger aircraft, as well as over three decades of maintenance experience, and we are confident they will meet the needs of our customers in the region.” “This authorization firmly strengthens Arabasco’s position as the premier provider of aircraft maintenance services in Saudi Arabia,” said HRH Prince Abdullah Bin Turki Al Saud, Chairman of Arabasco. “It is one of the several steps Arabasco has taken throughout its history in supporting business jet customers in the Kingdom.”


Layali Zein of Blue I Jets receiving a watch from Universal Weather and Aviation at a VIP customer event.

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MEBA 2014

There are 100 Bombardier Business Aircraft in the Middle East. Arabasco will join a network of more than 50 ASFs worldwide and work in close collaboration with Bombardier’s maintenance network of service centers and ASFs in the same time zone, as well as its network of parts hubs and depots. Textron Aviation exhibited its Cessna Citation Sovereign+ and Citation M2 for the first time in Dubai at the show. from commercial sales, while Taylor is remaining with Boeing, as chief pilot for Boeing Commercial Airplanes. Taylor is leaving on a high, with 13 jets on order – the most year-to-date sales in six years. Around 35 per cent of BBJ’s fleet is used in the Middle East. Taylor pointed out the region has more wide-bodied aircraft than any other region, (some 55 per cent of its wide bodied craft are in the Middle East) making it the most important global market for BBJ in terms of dollar sales value.


Aircraft on display included the Citation Sovereign (top), the Challenger 350 (center), the Beechcraft 250 (bottom) and Phenom 300 (opposite page).

It also featured a Beechcraft Special Mission King Air 350ER and a King Air 250. “Our Beechcraft, Cessna and Hawker brands have been and remain strong throughout the Middle East, particularly in the Gulf states,” said Bill Harris, vice president, Sales. “The Citation Sovereign+ and Citation M2 are the latest in a string of newly certified Citations introduced in the past year that have garnered significant interest throughout the region.” Textron Aviation companies support a fleet of approximately 125 business jets in the Middle East and a similar number of turboprops for business and special mission applications. Harris said that while larger jets have traditionally been most popular for business travel within the region, newly developed and efficient light jets such as the Citation CJ3+, CJ4, M2 and Mustang are gaining wider attention for both business travel and pilot training roles. The Citation Sovereign+ features a large cabin for up to 12 people, a range of 3,188 nautical miles (5,904 km), a top speed of 460 knots (529 miles per hour) and a direct climb to 45,000 feet. “The Citation Sovereign+ also excels in high-temperature, short-runway perfor-

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mance and needs as little as 3,530 feet for takeoff, which is a key advantage for the Sovereign+ in this region,” Harris said. The Citation M2 has a maximum cruise speed of 404 knots true airspeed (460 miles per hour) and a range of 1,580 nautical miles (2,926 km). The aircraft can operate at airports with runways as short as 3,210 feet (978 m) and will climb to 41,000 feet in 24 minutes. The Citation M2 is certified for single-pilot operation with room for seven passengers and features two Williams FJ44 engines. Meanwhile Boeing Business Jets chose the first day of MEBA to announce the appointment of its new global president, David Longridge, who will take the reins from BBJ stalwart, Capt. Steve Taylor. Longridge moves

BBJ also chose the Middle East’s largest business aviation event to reveal an order from charter operator, Comlux, for two BBJ Max 8s; the Swiss VIP company’s first BBJ order. Richard Gaona, President and CEO, Comlux, said the two aircraft “give customers the flexibility to fly farther and more comfortably thanks to the lower cabin altitude.” Embraer Executive Jets President and CEO, Marco Tulio Pellengrini, announced his company’s rise to power, with the phenomenal success of the Phenom – there are 500 of these smaller private jets in operation globally. Its portfolio includes the ultra-large Lineage 1000E – on static display at MEBA.

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The company also announced delivery of its second Legacy 500 aircraft is to a Middle East customer, in December 2014. And shortly following the show the Legacy 500 was granted certification by the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) during a ceremony at its headquarters, in Cologne, Germany. The approval enables entry into service of the aircraft in the Member States of the European Union as well as in EASA associated countries. “EASA’s certification is a very important achievement for the Legacy 500, which is introducing advanced technologies and superior comfort in the midsize class,” says Marco Túlio Pellegrini, President and CEO of Embraer Executive Jets. “The approval of this revolutionary aircraft is a testament to our commitment to deliver true innovation to the market.” Jet Aviation also proved that it is part of the Middle Eastern growth spurt. It has recently added a Gulfstream G450 and a

Gulfstream G550 to its managed fleet in the Middle East. The company now operates a total of 24 aircraft in the region. Demand for aviation services in the Middle East remains strong as Jet Aviation continues to grow its management fleet. The company recently signed two full aircraft management agreements, adding a Gulfstream G450 and a Gulfstream G550 to its managed fleet of 24 aircraft in the Middle East. “Our goal is to provide a positive customer experience by upholding the highest business aviation standards,” says Claudio Peer, vice president of sales for aircraft management and charter services in EMEA & Asia. “This fleet expansion highlights the value our customers place on our capabilities, professionalism and integrity.” Jet Aviation now manages more than 250 aircraft from its four strategically located flight operation centers in Dubai, United Arab Emirates; Hong Kong; Teterboro, N.J.; and Zurich. The company was recently named winner of the 2014 Baltic Air Charter Association (BACA) Global Excellence Award in recognition of its outstanding performance and service. Finally Royal Jet, one of the Middle East’s oldest private charter companies, confirmed a raft of new aircraft are joining its fleet, including two Bombardier Learjet 60 XRs and two Global 5000 business jets. Royal Jet also confirmed it is renewing its collaboration with Boeing; with plans to take delivery of two new Boeing business jets, modeled on the 737-700. The new purchases are part of a fleet upgrade and expansion program, that will see Royal Jet’s fleet increase to 20 by 2020, at a cost of U.S. $700 million.

When an Australian air ambulance is AOG after a Thursday evening bat strike, who provides a rental engine that weekend?

When Jeff’s work cell phone rang on a Thursday night, he knew it had to be an emergency. The engine shop project manager was enjoying a day away from office at a local park when he answered a call from an Australian air ambulance customer who hit a fruit bat and was grounded. “That bat had a wing span of almost six feet. We knew the engine was going to be in-house for a while, so we arranged to have a rental engine arrive there that weekend,” says Jeff. “That timetable on the weekend was no easy feat, but the customer had to be in the air, so we made it happen.” For the rest of the story visit

Experience. Unlike any other. +1 402.475.2611 | 800.228.4277

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THE DOCKET By Aoife O’ Sullivan

To all owners and financiers of large aircraft, new regulation has been introduced, is coming into force soon and it affects you very personally.





A new regulation has been introduced and will soon affect aircraft owners and financiers warns Aoife O’ Sullivan of Kennedy’s Aviation.

egulation (EC) No 216/2008 (the Basic Regulation) entered into force on 8 April 2008. Operators and personnel involved in the operation of certain aircraft have to comply with the relevant essential requirements set out in Annex IV to this EASA Air Operations Regulation. The rule applies to non-commercial operators of complex aircraft with a principal place of business or residence in a Member State of the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA). Therefore it applies to EASA and nonEASA registered aircraft. The new Implementing Rules (Regulation EC 965/2012 & 800/2013) came into force on 28 October 2012. However, Member States have the flexibility to postpone the applicability of the rule by up to two or three years. For those states who decided to opt out, the final cut-off date is 25 August 2016, by which time the non-commercial operation of business jets and other complex motor-powered aircraft will have to comply with a new regulation called “Part-NCC”. Most professional operators will have been aware of the impending rules for some time and will have already adapted their systems, procedures and manuals accordingly. In the case of aircraft which are not managed by a professional operator or indeed managed by an operator who is not up to date on the new changes, the owners and financiers of such aircraft are at risk. The regulation has highlighted an underlying risk within private and corporate aviation and the resulting exposure to financiers and owners. Furthermore, the regulation extends beyond EASA registered aircraft – the focus is instead on the “operator”. If your N Reg aircraft is based in the EU and operated from the EU, this regulation will apply to you. If the aircraft is not operated by a professional operator, responsibility

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for the safe and proper operation of the aircraft usually defaults to the owner and that owner must ensure compliance with the regulation. Not knowing what standards are required will not protect these owners from legal responsibility. More worryingly however in the case of many privately managed aircraft, there is no certainty as to who is in fact the “operator” of the aircraft and if not properly defined, the default position will most likely be the owner. Private operations who is the legal operator? Article 3(h) Reg 216/2008 defines an operator as “any legal or natural person, operating or proposing to operate one or more aircraft”. Depending on the underlying or surrounding operation and management of the particular aircraft, the definition can apply to many different people who oversee the day to day operation of the jet including the pilot, the flight department within a corporate group, aircraft managers or “consultants”, or the owner itself. The operator has full legal and regulatory responsibility for the aircraft

and each flight. The operator is responsible for such things as: I. Maintenance management II. Employment of flight crew III. Preparation and maintenance of operations manual IV. Responsibility for entering into contracts for particular operations V. Flight planning, fuelling and repairing the aircraft VI. Keeping the required aircraft records e.g. log books VII. Briefing the flight crew VIII. Control of the operation in the sense of deciding when the aircraft will take off, where it will go, and what it will carry IX. The ability to abort the operation X. Compliance with regulation and laws xi. Safety oversight and systems In the event that any supporting functions are contracted out the owner may still retain overall responsibility: full operational control of private aircraft cannot be easily contracted out and the ability to do so depends on many factors, not least the state of registration of the aircraft. For example if the aircraft is registered as a private aircraft with the FAA, Part 91 of the FAA regulations confirms that the owner retains full operational responsibility for the aircraft at all times and this responsibility cannot be fully transferred from the owner (with some carve outs for leases and fractional ownership models). The possibility for a legal nightmare arises in the context of a Part 91 aircraft based in Europe. If the FAA say the operator is the owner and he lives in the US but EASA say the operator may be the manager based in the EU, which regulation applies? Sadly this is not clear and is an issue EBAA will be tackling in the coming months at various working groups organised on topic. Private use When an aircraft is operated privately, in very general terms it means that the aircraft cannot be used for charter or “Commercial Air Transport”. In such cases the aviation authorities have relaxed certain rules around the

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save that “any consideration” may include non-cash payments. For example if I let you fly on my jet in return for a free room in your hotel, this is considered to be “valuable consideration” for the flight. If the flight is not operated by an AOC holder, technically it is an illegal flight, known colloquially as “grey charter”. 2. When aircraft are operated “privately”, the default position by law is usually that the owner is the legal operator. It is possible to delegate this responsibility to a professional operator but under many regulatory sysoperation of these jets - the main reasons owners tend to want to keep the aircraft as a privately operated aircraft are as follows: 1. Flight time limitations - flying privately does not have the same restrictions on flying hours for pilots so effectively you can push them to fly for longer. 2. Runway length - some runways are deemed too short for commercial aircraft but you can land privately (e.g. Cannes). 3. Cabotage - a commercial aircraft is obliged to request flight permissions to fly point to point within a territory. So for example an EU registered aircraft would need permissions to fly point to point within the US. The permissions tend to be readily granted but the paperwork is an additional task. In many cases, the structures put in place to manage and operate these aircraft remained unscrutinised by the regulatory authorities. Not only that, many owners have not engaged the services of professional advisors when putting these structures in place and are not aware that they may have exposed themselves to full responsibility for the operational control of the jet when they thought they had passed it off to the “aviation consultant” they trusted to do the job, usually at a very modest cost. An owner is at liberty to hire whoever he wants to operate the jet and in many cases many owners hired ad hoc consultants who provided varying services to keep the aircraft flying. Which one of them is the operator? Do you as an owner really want to wait to find out that it was you all along? EASA has quite rightly identified the potential risk of allowing owners to do whatever they want with complex

machines and under the new regulations the requirements for proper and safe operation of private aircraft (referred to in the regulations as noncommercial complex aircraft) has been increased. For example, all operators of such aircraft will be required to create and maintain an Operations Manual, a Safety Management System (SMS) and will be required to submit their aircraft to a CAMO. If the owner is the operator, this responsibility falls squarely on him. There are many areas of risk for owners and operators of privately operated jets quite aside from the new responsibility introduced by the EASA Air Operations Regulation. Some examples are set out below. 1. When an aircraft is operated privately the owner is on board or guests of the owners may be on board provided they are not paying for the flight. At EASA level, any payment for the flight is illegal unless the aircraft is operated by an AOC holder that is a licensed operator with an “Air Operators Certificate” (AOC). In the UK, the Air Navigation Order uses the definition of “public transport” which is a similar concept to “commercial air transport”

tems, the owner remains liable for the safe operation of that flight and is deemed by law to be in “operational control” of the flight. This goes way beyond the authority of the pilot in command – the person having operational control has regulatory responsibility and is accountable for safety and all other aspects of the aircraft operation. Many professional operators will agree to provide management services for the operation of an aircraft privately but the wording of such contracts is deliberately construed to ensure that the owner remains the legal operator. Certain services will have been delegated or subcontracted to the professional operator but the owner remains ultimately responsible and answerable if for example aviation regulation were breached in any way. It is very important in negotiating these agreements that the owner does hire an operator to provide management services and then unwittingly absolve the professional operator of all responsibility by acknowledging that the owner remains ultimately responsible. 3. Many owners have historically bought aircraft in their own name or


EASA sees the risk in allowing too much freedom for owners of aircraft.

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Owners shouldn’t rely on their pilots alone to be operations experts.

even in the name of a company with other assets. This person or company becomes the owner and the legal operator and is the responsible party for the due and safe operation, maintenance and control of the aircraft. The buck stops with you. If you do not use special purpose vehicles to protect yourself from claims or the consequences of a major loss, now is certainly the time to review your holding structures. Even if you delegate the responsibility you will never be able to delegate it completely. If your corporate service provider tells you they will become the operator and they even allow you to register the aircraft with their name on the register as the “operator”, this will not help you. For one they are not really aircraft operators and calling them an operator won’t fool the regulators. You may not have divested operational responsibility (see above) and you certainly would have some awkward questions to answer as to why you think hiring a CSP as an operator instead of a professional aircraft operator should divest you of corporate (or Directors) responsibility for the safe operation of the jet. 4. In many cases, owners run their own flight departments which will at least consist of one or two pilots. If the aircraft has always been operated as a private aircraft, it is very unlikely these people will know or be sufficiently experienced to ensure the aircraft as an NCC aircraft is operated to AOC standards. Being licensed to fly an aircraft does not necessarily translate into being an expert on operational requirements and to some degree it is unfair to expect this of the pilots. However, if the owner is the operator, the fact that the flight department does not work to the requisite standard is an exposure for the owner. Non-compliance and the resulting breach of regulation exposes the owner to penalty but even more seriously has the potential to negate the insurance policy, a pre-condition of which tends to be that the aircraft be operated to aviation regulatory standards. Similarly the on-going covenants of most financing documents require proper and safe operation to the requisite regulatory standard and failure to

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do so is an immediate breach of the loan or lease entitling the financier to repossess and in most cases sell the aircraft. This is particularly the case in finance leases where the lender is the legal owner of the aircraft. The finance documentation ensures that operational responsibility passes to the borrower. Many financiers do not appreciate that it may not be legally possible to divest all operational responsibility for the safe and proper operation of an aircraft. The financier as the legal owner may be the legal operator and is ultimately responsible. Grey charter – who is the legal operator? An aircraft which is intended to be offered for third party charter (i.e. operated commercially or for public transport) must be operated by a professional operator with an AOC. As soon as the aircraft is added to the AOC, that operator becomes the “operator” and the owner is absolved of operational responsibility. Many privately operated aircraft should be on an AOC because they are unwittingly breaching the rules and regulations surrounding charter of aircraft. Quite simply, if consideration passes for a flight, that is commercial air transport and the aircraft must be on an AOC with a professional operator. Failure to do so is illegal and will negate the underlying insurance policy. One of the biggest underwriters in the aviation insurance market told us recently that if they were aware of an incident involved an illegally operated aircraft, they may not even have a choice in terms of whether they would cover the loss. Insurance cannot cover

illegal acts. If the act is illegal, the underwriter is restricted by insurance law from paying out. So when is the flight illegal? Most immediately consider the flagrant breach of regulation as the obvious example. I own a jet which is registered on a private register and I advertise that jet as being available for charter. This is a clear breach. The “grey” aspect of illegal charter can however arise in the context of charge backs for flights. So for example a corporate owns an aircraft and charges throughout the Group for the use of the jet – this is a sensible corporate policy and is a way of defraying both the fixed and operational costs of running the aircraft. The Group benefits from the use of the aircraft for the benefit of the business as a whole and no one subsidiary has to carry the on-going costs. The problem arises when the “Group” is not really a group. The definition of Group in the context of aviation regulation does not necessarily marry with the definition of Group within IFRS accounting rules. The definition is quite restricted and generally includes wholly owned subsidiaries of a common parent company. Affiliates are not included where the equity share falls below 51%. Any company outside that definition is not within the Group for aviation regulation purposes and charging that entity for a flight is third party charter. If the operation of that flight is not carried out by an AOC holder, it is illegal. Taking an unconnected client on board the aircraft and allowing them to share in the fuel cost is illegal.

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Allowing the same client to pay for the hotel room in return for the flight makes the flight an illegal charter. In some countries even conducting a business meeting on board the aircraft whereby some benefit passes is “valuable consideration” and potentially illegal. The potential exposure to the owner of the aircraft is immense – the owner is the operator and if the owner has allowed illegal charter on the aircraft, the owner is ultimately responsible. The Directors of that owning company have a duty of care to the company and to the shareholders and hiring a flight department will not absolve them from liability. If the illegal flight has an incident, the owning entity will be responsible as the operator and the Directors will need to answer some very difficult questions surrounding their approved operation. If you are one such owner and you have never audited your flight department now is the time to do so. In many cases the flight department themselves have not appreciated the legal subtleties. This is even more pronounced in comparing EASA and FAA regulation. The FAA has quite sensibly introduced a type of licensing or oversight of privately operated aircraft (Part 91) and permits what is known as “time share agreements”. Under these agreements, sharing the cost of fuel on the flight in certain circumstances is permitted (up to two times fuel). In an EASA context, this is illegal because somebody who is not connected to the owner is paying for the flight. So how do you resolve it? You either audit your flight department thoroughly or re-assess your charge back systems throughout the Group or you place the aircraft with an AOC holder and you can charge whoever you want for the flights with the comfort of knowing someone else has taken legal responsibility for the safe operation of the aircraft. If your passengers pay market rate for the charter and you use that to defray the fixed costs, this is all permissible and even helps with any benefit in kind issues created by your Directors and management using the jet. The added bonus is that there are some very attractive tax reliefs and structures available for commercially operated aircraft.

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AOC holders and the disadvantages In reality there are very little disadvantages to placing an aircraft with an AOC holder apart from possibly cost? If you really do want to push your pilots that little bit more or land in Cannes on a good day with the wind in front of you, you can still have the aircraft managed by an AOC holder as a private aircraft. Some registries (e.g. UK and Malta) even permit you to flip from commercial to private so you get the best of both worlds (but beware that when you do “flip” to private, you the owner may be the deemed operator of that flight). The management fee should be assessed against the cost of running your flight department but also against the cost or exposure to the corporate, HNW, Trust or financier as the legal owner of the aircraft. Why do we like the AOC holders? They have paid good money to put systems and procedures in place and even one poor individual with his head on the block (known as the Accountable Manager) who must account for the safe operation of Every Single Aircraft. He or she is personally liable.

They are audited by the regulators on a regular basis. Best of all they become the legal operator of the aircraft and the responsibility for safe operation falls squarely on their shoulders. In terms of corporate responsibility you and your Directors (and senior management) can rest easy. Unless you have a top class flight department or management team, are you really doing enough to protect yourself from scrutiny in terms of the safe and proper operation of a very complicated machine? Don’t be afraid to ask questions and audit your team if you are operating an aircraft privately. Ask them if they know what the new regulations are but review to make sure they are living those standards. Pretty operations manuals on shelves and safety management systems are no good to you unless the practices within them are enshrined in the daily ethic of your team. If you don’t do this, the questions you will be asked will be far more loaded with consequences in the event of an incident. You’ll need to show that you considered the risks and that you took a proper risk mitigant approach to the operation of your aircraft asset in the same way you do for all other systems and procedures in your business.

Aoife O’Sullivan is lead partner in the Aircraft Finance Department at Kennedy’s Aviation, an international law firm. In 2014 she was nominated as a leading lawyer by Best Lawyers the oldest and most highly-respected peer review guide to the legal profession.


There are few disadvantages to placing an aircraft with an AOC holder.

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BIGGIN HILL’S EMERGING MAINTENANCE HUB The six firms offering MRO service at the airport are diverse in their technical focus. But most are looking for new staff as well as training their own apprentices. And all of them are growing.


By Bernard Fitzsimons

ome to a growing fleet of corporate jets that now numbers more than 60 plus another 200 general aviation aircraft, Biggin Hill is host to three FBOs, including its own executive terminal. It also offers an expanding range of support services, notably in the MRO field.


JETS (top) and RAS Completions (center) work closely to provide the best possible service for customers.

Dassault ASC A new management team at JETS Biggin Hill, the former Jet Aviation MRO facility acquired in December 2012 by 328Group, is aiming for growth by expanding its customer base throughout the EMEA region. JETS is a Dassault Authorized Service Center. The company divested the FBO business, and is now focused on growing its MRO services, partly by attracting customers from the Middle East and Africa.

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The Middle East is “a very open market but full of business opportunities,” says David Elam, who joined JETS in September as Sales and Commercial Manager. “We want a piece of that.” The response from UAE and other customers in the region at MEBA in December was “great,” he says: “A lot of them already come to Europe for maintenance. They have to overfly five or six other MROs to get to us, but we feel it’s worth the trip because of our value.”

The 328Group’s other UK MRO, JETS Bournemouth (the rebranded Jet Engineering Technical Support), has three hangars capable of accommodating 15 aircraft. A Hawker Center Of Excellence, it also works on Learjet 45s and Challengers. JETS Biggin Hill has room for eight aircraft. The Dassault ASC approval covers the Falcon 900 and 2000, which should provide half the workload at Biggin Hill this year. JETS Biggin Hill also supports the Challenger 300/601/604 and 605, the Cessna 500 series, and Hawker 700/800/900. A rapid response team (RRT), launched in April to offer 24/7 AOG call-out has been “very successful so far in getting market traction,” says Elam. “It really helps promote our capabilities and brand visibility”. Another group company, 328 Support Services at Oberpfaffenhofen, in Germany, has EASA Part 21G and J design and manufacturing approvals. “We work with them on modifications and design,” he says. “The in-house design capability allows us as a group to have even more savings to pass on to customers.” Pre-purchase inspections are another offering. “We’re looking for long term partnerships,” says Elam. “We want people to try us and come back.”




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JETS is “as competitive as anybody in the industry,” he adds, and as a smaller organisation can offer much more flexibility: “London is a destination of choice, but Luton and Farnborough are becoming too expensive”. Biggin Hill has a lot of pricing advantages. Especially considering the location and proximity to the London area.”

The company has an in-house design capability and is a Part 21G approved production organisation. It manufactures a full range of interior furnishings, and has completed projects for airlines, including Brussels Airlines, Air Astana and American Airlines, plus monuments for a new head of state A330, as well as business jets. Another speciality is the

Completions specialist

application and polishing of Teflon coatings to protect newly painted exterior surfaces. On the hangar floor, environmentally controlled modules – tent-like structures that can be collapsed when aircraft need to be moved – house upholstery cutting and other activities in order to maintain the physical separation of production and maintenance required by regulations. “The reason we won so many high profile customers so quickly is that everybody in the company has at least 20 years’ experience,” says Ebdale. The current staff are people he has worked with at other companies, and the firm is now looking to recruit additional skilled fitters. RAS also runs an apprentice scheme, with three currently in training and a fourth due next year. There is ample maintenance capability at the airport, and RAS works closely with JETS. The company also sends staff to work on interiors at other locations, including Bombardier Amsterdam. “We’re interior experts so we send teams all over the place to do interiors while heavy maintenance is being done,” says Ebdale.

Formed at Biggin Hill in 1996, RAS Completions has become the UK’s leading painter of corporate aircraft. Four years ago the company added an interiors division and business seems to have taken off. Engineering manager Carl Ebdale says there were five people in the division when he joined five years ago: now the number is up to 55. Recent projects include the complete refurbishment of a Learjet 60 for actor Antonio Banderas, and the company is currently working on what Ebdale describes as “a very aggressive refurbishment” of 10 Falcon 2000s in five months for a major European fractional operator. The aircraft arrive at three-week intervals and RAS is able to remove the interior, strip and repaint the airframe and replace the interior in the space of five weeks. It takes one week at the beginning to remove the interior and another at the end to replace the refurbished furnishings. In between they are replaced if necessary, or repaired, repainted and relacquered while the airframe undergoes maintenance at JETS.

AgustaWestland ASC Castle Air is a relative newcomer to Biggin Hill, having started operations there in 2013, though its main facility at Liskeard in Cornwall has been operating and maintaining AgustaWestland AW109s and other helicopters for more than 30 years. Castle’s helicopters are responsible for much of the aerial footage featured in UK TV programs, as well as providing VIP and air taxi services. Graham Charman, maintenance manager at the Biggin Hill base, says the hangar is very busy with a lot of third party work as well as support for the Castle Air charter fleet. Castle is an ASC for the AW109, maintaining around 30 UK-based examples, and last year added approval for the AW139, at 6.8 tones more than twice as heavy as the AW109. “The AW139 is the market we’re breaking into,” says Charman. “There aren’t many around in the VIP market, but they’re out there so we’re going after them.” Charman himself went to the manufacturer in Italy for training to qualify as a licensed engineer on the type; by the end of last year another two were qualified on the AW139 and he expects to add two more. Castle Air also maintains the JetRanger and S-76 and the yet to be released Agusta Westland AW169 is very much in Castle’s plans. Both Biggin Hill and Liskeard are approved for AW109, AW139 and Bell 206 JetRanger base and line maintenance. The workload includes some extensive projects, including one N-registered AW119 Koala being restored to as-new condition. Charman expects the work to take about six months, including a full avionics suite refurb, the machine will be flown to the Liskeard base for painting. Another Castle Air strength is Europe’s most extensive stock of AW109 spares, including main rotor blades and engines. Most are held at Liskeard, Charman says, “but we’re building up the spares holding at Biggin Hill now.” Globals and Hawkers The newest and most striking of the MRO facilities at the airport is the double award winning Rizon Jet; gleaming new hangar and three-storey FBO. From his top floor office CEO Allan McGreal enjoys a commanding view of the airfield framed by the London sky-


Castle Air Services include VIP and air taxi.

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MAINTENANCE MATTERS line beyond, while the hangar is finished to such a high standard that it doubles as a gallery for aviation-themed art and a venue for high-end events. Rizon Jet opened its MRO four years ago, McGreal says, and its current capabilities are line and base maintenance for Hawker, Citation and Bombardier business jets, but with more to follow. The initial EASA and Qatar approvals have been supplemented by Bermuda, Aruba and Cayman, with FAA repair station approval expected imminently – “a remarkable achievement in only four years from a standing start,” he comments. The facility is approved to work on all Bombardier aircraft except the Learjet 60, with Bombardier ASC status “an aspiration,” McGreal says. The based fleet includes five Global Expresses, and 16 Globals are booked for maintenance, which he reckons is “close to a good viable business” on the type. The 100 meter open span hangar – one of the longest of its kind in Europe according to McGreal — features an underfloor utilities network that includes five stations on the apron for silent running of ground power units. Two overhead cranes are capable of lifting a fully dressed Global Express engine. And the physical facilities are backed by a substantial investment in training. “We have a good apprentice program and we spent £250,000 on training engineers in 2014,” McGreal says. Making the hangar as much showroom as workshop reflects McGreal’s view that MRO is often the missing part of aircraft ownership. “Owners don’t usually see the investment,” he says, “but by informing clients about our capabilities,investment in technology and skills, and giving access as we do, we invite them to feel more involved.”


Rizon Jet offers line maintenance for Hawker, Citation and Bombardier aircraft.

Special mission specialist Privately owned Avalon Aero, which has operated at Biggin Hill since the start of the millennium and moved into its current hangar in 2009, seems to have cornered something of a niche market in special mission BAe 146s. It is also a newly appointed ASC for the Piaggio Avanti and EVO, and has approvals to work on a wide range of other types.

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Managing director and founder John Glancey works with a company that maintained the two 146s operated by motor sport organiser Formula One Management. Following a project to install in-flight entertainment in the two aircraft, he and another engineer won approval to do all their maintenance. That in turn led to work on other projects, including the equipment of the Natural Environment Research Council’s atmospheric research 146 and two Avro RJs modified for flight test work with the Empire Test Pilot School and research firm Qinetiq. “We specialize in one-offs,” says Glancey — a fisheries protection Cessna 406 was one of the aircraft in the hangar in mid-December – “as well as corporate and light aircraft.” The company is a family business, with Glancey’s wife, Coral, a fellow director and son Chris as general manager. “We treat all the staff as family,” he says of the 43-strong workforce. “The first 30 were friends and family, but we’ve taken on others since.” An apprentice scheme has been running for eight years and this year Avalon will have two apprentices. “We are not corporate in any way,” Glancey says. “The company was started by two engineers and we try to keep customers happy by being open and honest. When we meet customers we talk engineering, not sales and marketing. It’s important to some customers that they’re talking to the guys who can do the job rather than just people who know people who can do the job, we don’t say ‘yes we can’, when we know that ‘no we can’t.’” Avalon has also provided line stations “all over the world” for customers, he says. “We can do up to eight weeks line maintenance away from base.”

Learjets and Challengers Moving on then to Zenith Aviation which started in September 2013 when the Markerstudy Group bought what was then the UK aircraft management arm of Swiss private aircraft sales, charter and consultancy group Perfect Holding. Quality Manager Barry Holloway says the renamed Zenith Aviation operates two Learjet 45 aircraft under its own AOC and offers maintenance capability on the Challenger 300 and Challenger 604/605 as well as the Learjet 45/40. The company has a staff of 20, including pilots, with a Maintenance Manager, two engineers and technical teams as well as Holloway himself on the maintenance side. “We also look after some of the other Learjet 45 aircraft on the field and also a number of visiting aircraft,” Holloway says. One recent project was a double engine change on a customer’s Learjet 45. “Because we are a small organization and also an operator, we understand the needs of other operators and recognize that they live and die by the response to AOGs.” The company actively seek third party work, he says, but many operators are contractually tied in with other organizations and a lot of new aircraft can only go to a manufacturer’s service center for maintenance. Our main focus is to support the Zenith Aviation operation.” Zenith also liaises with other maintenance organizations on the airfield Holloway adds. “We help each other out with equipment and personnel during times of high maintenance activities. Biggin Hill is a good airfield for working together.”

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by LeRoy Cook

ision is vital to pilots of all types of aircraft. In the old days of close-quarters dogfighting between fighter pilots, the man with the best visual acuity came home the victor. By spotting the bogies before they could see him, he could get into position for the shot early in the game. Of course, diving down out of the sun negated such an advantage, and the enhancement of superior equipment was hard to beat. But, all things being equal, the eyes made the difference. Today’s combat tends more toward radar lockons and launching a missile to do the finish work. But the pilot’s vision remains a paramount consideration, even in civilian flying. In our electronic-dashboard world, we may think


Vision is still a critical component in successful piloting.

that mid-range acuity, optimized for the instrument panel’s displays, is more valuable than distant vision out the windscreen—until we have a nearmiss with unreported traffic. Taking care of one’s eyes is definitely important. Cockpits are dry environments, and lighting is often less than optimum. Fatigue affects vision; the eyes tire along with everything else. Aging pilots are particularly susceptible to eyestrain from attempting to offset the natural progression of presbyopia, the loss of one’s ability to focus at different distances.

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Did You See What You Thought You Saw? Accident investigations sometimes determine the cause of the accident to be “failure to maintain terrain clearance” or “loss of control for undetermined reasons”. The pilot’s apparent mistake could very easily have resulted from not seeing the altitude limit on the procedure or misidentifying the bearing to be flown from a fix. One local approach plate I use frequently has a VOR and ILS almost co-located, with frequencies of 110.2 and 110.7, respectively. In dim light, or when

working hurriedly at single-pilot pace, you can understand that it’s easy to choose and dial-in the wrong number. If one doesn’t verify the ID code, the lack of a glideslope while tracking inbound can be confusing. Mistakes made when keying in routings on an FMS, hurriedly typing numbers with the “fat finger syndrome” that plagues many of us, can just as easily be blamed on not clearly seeing the readout. Having two sets of eyes to verify that the flight plan is entered correctly is critical; hopefully, one of the pairs will be younger, or better corrected. And so, it is important to treat vision as the critical component of successful piloting that it is. Very likely, you will need corrective vision aids as your career progresses; it is, to put it in my father’s terms, “part of growing up.” Whether or not your medical certificate calls for “must possess corrective lenses for near vision”, keep some reading glasses handy, to make your job easier. As they become more important, carry a spare set to replace a broken or mislaid one. The problem with reading glasses is that your ability to accommodate differing distances can become more limited over the years. Instrument panels and overhead switch panels are at vastly different focal lengths. I’ve found the progressive-correction eyeglass lenses to be a workable solution, allowing various distances to be brought into focus




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acuity or depth perception. While taxiing at night, be as respectful as you can with your lights when around other airplanes. Most SOPs require the use of strobe lights while occupying a runway, to avoid any possibility of ATC or another pilot assuming the runway is clear, but give as much space as possible before hitting the switches. Douse the big landing lights as soon as they are not needed after rolling off onto the exit, especially if you see a taxiing aircraft ahead. When can you do to enhance safety if low visibility is an issue? Keep the cockpit maplight or hand-held flashlight ready to verify a chart or diagram. If flashed by an external light, look toward the taxiway centerline, where your taxi light may be most effective, and maintain your orientation. Stop if you’re not sure your wingtip is going to remain clear. The opposite of low-light operation is flying sunward, when the bright glare

by rocking one’s head to the exact angle so I can look through the required section of the glasses. It takes time to adjust to progressives, but they do work. A tri-focal lens, with corrections set for 12-inch, 30-inch and infinity, may work almost as well as progressive lenses. The places requiring the most neck-craning are (1) attempting to read labels on an overhead panel, when the close-up correction at the bottom of the glasses is needed, and (2) trying to look down at a ground feature through the side cockpit window, when the near-vision correction is in the way. Regular visits to your ophthalmologist is one way to stay ahead of the game. Regular pressure checks to spot glaucoma early is very important. Dry eye irritation is easily treated with eyedrops. If you use contact lenses, be careful to observe length-of-wear limitations and watch for signs of infection. Carry regular glasses with a current prescription to allow changing out of the contacts. Never rub your tired eyes with your knuckles, particularly in a dry-eye scenario. Instead, massage the facial area around the eyes. When possible, close one eye at a time to briefly lubricate the eye with a drooped eyelid. Avoid Unprotected Brightness Most pilots know the importance of good sunglasses, particularly at highaltitude and above a sun-drenched white cloud deck. Those of us who have had to deal with cataracts would advise fellow pilots to employ eye protection anytime you’re out of the clouds. When about to descend into a low cloud layer on an approach, it’s helpful to don the sunglasses to partially dilate the iris, because the dark gloom below is going to require the most vision you can obtain. Flash-blindness, or sudden exposure to a bright light when one’s eyes are dark-adapted, can be a real hazard, particularly in single-pilot operation. Fully recovering from loss of night vision can take 30 minutes or more. In the days when dealing with thunderstorms in unpressurized aircraft meant getting up close and personal with lightning, young copilots were advised to drop their seat to the lowest position behind the glareshield, pull the bill of their cap down, and be ready to close one eye to save at least some of their vision.

The hazard of laser-pointing terrorism, a progression from the childhood prank of shining a flashlight up toward an airplane on its approach to landing, has required serious countermeasure actions lately. Looking directly into a laser beam can do serious eye damage; the natural reaction to an unexpected illumination in the cockpit is to look toward the light. Instead, it’s important to focus away from it until it departs. Ground operation at night on a busy airport presents many hazards, even with normal vision. Having a landing light or strobe flash turned directly into one’s eyes can result in loss of

pouring through the windshield obscures vital details. It helps to have a clean windshield, and freshlycleaned sunglasses, as well as correctly-positioned sunvisors. Fog and mist with sunlight breaking through are difficult glare-producing situations, and if forced to use a runway oriented into the sun, be particularly alert for looming hazards seen at the last second. Fading visual acuity can be partially offset by experience, fortunately, but one has to understand the limitations that exist in later years.


Use eye protection anytime you’re out of the clouds.

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By Michael R. Grüninger and Capt. Carl C. Norgren of Great Circle Services AG (GCS)

trough that extended from the Norwegian Sea to the Bay of Biscay was blowing mild, humid and sometimes unstably stratified air over the Alps towards the northeast. While the surface front crossed the airport of St.Gallen-Altenrhein (Switzerland), the crew of Dalia 211 was preparing their flight in Geneva. They planned a flight from Geneva to Altenrhein in the early afternoon of 6th of August 2012. Due to the topography and resulting waves along the frontal zone, the weather in Altenrhein was challenging for the pilots. But both Altenrhein runways were open. Runway 10 offers an ILS approach with a 4 degree gradient. A circling approach was available for runway 28. The Embraer EMB-505 Phenom 300 (CN-MBR) proceeded quickly across Switzerland with 70 knots tailwind. The approach was fast. On the ground, 9 knots tailwind were to be expected. Local rain showers were causing visibility problems. The crew opted for a runway 10 ILS approach. The first approach did not succeed. Immediately the crew attempted a second approach. On its second attempt, the Phenom was half-way down the wet runway, when the co-pilot, who was pilot nonflying, said “hopefully it will work”. The captain, who was pilot-flying on this short flight replied “That’s what I told you..”. Seconds later the aircraft reached the end of the runway, still travelling at 44 knots IAS. The aircraft exited the runway, broke through the perimeter fence, crossed a road and came to rest in a cornfield. The crew and one passenger exited the aircraft unaided. The Phenom 300 suffered substantial damage.


A lack of a clear hierarchy between pilot and co-pilot lead to an accident for EMB-505.

Approaches The crew performed a go-around from the first ILS approach after continuing well below the decision height without sufficient visual references for a landing. When the commander finally initiated the go-around, the tires were only one foot (!) above the runway.

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The first approach had been flown at very high speed. With a strong tailwind the aircraft intercepted the localizer and glideslope at high speed and then struggled to slow down and configure. The gear was extended while descending on the glideslope at 222 Knots IAS at 2’000 ft AAL. Flap 1 was selected at 1’000 ft AAL. At that point the commander requested flap 2 followed by full flaps. The co-pilot selected full-flaps, and 3 seconds later selected flap 3, which was the maximum flap certified for this aircraft. At that point the “FLAP FAIL” warning indication illuminated and the flaps stopped moving. The flaps stayed “jammed” in the Flap 1 position for the remainder of the flight. The aircraft was at this point passing the decision height of 500 ft AAL. The crews decided to continue the approach, while they were faced with an abnormal situation late in an unstabilized approach without visual contact. Unstabilised Approach During the initial descent the crew prepared for the approach to Altenrhein. After receiving the ATIS they prepared for an ILS approach to runway 10 followed by a circling for runway 28 due to the prevailing Westerly winds. The navigation equipment was set and the approach reviewed on the cockpit screens.

Critical altitudes, approach speeds, the non-standard approach angle of 4 degrees as well as the missed approach procedure were not mentioned in the briefing. Considering that it was the first time that either crew member flew into Altenrhein airport this lack of preparation for an approach into an unfamiliar airport in cloudy, rainy and windy conditions is incomprehensible. It was symptomatic of the crews lack of adherence to standard operating procedures throughout the flight. Poor Decision-Making and Poor Preparation According to the ATIS the crew prepared for an ILS approach to runway 10 followed by a visual circling for runway 28. The prevailing wind according to the ATIS was 340 at 8 Kts. After establishing on the ILS for runway 10 the crew contacted the Tower at Altenrhein. The tower passed an actual wind of 280 at 9 Kts and asked Dalia 211 which runway they would prefer. At this point the aircraft was below 2’000 ft AAL with only the gear extended and travelling at over 200 Kts IAS. Without consulting the captain the copilot requested a straight-in landing on runway 10. This was a significant change to the planned approach. Had the crew evaluated their situation properly, i.e. by

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taking some time to discuss their options, they would have realized that their altitude, configuration and airspeed did not allow them to successfully accept a straight-in approach for runway 10. The circling minimum (864 ft AAL) is higher than the minimum of the ILS for a straight-in approach (500 ft AAL). Given the weather conditions with heavy rain reducing visibility the straight-in approach might have offered a higher chance of a successful landing. Without any verbal communication it remains unknown what went through the crews minds and what caused the co-pilot to request this change to the landing runway and the captain to

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accept this change at such a late stage in the approach without having prepared for this option. At no point was a briefing for a straight-in approach to runway 10 performed. Don’t Jam Your Flaps and Don’t Mishandle the Resulting Abnormal Situation Shortly after accepting the first straight-in approach into runway 10 Dalia 211 received the landing clearance for runway 10. As the crew lowered the flaps the copilot mishandled the Flap Selector Lever and selected Full Flaps. A position not certified for the aircraft and forbidden by the manuals. To prevent

such mishandling a mechanical stop should have been installed to block selection of full flaps on the Flap Selector Lever. This mechanical stop was missing on the accident aircraft. As a result the flaps jammed just past the Flap 1 position and remained jammed for the remainder of the flight At this point the crew should have discontinued the approach as there was no chance to slow the aircraft down and to achieve a stabilized approach. Instead the captain continued encouraged by the co-pilot. Only at the last moment did the captain perform a go-around and only narrowly prevented a collision with terrain. After performing the missed approach the crew did not ask for a


Pilots should be prepared for the short runway at Altenrhein airport.

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SAFETY SENSE holding pattern or radar vectors in order to perform trouble-shooting on their technical malfunction as well as to evaluate the reasons for the unsuccessful approach and what their options were. At this point the flight was affected by a minor technical abnormality. The flaps were jammed in Flap 1 position. This does not pose any direct danger to the aircraft or its occupants. A jammed flap introduces a number of operational restrictions such as higher approach speeds, longer landing distance required, more time and distance to slow down. Considering the fact that Altenrhein has a steeper than normal approach of 4 degrees, considering the length of the runway and its wet condition and considering the approach and landing with a tailwind the decision to attempt a second approach and landing into Altenrhein’s runway 10 cannot be understood. What is however most astonishing is the lack of an evaluation of their situation as well as the alternative options available to the crew. At no time were these discussed. The abnormal checklist for the FLAP FAIL warning was consulted briefly, but not completed. No structured trouble-shooting was performed to establish the cause of the jammed flap. Instead the co-pilot without coordination with the captain repeatedly and erratically cycled the flap lever during the flight and second approach without any effect on the flap position. If the abnormal checklist had been completed the crew would have realized that the factored landing distance with the adjusted Vref for Flap 1 configuration for a wet runway was longer than the runway available at Altenrhein. Instead the crew requested radar vectors for a second approach and rushed into a second unstable approach.


Not taking the time to consider all the options led to this accident.

Take Your Time Most importantly, the flight had another 3 hours of fuel on-board for an extended holding time followed by a diversion to a number of airports in the vicinity with longer runways and approaches into wind.

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Unclear Roles in the Cockpit The captain was the pilot-flying and the Commander of this flight. In addition to his flying duties he held a management function as the deputy of the director of flight operations. The co-pilot was employed as quality and flight safety manager at the company. At 53 he was 13 years older than the commander. Previously he had been a commander in the Moroccan military on the C130-H aircraft and had been an instructor on single-engine aircraft. The co-pilot’s management position combined with his considerable flying experience affected the authority gradient on the flight deck and contributed to a break-down in the normal crew cooperation. The co-pilot took decisions without prior consultation with the captain on numerous occasions. During the first approach the co-pilot accepted the change in landing runway without discussing this with the captain. After the aircraft had passed the Decision Height the captain, who was pilot-flying, repeatedly said “Here, one can’t see anything.”. But the copilot, who was pilot non-flying, encouraged the captain to continue below the decision height with the words “go on..descend, descend!”. Also the co-pilot made numerous configuration changes without consultation. In his role as pilot non-flying the copilot failed to monitor the pilot-flying on numerous occasions. During the go-around the pilot-flying forgot to raise the landing gear. This remained unnoticed by the co-pilot and the gear

remained extended during the goaround and for the second approach. The lack of a clear hierarchy on the flight deck prevented an effective teamwork between the two crew members and ultimately the crew failed in their primary role of ensuring flight safety. Haste Makes Waste The pilots induced the jamming of the flaps. The weather was challenging. The airport had a short runway and was unfamiliar. The crew did not adhere to standard operating procedures. They did not work properly together and forgot about the limitations of the flap system. The real show stopper though was not the combined effect of all the factors mentioned. Had the pilots found a way out of their press-on-itis and chosen to take some time to consider the options calmly and act in an enlightened way, the flight will most likely have ended successfully, and not in a cornfield behind a cold front.

Michael R. Grüninger is Managing Director and Capt. Carl C. Norgren is a Consultant of Great Circle Services (GCS) Safety Solutions. GCS assists in the whole range of planning and management issues, offering customized solutions to strengthen the position of a business in the aviation market. Its services include training and auditing (ISBAO, IOSA), consultancy, manual development and process engineering. GCS can be reached at and +41-41 460 46 60. The column Safety Sense appears regularly in BART International.

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REINVENTING TRIP SUPPORT Universal Weather and Aviation opened its first FBO at Le Bourget in 1989. Now it has twelve, along with four kitchens operated by catering subsidiary Air Culinaire Worldwide. Judith Milne, who became Universal’s regional vice president for Europe, the Middle East and Africa in May 2014, discusses the company’s current activities and vision for the future BART: What services and products does Universal offer in your EMEA region? Milne: We have a specialized European operations centre, which is the equivalent of the trip support service in Houston, and from that centre we offer all the trip management services that help reduce operating risk such as flight planning and weather, regulatory expertise and rallying our global network to support our clients as needed. We have permit offices in London and in Tanzania covering the whole of the region for diplomatic permits. And we have our Universal Aviation ground handling locations and FBO services. They cover everything from full aircraft and passenger handling to working with our UVair Fuel Division to coordinate fuelling, managing VAT, reclaim of VAT on fuel and other services, managing tax, particularly around fuel, and fuel planning. We also send out staff to meet flights at difficult or remote airports all over Europe, the Middle East and Africa, where our clients are flying in internationally and they may be unfamiliar with an airport or we know it’s a difficult airport for transiting through. BART: What experience do you bring to the RVP role? Milne: I was a customer of Universal in the 1990s when I was working as ops manager for Shell Aviation, and I started my career with an airline, so operationally I’m very au fait with the industry, how airports work and the complexities of an actual practical operation. More recently, with Bombardier , I was looking after an international region — Europe, the Middle East and Asia Pacific — but also very close to the clients, understanding from an owner’s point of view what it really means using a private jet, the level of service they’re used to, how it feels when things go wrong and what response you need. BART: Universal has been active in Europe for a long time. How do you see the future of Business Aviation here and in the rest of the EMEA?

Milne: Business Aviation is driven by the economy and it’s driven by business. We realise there’s not going to be a huge amount of growth in Europe in the short term, so we’re starting to look around the margins of our territory, the opportunities for business, the areas where our clients are expanding their own operations and the challenges that they will face when they get there. So we align our vision around our customers’ requirements and our customers’ businesses. We know that the business opportunities are in the margins, the more challenging environments. It’s always been the case in Business Aviation that where it really comes into its own is where infrastructure is the most difficult. So we’ve started to look at Africa, for instance. We realise that there’s mining ands oil exploration going on in particular parts of Africa, and that will lead to infrastructure development, roads and bridges and airports being built. Our clients will need to get there to do that sort of business, to create that infrastructure, and Business Aviation is a big enabler of that infrastructure growth. So we have been building a strategy around that. We’re not just looking for where the big bucks are going to be, we’re working in the long term as partners with our clients and working together to support them.

BART: Is Universal looking to expand into new locations and services? Milne: We are trying to create an organisation that is nimble and able to react quite quickly. Because we are globally located with teams all over the world in different locations we’re able to send individual support out. So it’s not just about where the large volumes of flights are. If we have one flight going into the Congo, for instance, we can supply someone to go and help and support that one flight on that particular day. We also realise that local expertise is really important — local languages, being able to make relationships with local government organisations and understand how the environment works in-country. I think the western view has been in the past that we can just do everything our way all over the world. That’s not the case. For African operators used to working in the African operating environment, coming into Europe or flying into the states or flying into Asia, that’s a foreign environment for them. What we consider to be easy and normal and everyday, for a less experienced international operator from another continent is not as straightforward. So we are trying to make sure that we have that local presence, the local knowledge and the local understanding of the challenges that our clients are having to face. There’s a difference between being a western company with international offices around the world and being a truly global company. BART: Your subsidiary Air Culinaire Worldwide now has flight kitchens at Luton, Biggin Hill, Stansted and Le Bourget: how important is catering to your service offering? Milne: I used to run a charter company and 90 per cent of all complaints were about catering. Catering is a fundamental part of the customer experience and a critical part of the mission for us. So the Air Culinaire Worldwide acquisition was strategically really important and as we roll out and grow globally the catering part of the organisation will grow with us. Having that integrated organisation providing the catering means that they have a lot more information about the customer’s likes, dislikes and preferences, right down to the most minute detail. And it’s been a raging success from a customer point of view, we get lots of positive feedback.

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By Paul Walsh

restige, passion for aviation and a French touch was how Dassault described the atmosphere at the roll-out event for their long range Falcon 8X; the latest addition to the growing Falcon business jet family. It’s true that the atmosphere was refined, although the aviation enthusiasts at the event we’re focused less on the food – prepared by legendary Michelin two star chef Thierry Marx and more on the aircraft that followed dessert. This is not surprising when you consider that the Falcon 8X will offer the greatest range and the longest cabin in the Falcon line, along with the most extensive selection of cabin configurations available on any executive jet.


Dassault introduced their 8X at a glamorous event in Merignac.

Performance It builds on the technological prowess of the popular 7X long range tri-jet, but offers a greater range of 6,450 nm (11,945 km) – and a cabin 3.5 feet longer than the 7X while affording the same low operating economics and remarkable operating flexibility for which all Falcons are known. “Dassault’s tradition of innovation and excellence helps explain the suc-

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cess of the Falcon 7X. More than 250 aircraft have been built in the seven years since service introduction, and demand remains strong. We anticipate a similarly bright future for the 8X.” said Eric Trappier, Chairman and CEO of Dassault Aviation.

A total of three aircraft, including one fully outfitted with a cabin interior, will be used in the flight test and certification campaign and deliveries are expected to begin in the second half of 2016.

Final assembly and testing of the 8X is taking place at the Charles Lindbergh hall at Merignac. The facility was built to handle production of the Falcon 7X, and the 8X will draw on the same advanced digital design and manufacturing techniques pioneered with the 7X.


Wing mating and engine installation on the first Falcon 8X were completed in July and first power up occurred shortly after. Ground tests, including flight control system testing, vibration tests and fuel system testing, concluded in November. The first engine run up took place in early December and the aircraft is on track for a maiden flight in the first quarter of 2015. “We are extremely happy with progress on our new Falcon flagship,” said Olivier Villa, Senior Vice President, Civil Aircraft, Dassault Aviation. “The program is right on schedule and all systems are performing exactly as designed.”

With eight passengers and three crew, the Falcon 8X will be capable of flying 6,450 nm at M.80 non-stop. It will be powered by an improved version of the Pratt and Whitney Canada PW307 engine that equips the Falcon 7X. Combined with improvements to wing design, the new power plant will make the 8X up to 35% more fuel efficient than any other aircraft in the ultra-long range segment, affording a corresponding savings in operating costs. It is also fitted with a redesigned ultra-efficient wing derived from the Falcon 7X. The wing structure has been redesigned to minimize the overall aircraft drag during cruise while achieving a 600 lb weight saving. It will also feature optimized leading edge profile and winglets. These improvements are expected to increase significantly the lift to drag ratio.

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There’s an array of innovative onboard systems largely proven on the 7X, including an enhanced version of the 7X’s Digital Flight Control System. It will also come with a redesigned cockpit featuring an optional combined synthetic/ enhanced vision head-up display. Like the 7X, the Falcon 8X will be capable of approaches up to 6 degrees, allowing it to serve challenging airports such as London City Airport and Lugano, Switzerland that are normally not accessible to large cabin aircraft. The aircraft will have a balanced field length of about 6,000 ft and an approach speed at typical landing weight of 107 kts. The 8X will also be able to perform an extensive list of one-leg missions, including Beijing to New York, Hong Kong to Seattle and New York to Dubai. Space In terms of space the cabin is 6 ft 2 in (1.88 m) high and 7 ft 8 in (2.34 m) wide and 42 ft 8 in (13 m) long, enabling it to offer the most diverse selection of cabin layouts on the market. More than 30 configurations will be available and customers will be able to choose from three galley sizes

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– two with a crew-rest option – and lounges of varying lengths capable of supporting a range of lavatory layouts, including a lavatory with shower. “The Falcon 8X will be the longest cabin of any Falcon. But, more importantly, it will feature the highest level of customization of any large cabin business jet on the market,” said Trappier. In choosing the cabin customers can now benefit from two recently opened two new state-of-the-art interior design and showroom centers intended to ease the selection of interior design solutions and options for Falcon customers. Located at Paris-Le Bourget and Teterboro Airport, the multimillion dollar facilities provide a pleasant interactive environment that allows customers to specify their aircraft interiors and pick and choose from available onboard equipment hardware and materials in the easiest and most efficient manner possible. Specification areas are equipped with high-definition screens and advanced 3D tools that interface directly with Dassault’s industry leading digital modeling software, greatly simplifying the cabin design process. Showrooms feature a stylish and elegant decor that permits seats, in-flight

entertainment equipment, galley appliances, lighting, paneling and other interior features to be displayed in an environment reminiscent of a typical Falcon cabin. The design of the facilities drew heavily on ideas and suggestions from Falcon operators “The interior spec and design process has evolved greatly over the past several years with the wide use of digital tools, 3D processes like Dassault Systemes CATIA and a greatly expanded selection of options and new products,” said Eric Trappier, Chairman and CEO of Dassault Aviation. “These new facilities enhance and streamline the total spec and design experience and bring it to a level that is unlike anything available in business aviation today. Our customers now have a very accurate vision of the aircraft interior they are designing, several months before the first part is manufactured.” In addition to onboard equipment, the two facilities showcase a wide range of Falcon interiors including full scale or partial mockups of the Falcon 7X, 900LX and 2000 family aircraft and the new Falcon 5X very extra wide body twinjet. Getting back to the 8X it’s clear that in a market always looking for extra range combined with low operating


Dassault claims to offer the most diverse selection of cabin layouts on the market.

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costs, this aircraft will appeal to a sizeable number of owners and operators. It’s also encouraging that the aircraft it’s based on, the 7X has sold more than 230 aircraft since it was launched in 2005. Customer Service This naturally brings us to the question of how Dassault plans to maintain these aircraft. And what you see is that its service network is expanding. For instance Dassault subsidiary Dassault Falcon Service has announced plans to build a heavy maintenance, repair and overhaul facility at BordeauxMérignac Airport in southwestern France.


The Falcon 8X can fly 6,450 nm at M.80 non-stop.

The 7,200 sq. meter facility will be built on a parcel of land adjacent to the Dassault Aviation manufacturing plant and will serve Falcon 7X, 8X and 5X large cabin aircraft. It will complement DFS’s existing MR&O installations at Le Bourget Airport near Paris. “The new Mérignac service center reflects Dassault Falcon Service’s commitment to keep up with the steady expansion of the Falcon fleet, which now numbers more than 2,000 aircraft worldwide, and make sure customers continue benefiting from the top-notch service they’ve come to enjoy,” said Jean Kayanakis, General Manager, Dassault Falcon Service. The new facility, capable of accommodating six aircraft, is expected to commence operations in mid-2016, in time to handle initial C Checks for the fast-selling Falcon 7X, and will eventually employ up to 70 specialists and technicians. More than 230 Falcon 7X’s are now in operation and the fleet leaders (the oldest aircraft in the fleet)

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will begin requiring heavy maintenance by 2016. The decision to locate the new maintenance facility in Mérignac was motivated by the large pool of skilled aviation workers and subcontractors in the Bordeaux area and the multiple benefits offered by the nearby Dassault Aviation assembly plant, such as paint shops. Then there’s the fact that Dassault has introduced a new airborne response service that provides not only rapid AOG support but also alternative transportation options for passengers. “We already use charter and company aircraft to expedite AOG solutions, but with our new service we are taking airborne support to the next level,” said Eric Trappier, Dassault Aviation Chairman/CEO. “Our large cabin, long-range Falcon 900s will play an important role in making sure our customers get to their next destination as quickly and efficiently as possible.”

The service, part of a major reinforcement of Dassault’s customer support portfolio, will involve two Falcon 900 aircraft, one based at Teterboro airport in New Jersey and another at Le Bourget outside of Paris. The Teterboro 900 will serve North America, Central America and parts of South America. The Le Bourget-based aircraft will serve Europe, Russia, North Africa and the Middle East. Each will be able to carry Dassault GoTeams and the necessary parts and tools to put an AOG aircraft back into service and provide alternative lift for passengers if needed. “Our belief is that, if an AOG occurs, the impact to passengers should be minimal and, they should be supported entirely throughout all phases of the event,” said Trappier. Trappier noted that Dassault is in the midst of a massive expansion of its customer support services, including parts, people, service locations and digital services. The company has already achieved the highest level of spare parts availability in the industry, filling more than 98 percent of orders within the timeframe requested by customers. Dassault Customer Service has also reduced prices on tens of thousands of parts through its ongoing Right Size Pricing program. "We have a 'Whatever it Takes' attitude here at Dassault, and it's more than just a slogan: it's a true commitment. This new airborne response service is evidence of that," said Trappier.

It’s like Einstein and an F-16 had a baby

Integrated Flight Deck

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