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TECHNICAL ENERGY AND WATER SAVINGS AUDIT For Energy Performance Contracting

Step 1: Preliminary Analysis and Programming

Presented to

Barnard College

Prepared by

June 2, 2008


Barnard College: Preliminary Analysis and Programming

0.0 TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.0

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

2.0

PROJECT OVERVIEW 2.1 Background 2.2 Scope of Audit 2.3 Key Observations 2.4 Summary and Benefits 2.5 Project EWCM Summary 2.6 Energy and Water Savings Summary 2.7 Detailed Cost Estimate

3.0

ENERGY & WATER CONSERVATION MEASURES 3.1 EWCM Matrix 3.2 EWCM Descriptions

4.0

PROJECT FINANCIAL ANALYSIS 4.1 EWCM Cost & Savings Analysis 4.2 Project Pricing 4.3 Financial Summary 4.4 15-Year Cash Flow Analysis 4.5 Financial Diagram

5.0

FACILITY SITE ASSESSMENT 5.1 Facility Descriptions 5.2 Site Assessment Report

6.0

BASE YEAR UTILITY DATA 6.1 Baseline Data and Analysis 6.2 Utility Meter Summary

7.0

ENERGY ANALYSIS 7.1 Energy Indices 7.2 Avoided Cost Analysis 7.3 Benchmarking Analysis 7.4 Modeling Methodology and Assumptions

8.0

APPENDICES 8.1 Utility Rate Schedules 8.2 Utility Rate Simulation 8.3 Assumed Building Schedules 8.4 Building Energy Models


Barnard College - Preliminary Analysis and Programming

1.0 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY In response to Barnard College’s commitment to Mayor Bloomberg’s “30 in 10” challenge, TAC was engaged to deal with the most significant contributor to the problem: building energy use. TAC accomplishes this by documenting goals, analyzing energy use, and developing short and long term plans for upgrading facilities. Furthermore, TAC provides turnkey projects that include long term performance measurement to ensure the goals are met and the results are sustainable.

Barnard’s Stated Objectives In addition to the Mayor’s Challenge, TAC documented the following objectives of Barnard: A.

To become modern in the sense of visibility into the energy use and energy using systems on campus (i.e. metering and monitoring, control systems);

B.

To become “nimble” in terms of responding to the energy use needs on campus (e.g. providing the right amount of cooling/heating/lighting to the right area at the right time)

C.

To upgrade aging infrastructure such as chillers, boilers, and air distribution systems in a way that is consistent with a master energy plan instead of simply “like and kind” replacement.

TAC’s Progress to Date TAC’s process to tackle building energy use consists of four development steps prior to execution: Preliminary Analysis & Programming Complete

Investment Grade Analysis & Scope Development

Professional Engineering Services (If Required)

Turnkey Project Proposal

Then: • Execute • Commission • Verify

Having completed the Preliminary Analysis and Programming step, TAC has documented the energy saving opportunities on campus, as well as the short and long term facility upgrade recommendations.

Key Points of Plan EXISTING CONDITIONS: Barnard has done exceedingly well in achieving low and no cost savings opportunities on campus, leaving little “low hanging fruit” to pick from. Substantial savings is still possible, but will require significant investment in renewing infrastructure and capital equipment. GUARANTEED UTILITY SAVINGS: Barnard’s 2007 energy budget was $3.12M. TAC’s plan ultimately will result in 30-35% utility savings, which equates to $600k to $740k per year in cost savings potential. “30 IN 10” CHALLENGE: On average, 85% of a University’s carbon footprint comes from fossil fuels and electricity consumed in campus buildings. Therefore, a 35% reduction in Barnard’s energy in buildings would result in a 30% reduction in the College’s total emissions, achieving the Mayor’s goal. PHASED, COMPREHENSIVE IMPROVEMENTS: TAC proposes a logical sequence of steps for renewing systems, improving efficiencies and reducing the cost of energy. They are: •

Phase 1: Repair and Reduce System Losses & Manage System Loads (0-2 yrs) o

Phase 2: Improve Production Efficiency & Manage Unit Cost of Energy (0-5 yrs) o

Lighting, Heat Recovery, Heating / Cooling Systems, Controls, Envelope, Water Fixtures

Planned HVAC Renovations, Behavior Modification Initiative, Demand Response

Phase 3: Strategic Investment (5-10 yrs) o

Renewable Energy, Cogeneration, Thermal Storage Page 1 - 1


Barnard College - Preliminary Analysis and Programming

1.0 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Recommended Phase 1 Project The following project will bring Barnard half way towards meeting the goal of the Mayor’s Challenge: Preliminary ECM Summary Matrix--Phase 1 ECM Project Level ECM 1 Steam System Improvements

Barnard College Budget Cost Range*

$

244,000

$

Savings Range

347,000

$

8,000

$

16,000

1

Steam Trap Survey

48,000

67,000

4,000

8,000

2

Insulate bare pipe/fittings/valves/tanks

36,000

50,000

4,000

8,000

3

2

Building load metering/monitoring

Boiler Plant Improvements 1

Install new, efficient, modular boilers

2

Install VFDs on larger hot water pumps

3

Chiller Plant Improvements 1

Replace absorption chillers with electric

2

Install VFD on cooling tower fan

4

Controls Planning and Improvements 3

5 6 2

$ $

-

1,400,000

1,900,000

35,000

120,000

170,000

6,000

1,755,000

$ 40,000

1,200,000

1,700,000

16,000

32,000

39,000

55,000

24,000

28,000

1,239,000

410,000

$

$

170,000

$

100,000

$

136,000

570,000

$

570,000

$

240,000 240,000

8,000

$

-

150,000

$ 16,000

150,000

16,000

$

186,000

$ 20,000

1

Retrofit T12/magnetic with T8/electronic

96,000

130,000

15,000

Occupancy sensors

40,000

56,000

5,000

1,615,000

$ 87,000

Heat Recovery Opportunities

$

1,128,000

$

60,000 50,000 10,000

$

$

60,000

16,000 16,000

$

-

$

18,000

$

38,000

-

$

100,000

$

8,000

2

8

-

$ 41,000

$

170,000

VAV control on kitchen hoods and makeup air

Lighting System Improvements

230,000

2,070,000

1,520,000

410,000

Install electrical sub-meters to track building energy use

Air-side HVAC Improvements

7

$

Install self-contained radiator valves

Building Electrical System Improvements 2

160,000

$

18,000 30,000 8,000

$

142,000

1

Install pool dehumidification/HR in pool

350,000

490,000

25,000

30,000

3

Air-side and water-side heat recovery

760,000

1,100,000

56,000

104,000

4

18,000

Food service compressor room preheat DHW

Budget Cost and Savings Estimates*

$

4,900,000

$

25,000

6,000

6,900,000

$ 220,000

8,000

$

350,000

* Budgets based on experience with similar types of retrofits and are representative of expected costs only.

Project Justification In addition to the obvious considerations of the Mayor’s Challenge, the condition of equipment, and spiraling energy costs, the following issues played a part in TAC’s recommendation: 1. Risk: The boiler and chiller replacements are necessary not simply from an energy use standpoint, but to avoid the risk of catastrophic failure. The boilers contemplated are 30+ years old and have been maintained well beyond their economic useful life. The chiller in Sulzberger is 20+ years old, difficult to maintain, and would be very expensive to replace on an emergency basis. TAC recommends replacing the equipment now as part of a comprehensive effort, but with enhancements that save energy cost and provide a layer of redundancy and added reliability. 2. Comfort: Some items, such as the radiator valves in the dorms, do not provide their entire benefit in terms of energy savings. Adding a level of control to now uncontrolled steam radiators in student dorms will provide necessary comfort improvements while also reducing steam usage. 3. Control: Though the energy payback on metering is not quantified, it is the basis for understanding how and when the buildings and systems use energy. Having this information is critical to future planning and improvements in the control of HVAC and lighting. 4. Consistency: Every effort will be made to standardize on products to improve efficiency of operations, workforce management, and to minimize shelf space for replacement parts. 5. Visibility: Not inconsequential is the benefit of student, faculty, staff, and general public perception of making efforts to reduce carbon footprint while improving the teaching and learning environment. This, in time, will be the catalyst for a successful behavior modification program.

Page 1 - 2


Barnard College - Preliminary Analysis and Programming

1.0 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Next Steps TAC’s next step is to complete an investment grade analysis and scope development on the desired project. General time frames are below: Project Development Item

SUGGESTED SCHEDULE

TAC Deliverable: Preliminary Analysis and Programming

May 9, 2008

Barnard Board Meeting

Jun 4, 2008

TAC Deliverables: Turnkey Project Proposal

Sep 12, 2008

Client contracts with TAC for implementation

Oct 17, 2008

Project implementation begins

Q4 08

TAC appreciates the opportunity and we look forward to working with you through the next phase of the project.

Page 1 - 3


Barnard College - Preliminary Analysis and Programming

1.0 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Comparison Universities TAC has completed projects similar in scope and size with Universities across America. Shown below are three relevant examples illustrating our experience and the corresponding results. Eastern New Mexico University

East Stroudsburg University

Texas Woman’s University

Pilot Project – Multiple Phases Followed

Comprehensive, CampusWide Project

Comprehensive, CampusWide Project

Project Cost: $2,537,380

Project Cost: $10,100,000

Project Cost: $19,356,139

Annual Project Savings: $309,890

Annual Project Savings: $920,270

Annual Project Savings: $2,158,166 (50.6%)

Project Duration: 12 Months

Project Duration: 18 Months

Project Duration: 36 Months

Partnership Term: 10 Years

Partnership Term: 15 Years

Partnership Term: 15 Years

Scope: • Plate/frame heat exchanger • VAV conversion (doubleduct) • Energy management system • Re-commissioning economizers • Constant to variable flow conversion • Automation of heating/cooling switchovers

Scope: • 2-pipe to 4-pipe conversion • Boiler upgrades • Humidity control • New motors • Variable speed drives • Direct digital controls • Lighting retrofit • Building envelope measures • Water conservation

Scope: • New central chilled water plant • New chilled water distribution loop • Comprehensive lighting retrofit • VAV box replacements • Steam boiler replacement • Domestic water conservation • Direct digital controls retrofit • Backup high voltage substation

Page 1 - 4


Barnard College - Preliminary Analysis and Programming

2.0 PROJECT OVERVIEW This section will be completed during the Investment Grade Analysis step.

Page 2 - 1


Barnard College - Preliminary Analysis and Programming

3.0 ENERGY AND WATER CONSERVATION MEASURES

Energy Conservation Measure Summary In this section, we present a summary of opportunities for energy and water conservation measures (EWCMs). The opportunities are presented in a comprehensive table on the following page. More details are presented in the EWCM narratives on subsequent pages. EWCM narratives are presented in eleven main groups of opportunities, primarily by system or strategy. Each EWCM group is prefaced by a table that presents a range of likely costs and likely savings. A suggested scope of work includes what the likely costs are based on. At the end of the section, we propose a Phase 1 project that includes a combination of short-term payback projects and infrastructure improvement projects. The Phase 1 project can be divided into two parts. The first part of the proposed project will start during the summer of 2008 and will include lighting system upgrades. TAC is actively engaged in generating the detailed scope for the first part of this project. The remaining part of the project, if approved, can run through the winter of 2008 and end in the summer of 2009. Because we are very early in the project development effort, the Scopes of Work, though specific in their presentation herein, are representative. The Scopes of Work will be different as the project details are researched and developed over the next few months. Understandably, the project costs will vary as the Scopes of Work mature through the project development process before us.

DRAFT

Page 3-1


Barnard College - Preliminary Analysis and Programming

3.0 ENERGY AND WATER CONSERVATION MEASURES

Barnard College

3

HEWITT

MILBANK

PLIMPTON

REID

SULZBERGER

♦ ♦ ♦

S

S S

S

S S M

S S M

S S M

S

S S M

S S

S S M

S S M

M

M

M

M

M S

S

S S

Chiller Plant Improvements 1 2

4

Replace absorption chillers with electric, new tower Install VFD on cooling tower fan

Controls Planning and Improvements 1 2 3

5

Migration to new campus-wide infrastructure Digital real-time monitoring and automatic logging Install self-contained radiator valves

6

7

Lighting System Improvements 1 2 3

8

Retrofit T12/magnetic with T8/electronic Occupancy sensors Other lighting retrofits

Heat Recovery Opportunities 1 2 3 4

9

Install pool dehumidification/HR in pool Install heat pumps in mech. rooms to preheat DHW Air-side and water-side heat recovery Food service compressor room preheat DHW

Water Conservation 1 2 3

10

Replace shower heads to reduce DHW load Install VFDs on domestic water booster pumps Install low flow fixtures

Building Envelope Improvements 1 2 3

11

Window seals on AC units Apply window film to control solar load Replace single pane windows with double pane

M S

M S

♦ ♦ ♦

M M S

M M

M M

M M S

M M S

M M

M M S

M M

M M S

M M

♦ ♦ ♦

M M

M

M M

Cogeneration Vending Machine cycling Install thermal storage

M M

M

M

M

♦ ♦ ♦

S

M S

S

T

T

T

T T

T

S T

S S T

S T

S

T

T

T

M T

T

T T

♦ ♦ ♦

S S T

S T

S S T

M

M M M

M

M M

M

S T

S T

S T

S T

S S T

♦ M

M

T M M

T T

S T

S T

M

M

M

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

T

T

T

x S T

x S T

x S T

T

T

T

x

x

x

T T

S = Likely short-term payback (3-5 years) M = Likely moderate-term payback (5-15 years)

M M

M M

T

T T

T T

T S S

M

M

T T

S T T

T T

T

T

♦ ♦ ♦

S

Miscellaneous Energy Projects 1 2 3

S

Variable Air Volume (VAV) HVAC conversion VAV control on kitchen hoods and makeup air VAV control on chemical fume hood exhaust system Air system infrastructure improvement Air condition dormitories

S S M

M M

Wind turbine installation Install electrical sub-meters to track building energy use

Air-side HVAC Improvements 1 2 3 4 5

S S M

Building Electrical System Improvements 1 2

LEHMAN

ELLIOTT

Install new, efficient, modular boilers Install VFDs on larger hot water pumps Preheat combustion air with waste heat

BROOKS

Boiler Plant Improvements 1 2 3

BARNARD

2

Steam Trap Survey Insulate bare pipe/fittings/valves/tanks Building load metering/monitoring

ALTSCHUL

Steam System Improvements 1 2 3

620

1

616

ECM # Project Level ECM

600

ECM LOCATIONS

S

M

M

♦ ♦ ♦

T T

S T T

T T

T T

T T

T T

S T T

x = Installed by College T = To be determine

DRAFT

Page 3-2


Barnard College - Preliminary Analysis and Programming

3.0 ENERGY AND WATER CONSERVATION MEASURES

EWCM Narratives In the EWCM narratives that follow, a brief description and benefits of the ECWM are presented. Also, brief Scopes of Work outline the concepts that we propose at this early stage of project development. At the end of this section, a proposed Phase 1 Preliminary Project ECM Summary Matrix is presented that points a direction that a Phase 1 project might take. The remaining projects can be assembled into a multi-phase, multi-year plan for future development.

EWCM 1: Steam System Improvements Barnard College

HEWITT

MILBANK

PLIMPTON

REID

SULZBERGER

♦ ♦ ♦

S

S S M

S S

S S M

S S M

S

S S M

S S M

S S M

♦ S

S S

LEHMAN

ELLIOTT

BARNARD

ALTSCHUL

Steam Trap Survey Insulate bare pipe/fittings/valves/tanks Building load metering/monitoring

620

Steam System Improvements 1 2 3

616

1

600

ECM # Project Level ECM

BROOKS

ECM LOCATIONS

S S M

S S M

Opportunity The steam distribution system is served by two boilers plants (Brooks, Altschul). In general, the steam distribution system is functioning well. However, there is little available data on where the steam is used in the various buildings. A few steam traps may have failed, though most appear to be well maintained. Most steam and condensate piping is insulated. This EWCM is focused on ringing out the last few percent of steam distribution efficiency. The typical payback time is short for these kinds of projects. Metering projects can have a longer payback.

Budget Scopes of Work: 1.

The budget includes approximately (10) ¾” traps and 100 radiator traps.

2.

The budget includes insulating (20) 6” valves and (30) 4” valves; insulating (4) 1000 gallon tanks; and insulating 10 feet of 6” steam line in 20 places (total of 200 feet).

3.

The budget includes installing steam meters in 12 places and the associated controls to report the data back to the Facilities Office.

Budgets and Savings Ranges: Preliminary ECM Summary Matrix # 1

Project Level ECM Steam System Improvements

Barnard College Budget Cost Range

$

244,000

$

Savings Range

347,000

$

8,000

$

16,000

1

Steam Trap Survey

48,000

67,000

4,000

8,000

2

Insulate bare pipe/fittings/valves/tanks

36,000

50,000

4,000

8,000

3

Building load metering/monitoring

160,000

230,000

-

-

DRAFT

Page 3-3


Barnard College - Preliminary Analysis and Programming

3.0 ENERGY AND WATER CONSERVATION MEASURES

EWCM 2: Boiler Plant Improvements

S S

SULZBERGER

PLIMPTON

M

M S

S

REID

LEHMAN

M

HEWITT

M

ELLIOTT

M

BROOKS

BARNARD

ALTSCHUL

Install new, efficient, modular boilers Install VFDs on larger hot water pumps Preheat combustion air with waste heat

620

Boiler Plant Improvements 1 2 3

616

2

600

ECM # Project Level ECM

MILBANK

Barnard College

ECM LOCATIONS

S

Opportunity Several of the buildings have steam boilers that are at or near the end of their life cycle. Barnard College has plans to replace these boilers over the next few years. Where economically appropriate, steam systems can be converted to hot water resulting in higher efficiency (lower fuel use). Where steam systems need to be maintained, multiple, high efficiency boilers can be installed. All boiler rooms require combustion (outside) air by code. For the larger boiler rooms, waste heat can be captured and be used to pre-heat combustion air. Moderate to long payback periods for boiler replacement projects based on energy savings alone are the norm. If capital for boiler replacement is already budgeted, differential payback periods for more efficient boiler plants are often short. If waste heat is available and useable for most hours of the year, waste heat recovery systems often result in a short payback period. In some buildings where steam is converted into hot water for building heat, many of the pumps are constant volume pumps. Variable frequency drives (VFDs) can be installed and controlled to reduce pumping energy. Implementing variable speed pumping can yield a short payback period.

Scopes of Work: 1.

Boiler replacements: a.

Elliot: Install two non-condensing, dual fuel boilers and one condensing, natural gas boiler to replace the two Hydrotherm boilers. Provide controls to sequence and monitor the boiler room.

b.

Plimpton: Install one condensing natural gas boiler, three non-condensing, dual fuel boilers to replace the two Cleaverbrooks boilers steam boilers manufactured 1968. Provide controls to sequence and monitor the boiler room.

c.

Building 600: Install three modular dual fuel steam boilers to supply steam to the existing steam system. Provide controls to sequence and monitor the boiler room.

d.

Buildings 616/620: Install six modular dual fuel steam boilers. Three will be installed in 616 and the remaining three will be installed in 620. Cross piping for redundancy will remain active. Provide controls to sequence and monitor the boiler room.

2.

Install variable frequency drives on hot water pumps: Install two variable frequency drives in Plimpton and two in Altschul for fan coil unit hot water system. Provide controls to sequence the variable frequency drives.

3.

Preheat combustion air with waste heat: Install a water-to-air water source heat pump in Altschul. Install a water-to-air water source heat pump in Brooks.

DRAFT

Page 3-4


Barnard College - Preliminary Analysis and Programming

3.0 ENERGY AND WATER CONSERVATION MEASURES

Budgets and Savings Ranges: Preliminary ECM Summary Matrix # 2

Project Level ECM Boiler Plant Improvements

Barnard College Budget Cost Range

$

2,150,000

$

Savings Range

3,050,000

$ 45,000

1,900,000

2,700,000

35,000

$

66,000 50,000

1

Install new, efficient, modular boilers

2

Install VFDs on larger hot water pumps

120,000

170,000

6,000

10,000

3

Preheat combustion air with waste heat

130,000

180,000

4,000

6,000

DRAFT

Page 3-5


Barnard College - Preliminary Analysis and Programming

3.0 ENERGY AND WATER CONSERVATION MEASURES EWCM 3: Chiller Plant Improvements

3

Chiller Plant Improvements 1 2

Replace absorption chillers with electric, new tower Install VFD on cooling tower fan

SULZBERGER

REID

PLIMPTON

LEHMAN

HEWITT

ELLIOTT

BROOKS

BARNARD

ALTSCHUL

620

616

600

ECM # Project Level ECM

MILBANK

Barnard College

ECM LOCATIONS

M S

M S

Opportunity The two chiller plants that serve the campus use absorption technology. Barnard College has stated that the single affect steam-fired, absorption chiller that serves part of the south campus is at or near the end of its life cycle as is its associated cooling tower. Due to the way in which it was originally installed, certain necessary maintenance cannot be performed. The single affect absorption chiller is an inherently inefficient machine—about 1/10 as efficient as an electric chiller. Because the cost of gas is much higher now than several years ago and because electric chillers have become significantly more efficient in the last decade, a new electric chiller will cost less to operate than a new absorption chiller. The payback for this kind of project is moderate to long. If capital for chiller replacement is already budgeted, differential payback periods for more efficient chiller plants are often short. Cooling tower fans are either constant speed or two-speed. Using variable frequency drives, significant energy savings are possible by precisely matching the cooling tower fan speed with the heat rejection load on the tower. Fan energy can be reduced. Payback periods are usually short.

Budget Scopes of Work: 1.

Sulzberger: Install a 300-ton modular electric chiller to replace the steam-fired, absorption chiller. A new cooling tower will be installed to replace the existing cooling tower. Provide electrical service for the new electric chiller.

2.

Variable frequency drives cooling tower fans: In Altschul and Sulzberger, install variable frequency drives on the tower fan motors.

Budgets and Savings Ranges: Preliminary ECM Summary Matrix # 3

Project Level ECM Chiller Plant Improvements 1

Replace absorption chillers with electric, new tower

2

Install VFD on cooling tower fan

Barnard College Budget Cost Range

$

1,433,000

DRAFT

$

Savings Range

1,946,000

$ 40,000

1,400,000

1,900,000

16,000

$

32,000

33,000

46,000

24,000

28,000

Page 3-6

60,000


Barnard College - Preliminary Analysis and Programming

3.0 ENERGY AND WATER CONSERVATION MEASURES EWCM 4: Controls Planning and Improvements Barnard College

BROOKS

ELLIOTT

HEWITT

MILBANK

PLIMPTON

REID

SULZBERGER

♦ ♦ ♦

M M

M M S

M M

M M

M M S

M M S

M M

M M S

M M

M M S

M M

LEHMAN

BARNARD

Migration to new campus-wide infrastructure Digital real-time monitoring and automatic logging Install self-contained radiator valves

ALTSCHUL

Controls Planning and Improvements 1 2 3

620

4

616

ECM # Project Level ECM

600

ECM LOCATIONS

M M

M M

Opportunity A variety of automatic temperature control systems are installed across campus. New direct-digital controls (DDC) are being installed in the Nexus Building. Other buildings on campus have controls that are equal to the age of the buildings in which they were installed. The older controls range from still functioning to disconnected. With the older controls, some of the building comfort levels are not maintained as well as possible and energy use is higher than necessary. In general, the existing controls do not communicate campus wide. As a result, the maintenance staff cannot see what areas of campus are working well on an hourly or daily basis without physically checking (there are a number of minor exceptions to this statement). Barnard College has recognized a need for uniformity in the controls and data acquisition that a consistent DDC and provide.

Budget Scopes of Work: 1.

Migrating to new campus-wide DDC infrastructure: Installing new DDC controls across campus will allow greater control of temperature and comfort levels while minimizing energy use. Because the DDC system can collect and organize operational data, it can immediately alert maintenance staff of any problems as they occur (energy use, equipment failure, and comfort control). In selected applications, payback periods range from short to moderate.

2.

Digital real-time monitoring and automatic logging: This feature will be inherent in the proposed campus-wide DDC system. Operations will be able to know when systems are working well or when they are not before space occupants recognize a problem. Maintenance personnel can be dispatched to solve a problem before the problem becomes a noticeable or major comfort issue.

3.

Install self-contained radiator valves: Where steam radiators do not already have self-contained temperature control valves, we recommending installing them. Steam radiators can easily over-heat a space. Over heated spaces can consume a great deal of energy. Energy savings comes from providing the right amount of steam to a given area to meet the temperature needs of that area. Usually this is a short-term payback project. Note: Self-contained radiator valves should not be installed on single-pipe steam systems.

Budgets and Savings Ranges: Preliminary ECM Summary Matrix # 4

Project Level ECM Controls Planning and Improvements 1

Migration to new campus-wide infrastructure

2

Digital real-time monitoring and automatic logging

3

Install self-contained radiator valves

Barnard College Budget Cost Range

$

2,910,000 2,500,000 410,000

DRAFT

$

Savings Range

4,070,000

$ 74,000

3,500,000

66,000

570,000

$

96,000 80,000

-

-

8,000

16,000

Page 3-7


Barnard College - Preliminary Analysis and Programming

3.0 ENERGY AND WATER CONSERVATION MEASURES EWCM 5: Building Electrical System Improvements Barnard College SULZBERGER

M

M

M M

M

LEHMAN M

PLIMPTON

M

MILBANK

M M

HEWITT

M M

ELLIOTT

♦ ♦ ♦

BROOKS

REID

Wind turbine installation Install electrical sub-meters to track building energy use

BARNARD

Building Electrical System Improvements 1 2

ALTSCHUL

5

620

ECM # Project Level ECM

616

600

ECM LOCATIONS

Opportunity 1.

TAC will explore the possibility of installing wind turbines on campus. These will not be the large turbines that inhabit wind farms in California or Texas nor along the mountain ridges of the northeast. Rather we would explore smaller versions that are appropriate for an urban setting. These would likely be placed on top of the taller buildings, but would not dominate the architecture. These will not play a significant role in lowering CO2 use on campus but will play their part in helping.

2.

Installing electric sub-meters does not save energy per se. However, they do reveal where electricity is being used on campus, which is difficult to accurately determine now. Which building or part of a building uses the most electricity? The answer is important in helping to focus operations staff on where energy conservation measures may have the greatest affect. Also, sub-meters can quickly indicate whether and where changes in energy use occurs. When change does occur, it can be an indication of equipment or controls failure, change of use or function of an area, or change in occupied hours.

Budgets and Savings Ranges: Preliminary ECM Summary Matrix # 5

Project Level ECM Building Electrical System Improvements

Barnard College Budget Cost Range

$

1,070,000

$

Savings Range

1,540,000

$ 14,000 14,000

16,000

-

-

1

Wind turbine installation

900,000

1,300,000

2

Install elec. sub-meters to track bldg. energy use

170,000

240,000

DRAFT

$

Page 3-8

16,000


Barnard College - Preliminary Analysis and Programming

3.0 ENERGY AND WATER CONSERVATION MEASURES EWCM 6: Air-side HVAC Improvements Barnard College SULZBERGER

REID

PLIMPTON

♦ ♦ ♦

T

T T

T

S

LEHMAN

HEWITT

BROOKS

ELLIOTT

BARNARD

MILBANK

Variable Air Volume (VAV) HVAC conversion VAV control on kitchen hoods and makeup air VAV control on chemical fume hood exhaust system Air system infrastructure improvement Air condition dormitories

ALTSCHUL

Air-side HVAC Improvements 1 2 3 4 5

620

6

616

ECM # Project Level ECM

600

ECM LOCATIONS

S

S

T

T

S M T T

T

T

T

T T

T T

Opportunity Many of the older HVAC systems across campus were designed and installed during a time when energy was inexpensive and fine temperature control of equipment was very expensive. Constant volume air handling systems were commonly installed. They use large fan motors at a relatively constant energy rate. These systems can be converted to allow air flow to vary to meet specific space conditioning needs. DDC controls along with equipment installation can yield significant energy savings while maintaining or increasing comfort levels. Barnard College has recognized the advantages of installing DDC controls as HVAC infrastructure is improved. The main kitchen on campus runs at least 12 hours per day when the students are on campus. In the kitchen are hoods that exhaust air continuously when the kitchen is occupied. While the kitchen hood exhaust is on, outside air must be drawn into the building and be conditioned to make up for the exhaust air. However, about half the time the kitchen is occupied, the kitchen hoods are operating without cooking activities. We can install systems to control exhaust air flow depending upon the cooking activities. These energy saving systems usually have short payback periods. TAC is recommending this project. Altschul uses large amounts of outside air to condition the building and to support the chemical fume hoods in the science classrooms and laboratories. The chemical fume hoods exhaust large amounts of air from the building. When the chemical fume hoods are not in use, air flow can be reduced in both the exhaust and outside air conditioning systems. Using DDC systems and air flow control equipment, we can reduce energy use while maintaining a safe and comfortable environment in the science laboratories. TAC recommends this project as part of an HVAC infrastructure improvement project. The age of many of the air systems on campus is equal to the age of the buildings they serve and are at or near the end of their useful life. In some areas, the function or conditioning requirements have changed due to programming changes, increased enrollment, or student and faculty expectations. TAC will assist in strategic planning on how and when to upgrade, recondition, or replace air systems to provide lower energy use, improve space temperature control, and lower maintenance requirements. The payback period will vary depending on the extent of improvements recommended and the types of systems that are replaced. Barnard College has requested we consider the possibility of air conditioning the dorms that do not currently have air conditioning. The scope of this project will depend on many factors including the desire to reuse piping, existing equipment, and the constructability issues associated with meeting current building code requirements. TAC will provide clarifications for this project as we proceed to the next step of this development project.

Scopes of Work: 1.

Variable Air Volume (VAV) HVAC conversion: a.

Barnard: Install four variable frequency drives on existing air handling units in gym.

DRAFT

Page 3-9


Barnard College - Preliminary Analysis and Programming

3.0 ENERGY AND WATER CONSERVATION MEASURES b.

Lehman: Convert the multizone air handling units to variable air volume air handling units. Replace the existing variable frequency drives and add variable frequency drives on the return air fan. Install controls to sequence the air handling units.

c.

Milbanks: Convert the roof air handling unit from a constant volume unit to a variable air volume air handling unit. Install controls to sequence the air handling unit.

2.

VAV control on kitchen hoods and makeup air: Install a variable air volume strategy to reduce make-up air and kitchen exhaust air when cooking equipment is not being fully utilized.

3.

VAV control on chemical fume hood exhaust systems: In Altschul, install equipment and controls on air handling and exhaust systems to minimize exhaust when the fume hoods are not in use.

4.

Air system infrastructure improvements: Improvements to the air systems may include air handling unit replacement, ductwork modifications, and new automatic temperature controls. To solve a few, local comfort or air flow issues, a product like a Thermafuser may be used.

5.

Air condition dormitories: Establish a uniform standard of air conditioning in dormitories. System types will be reviewed and recommend as part of TAC’s next step of project development.

Budgets and Savings Ranges: Preliminary ECM Summary Matrix # 6

Project Level ECM Air-side HVAC Improvements

Barnard College Budget Cost Range

Savings Range

$ 22,900,000

$ 32,170,000

$ 64,000

$

180,000

1

Variable Air Volume (VAV) HVAC conversion

300,000

420,000

13,000

22,000

2

VAV control on kitchen hoods and makeup air

100,000

150,000

16,000

18,000

3

VAV control on chemical fume hood exhaust system

4

Air system infrastructure improvement

5

Air condition dormitories

2,500,000

3,600,000

25,000

65,000

20,000,000

28,000,000

10,000

75,000

-

-

-

DRAFT

-

Page 3-10


Barnard College - Preliminary Analysis and Programming

3.0 ENERGY AND WATER CONSERVATION MEASURES EWCM 7: Lighting System Improvements Barnard College

Retrofit T12/magnetic with T8/electronic Occupancy sensors Other lighting retrofits

BARNARD

BROOKS

ELLIOTT

HEWITT

MILBANK

PLIMPTON

REID

SULZBERGER

♦ ♦ ♦

S T

S T

S T

S T

S S T

S S T

S T

S S T

LEHMAN

ALTSCHUL

Lighting System Improvements 1 2 3

620

7

616

ECM # Project Level ECM

600

ECM LOCATIONS

S T

S T

S T

S S T

S T

Opportunity Barnard College has specifically asked TAC to focus on preparing a lighting project. In several of the dormitory corridors and in specific locations in other buildings on campus, older lighting technologies can be replaced with more energy efficient lighting. TAC is performing a campus-wide, room-by-room inventory of the lighting systems used and determine where lighting retrofits can assisting in reducing energy use while maintain or improving lighting levels. Where energy savings are significant, payback periods are short. Also, through a lighting retrofit program, maintenance savings are possible by standardizing the lamp and ballast inventory and by eliminating lamp replacement for at least three years where new lamps are installed. (New lamps will last at least three years before needing to be replaced.) Occupancy sensor can be installed in a variety of locations including classrooms, restrooms, offices, and other areas where occupancy may vary throughout the day. Savings is achieved by turning lights on only when areas are occupied. Payback periods are usually short. For the purposes of this budget, we are assuming an installation of 50 occupancy sensors. These sensors may also be connected to DDC controls. As the campus-wide, room-by-room inventory of the lighting systems proceeds, other lighting modifications may present themselves as opportunities for energy conservation, savings for maintenance, or adjustments in lighting levels.

Budgets and Savings Ranges: Preliminary ECM Summary Matrix # 7

Project Level ECM Lighting System Improvements

Barnard College Budget Cost Range

$

136,000

$

Savings Range

186,000

$ 28,000

$

63,000

1

Retrofit T12/magnetic with T8/electronic

96,000

130,000

15,000

2

Occupancy sensors

40,000

56,000

5,000

8,000

3

Other lighting retrofits

-

-

8,000

25,000

DRAFT

Page 3-11

30,000


Barnard College - Preliminary Analysis and Programming

3.0 ENERGY AND WATER CONSERVATION MEASURES EWCM 8: Heat Recovery Opportunities Barnard College SULZBERGER

M M

M

M

M

M

M

M

T M M

MILBANK

M

LEHMAN

M M M

HEWITT

M

ELLIOTT

BROOKS

BARNARD

ALTSCHUL

REID

Install pool dehumidification/HR in pool Install heat pumps in mech. rooms to preheat DHW Air-side and water-side heat recovery Food service compressor room preheat DHW

620

Heat Recovery Opportunities 1 2 3 4

616

8

600

ECM # Project Level ECM

PLIMPTON

ECM LOCATIONS

Opportunity Barnard College has stated that the pool uses a large amount of energy to heat the pool water. Most of the heating energy is lost through evaporation of the pool water. Pool dehumidification systems capture the wasted heat of evaporation and use it to heat the pool water. These systems also can provide a properly conditioned space and can reduce property maintenance (painting walls, patching ceilings) that pools usually require. The payback periods vary depending on hours of pool use, size of pool area, and desired water temperatures. Older buildings often have many opportunities to recover waste heat. For example, toilet exhaust systems remove, by design, conditioned air from buildings. Is there a way of capturing energy from the exhaust air stream before it is wasted to the atmosphere? An affirmative answer results in significant energy savings. Mechanical rooms that are warm, computer rooms and other spaces that always need to be air conditioned are sources of heat that can be captured and re-used to pre-heat domestic water, condition outside air, or provide heating in areas that require it. Payback periods vary and are dependent upon the specific projects considered.

Budget Scopes of Work: 1.

Install pool dehumidification unit: Barnard Hall: Install a pool dehumidification unit, ductwork, an outside condenser for summer air conditioning, and piping from the pool to the new unit to transfer heat to the pool water.

2.

Multiple mechanical room locations: Install water source heat pumps to preheat domestic hot water with reclaimed heat.

3.

Multiple locations: Install heat recovery units to preheat outside air with exhaust air.

4.

Hewitt Hall kitchen refrigeration mechanical room: Install a water source heat pump to capture the waste heat and use it to preheat domestic hot water. We will use the existing exhaust system as a back-up to the water source heat pump.

Budgets and Savings Ranges: Preliminary ECM Summary Matrix # 8

Project Level ECM Heat Recovery Opportunities 1

Install pool dehumidification/HR in pool

2

Install heat pumps in mech. rooms to preheat DHW

3

Air-side and water-side heat recovery

4

Food service compressor room preheat DHW

Barnard College Budget Cost Range

$

1,217,000

DRAFT

$

Savings Range

1,745,000

$ 92,000

350,000

490,000

25,000

$

89,000

130,000

5,000

8,000

760,000

1,100,000

56,000

104,000

18,000

25,000

6,000

8,000

Page 3-12

150,000 30,000


Barnard College - Preliminary Analysis and Programming

3.0 ENERGY AND WATER CONSERVATION MEASURES EWCM 9: Water Conservation Barnard College PLIMPTON

REID

SULZBERGER

x

x

x

x

x

x

T

T

T

T

T

T

x S T

x S T

x S T

T

T

MILBANK

HEWITT

x

LEHMAN

ELLIOTT

ALTSCHUL

BROOKS

Replace shower heads to reduce DHW load Install VFDs on domestic water booster pumps Install low flow fixtures

BARNARD

Water Conservation 1 2 3

620

9

616

ECM # Project Level ECM

600

ECM LOCATIONS

T

T

Opportunity Often the cost of water determines the economics of water conservation projects. However, low-flow shower heads reduce hot water use. Heating water is energy intensive. Reducing the amount of water that needs to be heated for showers provides significant energy savings and short payback periods. During spring break of this year, Barnard College implemented this ECM. Three buildings have domestic water booster pumps. These pumps are used to maintain building water pressure in lieu of a water tank on the roof. The pumps currently are constant volume and cycle to maintain water pressure in the buildings. Installing variable frequency drives will allow the pumps to operate at the minimum energy rate to meet the building’s water pressure needs. Energy savings and lower pump maintenance are the results. Payback periods are typically short. At the time of this report, costs have not been identified.

Budgets and Savings Ranges: Preliminary ECM Summary Matrix # 9

Project Level ECM Water Conservation

Barnard College Budget Cost Range

$

-

$

Savings Range

-

$ 28,000

$

63,000

1

Replace shower heads to reduce DHW load *

-

-

15,000

2

Install VFDs on domestic water booster pumps

-

-

5,000

8,000

3

Install low flow fixtures

-

-

8,000

25,000

* Barnard College has assumed responsibility for implementing this ECM.

DRAFT

Page 3-13

30,000


Barnard College - Preliminary Analysis and Programming

3.0 ENERGY AND WATER CONSERVATION MEASURES EWCM 10: Building Envelope Improvements

Window seals on AC units Apply window film to control solar load Replace single pane windows with double pane

x

x

S S

M

M

SULZBERGER

REID

PLIMPTON

♦ ♦ ♦

S x

LEHMAN

HEWITT

ELLIOTT

BROOKS

BARNARD

ALTSCHUL

620

Building Envelope Improvements 1 2 3

616

10

600

ECM # Project Level ECM

MILBANK

Barnard College

ECM LOCATIONS

S

M

M

Opportunity In a number of locations, window air conditioners are used to condition rooms. Where air conditioning units are installed in double-hung windows, a gap is created between the lower and upper sashes. Some installations have the gaps sealed while others do not. We will seal the gaps in the remaining windows. Savings is achieved by eliminating the free flow of outside air through the gaps into the building. Payback periods are short. Barnard College has assumed responsibility for implementing this ECM. In Lehman, the library has a large glass area that puts a large load on the air conditioning system in the summer. Solar film reduces the amount of infrared light (the portion of light that carries the most heat) that enters the building. Payback periods are usually short. Barnard College has actively engaged in a window replacement program. Buildings 616 & 620 have new insulated windows that were installed in 2007. The windows in Building 600 are scheduled for replacement during this summer. Window replacements are required for Plimpton, Sulzberger, Reid, Lehman, Milbank, Brooks and parts of Barnard Hall. Window replacement is usually a longer payback project from and energy savings perspective. However, if window replacements are scheduled as part of a performance contract, the energy savings can contribute to offset a portion of the installation cost. At this time, Barnard College has assumed responsibility for implementing this ECM. At the time of this report, costs have not been identified.

Budgets and Savings Ranges: Preliminary ECM Summary Matrix # 10

Project Level ECM Building Envelope Improvements

Barnard College Budget Cost Range

$

-

$

Savings Range

-

$ 12,000

$

30,000

1

Window seals on AC units *

-

-

1,500

2

Apply window film to control solar load

-

-

2,500

3,000

3

Replace single pane windows with double pane *

-

-

8,000

25,000

* Barnard College has assumed responsibility for implementing this ECM.

DRAFT

Page 3-14

2,000


Barnard College - Preliminary Analysis and Programming

3.0 ENERGY AND WATER CONSERVATION MEASURES EWCM 11: Miscellaneous Energy Projects Barnard College

Cogeneration Vending Machine cycling Install thermal storage

BARNARD

BROOKS

ELLIOTT

HEWITT

MILBANK

PLIMPTON

REID

SULZBERGER

♦ ♦ ♦

T T

T T

T T

T T

S T T

T T

LEHMAN

ALTSCHUL

Miscellaneous Energy Projects 1 2 3

620

11

616

ECM # Project Level ECM

600

ECM LOCATIONS

T T

S T T

T T

T T

T T

T T

S T T

Opportunity Cogeneration is a term meaning that one fuel is converted into two sources of energy. Typically, natural gas is burned to generate electricity and heat. The heat can be in the form of hot water or steam. Cogeneration is economical when there is a steady requirement for heat throughout the year. During the winter, the need for heat is obvious. But during the summer, the need for heat is usually low. Barnard College uses steam to heat domestic water during the summer and to generate chilled water through the absorption chillers. A balance of first cost and energy savings is required to install a successful cogeneration project. More time for discovery is required prior to TAC recommending this approach to energy savings. Vending machine cycling will save energy by turning off the refrigeration during low-use times, usually over night hours. Since the vending machines on campus are not owned by Barnard College, we will research this further for our next report. Thermal storage is a technique used to reduce the cost of electricity by shift when electricity is used from peak periods to off-peak periods. Alternatively, thermal storage may allow Barnard College to more fully participate in utility curtailment programs. These programs pay for the guaranteed reduction of electrical demand during peak utility demand periods. More research will be required to validate this concept for Barnard College. At the time of the report, costs have not been identified.

Budgets and Savings Ranges: Preliminary ECM Summary Matrix # 11

Project Level ECM Miscellaneous Energy Projects

Barnard College Budget Cost Range

$

-

$

Savings Range

-

$ 35,000

$

460,000

1

Cogeneration

-

-

25,000

2

Vending Machine cycling *

-

-

2,000

3,000

3

Install thermal storage

-

-

8,000

147,000

* Barnard College has assumed responsibility for implementing this ECM.

DRAFT

Page 3-15

310,000


Barnard College - Preliminary Analysis and Programming

3.0 ENERGY AND WATER CONSERVATION MEASURES Proposed Phase 1 Preliminary Project ECM Summary Matrix

Opportunity The following proposed Phase 1 project is presented for discussion purposes. It includes some elements that can be developed relatively quickly. Some elements will take a longer period of time to develop. For TAC, developing a project means to define the Scope of Work sufficiently that the constructability issues are known, equipment sizing and layouts are fully understood, guaranteed energy savings are defined, and an accurate fixed price project can be presented. Preliminary ECM Summary Matrix--Phase 1 ECM Project Level ECM 1 Steam System Improvements

Barnard College Budget Cost Range*

$

244,000

$

Savings Range

347,000

$

8,000

$

16,000

1

Steam Trap Survey

48,000

67,000

4,000

8,000

2

Insulate bare pipe/fittings/valves/tanks

36,000

50,000

4,000

8,000

3

2

Building load metering/monitoring

Boiler Plant Improvements 1

Install new, efficient, modular boilers

2

Install VFDs on larger hot water pumps

3

Chiller Plant Improvements 1

Replace absorption chillers with electric

2

Install VFD on cooling tower fan

4

Controls Planning and Improvements 3

5 6 2

-

1,400,000

1,900,000

35,000

120,000

170,000

6,000

1,755,000

$ 40,000

1,200,000

1,700,000

16,000

39,000

55,000

24,000

$

410,000

$

170,000

$

$

$

570,000

$

240,000

410,000

$

100,000

$

136,000

$

570,000

170,000

VAV control on kitchen hoods and makeup air

Lighting System Improvements

-

$ 41,000

1,239,000

Install electrical sub-meters to track building energy use

Air-side HVAC Improvements

7

$

230,000

2,070,000

1,520,000

Install self-contained radiator valves

Building Electrical System Improvements 2

160,000

$

240,000

8,000 -

$ 16,000

150,000

16,000

$

186,000

$ 20,000

Retrofit T12/magnetic with T8/electronic

96,000

130,000

15,000

Occupancy sensors

40,000

56,000

5,000

1,615,000

$ 87,000

$

1,128,000

$

60,000 32,000 28,000

$

16,000 16,000

$

-

$

18,000

$

38,000

-

150,000

2

Heat Recovery Opportunities

10,000

$

-

1

8

60,000 50,000

8,000

$

$

100,000

$

18,000 30,000 8,000

$

142,000

1

Install pool dehumidification/HR in pool

350,000

490,000

25,000

30,000

3

Air-side and water-side heat recovery

760,000

1,100,000

56,000

104,000

4

Food service compressor room preheat DHW

Budget Cost and Savings Estimates*

18,000

$

4,900,000

$

25,000

6,000

6,900,000

$ 220,000

8,000

$

* Budgets based on experience with similar types of retrofits and are representative of expected costs only.

DRAFT

Page 3-16

350,000


Barnard College - Preliminary Analysis and Programming

4.0 FINANCIAL ANALYSIS This section will be completed during the Investment Grade Analysis step.

Page 4 - 1


Barnard College - Preliminary Analysis and Programming

5.0 FACILITY SITE ASSESSMENT This section will be completed during the Investment Grade Analysis step.

Page 5 - 1


Barnard College - Preliminary Analysis and Programming

6.0 BASELINE ANALYSIS This section will be completed during the Investment Grade Analysis step.

Page 6 - 1


Barnard College: Preliminary Analysis and Programming

7.0 ENERGY ANALYSIS

7.1 Energy Indices Establishing the baseline energy use is vital to developing an energy savings project, as it allows us to identify the magnitude of the savings opportunity, and identify patterns of energy use. We use the baseline energy consumption to compare the energy use against energy benchmarks of buildings with similar characteristics and use. The energy benchmarking for Barnard College are summarized in the following figure. Energy Benchmarking Data Analysis 1

Primary Use Category

Barnard College Barnard Hall & Quad Altschul, Millbank, Mcintosh 600 W 116th St. 616 W 116th St. 620 W 166th St. Plimpton Hall Elliot Hall

Barnard College Other Fuel EUI

Electric EUI

All Energy EUI

29.8 12.5 75.6 2.7 15.8 7.4 25.9 65.7

133.4 89.7 263.8 57.2 65.3 52.6 120.9 230.2

(2)

103.6 77.3 188.3 54.5 49.5 45.2 95.0 164.5

300

EUI (kBTU/sf)

250 200 150 100 50 0 Barnard College

Barnard Hall & Quad

Altschul, Millbank, Mcintosh

600 W 116th St.

Electric

Notes:

616 W 116th St.

620 W 166th St.

Plimpton Hall

Elliot Hall

Other Fuels

(1) Reference energy use intensities (EUIs) are derived from DOE EIA Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey Data, 2003. (2) Other Fuels include primarily fossil fuels and renewables.

Page 7-1


Barnard College: Preliminary Analysis and Programming

7.0 ENERGY ANALYSIS The baseline energy use of Barnard College has been derived from utility billing data from the previous two years. This data has been weather normalized so as to factor out abnormally high or low energy use due to atypical weather conditions for any given year. The following figures describe the electric and fossil fuel consumption baseline for the campus. Facility Energy Consumption and Expenditures Summary

Barnard College

Barnard Col

Energy Use Electric Barnard 1 Altschul 2 600 W 116th St. 616 W 116th St. 620 W 166th St. Plimpton Elliot

kWh 1,821,097 6,088,570 78,139 273,326 128,094 637,846 654,481

ALL TOTAL

9,681,553

Natural Gas

Cost

Fuel Oil

MCF

TOTAL

Gal 44,441 72,428 7,597 5,981 4,915 9,223 4,831

31,698 40,961 4,258 2,054 1,947 6,576 4,831

92,325

Energy Use Intensity

MMBTU/yr 44,681 72,556 5,658 3,853 3,101 10,157 7,828

149,416

TOTAL

kBtu/sqft 90 264 57 65 53 121 230

147,834

Cost per unit area

$/yr $875,285 $1,686,696 $71,981 $88,363 $51,395 $199,079 $146,041

$/sf-yr $1.76 $6.13 $0.73 $1.50 $0.87 $2.37 $4.30

$/MMBTU $19.59 $23.25 $12.72 $22.93 $16.57 $19.60 $18.66

$3,118,841

$2.82

$21.10

12.48 75.56 2.69 15.81 7.41 25.92 65.70

133.4

Cost per unit energy

Note: (1) Barnard Hall includes Brooks Hall, Hewitt Hall, Reid Hall, Sulzberger Hall, and Lehman Hall (2) Altschul Hall includes Millbank Hall and the demolished Mcintosh Bldg.

Barnard College

Energy Consumption and Expenditures by Month

Utility Costs ($1000s)

Utility Costs 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 J F

Energy Use (MMBTU)

Energy Consumption 18,000 16,000 14,000 12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 J F M

A

M

J

J

A

S

O

Electric

Notes: > > > > >

N

D

Natural Gas

Water Usage

A

M

J

J

A

S

O

N

D

J

J

A

S

Fuel Oil

For illustration purposes all energy units have been normalized to units of millions of BTUs (MMBTUs). Electric energy is converted to MMBTUs using a conversion factor of 1 kWh = .003413 MMBTU. Natural Gas energy is converted to MMBTUs using a conversion factor of 1 MCF = 1.02 MMBTU. Fuel Oil Energy is converted to MMBTUs using a converstion factor of 1 Gal = 0.138 MMBTU. Water Consumption data will be included in the next phase of analysis

Demand Profile

Water Consumption

2500

1

2000

1

Water Usage (kgal)

Peak Demand (kW)

M

1500 1000 500 0

1 1 0 0 -

J

F

M

A

M

J

J

A

S

O

N

D

J

F

M

A

M

O

N

Demand

Page 7-2

D


Barnard College: Preliminary Analysis and Programming

7.0 ENERGY ANALYSIS

7.2 Avoided Cost Analysis The avoided utility costs used to determine dollar savings against the benchmark analysis are shown below. Utility Tariffs and Avoided Costs (1) Resource

Utility

Barnard College

Rate/Tariff

Units

Acct/Meter

kW Pepco/ConEd

SC 9 Rate I

kW kW

All Accounts

kWH

Fuel Oil Notes:

Hess/ConEd

Hess

$11.36 First 900kW other months $9.97 Over 900kW other months $0.1350 Pepco Generation Charge $0.0282 ConEd Delivery Charge

kWh

Natural Gas

Applies to

$14.21 First 900kW JJAS $12.83 Over 900kW JJAS

kW

Electricity(2)

$ per Unit

SC 9 Rate I-C

MCF

All Accounts

n/a

Gal

All Accounts

$10.90/$2.50 Purchase/Delivery $1.87 all Gal.

(1) The avoided costs included in the table above represent the value of each unit of energy saved in the proposed project. These rates have been taken from the utility bills and verified through an analysis of the current rate structures of each utility. (2) Barnard College is in a deregulated market and contracts their generation portion of electricity on a 12 month basis. Regardless of who Barnard purchases electricity from, they have a delivery component that has a separate demand component associated with the rate. The demand on the generation side is calculated into the generation bill.

Page 7-3


Barnard College: Preliminary Analysis and Programming

7.0 ENERGY ANALYSIS

7.3 Benchmarking Analysis by Building To further analyze how energy intensive each building currently is, we took each meter on the billing history and benchmarked it against buildings of similar use. The following figures show how Barnard College compared on a building by building basis. Although some benchmarks show Barnard having a lower Energy Use Intensity (EUI), energy savings can still be achieved. Barnard College

Energy Benchmarking Data Analysis

Primary Use Category

Barnard Hall & Quad

All Energy % over index (1) EUI

Electric % over index EUI

12.5

89.7

(2)

Other Fuel % over index EUI

77.3

Education (Northeast)

71.6

25%

29.6

-58%

42.0

84%

Education (Mid-Atlantic)

56.0

60%

21.0

-41%

35.0

Education (National)

64.5

39%

27.1

-54%

37.4

121% 107%

EUI (kBTU/sf)

NOTE: Northeast Regional Area selected for savings analysis

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Barnard Hall & Quad

Education (Northeast) Electric

Notes:

Education (MidAtlantic)

Education (National)

Other Fuels

(1) Reference energy use intensities (EUIs) are derived from DOE EIA Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey Data, 2003. (2) Other Fuels include primarily fossil fuels and renewables.

Page 7-4


Barnard College: Preliminary Analysis and Programming

7.0 ENERGY ANALYSIS Barnard College

Energy Benchmarking Data Analysis

Primary Use Category

All Energy % over index (1) EUI

Electric % over index EUI

75.6

(2)

Other Fuel % over index EUI

188.3

Altschul

263.8

Laboratory/Mixed Office (Northeast)

203.7

30%

71.4

6%

132.3

42%

Laboratory/Mixed Office (Mid-Atlantic)

199.0

33%

70.7

7%

128.3

Laboratory/Mixed Office (National)

152.7

73%

72.2

5%

80.5

47% 134%

NOTE: Northeast Regional Area selected for savings analysis

300

EUI (kBTU/sf)

250 200 150 100 50 0 Altschul

Laboratory/Mixed Office (Northeast) Electric

Notes:

Laboratory/Mixed Office (Mid-Atlantic)

Laboratory/Mixed Office (National)

Other Fuels

(1) Reference energy use intensities (EUIs) are derived from DOE EIA Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey Data, 2003. (2) Other Fuels include primarily fossil fuels and renewables.

Page 7-5


Barnard College: Preliminary Analysis and Programming

7.0 ENERGY ANALYSIS Barnard College

Energy Benchmarking Data Analysis

Primary Use Category

All Energy % over index (1) EUI

(2)

Electric % over index EUI

Other Fuel % over index EUI

2.7

54.5

600 W. 116th St.

57.2

Lodging (Northeast)

74.5

-23%

15.5

-83%

59.0

-8%

Lodging (Mid-Atlantic)

78.3

-27%

19.1

-86%

59.2

Lodging (National)

70.2

-19%

28.6

-91%

41.6

-8% 31%

NOTE: Northeast Regional Area selected for savings analysis

90 80 EUI (kBTU/sf)

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 600 W. 116th St.

Lodging (Northeast) Electric

Notes:

Lodging (MidAtlantic)

Lodging (National)

Other Fuels

(1) Reference energy use intensities (EUIs) are derived from DOE EIA Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey Data, 2003. (2) Other Fuels include primarily fossil fuels and renewables.

Page 7-6


Barnard College: Preliminary Analysis and Programming

7.0 ENERGY ANALYSIS Barnard College

Energy Benchmarking Data Analysis

Primary Use Category

Electric % over index EUI

All Energy % over index (1) EUI

15.8

616 W. 116th St.

65.3

Lodging (Northeast)

74.5

-12%

Lodging (Mid-Atlantic)

78.3

-17%

19.1

Lodging (National)

70.2

-7%

28.6

(2)

Other Fuel % over index EUI

49.5

15.5

2%

59.0

-16%

-17%

59.2

-45%

41.6

-16% 19%

NOTE: Northeast Regional Area selected for savings analysis

90 80 EUI (kBTU/sf)

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 616 W. 116th St.

Lodging (Northeast) Electric

Notes:

Lodging (MidAtlantic)

Lodging (National)

Other Fuels

(1) Reference energy use intensities (EUIs) are derived from DOE EIA Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey Data, 2003. (2) Other Fuels include primarily fossil fuels and renewables.

Page 7-7


Barnard College: Preliminary Analysis and Programming

7.0 ENERGY ANALYSIS Barnard College

Energy Benchmarking Data Analysis

Primary Use Category

620 W. 116th St.

All Energy % over index (1) EUI

52.6

(2)

Electric % over index EUI

Other Fuel % over index EUI

7.4

45.2

Lodging (Northeast)

74.5

-29%

15.5

-52%

59.0

-23%

Lodging (Mid-Atlantic)

78.3

-33%

19.1

-61%

59.2

Lodging (National)

70.2

-25%

28.6

-74%

41.6

-24% 9%

NOTE: Northeast Regional Area selected for savings analysis

90 80 EUI (kBTU/sf)

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 620 W. 116th St.

Lodging (Northeast) Electric

Notes:

Lodging (MidAtlantic)

Lodging (National)

Other Fuels

(1) Reference energy use intensities (EUIs) are derived from DOE EIA Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey Data, 2003. (2) Other Fuels include primarily fossil fuels and renewables.

Page 7-8


Barnard College: Preliminary Analysis and Programming

7.0 ENERGY ANALYSIS Barnard College

Energy Benchmarking Data Analysis

Primary Use Category

Electric % over index EUI

All Energy % over index (1) EUI

Plimpton

120.9

Dormitory (Northeast)

152.5

Dormitory (Mid-Atlantic) Dormitory (National)

25.9

(2)

Other Fuel % over index EUI

95.0

-21%

46.4

-44%

106.1

-10%

115.6

5%

92.0

-72%

23.6

133.7

-10%

74.1

-65%

59.6

303% 59%

NOTE: Northeast Regional Area selected for savings analysis

180 160 EUI (kBTU/sf)

140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Plimpton

Dormitory (Northeast) Electric

Notes:

Dormitory (MidAtlantic)

Dormitory (National)

Other Fuels

(1) Reference energy use intensities (EUIs) are derived from DOE EIA Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey Data, 2003. (2) Other Fuels include primarily fossil fuels and renewables.

Page 7-9


Barnard College: Preliminary Analysis and Programming

7.0 ENERGY ANALYSIS Barnard College

Energy Benchmarking Data Analysis

Primary Use Category

Elliott Hall

Electric % over index EUI

All Energy % over index (1) EUI

65.7

230.2

(2)

Other Fuel % over index EUI

164.5

University (Northeast)

152.5

51%

46.4

42%

106.1

55%

University (Mid-Atlantic)

115.6

99%

92.0

-29%

23.6

University (National)

133.7

72%

74.1

-11%

59.6

597% 176%

NOTE: Northeast Regional Area selected for savings analysis

250

EUI (kBTU/sf)

200 150 100 50 0 Elliott Hall

University (Northeast) Electric

Notes:

University (MidAtlantic)

University (National)

Other Fuels

(1) Reference energy use intensities (EUIs) are derived from DOE EIA Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey Data, 2003. (2) Other Fuels include primarily fossil fuels and renewables.

Page 7-10


Barnard College - Preliminary Analysis and Programming

8.0 APPENDICES This section will be completed during the Investment Grade Analysis step.

Page 8 - 1


Barnard College: Preliminary Analysis and Programming